Chapter 1

Introduction

&

Preliminary Data Gathering

1.1: Introduction to the Report:

During the last two decades many important developments in the position of food in daily life of consumers and producers takes place. In earlier times consumers were self sufficient, but during the last two decades things have been changed and there was a rapid development in the industrialization of food packaging communication process. So this research study focuses on the area of Packaging which is one of the most important elements of marketing mix and many marketers had considered packaging as a fifth ‘P' , while the other four P's are Product, Placement, Promotional and Price. So packaging is used as an important marketing tool. In marketing terms, Packaging can be defined as: “All the activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper of a product, Packaging is a structure designed to contain a commercial food product, i.e. to make it easier and safer to transport, to protect the product against contamination or loss, degradation or damage and to produce a convenient way to dispense the product” 1.

Packaging mainly can be divided into three types, i.e. Consumer Packaging, Transport packaging and Food Packaging. This study is specified only to food packaging as food packaging industry requires packaging material that provides efficient barriers, preserves product effectively and therefore increases the shelf life of the product 2. However packaging is criticized largely from the environmental point of view, because many researchers think that packaging is depleting natural resources, as certain form of packages are health hazards, and there is a significant problem of disposing of these packages. Marketing researchers have to deal with these criticisms, and must enhance the positive features of packaging, like product protection, preservation, containment, communication, consumer convenience and marketing support 3.

In context of above description, this study is basically consists of observations, surveys and interview from the consumers not only to determine how packaging of existing FMCG food products contain, preserve, and communicate the buyer, but the new food products too, because the variables for selecting the existing food products are different from the variables for selecting the new FMCG food products, secondly to know the importance of packaging on their buying decision process both for existing and new products, how they get influence, and how a good quality and attractive packaging convince them to buy particular FMCG food products.

1.2: Background of the study:

The professional fields are becoming more and more challenging and competitive in the present arena. So, in order to endure and be successful in any field, you must have the deep knowledge and appropriate skills of the concerned field. In fact this is true about the fields of management sciences, in which the Knowledge and skills of a person can be polished, if he goes through some practical experiences. Therefore this study is mainly conducted to have the knowledge of practical business situations, because the theoretical knowledge might not always match with the practical situations, where we do businesses. Therefore this would be the socialization to the market in a sense of applying our theoretical knowledge in the practical fields.

In this regard, I have selected the area of Packaging for my research study which carries a great concern in the present arena because in the last one and half decade the importance of packaging has been actualized immensely and by having packaging knowledge and designing skills, practically you can enhance your capabilities. Packaging has covered all the consumer tangible goods in order to create and enhance the marketing efforts.

According to “International Association of Packaging Research Institutes” IAPRI, the packaging technology has gone through a significant and fast exploitation in recent years, and globally the packaging material and machinery industry is estimated to be worth of $ 500 billion per year representing almost 1-2 % of the GDP industrialized country, and over 100, 00 packaging manufacturing companies have employed approx 5 million people to serve all packaging business manufacturers company 4.

1.3: Introduction to the topic:

The topic for my research is “A Survey on the Impact & influence of FMCG food Packaging on Consumer Buying Behavior” in which we will try to explore the variables of packaging not only for the existing food products but for the new products too, which attracts consumer behavior and influence them to buy.

1.3.1: Importance of Packaging:

Many researchers together with Price, Promotion, Placement and Product considers Packaging as a fifth “P” as a marketing tools, because they think that packaging is a face of a product which actually refers to the material that servers to contain, identify, describe, protect, display and promote a specific product. The main objectives of packaging are to keep the food in good condition until it is sold or have been consumed and to encourage the consumer to buy it again and again. Correct packaging is essential to achieve above given objectives. Yearly billion of pounds are spent on packaging food.

1.3.2: Functions of Packaging:

There are many protecting functions and purposes of packaging that influence consumers to buy a particular product.The various functions of packaging can be divided into three main types: Primary, secondary and tertiary (additional Functions). Primary functions concerned with the technical nature of the product while the secondary and tertiary functions are related to communications.

The Primary Functions of packaging are to protect and storage of a product from loss, damage or any kind of deterioration from environmental conditions such as humidity, temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. i.e.; the durability of a package, because people wants material that will really protect the product they bought and something that can resist handling and shipping.

The Secondary and Tertiary Functions of packaging are the sales, promotional, service and guarantee functions. The main intentions of sales function of package is to promote the sales processes and to make it more effective and efficient, therefore in designing a package promotional materials should be placed at right place, because it plays an important role to communicate about the product functions, features, and other informational elements. The various informational elements such as product features, manufacturing and expiry date, ingredients information, nutritional information, food labeling etc. provides the consumer with details about the contents and use of a particular product. Therefore these promotional materials should be properly placed on the package in order to attract the potential consumer's attention and to have a positive impact on their buying behavior 5.

1.3.3: Consumer Buying Behavior:

The other main concern of the study is to know about consumer buying behavior or consumer decisions making process and how packaging can influence them to buy a particular product. Marella in one of her articles about packaging defines consumer buying behavior as the process by which “individuals search, select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods and services, in satisfaction of their need and want”. When consumers need to purchase something, they usually go for the brands which are trustworthy and try not to seek other products such as new products or the brand which they don't know at all 6. Therefore at the point of purchase what communicates or influence consumer to buy particular product is only ‘Packaging'. Similarly quality judgments are significantly influence by the product characteristics reflected by the packaging because packaging acts as a communicator, and it underlines overall features and functions of a product that lies in it such as informational elements, product features, material used etc. So if the package is well design and attractive enough, consumer will likely to buy it especially in the case of new products. So, it is important that products should be well and attractive packaged to gain consumer attention.

1.4: Purpose of the Study:

Success of a product depends on developing a strong relationship with consumer through an affective and efficient synergetic marketing mix, in which ‘Packaging” is one of the main elements to influence because packaging is the language of a product which only communicate to the consumer without any interpreter and has an immense effect on purchase decision.

