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Compensation and Benefits: Minimizing the Employee Turnover

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Published: Tue, 27 Feb 2018

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Studies

Employee turnover is the hottest and current issue that always discusses by the government, since we are confronted with the global economic crisis on 2008. The crisis of economic is directly affected to the corporation, especially the production line and manufacturing company. The unexpected crisis will arise in the employee turnover rate happened no matter for the voluntary or involuntary case and it achieved the highest rate within the past 20 years in Malaysia as well. Therefore, other than the efforts and measurements had been taken by the government like donated sustention fund to secondary industry, the efforts of employers are vital to minimize the employee turnover.

On the other hand, the advance knowledge likes the significant of the compensation and benefits package toward the employee and the preference of employees toward the different types of the compensation and benefits package are necessary to implant and infuse to all the employers in order to retain their quality workers. There are some factors are directly influenced to the employee turnover in the real working environment. The employers will enjoy the benefits if they manage to retain their employees or minimize the employee turnover problem by implementing the felicitously compensation and benefits package.

The higher employee turnover rate is considering the severely problem to a particular country because it is absolutely bringing negative effects in progressing development. The employee turnover rate definitely cannot be terminated, but I sincerely wish that this problem can fully minimize. I strongly believe that the compensation and benefits ways might be able to minimize the employee turnover in the working place.

1.2 Introduction

Turnover rate is considering the severely problem to a particular country because it is absolutely bringing negative effects in progressing development. The employee turnover rate definitely cannot be terminated, but I sincerely wish that this problem can be fully minimized. I strongly believe that the compensation and benefits ways might be able to minimize the employee turnover in the working place.

This research is related to how the compensation and benefits way in minimizing the employee turnover rate. In fact, compensation and benefits play a vital role in retaining the employees in an organization. Compensation and benefits can be defined as the process that taken by the Human Resource Management on every single day like setting the rules and procedures around the salaries, a direct way as cash paid and indirect way like given benefits to the employees. This element is highly mentioned in the employment contract and concerned by the employees as well.

On the other hand, compensation and benefits can be taken as different meaning from the perspective of a member of society, a stockholder, a manager, or an employee. Therefore, let us recognize the meaning by each perspective of the group. Compensation and benefits can be seen as a reflection of justice in society; stockholders are also interested in how employees are paid. Some believe that using stock to pay employees creates a sense of ownership that will improve performance, which will, in turn, increase stockholder wealth; for managers compensation influences their success in two ways. First, it is a major expense and second is the power to influence employee behaviors and to improve the organization’s performance; the pay individuals receive in return for the work they perform is usually the major source of their financial security. Hence, pay plays a vital role in a person’s economic and social well-being. Employees may see compensation as a return in an exchange between their employer and themselves, as an entitlement for being an employee of the company, or as a reward for a job well done (Milkovich and Newman, 2008).

Employees will emphasize more to the compensation and benefits that provide by the organization or company because they contribute their times, efforts, talents and they wish to get better return in compensation and benefits. The compensation and benefits package for the employees is like the exchange value between the employer and employee. The employers offer the benefits packages such as health care, dependent care, income protection and so on to mitigate t employees’ no matter for current or future risk. The employees contribute their efforts in order to appreciate the compensation and benefits package that offered by the employers. Compensation and benefits include pay received directly as cash (for example: base, merit, incentives, cost-of-living adjustment) and indirectly as benefits (for example: pensions, medical insurance, program to help balance work and life demands, brightly colored uniforms (Milkovich and Newman, 2008).

Nowadays, the employees are more emphasizing to cash compensation but there are still quite numbers of employees prefer to non-cash compensation like benefits. Employees may concern to what packages have been offered by the employers and ultimately increase their self-wealth. Employees may have different preferences towards the compensation and benefits package because it takes as the motivation tool to them if it can suit or fit to them. It is crucial to all the employers in understanding the preferences of employees toward the compensation and benefits package because they are come from various genders, religious, geographic location, and age and so on. The employers might be able to retain the workers if apply the proper compensation and benefits to the employees.

