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4. Energy and Environmental outlook of Turkey

Energy is accepted as a most important factor in economic development. On the other hand environmental impacts of industrial and economical development becomes more evident in recent years. In order to mitigate the environmental effects of industrial and economical development is to take long term solutions for sustainable development. Therefore, this chapter explains the main characteristics of Turkey’s general energy outlook and environmental indicators. It starts begin to lay out the diversity of Turkey’s conventional energy resources and level of energy consumption (oil, coal, natural gas, etc) including electricity production and consumption. In the second part it analyses environmental impacts of industrial and economical development. Finally, in the third part it examines the renewable energy sources and consumption (wind energy, Hydropower, Biomass, etc) which are used to replace the conventional energy resources to lower the Green House Gas Emissions (GHG) and establish sustainable development within Turkey.

4.1 Conventional Energy sources and consumption of Turkey

Large increase in energy demand is observed particularly for electricity and natural gas in Turkey. In 2002 %48 of total energy demand of Turkey is supplied by domestic production. Total energy demand will hit 308 one million tone of oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2020. Energy import will hit 226 Mtoe and domestic production will reach 81 Mtoe in 2020 (Ogulata, 2002). Turkey’s five main energy sources are oil, natural gas, coal, hydroelectric and renewable energy sources.

Also In 2006 Turkey’s total electric production reached 175.5 milliards kWh and energy demand reached 174 milliards kWh. In this period product of electrical power acquired from natural gas (%44), from hydraulic (%25,1), from lignite (%18,4), from imported coal (%6,3), from fuel oil (%3), from pit coal (%1,6) and from naphtha (%1,1) (Soyhan, 2009). As the data lays out Turkey main energy sources are conventional energy sources like oil, coal and natural gas. And regarding Turkey’s fossil fuel reserves, which total 254 Mtoe, Turkey will continue import energy in the years ahead.

It is also important to emphasize that the main distinctive property of Turkish Economy is that (Gross National Product-GNP) per capita and energy use per capita both increased 2 percent per annum (Jobert et al, 2007). While the economy continues to develop, energy demand increase simultaneously, particularly which are produced from fossil fuels.

4.1.1 Oil

Oil is the main source of energy in Turkey. In 2008 Turkey’s domestic crude oil potential was 37,3 million ton/6,72 billion barrel according to Ministry of Energy and Natural resources of Turkey’s data. Turkey's oil consumption has continued to increase and hit the amount of 690 thousand barrel per day in 2007 and surpass domestic production levels. In 2007, Russia is Turkey's top supplier of oil. Also Iran is Turkey's second largest crude oil provider. (United States Energy Information Administration(EIA), 2009 http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Turkey/Oil.html).

Table1

As demonstrated in Table 1, the gap between Turkey’s oil production and consumption was getting larger between 1990 and 2004. Oil has the main share of %44 in total energy consumption. Despite of the target of reducing the dependance on oil lower than 40% in 10 years, new investment on oil research is very essential. Turkey’s Petrol’s and Anonym Association (TPAO) is undertakin oil researchs in Turkey, in addition the surrounding areas (Soyhan, 2009)

4.1.2 Natural Gas

According to diversification attempts of energy sources, natural gas was newly introduced to Turkish Economy. Since 1970 natural gas contribution in energy production was increased from 0% to 20,6%. Also in 2006 %44 of electric production came from natural gas. Turkey’s natural gas resources are limited so domestic production capacity in total consumtion is 3%. In 2005 total natural gas consumtion hit 27 milliard m3. In order to close the gap between demand and production Turkey began to import natural gas from Soviet Union in 1985. At the present Natural gas is mainly used to produce electric power. 17% of natural gas is consumed in factories as energy source and 15% is consumed in housing. In 2005 Turkey was the 7th biggest consumer in Europe. In 2020 Turkey will consume 50 billion m3 natural gas (Soyhan, 2009)

4.1.3 Coal

Turkey has large reserves of coal, especially of lignite. The lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The total forecasted coal reserves are 30 billion tons (Kaygusuz, 2002). Coal is one of the primary enery source by %24 of the total sorces of the country. Coal is used primarly for power production, cement production and in steel industry. The Turkish government intends to increase the coal supply from 20.1 Mtoe in 1999 to 118.4 Mtoe in 2020 (Soyhan, 2009).