Most Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) is low involvement products. In low involvement, “consumers do not search extensively for information about the brands, evaluate their characteristics, and make a weighty decision on which brand to buy”, and as packaging plays an important role in success of a brand and on a retail shelf it is the last opportunity to influence the consumer to buy, so the main purpose of this research, so this study will be conducted with an idea of knowing the impact & influence of packaging on the purchase decision of FMCG food products, which are mostly consumed frequently and also to know the experiences of the ultimate consumers about packaging.

The research study is basically conducted to apply my theoretical knowledge of marketing in the practical field of professionals by interviewing different consumers and to know their views and preferences towards the importance of food packaging.

The objective of the research study will be focused on:

  1. To know consumer awareness about packaging.
  2. To examine the influence of existing and new FMCG food products packaging on consumer buying behavior.
  3. To examine consumer experience of purchasing packaged food products.
  4. To understand how packaging can influence them to purchase their decision powers
  5. To know whether a good and attractive packaging of FMCG food products can influence consumers to buy it or not?

Beside this the research is the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Bachelors of Business Administration and the submission to the Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar.

1.5: Methodology of the report:

This study has been conducted with the following procedures:

1.5.1: Reading Articles

Reading articles are the formation of the strongest foundation. For this research study I have been reading and looking at different articles and research studies both in libraries as well as through Internet and searching through digital libraries the literature of the my research study.

1.5.2: Questionnaires

The data for my research study has been collected from a representative sample of 200 people, who are responsible for purchasing the household food products and are also the ultimate consumers of the packaged food products.

The sample from population was derived from shoppers at different geographical areas of Peshawar. The questionnaire was initially put to pilot testing on 5 respondents for clarity and validity. Through the use of questions related to the study, the respondents were highly encouraged to express their opinions. The questionnaire comprised of few questions, grouped in five sections: Visual Impact, Brand Information, food labeling and nutrition information, and new products purchasing. The impact of these variables is analyzed in the Analysis section.

Responses of the consumers have been converted to frequencies and percentages by using SPSS software through which I developed the Bar chart or Histogram in order to explain the degree of impact of mentioned variables on the purchase decision I have also used the Pie chart method in order to find the most influencing variable on the purchase decision.

1.6: Scope of the Study

The Scope for my research study is limited to Peshawar city and the sample for my research has also been taken from the population of Peshawar city for collecting primary data. The market, which has been surveyed, is limited to the consumers in Peshawar region.

The reader of this research report will be able to understand the preferences of consumers about the packaging especially the food packaging, because consumers are more connected to the food industry. And also they would be having better understanding that how packaging can influence consumers' purchase decision? Besides, this research study will also show the knowledge and understanding of packaging features and roles in the marketing efforts and new demands from the packaging industries as far as consumers are concerned.

1.7: Limitations

The first hurdle that I have faced is the unavailability of the secondary data about our local markets' consumers therefore, in this stage I had the difficulty to find the relevant data as far as my study of research is concerned. Another limitation is the difficulty in collecting primary data in the market as I have used Questionnaire method but mostly respondents were not familiar about that how to understand and respond to a question being asked. Third limitation is time constraint, which is again a pressure on us to finalize the research report which might caused this research report be deficient in order to cover every aspect of my research study but still I made the best of it.

1.8: Sampling

The study population comprised of 200 people who are the ultimate consumers of packaged food products. The sample has been drawn from supermarkets located in different geographical areas in Peshawar and also collected data from the respondents in the universities. For my studies I used stratified sampling method and judgment sampling method. I divide my sample into three main strata's like those males which got the purchasing power and do purchase regardless of the family members, second those female households which ultimately got the purchasing power, and lastly children's. For children's I used judgment sampling method.

1.9: Scheme of Report

This report is organized in five main sections. Section 1 consists of one chapter that describes the introduction of the report, objectives and the purpose of the report. Section 2 consists of two chapters that constitute literature of this study and Different variables involved, respectively. Section 3 also consists of two chapters in which theoretical framework and nature of the research, i.e. research design has been describe. In Section 4 there is one chapter in which the data analysis has been done and the last Section, which is Section 5, consists of one chapter that mainly includes the Conclusion and Recommendations of this Research Study.

References Cited:

(1) Marketing Dictionary, Small Business Encyclopedia: Packaging, Web Link: http://www.answers.com/topic/packaging

(2) Peters-Texeira, A., & Badrie, N. (2005). Consumers' perception of food packaging in Trinidad, West Indies and its related impact on food choices. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 29(6), 508-514. Retrieved from E-Journals database.

(3) M. Sehrawet and S.C. Kundu, (2007), “Buying behavior of rural and urban consumers in India: the impact of packaging”, International Journal of Consumer Studies Vol:31, pp630-638

(4): Packaging Research: Background to Packaging, Online Available at:

http://www.iapriweb.org/packaging_research.html

(5): Transport information System, Functions of Packaging. Online Availabale at:

http://www.tis-gdv.de/tis_e/verpack/funktion/funktion.htm#anfang#anfang

(6): Marella, Does product packaging significantly influence consumer buying behavior? Online Available at: http://www.helium.com/items/1582891-packaging-affecting-consumer-behavior

Chapter 2

Literature Review

Literature Review:

2.1 Introduction:

This chapter presents the results of a comprehensive literature search in several aspects to this work. The prime objective of this literature survey is to identify those variables, which are involved in this research study about perception of food packaging, that how consumer perceive about food packaging in industry and how they are influence the purchase of consumer decision in choosing any FMCG food products.

2.2 Packaging Definition:

Packaging can be defined as, “All the activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper of a product”. The container is called package. Packaging is a structure designed to contain a commercial food product, i.e. to make it easier and safer to transport, to protect the product against contamination or loss, degradation or damage and to produce a convenient way to dispense the product 1.