Employees often desire to get a liberally and fair compensation and benefits package for their own expectation because it will directly influence to employees’ job satisfaction. Meanwhile, this factor will lead to employees’ turnover if they thought they didn’t deserve expectation returns. Therefore, compensation and benefits is the deep knowledge that should implant to all the employees because it will definitely assist them to retain their workers.

Apart from that, employee turnover can be defined as the number of permanent employees leaving the company within the reported period versus the number of actual Active Permanent employees on the last day of the previous reported period (physical headcount). The number of leavers, that are included in Employee Turnover, only includes natural turnover (resignations, termination, retirement, etc.); it does not reflect any redundancies. Planned redundancies are reported and explained separately if relevant for employee turnover (Laurus & Nobilis, 2008). Mobley (1982) defines employee turnover as the common voluntary cessation of membership in an organization by an individual who receives monetary compensation for participating in that organization. This definition primarily focuses on separation from an organization rather than on accession, transfer, or other. Besides, employee turnover can be also defined as the number of workers who leave from their workplace under certain circumstances.

All the organizations will definitely encounter with the employee turnover because it is unavoidable and inevitable but manageable. Employee turnover can be categorized as voluntary and involuntary turnover. Voluntary turnover occurs when employees leave the organization deliberately (i.e. quitting); this can be contrasted with the involuntary turnover, which occurs when employees leaving the organization without choosing to do so (i.e. being fired or laid off) (Lee, Weller, & Trevor, 2008). Sometimes voluntary turnover happened because the employees desire to seek more salary, while the involuntary happened when they are considered as redundant capital. Therefore, compensation and benefits might be able to influence the voluntary turnover as the cost and expenses will be incurred or increase if voluntary turnover happened in particular organization. The organizations have to spend more costs to provide training and development and seeking for the new employees if they are not able to retain their employees.

1.3 History

In English, “compensation” means something that counterbalances, offset, or make up for something else. However, if we look at the origin of the word in different languages, we get a sense of the richness of the meaning, which combines entitlement, return, and reward.

In China, the traditional characters for the word “compensation” are based on the symbols for logs and water; compensation provides the necessities in life. In the recent past, the state owned all enterprises and compensation was treated as an entitlement. In today’s China, compensation takes on a more subtle meaning. A new word, dai yu, is used. It refers to how you are being treated- your wages, benefits, training opportunities, and so on. When people talk about compensation, they ask each other about the dai yu in their companies. Rather than assuming that everyone is entitled to the same treatment, the meaning of compensation now included a broader sense of returns as well entitlement.

“Compensation” in Japanese is kyuyo, which is made up of two separate characters ( kyu and yo), both meaning “giving something.” Kyu is an honorific used to indicate that the person doing the giving is someone of high rank, such as a feudal lord, an emperor, or a samurai leader. Traditionally, compensation is thought of as something has given by one’s superior. Today, business consultants in Japan try to substitute the word hou-syu, which means “reward” and has no associations with notions of superiors. The many allowances that are part of Japanese compensation systems translate as teate, which means “taking care of something.” Teate is regarded as compensation that takes care of employees’ financial needs. This concept is consistent with the family, housing, and commuting allowance that are still used in many Japanese companies.

These contrasting ideas about compensation- multiple views (societal, stockholder, managerial, employee, and even global) and multiple meanings (returns, rewards, entitlement) – add richness to this topic (Milkovich and Newman, 2008). That is the reason why compensation and benefits are more emphasized by the employers because it is essential in minimizing the employee turnover.