4.1.4. Electricity

Electricity is also major energy source for industry and home usage by itself. The energy sources that are used to generate electricity can be renewable or conventional (non-renewable like coal, oil and natural gas). But electricity is mostly generated by conventional energy sources in Turkey so it is worth to mention in this chapter.

Electricity production from domestic resources is about 40% at present and will decrease to 20% by the year 2020. So remaining electricity supply for the year 2020 must be ensured by imported resources. By 2020 68% of electricity demand will be met by coal, oil and natural gas. (Salvarli, 2006)

Turkey may cover the extra-required energy from of hydroelectric, natural gas and renewable sources. If all hydroelectric power used, maximum production would hit 128 milliard kWh. If all of the coal sources would be consumed it is possible to produce 120 milliard kWh electricity, with all natural gas sources the electric production may hit 335 milliard kWh. None of the plans that are mentioned can cover the electric demand for 2020, sot Turkey would import extra electricity demand from abroad (Soyhan, 2009).

4.2 Environmental impacts of Industrial and Economical Development

2008 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) produced by the World Economic Forum ranks Turkey 72nd out of 149 countries. Additional to EPI, Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) puts Turkey in a 62th place among 235 countries (Baykan, 2009).

On the other hand when we look at the CO2 emisions, Turkey’s CO2 emissions were at 2.87 tons in 2003, far lower than the OECD average of 11.08 tons and also Turkey’s share in world emissions was 0.81% (Akbostanci et al, 2009). Although Turkey’s contribution to CO2 emissions quite low, unplanned urbanization, industrialization, coupled with increasing population cause a big pressure on Turkey’s environmental structure and cause to increase in CO2 emissions. Turkey is 7th country amon European Uninon (EU) member contries according to carbon dioxide volume (215 million tones) in 2005. Turkey also ranks first regarding the industrial emmisions (Baykan, 2009)

CO2 emissions are also important regarding environmental impact. The TURKSTAT (Turkish Statistical Institute) data shows that amount of CO2 emissions from consuming fossil energys sources stand at 223.4 (Giga Gram-Gg) as of 2004. TURKSTAT forecasts that the amount of CO2 emissions from energy production will hit 343 Gg by 2010 and to 615 Gg by 2020. The major part of CO2 emissions come from electricity production (Telli et al, 2008).

Also TPES (total primary energy supply) will almost double between 2002 and 2020, with coal accounting for an important share, rising from 26% in 2002 to 36% in 2020, principally replacing oil, which is expected to drop from 40% to 27%. Such trends will lead to a significant rise in CO2 emissions, which are projected to reach nearly 600 Mt in 2020, over three times 2002 levels (International Energy Agency. Energy Policies of IEA Contries, 2005)

Table 2

Turkey’s energy need has been increasing with a rate of 6% for decades as a result of fast urbanization and industrialization. The energy distribution according to sectors is like this industry 36%, heating 35%, transportation 20%, and other areas 9%. The major energy consumers of the industrial sectors are the iron and steel sector, chemicals and petrochemicals, and textile and leather industries.

Because of the scarce domestic energy sources and production capacity, Turkey depends on import primarily on oil and gas. At present, about 30% of the total energy demand is met by domestic resources. (Okay et al, 2008). According to Table 3, it can be seen that rapid growth in CO2 emissions in all major sectors between 1973 and 2002. This trend will continue to persist because of the industralization and urban development.

Table 3

Turkey’s rapid economic development comes with the environmental burden. One of the major concern is air pollution. The fast growth in energy consumption, especially the excalating use of lignite, increased SO2 emissions in power sector. On the other hand NO2 emissions are lower than SO2 emissions in Turkey, but they tend to increase fast due to high energy demand (Kaygusuz, 2002). The main contributer of SO2 emissions is the power sector. It contributes more than 50% of total emissions.

The major pollutants related with energy use are sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total suspenden particulates (TSP). For Turkey these emissions come mainly from the combustion of coal, oil <poducts and fuelwood. Coal is used in thermal power plants to generate electricity is one of the major source of pollution. The industrial sector is also one of the main contributer. According to year 2000 figures, coal and lignite are resposible for 32% of electricity production and 33% of final energy consumption in industrial sector. (M. Ocak et al, 2004)

In the transport sector estimated growth of energy consumption is not as fast as that in the power generation and industrial sectors, the growth potential for pollutant emissions is large (M. Ocak et al, 2004).