Packaging also refers as a container, silent salesperson or a wrapper for a consumer product that assists a number of functions including protection and description of the product, contents and product marketing promotion. Creatively and innovatively designed packages actually add value to the product, if it meets a consumer need such as portion control, recyclability, tamper-proofing, child-proofing, easy-open, easy-store, easy-carry, and non breakability.

The labels on packages such as informational elements, nutritional elements, ingredients elements, brand information are such type of important components of the packages which enhance the overall marketing mix and can support advertising claims, build brand identity, heighten name recognition, and optimize shelf space allocations. When designing a packaging, the monetary value to manufacture, shipment, and display the package must be efficiently calculated. However, regarding to the packaging size and shape, the package must be design in a way that if it is small, then it should be small enough to accommodate available shelf space and large enough to dissuade theft. Furthermore, creatively designed packages must highlights the benefits of the product and contain an adequate amount of product to keep the per unit price competitive

2.3 Packaging Evolution:

In early times, Before the World War II, Packaging was primarily used and was often standardized to surround and protect products during storage, transportation, and distribution. The main role of packaging was to ensure the preservation and transportation of products and even for ease-of-use by the end consumer, but package design was typically left to technicians. However, After World War II, things were changed and companies became more interested in mass production and development of packaging and invest more in marketing and promotion tools as a means of alluring customers to purchase their products. As a result of which many manufacturers began to view packaging as an essential element of overall business marketing strategies to lure buyers.

This industry revolution and increased attention to packaging concurred with socioeconomic changes that were taking place around the world and on other hand with passage of time the consumers were becoming better educated, as a result of which their expectations of product, packaging designs and their trust on them was increased as well. Therefore, consumer began to rely much more heavily on manufactured goods and processed food items. New technologies related to production, manufacturer, storage distribution, and preservatives led to a massive increase in the number and type of products and brands available in industrialized nations. Thus, packaging became a vital means of differentiating items and informing busy consumers.

Packaging today, is regarded, as an essential part of a successful business practice. Package design became a marketing mix promotion tool, and as a new corporate cost-consciousness developed in response to increased competition, companies began to alter packaging techniques as a way to cut production, storage, and distribution expenses. Furthermore, marketers began to view packaging as a successful marketing tool to feat existing product lines by adding new items and to ticker new life into maturing product line 2.

2.4: Packaging Attributes:

Food products brands use a range of packaging attributes, which comprises of packaging colors, packaging designs, shapes, messages, and symbols (Pinya Silayoi & Mark Speece, Oct, 2004) 1. These attributes attracts and sustains the attention of consumers and help them to identify with the images presented. The importance of packaging design and the use of packaging as a vehicle for communication and branding are growing in packaged food competitive markets.

Consumer's intentions to purchase packaged products depend on the degree of extent to which consumers expect that the product will satisfy their need when they will consume it. But there are certain situations when they haven't even heard about the products so much while entering into the stores, (especially in the case of new products) so the intentions to purchase that very particular product is basically determined by what is communicated at the point of sale. So, at the time of sale when the product is not familiar to the consumer, the only factor that attracts consumers to purchase is Packaging which is also called as Silent Salesperson. It acts as s silent salesperson and became a critical factor when the consumer decision making process is in progress, and how they perceive it depends upon the communication elements, which become the key factor to success for marketing strategies.

Now to achieve that communication goal effectively and to optimize the potential of packaging, the marketers and the package designers must have to consider consumer perception point, their past experiences, their needs & wants, and understand how packaging design layouts get consumers to notice the package and notice messages on the package and evaluate packaging design and labeling for their effectiveness in the communication effort because it is also important to notice that not all consumers evaluate the packaging in the same way.

2.5 Packaging Functions and Elements:

Pinya Silayoi and Mark Speece (2004), defines the basic functions of packaging logistically and marketing by their role. The logistical function of packaging is mainly to protect the product from incidence of damage, spoilage or loss through theft or misplace goods during movement through the distribution channel. While in the context of marketing function, the packaging should be attractive enough and well design, so that it conveys the message of product attributes clearly.

Now whatever the logical considerations of packaging, the marketing function of packaging attributes plays a vital role as a communicator and it is only the package that sells the product by attracting and communicating the consumers, and allows the product to be comprised, divvy up, unitized and protected.

Quality judgments are largely influenced by product charactertics reflected by packaging, because package's overall features can underline the uniqueness and originality of the product. If the packaging attributes communicates high quality, consumers assume that the product is of high quality. However if the package symbolizes or communicates low quality, consumers transfer this low quality perception to the product itself. So the packaging acts as communicator and communicates favorable or unfavorable implied meaning about the product. Mark Speece (2004) suggests that consumers are more likely to spontaneously imagine aspects of how a product looks tastes, feels, smells, or sounds while they are viewing a product picture on the package.

A review of the above literature indicates that there are mainly four packaging elements potentially affecting consumer purchase decisions. They can be separated into two categories; visual and informational elements. The visual elements consist of graphics, images size and shape of packaging. Informational elements relate to product information and information about the technologies used in the package. However the product information can further be categorized into food labeling, ingredients information, nutrition information, usage detail, and manufacturer's / company details, manufacturing and expiry information etc.