1.4 Research Objective

1.4.1 To identify the relationship between compensation and benefits in minimizing the employee turnover.

The research conducted on the link between dissatisfaction with the pay and voluntary turnover appears to be inconclusive. Tang (1991) recommended that the most crucial reason for voluntary turnover is regarding to higher wages/career opportunity. There is an inverse relationship between relative wages and turnover (i.e. establishments with higher relative pay had lower turnover) (Martin, 2003). Salary growth had a pronounced effect on turnover in the studies that related to compensation. Particularly, salary growth effects on turnover were greatest for high performers, that is, high salary growth significantly reduced turnover for high performing employees. Compensation and benefits package are defined in this study as it helps to retain the workers and minimize the turnover rate (Park, Ofori-Dankwa, & Bishop, 1994; Trevor, Barry, & Boudreau, 1997).

1.4.2 To identify the preference of components of compensation and benefits toward the employees.

According to Milkovich and Newman, (2008) the employees contribute their efforts in order to appreciate the compensation and benefits package that offered by the employers. Compensation and benefits include pay received directly as cash (for example: base, merit, incentives, cost-of-living adjustment) and indirectly as benefits (for example: pensions, medical insurance, program to help balance work and life demands, brightly colored uniforms. The employees might have different types of preference based on their requirements. Some of them will prefer to directly as cash but some of them will prefer to indirectly as benefits. The preference of components of compensation and benefits are defined in this study as it helps to distinguish their desired needs and retain the talented workers in an organization.

1.4.3 To identify the significant of the compensation and benefits package toward the employees.

Pay and pay-related variables have a modest effect on turnover (Griffeth et al, 2000). Their investigation also integrated studies that examined the relationship between pay, a person’s performance and turnover. They concluded that when high performers are inadequately rewarded, they will choose to leave an organization. Milkovich and Newman (1999) stated that where collective reward programs substitute individual incentives, their introduction may tend to higher turnover among high performers. The significant of the compensation and benefits package toward the employees is defined in this study as the turnover will definitely incur higher cost expenses if an organization may not be able to retain their workers.

1.4.4 To identify the advantages if the company able to retain their employees.

Employee turnover is a topic of immense importance to public and private sector organizations. In part, this importance reflects the tremendous costs—financial and otherwise—often associated with the turnover (Staw 1980; Balfour & Neff 1993). Financially, turnover may lead to increased personnel expenses—particularly in the areas of recruitment and training (Staw 1980; Balfour & Neff 1993). However, employee turnover can also bring about a loss of organizational knowledge, history, and memory (Staw 1980; Moynihan & Pandey 2008). Therefore, all those consequences will not happen if an organization success to retain their employees. The advantage to retain employees is defined in this study as it guarantees to help the process of development.

1.4.5 To recognize the satisfaction and expectation of employees in diversified industry that may influence the employee turnover.

A theory stated that there are two basic types of needs, which are the need for psychological growth or motivating factors and the need to avoid pain or hygiene factors (Herzberg, 1973). The motivating factors comprise the essentials like achievement and advancement. These are positive elements that contribute towards job satisfaction and motivation. Hygiene factors such as company or organizational policies, quality of supervision, working condition, salary, relationship with peers and subordinates, status and security are negative elements in Hygiene’s factors that could cause dissatisfaction at work. The satisfaction and expectation of employees are defined in this study as it plays a vital role in manipulating the employee turnover.

1.5 Problem Statement

  • How to implement compensation and benefits package in order to minimize employee turnover?
  • How to recognize the preference of employees toward the compensation and benefits package?
  • How the important role of the compensation and benefits package to the employees in their real working environment?
  • What benefits for a particular company if the employee turnover rate is low?
  • How to examine the satisfaction and expectation of customers toward their compensation and benefits package?

1.6 Scope of Studies

The scope of studies is focused on the compensation and benefits package that implemented to the employees at several industries because it is efficiency in minimizing the employee turnover. Besides, this research is a tendency to the theoretical factors but not technological way. Moreover, this research also discussed with the preference of the compensation and benefits package by the employees because everybody has different demands in the real life. This research provides the knowledge about the factors that lead to employee turnover and the significant of implementing compensation and benefits in retaining the employees. Therefore, the employers must take actions in order to prevent the increment of employee turnover.