4.3 Renewable Energy Sources and consumption of Turkey and Sustainable Development

Sustainable development is a way of utilization that helps to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met for future generations (United Nations, 1987, http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/42/ares42-187.htm).

Regarding sustainable development, one of the main subject is the developing countries and their problems like in the case of Turkey. Among the problems of the developing countries; unemployment, poverty, high population growth, migration from rural areas to the urban areas, rapid and unplanned urbanization, environmental pollution, inadequacy of infrastructure and services, excessive use of natural resources and energy can be observed (Levent, 1999)

Turkey is a mainly energy importing country. Because of the increasing energy demand and consumption, pollutin is getting worse. But amongs other type of pollutions, air pollution needs immediate concern. From this point of view renewable energy resources are one of most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution preventation in Turkey (Kaygusuz, 2002).

As a candidate for EU membershirp, Turkey has to comply with the requriements of EU membership. EU countries will acquire 21% of their energy demand from renewable energy sources by the year 2010 which is mentioned in directive 2001/77/EC (27 March 2001) on Promotion of Electiricty Produced from Renewable Energy Sources in the International Electricity Market (Ozgur, 2008).

Turkey has considerable potential for renewable energy sources and environmental technoligies. In fact Turkey has significant reserves of renewable energy sources. According to year 2000 data renewable energy production represented about 9.51 Mtoe and renewables are the second largest domestic energy source after coal. Slightly less than two-thirds of this production is supplied by biomass and animal waste; another one-third is supplied by hydropower and about 0.5% of the total is produced from geothermal, wind and solar sources (Kaygusuz, 2002).

4.3.1 Hydropower

Turkey is poor regarding the main energy sources like oil and natural gas but has substantial hydropower potential. It is the second largest energy source in Turkey. Hydroelectric potential in Turkey is nearly 1% of the world potential, 16% of the European potential. Nearly 65% of hydroelectric potential are still not converted to energy (Soyhan, 2009)

The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) plans to expand hydro capacity to 35 000 Mwe (Mega Watt Electric) by the year 2020. Also goverment plans to construct 332 more hydro plants in long term. If the plans are achievedi the total number of plants reach to 485, and more than 19 GW (Giga Watt) of capacity to hydro system. The another importan project relating with hydro power is GAP (South-eastern Anatolia Project). It covers one tenth of Turkey’s total lan area. After it is complete GAP will add 7476 MW. All of these planned developments cost US$ 30. Main advantages of hydro power are renewable source of energys, not polute the environment, operaiton cost is low billion (Nalan et al, 2009).

4.3.2 Solar Energy

Because of the geographic location, Turkey has rich solar potential. Turkey with its average annual sunshine duration of 2610 h and an average solar intensity of 3.6 kWh. As Turkey lies near the sunny belt between 36 and 42ºN latitudes, most of the locations in Turkey receive rich solar energy. Average annual temperature is 18–20 ºC on the south coast, falls down to 14–16ºC on the west coast, and fluctuates 4–18ºC in the central parts (Soyhan, 2009).

The installed solar collecter area was recorded as 7,5 million m2 in 2001 and 10 million m2 in 2004. From these collectors, commonly used in Mediterranean and Aegean regions, heat energy about 290 and 375 ktoe/year was provided in 2002 and 2004 respectively. On the other hand PV (photovoltaic solar cells) and solar collectors used to produce electric energy from solar energy have high installing cost so no economical usage is available today. Because of the economical and technical restraints only 5% of the technical potential is economically available for electiricty generation (Ozgur, 2009).

4.3.3 Wind Energy

Wind energy is one of the most widely used renewable source of electricty around the world. In Turkey, the western, northern and south eastern coasts of Anatolia are identified as most favorable areas for wind power generation with an annual average wind speed and power density of about 2.5 m/s and 25.8 W/m2. Technical wind potential of Turkey is given as 88,000 GW and the economic potential is forecasted as 10,000MW. The current production situation of wind energy projects is between 727.96 and 817.96 MW. The main wind energy projects are concentrated in the Aegean (16 projects) and Meditrranean (9 projects). The installed capacity of wind energy is expected to reah 600 MW by 2010 and 1000 MW by 2020. (Nalan et al, 2009)

4.3.4 Geothermal

Amongst the most environmental friendly powers geothermal energy has a special place. It produces electricity with about one-sixth of the carbon dioxide that a natural gas-fueled power plant produces, and with small amount of the nitrous oxide or sulphur-bearing gases.