2.6: Variables of Packaging:

2.6.1: Visual Elements:

2.6.1.1: Graphics and Color:

The implication of graphics is explained by the images created on the product. Graphics designs are visual presentations which include layout, color combinations, typography, and product photography all of which create a positive and distinctive image. For consumers, the package is the product, and different consumers respond to different packages in different ways depending on their involvement level (Silayoi & Speece, 2004). For low involvement products, such as FMCG, where initial impressions formed during initial contact can have lasting impact and where evaluation of attributes is less important in decision making, here then a highly noticeable factor such as graphics and colors becomes more important (Grossman and Wisenblit, 1999) (3). On the other hand, the behavior of consumers towards high involvement products is mostly influenced by image issues. For low involvement, there is a strong impact on consumer decision making from the development of the market through marketing communications, including image building (Kupiec and Revell, 2001). (4)

2.6.1.2: Placement of Visual Impact Elements Matters:

In packaging layouts, the placement of visual elements also plays an important role for consumer psyche, because a psychic research of Rettie and Brewer, (2000) (5) indicates that brain laterality results in an asymmetry in the perception of elements in packaging designs. The recall of package elements/attributes is likely to be influenced by their lateral pass position on the package, as well as by other usually recognized factors, such as font color, font size and font style. Research shows that for verbal stimuli recall is better when the copy is on the right-hand side of the package, and better for non-verbal stimuli when it is on the left-hand side. This may imply that, in order to maximize consumers' recall, pictorial elements, such as product photography, typography, it should be positioned on the left-hand side of the package.

Grossman and Wisenblit (1999) (6), says in their research that consumers also learn color associations, which lead them to prefer certain colors for certain product categories. For a unique particular brand, using color as a clue on packaging can nurture a potentially strong association. However people in different cultures are exposed to different colors and according their own culture they develop different color preferences. So as a marketer, color consideration should be the part of their marketing strategies and by keeping in mind the color consideration according to people perception in different culture, colors of a particular logo, package or product design should be done after a thorough understanding of color association according to culture.

2.6.1.3: Packaging Size and Shape:

Silayoi and Speece, (2004) states that in packaging, the other visual elements such as size and shape are also important in consideration. Package size, shape and elongation also affect consumer judgments and considerations. Consumers use these things as simplifying visual heuristics to make volume judgments. They generally perceive more elongated packages to be larger.

In case of sizes, especially for generic products, different sizes of packages may appeal to consumer with different involvement level. Usually generic products are packaged in larger sizes, which communicate to consumers who are specifically looking for good deals. So, this implies that when the product quality is hard to determine, as with generics, the packaging size effect is important. Thus elongating the shape, within acceptable bound, should result in consumer thinking of the package as better value for money also conceivably affect perceived volume.

2.6.2: Informational Elements

2.6.2.1: Product Information

Product information includes information elements, such as food labeling, nutrition information, health information, ingredients information, manufactures date, expiry date.

In high involvement level, the behavior of consumers toward product characterized is less influenced by image issues, graphical and visual response, in such cases consumer seeks product information which is one of the important packaging functions to communicate. (Kupiec and Revell, 2001; Silayoi and Speece, 2004). (7) Written information on the package can assists consumers in making their decisions carefully as they consider product characteristics.

Package layout is important for information presentation. Food labeling is considered as significant information on packaging and a recent study shows that 90 percent of the consumer's trends towards healthier eating have highlighted the importance of labeling, which also allows consumers the opportunity to cautiously consider alternatives and make informed food choices. However, packaging information can create confusion by conveying either too much misleads the inaccurate information. Manufacturers and package designers often use very small fonts and very dense writing styles to pack extensive information on the label, which lead to poor readability and sometimes confusion.

As confusion can affect consumer decision quality, So Mitchell and Papavassiloiu (1999) (8), suggests that consumer confusion of information overload can be reduced by narrowing down their choice sets, because by reducing their choice alternatives and evaluation attributes decreases the probability that they will be confused by excessive choice and information overload. This strategy could also be applied to more experience consumers, because loyal consumers potentially look fewer brand alternatives. So, it is the experience which makes consumer more selectively perspective and restrict the scope of their choices.

Hughes (1998) (9), in one of his journals grabs the attention towards involvement level, that sometimes involvement level reflects the extent of personal relevance of the individual's personal goals, basic values and self concept. If the product does not stimuli much interest, consumers do not give much attention to it. High involvement level shows more personal relevance. In general, consumer acquisition of low involvement products is often done without carefully examining brand and product information. This lack of commitment suggests that information on the package would carry relatively less value in such cases. On the other hand, more highly involved consumers evaluate message information more carefully, relying on the message to form their attitudes and purchase intentions (Silayoi and Speece, 2004).

2.6.2.2: Packaging Technology

Packaging for the FMCG food products in market plays a vital role in promoting the product to the customer, as well as carrying informative and legislative detail. Combining these roles requires commercial awareness, detailed knowledge of the relevant technologies, creative image care and consideration of the effect of colors, typography, photography that must support the product or brand. Design and technology of packaging decoration for the users market guides you through the technical and commercial factors to consider when planning the decoration, or label, of a package (10). Technology is basically somewhat related to the informational elements, because packaging technology conveys informational messages such as nutrition, health, ingredients which is linked to the consumer life style, so the technology of packaging development that constrained in the message communicated through technology must fulfill consumers need criteria.

Consumers are even often prepared to pay slightly more for enhance value product, indicating desire for more quality. As technology embodied in the package plays a vital role, so technology innovation must respond and develop new and more efficient packages of longer life shelves, environmental friendly, nutritionally responsive and meet maximum food safety requirements. So the role of packaging technologist is to ensure that the creative design is translated into functional representation and the challenge to have both the design and execution working in harmony (Silayoi and Speece, 2004).

2.7: Packaging Design

Packaging is one of the most common examples of art and graphic design. Apart from displaying the important informational elements, the packaging has become an important marketing and sales tool. With the use of illustration, color, typography and even various packaging materials, a beautiful and attractive packaging can boost the selling and stands out from the rack of competitors. Here we present some cool packaging designs to inspire you. (11)

As packaging is the biggest medium of communication mainly because of its extensive reach to all kind of category purchasers, secondly its presence at the crucial moment when the purchase decision is made and finally the high involvement of level seekers who actively scan packaging for information.

So, this involvement level of consumers makes the packaging an important element to be considered not only for recall of brand recognition but in purchase decision too. So the design of packaging itself may be an incentive to buy. The manufacturer's and the package designers should keep packaging design, color, typography, photography, food labeling, labeling fonts of packaging in mind to make it attractive enough to gain consumer intentions.