1.7 Organization of Research

This research is basically divided into three main areas;

  • The first part is literature review and the journals that have been collected will be used. Besides, the journals will assist to identify the role of compensation and benefits to minimize the employee turnover. There are some other independent variables will be examined toward the employee turnover. Moreover, through the reviews, a framework will be developed, a framework will be developed and to understand the variables.
  • Once the framework is being done, a questionnaire will be created to understand the preferences of the compensation and benefits package toward the employees. This questionnaire will then be distributed for results. It will present the significant of the compensation and benefits package in the real working environment.
  • The third part of the research will be analyzed once the collected result of the questionnaire comes with scientifically conclusion and reasons. After that, I will formulate some measures in order to make the situation become more favourable.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

This chapter discussed about the relationship between compensation and benefits toward the employee turnover. The literatures of the research relevant to this area of study are explored and the same are organized based on the topic of discussion, compensation and benefits, organization culture, supervisor, Job Analysis and job characteristic, and working condition.

2.1 Employee Turnover

According to Campion, (1991) the turnover principle includes various dimensions with the most obvious being whether it is voluntary or involuntary. Although the turnover decision might be classified, but it seems failed to fully consider because it might hide with several but complexity reasons. Additionally, there are some troubles with turnover dimension and lack of agreement on the explanation of ‘voluntary’ because it depends on who you ask as to why the employee left his or her job. Maertz and Campion (1998) defined the voluntary turnover as the management aspect agrees that the employee had the physical chance to continue employment with the company and at the time of termination as well. There was no impediment to continued employment from physical disability or from corporation management through the conveyed of voluntaries, such as non-mandatory retirement, quitting for family resettlement, or quitting for a self-perceived more desirable job. That is, even though the employee may know to stay is extremely costly but he/she still does the same decision because employee turnover implies with an individual choice. The limitation of article is the further investigation should be carrying out to examine the factors that lead to voluntary turnover because it is extremely incurring more expenses if an organization desire to employ new workers. Besides, this article didn’t list out the main reason of involuntary turnover which is reluctant to workers especially during the recession period. The employees were being informed that their organization encountered with this problem severely and forced to leave the organization eventually. Sometimes the employees could be able to contribute more to an organization, but they couldn’t to do so. This issue supposes to discuss with all the readers as well as the public.

Grifeth and Hom (1994) stated that employee turnover will definitely contribute to the potential benefits and disadvantages for an organization. For instance, dislocation of poor performance, infusion of new knowledge and technology, reducing labor costs when facing stiffer competition, maintaining ties with exiting employees and providing new business ventures, or enhancing promotional opportunities for the remaining staff can be considered as positive ramifications. The negative effects cover economic costs, productivity losses, impaired service quality, lost business opportunities, increased administrative burden and loss of morale among the remaining staff. Employee turnover incurred some influences toward the organization but basically negative effect will definitely more than the positive effect and this is the main reason some organizations are implementing the compensation and benefits package to retain their workers. In addition, employee turnover costs are not only monetary but the company may have also lost the ‘knowledge’ possessed by the departing employee (Gomez-Mejia et al, 2001). Intelligence and knowledgeable workers are really hard to acquire in the market nowadays. Knowledge not only plays the role as the core of competence but is also a value-created device, especially for those organizations that face the global competitive challenges in the market. The knowledge that is embodied in human beings (as human capital) and in technology has always been central to companies’ visibility and economic development. Harnessing new technologies and innovation will be the source of long-term employment and productivity growth for companies and countries in a knowledge-based economy (Noe et al, 2002). The limitation is this article is the negative effect of employee turnover didn’t explain widely and brief. We strongly agree that the negative effect is definitely more than the positive effect because it extremely influenced to the development of particular organization. The negative effect has incurred no matter in monetary or non-monetary aspects. The publics are interesting to know how the negative effects affect an organization if they didn’t retain their talented employees. Hence, the author might list some latest examples to readers about the negative effect toward an organization regard to turnover problems. All the managers of particular organization definitely take some measurements in order to prevent the employee turnover.