Turkey has 170 number of geothermal surface where fluids are over than 49ºC. C¸anakkale-Tuzla, Kutahya-Simav, Aydin Salavatli, Aydin-Germencik, Denizli-Kizildere, Manisa-Salihli-Caferbeyli, Izmir Seferihisar, Dikili, and Denizli Golemezli are convenient to produce electricity while the rest are convenient only for instant usage.

There are 51,600 housing equivalent heating is already accessible in Turkey and the thermal power hit 493 MWt. Furthermore totally 194 thermal springs are accessible for health tourism in Turkey equal to 327 MWt. According to world data Turkey is the fourth country using capacity with 820 MWt. Thermal potential hit nearly 2600 MWt. Probable geothermal volume is about 31,500 MWt in Turkey. It shows that 30% of the total houses (five million houses) can be heated by geothermal sources (equivalent to 32 billion cubic meters natural gas) in Turkey. In 2005, electricity production volume was got to 185 MWe and by building new geothermal electric plants, Turkey is planning to get 500 MWe in 2010 and 1000 MWe in 2020 (Soyhan,2009)

4.3.5 Biomass

Biomass is a renewable energy source in which biological material acquired from living, or recently living organisms, such as wood, waste, and alcohol fuels. Biomass is generally plant matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat. For instance, forest residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings and wood chips may be used as biomass. Biomass also contains plant or animal matter used for production of fibers or chemicals. Biomass may also contain biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel. It eleminates organic material such as fossil fuel which has been transformed by geological processes into substances such as coal or petroleum (Wikipedia, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass)

The biomass fuel period has near zero net emissions of CO2. But it is hard to gather large quantities of biomass wastes because of their scattered nature. The accesibility of some types of biomass is seasonal. On the other hand annual productions of most biomass are volatile between years depending on climate conditions. Biomass is also hard and costly to transport (Nalan et al; 2009)

At present Turkey’s major renewable source is biomass and animal waste (67.4% of TPES) but anticipated to decline in share and absolute terms in the future as the convenience and options of oil, gas, coal, or electrical heating and cooking become available. Turkey’s total retrievable bioenergy capacity was 196.7 TWh (16.92 Mtoe) in 1998 out of which 55.9 TWh (4.81 Mtoe) was from crop residues, 50 TWh (43 Mtoe) from forestry and wood processing residues, 48.3 TWh (41.6 Mtoe) from firewood, 27.3 TWh (23.5 Mtoe) from animal wastes, and 15.1 TWh (13 Mtoe) from municipality wastes (Soyhan, 2009)

5. Kyoto Protocol and Beyond: Position of Turkey

The threat of global warming and climate change has deepened in late 1980s. A main source of global warming was increased GHG (CO2 emissions, in particular), the first response was the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which was issued at the Rio Summit of 1992. According the UNFCCC the Annex-I countries dedicated, on a voluntary basis, to limit their gaseous emissions to 1990 levels. The OECD (1992) and EU countries further became a member to form the Annex-II bloc and complied to provide technical and financial assistance to those countries that remained outside the Annex-I to aid their environmental policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Telli, 2008)

After UNFCCC agreement, 38 industrialized nation have compromised on the Kyoto Protocol to limit GHG emissions in December 1997. The agreement which is bound by the law of nations requires worldwide GHG emissions to be cut by 5,2% percent compared to 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012. Additional to this, the Kyoto protocol allows emission trading. Each country can have credit for GHG reductions achieved in another member country by Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). These instrument provides access to trading oppotunities with non-member countries (i.e the less developed world) (Hackl et al, 1999).

5.1. Turkey’s Position

Turkey which is the member of the OECD was initialy listed in both Annexes-I and II of the UNFCCC in 1992. But imposing for its special circumstances, Turkey did not become a member of the Convention. The major difference between Annex I and Annex II was that the countries with economies in transition to free market in Central and Eastern Europe were included in Annex I, but not in Annex II. During the negotiations on the UNFCCC, Turkey objected to being included in both Annexes and it continued its reservation to the Annexes after the Convention had been adopted. Turkey did not ratify the UNFCCC.