Angela Peters-Texeira and Neela Badrie conducted a research about “Consumers' perceptions of food packaging and its related impact on product choice” in Trinidad West Indies, in which they describes certain variables when choosing an existing food products and also for the new products, the variables described and its findings are as follows:

2.8 Product Features:

Angela peters and Neela Badrie describes certain features of those products which already exists, and then check its validity that while choosing the existing food products whether these factors affects their buying behavior or not. According to Angela while choosing the existing FMCG food products price/ value for money was giving the highest rating (58.5 %), as a factor that most influenced respondents in the purchase of a product, while other features such as Product performance was given 21%, quality of a product 21%, nutrition 12%, family's/ personal preferences 12%, how quick or ease to prepare 5.0%, brand label information 3.0%, taste 30%, and how fattening it is 4%.

2.9 Packaging Features:

Angela and Neela also describes certain Packaging Features such as information on label, quality of packaging, brand name, visual impact etc. according to study 41.5% of the respondents rated ‘information on label' as a most influence factor in packaging features, while 24.4% of the respondents says quality of a packaging is the most influence factor while choosing a product, similarly brand name was rated 22%, visual impact 12.2%. However, Visual impact, in the choice of a product in the same product category was given much importance when choosing a new product, because at that time it's the only factor which can influence consumer to try it when the product is new.

2.10 Packaging Material:

When respondents were asked whether they favored transparent packaging material so that the product could be viewed, 40% of the respondents says, while 20% answered ‘no'. similarly Plastic packaging was considered as the best choice of packaging material (39%), as the properties of plastic packaging makes it ideally suited for food packaging, includes low density, resistance to breaking, light, control, flexibility and low temperature, while for food products as compared to plastic, Glass 19.5%, paper 4.9%, and metal/tin 2.5% were rated.

2.11 Food Labeling:

Labels on the food products are indented for consumer information and help to identify, promote, inform, and offer an advice on the use of the product concerned, food labeling might offer to naming a product or listing the ingredients, nutrition information, manufacturing/expiry date, usage detail etc. 41.5 % of the respondents rate food labeling as an influence factor to buy a particular FMCG food product. In the study when respondents were asked whether they read the food label or not, almost 48% of the respondents says ‘no', the reason that they claim that most of the time the food label was either too confusing or time consuming to read, while some respondents said that nutrition information was not properly displayed or when the packaging material was not enough good to read. However still other food labels such as manufacturing/expiry date (56.1%), company/manufacturers information (29.3%), nutrition and health message claim, and usage detail and to know the ingredients of the product were such type of information that most of the consumer are generally looking for without given priority given to quality of package sometimes.

2.12 New Products:

Angela and Neela also describes some of the very important factors while choosing the new FMCG food products, such as rated advertisement, packaging visual impact, brand or label information, ease of preparation or use and cheaper alternative price. According to research visual impact of packaging for the new products was considered as the most influence factor 39.0%, because at the point of sale it is the only factor that can influence consumer behavior to buy, while rated advertisement was rated 22%, brand or label information (21.5%) as the third most influence factor was rated 12.

References Cited:

(1): Marketing Dictionary, Small Business Encyclopedia: Packaging, Web Link: http://www.answers.com/topic/packaging

(2) Silayoi, P., & Speece, M. (2004), “Packaging and purchase decisions: An exploratory study on the impact of involvement level and time pressure”, Emerald Group Publisher limited, Vol. 106, No 8, pp.607-628.

(3) Grossman, R.P. and Wisenblit, J.Z. (1999), “What we know about consumers' color choices”, Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, Vol. 5 No. 3, pp. 78-88.

(4) Kupiec, B. and Revell, B. (2001), “Measuring consumer quality judgments”, British Food Journal, Vol. 103 No. 1, pp. 7-22.

(5) Rettie, R. and Brewer, C. (2000), “The verbal and visual components of package design”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 56 - 70.

(6) Grossman, R.P. and Wisenblit, J.Z. (1999), “What we know about consumers' color choices”, Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, Vol. 5 No. 3, pp. 78-88

(7) Kupiec, B. and Revell, B. (2001), “Measuring consumer quality Judgments”, British Food Journal, Vol. 103 No. 1, pp. 7-22.

(8) Mitchell, V.W. and Papavassiliou, V. (1999), “Marketing causes and implications of consumer confusion”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 319-39.

(9) Hughes, D., Hutchins, R. and Karathanassi, V. (1998), “Purchase involvement methodology and product profiles: the case of cheese products in Greece”, British Food Journal, Vol. 100 No. 7, pp. 343-50.

(10) Geoff, A. Giles (2008). Design and Technology of Packaging Decoration for the Consumer Market (Sheffield Packaging Technology, V. 1), Online Available at: http://www.flipkart.com/design-technology-packaging-decoration-consumer/0849305063-j8w3f73ptf

(11) Yugu, Apr, (2008), Packaging Design Inspiration. Online Available at: http://dzineblog.com/2008/04/packaging-design-inspiration.html

(12) Peters-Texeira, A., & Badrie, N. (2005). Consumers' perception of food packaging in Trinidad, West Indies and its related impact on food choices. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 29(6), 508-514. Retrieved from E-Journals database.

Chapter 3

Research Design

3.1: Applied Research:

This research is basically applied in nature.

Reason:

In this research we will be studying the influence of existing and new FMCG food products packaging on consumer buying behavior.

3.2: Purpose of the study:

The purpose of the study is descriptive study, as in this research we will be trying to describe the characteristics of the variables of interest in a situation.

3.3: Type of investigation:

3.3.1: Co relational study:

This is a co-relational study, as in this research we are interested in delineating the important variables associated with the problem, i.e. to find the relationship of packaging on consumer buying behavior.