According to Abassi and Hollman (2000) turnover is the circle of rotation of workers around the labor market between the firms, jobs and occupations; and between the states of employment and unemployment. This workforce activity can be diversified into two categories which are voluntary and involuntary turnover. Involuntary turnover can be defined as the dismissal of employees, whereas voluntary turnover occurs when employees resign. Voluntary turnover often results in departing employees migrating to competing firms, creating an even more critical situation, since this knowledge can now be used against the organization. In conformity to Kransdorff (1996) voluntary turnover has in fact been accelerating over the past decade, as recent studies have shown that employees on average switch employers every six years. This situation demands senior management to consider the repercussions of voluntary turnover, and immediately create contingency plans. The turnover of best performers will directly cause the senior management been caught unprepared. Johnson et al (2000) said that functional turnover such as bad performers left and good performers stay can help to reduce sub-optimal organizational performance; excessive turnover can be detrimental to the firm’s productivity. This can result in the loss of business and relationships, and can even make vulnerable the realization of the firm’s objectives. To compound the negative side-effects of turnover, not all the departing employees are considered sub-optimal performer. According to Abassi and Hollman (2000) dysfunctional turnover (i.e. good performers leave, bad performers stay) damages the organization through decreased innovation, delayed services, sluggish implementation of new programs, and degenerated into productivity. Such activity can radically affect the firm’s ability to flourish in today’s competitive economy; leaving even the most striving firms unable to succeed due to the inability to retain the right employees. If it is presumed that the smartest and most talented employees are often the most upwardly mobile, then strong organizations may become unable to actualize strategies and complete key business transactions, if they do not proactively manage their turnover. The limitation in this article is it didn’t state out of the measurement to solve the employee turnover. In this study, it just examined to us about the voluntary turnover and sorted as functional and dysfunctional turnover. As what the author mentioned in this article, the managers were caught unprepared once this issue happened to them. Therefore, the author supposes to discuss some measurements to deal with the turnover problem after explain the definition and effect to each turnover.

Employee loyalty is the foundation of customer satisfaction in the organization (Abassi and Hollman, 2000). While employee loyalty has often enabled firms to retain strong employees, senior management cannot be longer relying on relationships to incentive good workers to stay. Abassi and Hollman (2000) said that eroding employee loyalty is highlighting the importance of attracting and maintaining good people as the key to strategic staffing in the modern workplace. This is forcing organizations to revisit their HR practices to meet the diverse needs of the workforce in order to retain strong employees, and therefore, maximize the overall success of the firm. Abassi and Hollman (2000) highlighted five reasons for employee turnover in the organization:

  • Hiring practices;
  • Managerial style;
  • Lack of recognition;
  • Lack of competitive compensation systems; and
  • Toxic workplace environments.

Morrell (2001) examined that turnover means voluntary cessation of membership of an organization by an employee of that organization. Besides on that, turnover intention is broadly defined as attitudinal (thinking of quitting), decisional (intention to leave), and behavioral (searching for a new job) processes proceeding with voluntary turnover (Sager et al., 1998; Khatri, 2001). According to Dess (2001) employee turnover incurs some significant costs, both in terms of direct costs (replacement, recruitment and selection, temporary staff, management time), and also (and perhaps more significantly) in terms of indirect costs (morale, pressure on remaining staff, costs of learning, product/service quality, organizational memory) and the loss of social capital. Apart from that, employee turnover is a major concern for companies in many Asian countries such as Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan (Khatri, Chang, & Budhwar, 2001). Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) has recognized the importance of workforce turnover as a sustainability issue, which has included turnover as a core social performance indicator in its Sustainability Reporting Guidelines (GRI 2002). Moreover, employee turnover is giving restless nights to human resource managers in the textile sector of Pakistan. There are two reasons to explain why the textile sector has been selected. Bohla and Hameed (2001) analyzed there is an alarming employee turnover rate i.e. 12%. The textile industry represents Pakistan’s biggest employer as well as the key sector for the economy having almost 68% of total export income is the largest sector of Pakistan. The limitation in this article is the author didn’t list out the employee turnover rate that occurs in Malaysia. The data and statistic are important because it can alert how severely for the case of unemployment that caused by voluntary and involuntary turnover. Besides on that, the author may discuss why the turnover problems occur severely in Asian countries if compare to Europe? Is it the Asian people encounter with certain troublesome? This issue must fully examine in order to minimize until the lowest percentage.