For Turkey, its inclusion in Anexes I and II was problematic because the country’s per capita GHG emissions were much lower than those in the EU (almost a factor three less) and its economic profile too much different from the other Annex II countries to be able to commit itself to technology and financial transfers to developing countries. Eventually, Turkey requested the Conference of the Parties (COP) to recognise its special circumstances within Annex I. This resulted in Decision 26/CP.7 taken by COP-7 in 2001. Following that decision, Turkey officially announced that it would accede to the UNFCCC by publishing Law No.4990 in the Official Gazette on 16 October 2003. The official accession took place on 24 May 2004. (Joint Implementation Quarterly, 2007).

Turkey also ratified the Kyoto Protocol on 5th of Februrary 2009, but Protocol does not put an additional load on Turkey until 2012. Turkey was not a party to the convention adopted in 1992, when the Kyoto Protocol was negotiated, and it is not currently included in the agreement's Annex B, which includes 39 countries that are obliged to reduce their greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012 (World Wildlife Fund, 2009)

Turkey signed the protocol because Turkey wants to join the talks that shape the plan after the Kyoto Protocol’s commitment period (2008-2012).

5.2 Beyond the Kyoto Protocol: Copenhagen

After the Kyoto Protocol biggest problem is to find a solution of sharin global emissions reduction between fast devoloping countries like China and India and industrialised regions like US and Europe. In December 2007, goverment representatives from 190 countries agreed to work out a new climate treaty by the end of 2009 (UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, 7-18 December 2009). If the parties agreed upon on new deal, it would need to come into force before January 2013. The main issues are long-term targets for cutting emissions and reverse dangerous climate change impacts. Addition to that the introduction of a technology-transfer mechanism to permit developing countries to act towards low-carbon economies. (Euractiv, 2009, http://www.euractiv.com/en/climate-change/climate-change-road-copenhagen/article-180706)

Before UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, the main problem is funding for climate chage and adaptation in deceloping countries. The countries in the industrialisation phase insist that already developed countries have a historical responsibility for climate change. According to this less developed countries want to get assist from developed countiries in acquiring technologies needed to stop GHG. On the other hand developed countries like The EU members and US want to developing countries to join by compiling national emission reduction strategies before they give any money under the agreement for technology development.

The other importan problem is the level of each party’s contribution to emissiond reduction. According to the figures by the UNFCCC which are published on 11 August 2009, the emission reduction limits for industrialised countries would be in a 15-21% cut from 1990 levels. But the most important thing is that these levels exclude the US, which did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol. US would water down the overall goal as it only plans a return to 1990 emission levels by 2020 in its draft climate bill that pledges to cut emissions by 17% from 2005 levels (Euractiv, 2009, http://www.euractiv.com/en/climate-change/bonn-climate-talks-augur-badly-copenhagen-summit/article-184601)

Both developed countries and major developing countries including Turkey, have be quick to address its binding commitments on GHG emissions untill the next UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark in 2009 (Pamukcu, 2008).

6. European Union Environmental Acquis

There was no particular adaption regarding environmental protection in the agreements that establish the European Union. On the other hand, according to the major target of the Europen Union that promotes the living condition of the human kind, common attention is needed for the environment. Another aspect to promote the environmental policies in European Union is that the environmental policies and regulations applied by each member separately can harm the quality of free competition (Atilgan, 2007).

“Environment Acquis” is the organ of European law targeted the environment. Environment law includes horizontal or cross cutting legislation (for instance, Environmental Impact Assessment), and the entry of “Framework Directives” (e.g., air, waste, water) to better combine laws for the same environmental area.

Applying of the Acquis into national laws is a operation includes acceptence of specific binding legal measures (e.g., quality and technical standards, testing and notification requirements) and country-specific decisions on optional and recommended legal measures (Journey to a Cleaner Future, The World Bank, 2007 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTECAREGTOPENVIRONMENT/Resources/511168-1191448157765/CleanerFutureRoadmap.pdf).

In 1993, EU constituted “Copenhagen Criteria” inculiding “acquis communautaire” in the Copenhagen Summit. Acquis communautaire is formed of 31 topics inwhich the environment is 22th. EU assesses the adoption process of the candidate country in progress reports according to “acquis communautaire” including environment.