3.4 Researcher interference:

In this study researcher's interference is minimal and has no direct interference with the with the consumer behavior because our research was mostly based on observation and we are not allowed in the interference of consumer decision making.

3.5: Study Setting:

3.5.1Field Study:

This is field study because Study has been done in natural settings in which variables are not controlled.

3.5.2 Unit of Analysis:

In this research the unit of analysis is single, because we will only be observing influence of FMCG food products packaging on consumer buying behavior.

3.5.3 Time Horizon:

Total time for the whole research is 6 months i.e. the whole semester.

3.5.4 Cross-sectional Data:

In this research the data is gathered only once, so it is a cross sectional data, because the data is gathered only to find out the influence of packaging on consumer buying behavior.

3.6 Methodology:

Quantitative and qualitative methods are not only research strategies; In fact, these approaches represent detailed frameworks for conceptualizing the realities and procedures.

3.6.1 Data gathering techniques:

The following data gathering techniques will be employed.

3.6.1:Collection of secondary data:

Secondary data is data which has been collected earlier by others: individuals or agencies for purposes other than those of a particular research and which has significant, so in the context of this research Articles, books, internet, digital library will be the main source of secondary data, as they laid the strong foundation to the research study.

3.6.2 Collection of Primary Data:

The sources for the collection of primary data are going to be the interviews from the consumers which may be formally or informally structured, formally structured questionnaire and personal observation of consumers during purchasing.

3.6.3 Data Analyzing Tool:

Responses from the consumers will be then analyzed by using SPSS and excel software's which will be converted in frequencies, percentages, and through will I will be developing pie charts, bar charts and histograms to explain the degree of impact of mentioned variables on the purchase decision.

3.7 Sample Size:

The study population will comprise of 150 people who are the ultimate consumers of packaged food products. The sample has been drawn from supermarkets located in different geographical areas in Peshawar.

3.8 Broad Problem Area:

The broad problem area of the research study is influence of FMCG food products packaging on consumer buying behavior.

3.9 Problem statement:

How Packaging of FMCG food products can influence the buying behavior of consumer in Peshawar?

3.10 Variables to be studied:

3.10.1 Dependent Variable:

Purchasing Decision

3.10.2 Independent Variables:

Packaging material

Visual impact

Price

Packaging Design

Product information

Size/ shape

3.10.3 Intervening Variable:

Involvement level

3.10.4 Moderating Level:

Time Pressure

Chapter - 4

Theoretical Framework

&

Hypothesis Development

4.1 Broad Problem Area:

The broad problem area of the research study is influence of FMCG food products packaging on consumer buying behavior.

4.2 Problem statement:

How Packaging's of FMCG food products can influence the buying behavior of consumer in Peshawar?

4.3 Variables to be studied:

4.3.1 Dependent Variable:

Purchasing Decision

4.3.2 Independent Variables:

Packaging material

Visual impact

Price

Technology

Product information

Size/ shape

4.3.3 Moderating Variable:

Time pressure

4.3.4 Intervening Variable:

Involvement level

Graphical Representation of Theoretical Framework

4.4 Relationship with the Variables:

4.4.1 Dependent Variable:

Thedependent variable is the variable which is the primary focus of the researcher. The researcher goal is to understand and describe the dependent variable, or to explain its variability.

In this research the dependent variable is Purchase decision, so the main focus of the research is to find out, the role of packaging on the purchase decision and how packaging alters a consumer's intention to buy it.

4.4.2 Independent Variables:

An independent variable is one that influences the dependent variable in either a positive or negative way. In this research we have different independent variables.

Packaging Material:

It is very important factor which influence the consumer behavior in a positive manner and influence him to buy it, because if packaging material is attractive enough and also of good quality, the consumer will likely to buy it.

Visual Impact:

 Visual elements include graphics layout, color combinations, typography, and product photography, all of which create a positive image in the mind of consumer which lead to buy a product.

Price:

Price is also an independent variable, affect the dependent variable in a positive manner, if the reasonable price is charged for the value given, consumer will likely to purchase it.

Packaging Design:

Packaging design is that independent variable which affects dependent variable (purchase decision) in a quiet positive way, especially in a case of new products, because most of the time consumer psyche is influenced by something new, so if the design of the packaging is somewhat different from the ordinary old designs, consumer got influenced and will likely to purchase it.

Product Information:

Product information on packaging is that independent variable which can influence dependent variable (purchase decision) both in a positive and a negative manner, positive in a sense that the behavior of consumers toward products characterized by high involvement is less influenced by image issues and visual response (Kupiec and Revell, 2001); in such cases consumers need more information.

However, packaging information can create confusion by conveying either too much information or missleading the inaccurate information.

· Size / Shape: Package size, shape and elongation also effect consumer's judement and decision in a positive manner. Consumers appears to use these things as simplyfying visual heuristics to make volume judgments.

4.4.3 Moderating Variable:

The moderating variable is one that has a strong contingent effect on the independent variable-dependent variable relationship, which modifies the original relationship between these two variables.

In this research the moderating variable is time pressure which affects consumer decisions quiet frequently because during shopping and under relatively high time constraints, they spend less time to make any given purchase and also make decisions without any careful evaluation which ultimately affects consumer purchasing decision (dependent Variable).

4.4.4 Intervening Variable:

An intervening variable is a one which conceptualizes and explains the relationship of dependent and independent variable.

In this research, the intervening variable is Involvement Level of consumer; involvement level is a factor which explains the relationship of independent and dependent variable, i.e. higher the involvement level of attractive packaging material, visual impact, size, shape, and product information higher will be the chances to buy the product, similarly lower the involvement level regarding these independent variables lower will be the chance to buy the particular product.

4.5 Hypothesis Development:

Once we have developed the important variables in a situation and established the relationships among them through logical reasoning in the theoretical framework, we are in a position to test the relationships that have been organized doing in fact hold true. By testing these relationships scientifically through appropriate statistical analysis, the result of this offers us some clues as to what could be changed in a situation to solve the problem. Formulating such testable statements is called hypothesis development.