DeBare (2001) examined that one of the major reasons for employee turnover in the retail sector is that stores have established to be a training ground, allowing the employee an opportunity to gain valuable skills. All new hires of employees such as cashier and general manager that stand in different levels are given extensive training at a majority of larger companies in today’s market. Meanwhile, many“mid-career” individuals are less likely to change directions; there has a tendency showed that the criteria such as money, better scheduling, increased or better hours are preferred most by younger employees and experience is their tool to secure a position at elsewhere. Besides on that, there has an outlook which determined that the moving from one job to another is perfectly conducted among the majority of employees especially those younger than 30 if it allows for more pay, and continued growth and development. In addition, the high turnover rate in retail stores attracts potential hires due, mostly to the “revolving door” effect. There are always employees coming and going, which allows for opportunities to exist. The limitation in this article is low-career individuals didn’t discuss by the author regard to their turnover problems. Most of them desire to seek better pay and benefits package if they feel dissatisfied to what they received currently. The young teenagers are not only seeking for better pay in their job, they also desire to get a more challenging job if compare with those who are 40 years old and above.

Lane et.al (1996) discussed that it is interesting to note that even though retail and services consist of 20 percent of U.S. jobs, those same sectors create nearly 50 percent of worker turnover. In addition, Lane, (2000) had analyzed that only 16.6% of cashier jobs are created as new positions, the remaining 82.4% is related to turnover while ” 11 low-skill occupations with 6.5 million job openings per year and only 1million are new jobs”. Jovanovic (1979) examined that some turnover is required under economic theories of job matching. Therefore, some positive turnover must be beneficial, since it is rational for both employers and workers to continue an employment contract only if the workers’ productivity is matched by their pay, while mismatches should separate. Dess and Shaw (2001) noted that no organization-level studies have yet supported the curvilinear, inverted U-shaped, cost-benefit prediction. Much more common is the finding of a negative link between turnover and performance. Glebbeek and Bax (2004) said that the position has some diverse today because it just with having found signs even though not statistically significant ones, of an inverted U-shaped relationship. According to Harris et.al (2006) found a curvilinear relationship, but at an aggregate level in a cross-firm study using Australian data. Moreover, there is an existing of usual negative relationship (Shaw, Gupta, Delery, Duffy, Johnson, and Lockhart, 2005). However, “unobservable” such as the management ability, affect performance and confound the true turnover-performance link are the difficulty of testing these theories empirically. The limitation in this study is the author do failure in testing other theories that influence to turnover. All the level of publics can understand more toward the factors that lead to turnover if the author success to examine it. In addition, the study can’t deliver a clear picture to the public about the U-shaped, cost-benefit prediction and so forth. The public couldn’t catch the real meaning about this if they just simply glance through the article.

According to Gimpelson and Lippoldt (2001) the total turnover rate around the world was 46% in 1998. Besides, the turnover of unskilled workers was high in the mid of 1990s while firms seem that hoarded white-collar labor. Brown and Earle (2003) correspondingly find that labor flows, particularly job destruction and separation in the Russian industrial sector increased in magnitude during the 1990s. The total worker flows were nine percentage points higher in 1999 than in 1990. In addition, the churning rate which defined as the worker flows less the absolute value of employment change was 30-40% during the 1990s. Gimpelson (2004) examined a survey of 304 Russian industrial enterprise


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