The environmental acquis consist of several sub sections. First, Horizontal legislation of environmental acquis includes 6 main parts they are, environmental impact assessment (EIA); accession to environmental information; reporting; the European Environment Agency; the Loan Instrument for the Environment (LIFE) and associated policy; and civil protection. Except horiziontal legislation, EU environmental acquis has 8 main legislation covering wide range of environmental areas. These are, water quality, air quality, waste material management ,protection of nature, the prevention of industrial pollution and on risk management, chemical substances and genetically mutated organisms, noise, nuclear safety and precautions against radiation (Kayikci, 2005)

In 1998, the European Council decided to combine EU Environment Law more emphatically with national government’s strategies, activating the “Cardiff Process.” The Cardiff Process concentrates on nine major sectors and has concluded in development of new environment-associated directives. According to these directives, implementation is more directly on sectoral authorities rather than the environment administration. As a result, the Environment Acquis is introducing not only possibilities for sustainable development and growth in Europe, but also complications and obstacles for implementation. Implementation needs an combined approach with government administration that includes coordination mechanisms across government, local responsibility and action, public participation, and accountability of state institutions.

The EU also has constituted an Emissions Trading Directive in 2003 that brought a new cap and trade policy for carbon emissions, which necessitates each Member State to comply with the EU on a national allowance plan and introduce administrative systems to enable internal trade of carbon permit allowances. Two of the “heavy investment” directives under the Environment Acquis—the Industrial Pollution and Prevention Control (IPPC) Directive and the Large Combustion Plant (LCP) Directive introduces upgrades in air pollution control technologies and equipment in large industrial polluters. The private sector would normally afford improvement costs, except for state-owned industries (Journey to a Cleaner Future, The World Bank, 2007 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTECAREGTOPENVIRONMENT/Resources/511168-1191448157765/CleanerFutureRoadmap.pdf). In 2006 The European Union introduced an ambitious target to limit its GHG emissions, by 2020, to 20% below the level of 1990; and call the rest of the industrialised countries and the less developed world to join to the Kyoto Protocol (Telli, 2008)

7. Harmonization of Environmental Policies of Turkey with European Union

As for Turkey, complying with the environmental acquis and implementation are problematical. In order to comply with the acquis Turkey has to undertake a large number of expensive implementation. Additional to that, implementation has impact on competitiveness and resource that are used and needed by other importan social requirements (Van Ooik et al, 2009).

According to The 2008 Turkey’s Pogress Report lays out the major areas relating adoption and tne implementation the environmental acquis. Regarding horizontal legislation, Turkey adopted most of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) directive, but methods for consulting the public and trans-boundary consultations are not fully adjusted. Turkey signed the Kyoto Protocol but The Emissions Trading Directive has not been transfered. A GHG emissions trading scheme has not yet been constituted. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive also is at an early phase. There is no breakthrough transferring the acquis on environmental liability, public contribution and public admission to environmental information (Turkey 2008 Progress Report, EU, 2008, http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/press_corner/key-documents/reports_nov_2008/turkey_progress_report_en.pdf) 

The Energy Efficiency Law (EEL) of Turkey was improved according to Turkey’s missions of adopting the EU directives. Turkey expected to realise 25–30% savings in total energy consumption with the law which was came into force on 2007. The law utilises the efficient use of energy and adresses the administrative structuring, energy auditing, financial instruments and incentives, awareness raising and the establishment of an Energy Service Company (ESCO) market for energy efficiency (EE) services (Okay et al, 2008)

Regarding air quality, Turkey made good adjusments relating to air quality framework legislation. The administrative potential for regional air quality has been enhanced by building a clean air centre in Marmara but there is no progress in the field of acquis on emissions of volatile organic compounds, on the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels or on national emission ceilings (Turkey 2008 Progress Report, EU, 2008, http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/press_corner/key-documents/reports_nov_2008/turkey_progress_report_en.pdf)

Some adjustments are made relating to the waste management acquis, although a national waste management plan is still insufficient. Also in the field of water quality, adjustments with the aquis is insufficient, but there is a little progress (Turkey 2008 Progress Report, EU, 2008, http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/press_corner/key-documents/reports_nov_2008/turkey_progress_report_en.pdf).