The hypotheses developed for this research are as follows:

1. If packaging material is of good quality, it will have a good impact on purchasing decision.

Ho: p = 0

H1: p>0

p = the relationship between good quality of packaging material and purchase decision

2. If visual impact of packaging is attractive, consumers will likely to purchase it.

Ho: p = 0

H1: p>0

p = the relationship between attractive visual impact of packaging and purchase decision.

3. If information on product is reliable and sufficient, it will affect consumer decision power.

Ho: p = 0

H1: p>0

p = the relationship between sufficient information on packaging and purchase decision.

4. The lower the price of product, the higher the consumer will purchase it.

Ho: p = 0

H1: p>0

p = the relationship between lower price of a product and purchase decision.

5. If packaging has been attractively and well design, it will affect consumer decision making power, and consumers will likely to purchase it.

Ho: p = 0

H1: p> 0

P = the relationship between attractively packaged design and purchase decision.

6: if Size and shape of packaging is well design, consumer decision making will be affected and consumer will likely to purchase it.

Ho: p = 0

H1: p>0

P = the relationship between size and shape of a package and consumer decision making process.

Chapter - 6

Analysis & Findings

Analysis:

In this section primary data has been analyzed which I have collected through Questionnaire, observation and interviews and after doing a proper survey in the market, I tried to interpret the analysis with respect to my objectives.

6.1: Need for Survey

This research study is based on the data which is qualitative in nature because consumer perception can only be found in the qualitative form of data, so this study required a survey in the market, in order to collect data from the consumers who are some what involved in the process of chopping because this study is related to the packaging of the food products so therefore I adopted the methodology of collecting data through a Questionnaire.

6.2: Questionnaire Formation

The questionnaire that I have used is mainly to collect the qualitative data about the packaging of the FMCG food products. This survey is basically conducted to know the impact of all FMCG food products, but for convenience of respondents and to get the data accurately, I made three food categories, which were Chips, biscuits, chocolates. The purpose of using these three categories was to find out how packaging can influence their purchase decisions.

I used three different scales in this questionnaire to analyze the data more precise and accurately, which were likert scale, ordinal scale and multiple choice options, for most of the questions I used likert scale, because by using likert scale we can get information in depth with less chances of error, for this purpose I used 5 options, and asked respondents to rank the options on the scale from 1 to 5, as 1 carries the most influence factor and 5 carries the lowest.

Beside the questions, asked relating to food packaging, this questionnaire also consists of two more variables, one is Gender and another is the Age Groups that are used intentionally to know the effect of Gender and age groups on the purchase decision under the pressure of different variables which influence the buying behavior & make decision to purchase.

6.3 Pilot Testing of Questionnaire:

After developing the Questionnaire I contacted a group of 3-4 people from different fields of life. I distributed questionnaires among them and asked them to respond the asked questions without guiding them with every question. After some time I collected those questionnaires from them and asked them that did they have any difficulty in understanding and answering the given questionnaire, they commented that the questionnaire is all right in terms of answering.

6.4 Survey Population:

As my research study is limited to Peshawar city only and the sample size is 200 people, which is true representation of the whole population of Peshawar city in a sense that this sample consisted of respondents from different areas in the city. My survey population was mainly divided into four main strata's, i.e. City side, Cantt area, Town area and Hayatabad.

6.5 Survey Method:

The methodology of survey I have followed consisted of mainly the Questionnaire and informal discussions with the respondents about packaging of food products. Questionnaires were distributed with a little guidance of how to fill this up.

6.6 Data Collection:

The data was collected in twenty days after putting lots of efforts because this data collection process is a time consuming process. After collecting all the questionnaires I organized them and put them to the next phase that is the Data Analysis.

6.7: Data Analysis:

To analyze the data I have used different techniques in order to find out the effect of each variable on the purchase decision. In this study I used the histogram for each variable's influence in terms of knowing the frequencies of ranking.

Effect of Price on Purchase Decision:

In the histogram of Price we can see that price was ranked mostly with 2, 1 and 3, which shows that it can influence the consumer buying behavior while choosing the existing food products has a significant effect on the purchase decision, however 20.7% of the respondent also didn't consider price as an influence factor.

Product Price

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

36

24.0

24.0

24.0

2

63

42.0

42.0

66.0

3

31

20.7

20.7

86.7

4

14

9.3

9.3

96.0

5

6

4.0

4.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Impact of performance on product choice:

The second option which was the Product Performance or product satisfaction was mostly ranked by 1and 2 ( Mean=2.17) which mean that it has a higher impact than the price (Mean=2.27), as most of the respondents ranked performance as an most influence factor as compared to price while choosing the existing food products, this could be mainly because the respondents are already familiar with the product, so they don't consider price as influence factor compared to product performance/ satisfaction..

Product Satisfaction

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

58

38.7

38.7

38.7

2

43

28.7

28.7

67.3

3

23

15.3

15.3

82.7

4

18

12.0

12.0

94.7

5

8

5.3

5.3

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Impact of Taste on Product choice:

The impact of taste is the highest of all as it has been ranked with 1 most frequently from the taste table the frequency of 1 is 77 which means that in choosing the existing food products its has great influence on consumer buying behavior and make them to purchase. From the histogram we can see its mean (1.95) is less than the above two variables which reveals that respondents are more skewed towards taste as far as the purchase decision is concerned.

Taste

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

77

51.3

51.3

51.3

2

33

22.0

22.0

73.3

3

20

13.3

13.3

86.7

4

10

6.7

6.7

93.3

5

10

6.7

6.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Impact of Visual Impact on purchase decision:

This variable has an impact on consumer buying behavior and make them to purchase decision but less than the above variables been discussed because it table of frequency shows that it has been ranked most frequently by 2, 3 and 4 and its mean which is (2.77), which shows quiet mixed response about this variable, however 30% of the respondents consider as unimportant factor as compared to above factors.