In the field of nature protection, Turkey got into line with the acquis regarding establishment and management of zoos but the level of implementation is still very low. A law on nature protection and implementing legislation on birds and habitats have not yet been internalised. A draft relating to a biodiversity strategy and action plan have been arranged, but not yet internalised by the government (Turkey 2008 Progress Report, EU, 2008, http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/press_corner/key-documents/reports_nov_2008/turkey_progress_report_en.pdf).

There is no progress in the field of industrial pollution control and risk management. Turkey got in the line with some provisions of the Seveso II Directive and with the Large Combustion Plants and Waste Incineration Directives (Turkey 2008 Progress Report, EU, 2008, http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/press_corner/key-documents/reports_nov_2008/turkey_progress_report_en.pdf).

Turkey has achieved a limited progress relating to chemicals where the total adoption and implementation remains low. There is no development on genetically modified organisms. Turkey nearly reached full alignment with the acquis regarding noise, but noise maps and action stragey is still at an early phase (Turkey 2008 Progress Report, EU, 2008, http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/press_corner/key-documents/reports_nov_2008/turkey_progress_report_en.pdf).

There is a lack of administrative capacity in order to establish national environmental agency. Adopting of environmental protection into other policy areas and assuring that new investments comply with the environmental acquis are at an early phase. Some of the old legislations like the Mining Law and the tourism legislation, are bring huge damage to natural areas (Van Ooik et al, 2009).

8. Cost of Environmental and Energy Policies

Turkey ratified the Kyoto Protocol, but Protocol does not put an additional load on Turkey until 2012. Turkey was not a party to the convention adopted in 1992, when the Kyoto Protocol was negotiated, and it is not currently included in the agreement's Annex B, which includes 39 countries that are obliged to reduce their greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012 (World Wildlife Fund, 2009). Also the burden that the Copenhagen deal will bring, is not certified yet as the parties are still negotiating the limits on GHG emissions and how these limits allocate between eveloped countries and developing countries.

Although Turkey is not yet bound with the Kyoto Protocol, EU harmonisation process has become the major driving force in national environmental reform. Strong national and economic and development planing, adoption of environmental attentions has been achieved in many sectors in order to promote sustainable development. A number of actions have been undertaken by the goverment in the post 2000 period.

8.1 Taxes

Taxes that relates with environment corresponds 15,2% of total tax reveneu and 4,8% of GDP in 2004. These shares had increased from 7,2% of total tax reveneu and 1,6% of GDP in 1995. According to OECD 2007 data, the share of fuel and motor vehicle taxes which relate environmentally friendly tax reveneu is very high (%95) (OECD Environmental Performance Reviews Turkey, 2008).

8.2 Subsidies

Financial supports which are provided by the goverment can have impact on the environment. Some subdiea can be environmentally harmful while they deform prices and resorce alignment decisions.

In Turkey the body of agricultural subsidies has moved towards more environmentally friendly agriculture. The share of input payments are cut down from 30% in 1986-1988 to less than 2% in 2003-2005.

On the other hand, relating to energy subsidies, hard coal remains subsidied. Current hard coal prices do not permit state owned coal producers to recover costs so they recieve subsidies to cover the cost of labor (OECD Environmental Performance Reviews Turkey, 2008).

8.3 Environmental spending

Pollution abatement and control (PAC) spending was forcasted at 1,2% of GDP in 2006. It is an increase from 1,1% in 1997. In 2005, supporting of public environmental investment came from four major sorces: local authorities (68%), the goverment (19,5%) and external sources (e.g. EU, World Bank) (OECD Environmental Performance Reviews Turkey, 2008).

In the future it is forecasted that implementaition of EU environmental regulations will need total sppending of EUR 58 billion between 2007 and 2023. Implementation of EU water directives will need investments accounting for 60% of total. The central goverment is expected to afford 13% of total funding, local administrations 37%, the private sector 26% and public ventures 2%. External finance is forecasted to contribute 22% of total expenditure (OECD Environmental Performance Reviews Turkey, 2008)

8.4 Renewable Energy

As this study stated, Turkey is mainly an energy importing country because of the scarce domestic fossil energy resources. Currently, much of the attention is targeted on the energy resorces and pipelines in Turkey. The total investment required in the energy sector between 2002 and 2015 will be approximately US$ 65 billion and 82% of this investment is for planning investments. So Turkey has to establish long term energy strategies to decrease the fossil fuel share and increase the renewables share for the main energy consumption. Turkey has huge capacity for energy efficiency developments. Using this capacity could lower the environmental emissions and increase security of supply. The capacity for renewables is also considerable (Kaygusuz, 2002)

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The main obstacle to use renewable energy is that all those kind of sources have low energy intensity per unit area. The other four main obstacles are economic obstacles, cost of technologies, financing issues and scientific and technical obstacles.

Economic obstacles are accepted as the main barier to introduce renewable energy technologies. These factors include the cost of renewable technologies and their level of electricity they produce; difficulties in acquiring financing for renewable technologies, the failure to add externalities in the cost of generating electricity; and the money and interests already invest in existing infrastructure and technology. Also capital requirements to install renewable energy is very high because of the high per unit of capacity installed. This could be lower the acces to funding. These type of barriers keep renewable energy out of profitable use and producer tend to use fossil energy sources which are more easy to use and more profitable then the renewable energy sources (Nalan et al, 2009)

8.4.1 Hydropower

The major disavantage of hydropower is the primary capital cost. Small-scale hydro dams could cause social and environmental problems. In addition, they could lower power shortage fragility during dry seasons experienced in large hydro plants. Hydropower releases no CO2 directly, but is less dependable than fuel plants due to dry seasons (Nalan et al, 2009).

8.4.2 Solar Energy

Currently solar water heaters cost less comparing to past years. Domestic water heating by electricity has a share of 20-30% of the annual electricity consumption. Because of the daylight times, electiricty storage or back up is needed, so cost is increasing and additional environmental problems could occur.

Additional to that there are obstacles to use photovoltaic systems (PV). Higher cost of power generation is main obstacle comparing to conventional means of producing energy. Also insufficient financing, maket obstacles regarding the lack of large scale product manufacturing and distribution, lack of support infrastructures, import tariffs and institutional barriers are the other obstacles that encourage to use of conventional means of energy generation (Nalan et al, 2009).

8.4.3 Wind Energy

A wind turbine with a potential a t least 500 KW, in ideal location, can generate 1.3 million KWh year . A 500-kW capacity turbine is need 13,700 ha of land. In order to produce this level of electiricty , primary investment needed is about US$ 500,000, and annual operating cost of US$ 40,500.

There is no legislation relating to wind turbines in Turkey. The Turkish industry has also a limited capacity to produce turbines. The scale and cost of a wind farm will demand private investment with an attractive rate of return (Nalan et al, 2009).

8.4.4 Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy needs high cost of capital invesment. Also it can cause serious enviromental difficulties like water shortages, air pollution, and waste effluent disposal, but the environmental effects of geothermal energy seem to be limited relative to those of fossil fuel systems (Nalan et al, 2009).

8.4.5 Biomass

The major technology to produce heat and electricity is combustion. Turkey has leading technology players in this area and market risk is low. Central state supports potentially more environmental friendly systems like gasification and pyrolysis.

The biomass fuel has relatively low CO2 emissions, it is almost near zero. But it is hard to collect large amount of biomass wastes due to their disperse nature. Transportation of biomass is also difficult and costly. The costs of biomass wastes is volatile due to productions and economic condition (Nalan et al, 2009).

Turkey’s energy distribution according to sectors is like this industry 36%, heating 35%, transportation 20%, and other areas 9%. The major energy consumers of the industrial sectors are the iron and steel sector, chemicals and petrochemicals, and textile and leather industries. Because of the scarce domestic energy sources and production capacity, Turkey depends on import primarily on oil and gas (Okay et al, 2008).

In 1996, a study of the MENR evaluated that the capacity for energy conservation in industry at 4.2 Mtoe (approximately 25% of industrial energy consumtion for that year) and an average cash value of $1 billion/year. The total investment needed to realise this conservation capacity would be near to $2.4 billion. The payback phase for these investments would differ from a minimum of one year to a maximum of three years (Ocak et al, 2004)

Also 70% of energy is used for heating in the residential/commercial sector. Energy use can be lowered by half with the application new heat insulation standard. Addition to that, study carried out by the World Bank’s ESMAP program, main efficiency developments can be possible in power generation by enhancing power plant size from the existing average of 150–340 MW (coal fired units), by demanding higher efficiency specifications for new plants and by increasing the use of cogeneration (Ocak et al, 2004).

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