Visual Impact of a product

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

23

15.3

15.3

15.3

2

42

28.0

28.0

43.3

3

36

24.0

24.0

67.3

4

45

30.0

30.0

97.3

5

4

2.7

2.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Impact of product claims on purchase decision:

The fifth variable which is the “claims on product package” has the least effect Consumer Behavior while choosing the existing food products as it is cleared from the frequency table and the histogram in which its mean (3.55) is the greatest of all the five variables that gives us an idea of being the lowest in terms of playing its role in the influencing a consumer behavior to make purchase.

Product Claim on packaging

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

15

10.0

10.0

10.0

2

26

17.3

17.3

27.3

3

24

16.0

16.0

43.3

4

32

21.3

21.3

64.7

5

53

35.3

35.3

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

This is a Pie chart of the above five variables, which shows its collective effect on the purchase decision of a consumer when they choose the existing FMCG food products.

Pie Chart -1

New Product/Brand Choice:

To choose a new Brand is a crucial job as the consumer is not familiar of the product characteristics and its performance, so it is very important to convince consumer to buy the product. In this regard the question, which I asked from the respondents gives following, results in terms of ranking mentioned variables.

Influence of Advertisement:

The table of rated advertisement has quite significant impact on the purchase decision of a new product because consumers mostly buy product after knowing through advertisement. This histogram shows that advertisement has a mean equal to (2.51, in the middle of the highest and the lowest value of ranking.

Rated Advertisement

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

42

28.0

28.0

28.0

2

39

26.0

26.0

54.0

3

33

22.0

22.0

76.0

4

22

14.7

14.7

90.7

5

14

9.3

9.3

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Visual Impact/Product Appeal:

In choosing a new product the visual impact of a brand can play a significant role because visual impact consists of Graphics, typography, Fonts, labeling Effects, shape and size of the package, which can influence the consumer at the point of scale. Visual impact has a mean of 2.33, which is greater than advertisement and showing higher impact on choosing new brand of FMCGs.

Visual impact

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

56

37.3

37.3

37.3

2

36

24.0

24.0

61.3

3

24

16.0

16.0

77.3

4

21

14.0

14.0

91.3

5

13

8.7

8.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Impact of Brand or Label information on Buying New Brands:

The data in the table shows that Label information has a significant influence on the consumer behavior and makes them to purchase of a new brand because it can play a convincing role to consumer who really wants to know about the product. So respondents also pointed out that brand information is necessary for the new product in the market.

Brand or Label Information

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

42

28.0

28.0

28.0

2

43

28.7

28.7

56.7

3

32

21.3

21.3

78.0

4

17

11.3

11.3

89.3

5

16

10.7

10.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Ease of Usage:

For the variable of ‘ease of usage' for choosing a new product, I found that it got second highest least influence on consumer behavior to make purchases as campared to above three variables, as most of the respondents have 4 and 5, the lowest value to influence their behavior.

Quickness Or ease of use

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

12

8.0

8.0

8.0

2

27

18.0

18.0

26.0

3

26

17.3

17.3

43.3

4

58

38.7

38.7

82.0

5

27

18.0

18.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Cheaper Price:

The variable cheaper Price also have a very least impact on consumer behavior when choosing a new brand product, as compared to above variables, most of the respondents ranked cheaper price 4 and 5 showing the least impact to influence their behavior.

Cheaper Price

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

15

10.0

10.0

10.0

2

31

20.7

20.7

30.7

3

19

12.7

12.7

43.3

4

34

22.7

22.7

66.0

5

51

34.0

34.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

This a Pie chart of the above variables which influence the consumer most to purchase the new FMCG food product:

Pie Chart- 2

In other Question, when respondents were asked that generally do you evaluate a company by its product packaging?

About 90% of the respondents say, they do evaluate company by its product packaging.

Do you Evaluate a company by its product packaging

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Yes

134

89.3

89.3

89.3

No

16

10.7

10.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Linking with the above question, respondents says that while evaluating company by its packaging, given below are variables of packaging that influence them most to make purchase.

Pie Chart-3

When to Read a Food Label:

Another question in which respondents were asked about the food label aspects to which one do they give most attention while purchasing a product? The table shows the data of the variable which is the “attention given to Manufacture's data and Expiry data here we can see that the most influencing factor is this because it has the frequency of 89 in the value of 1 which carries the highest value. And also its histogram shows its mean is 1.63, which is more influencing in terms of attracting towards purchasing a product.

Manufacturing / Expiry Date

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

89

59.3

59.3

59.3

2

40

26.7

26.7

86.0

3

11

7.3

7.3

93.3

4

7

4.7

4.7

98.0

5

3

2.0

2.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Attention to Manufacturer's / Company Detail:

The second option was regarding Manufacturer's / Company detail, and its was mostly ranked by 2, which shows when reading a food label, it also can influence their behavior to make them purchase and has a mean value 2.34, close to Manufacturing/ Expiry Date.

Manufacturer's / Company Detail

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

21

14.0

14.0

14.0

2

79

52.7

52.7

66.7

3

31

20.7

20.7

87.3

4

16

10.7

10.7

98.0

5

3

2.0

2.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Attention to Health Messages and Nutrition Claims:

Respondents opted this option as the second most attention catcher because it falls in the ranking of 2 and 1, which means that it has the capacity to be under consideration while choosing a product, it has the mean value 1.86, quiet close the Ist attention catcher variable of Manufacturing and Expiry Date.

Health Message and Nutrition claim information

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

46

30.7

30.7

30.7

2

85

56.7

56.7

87.3

3

13

8.7

8.7

96.0

4

6

4.0

4.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Attention to the Number of Units in Container:

Response to this option is very satisfying because most of the respondents said that it is of least attention taker in terms of influencing the purchase decision, mostly ranked 2,3 and 4, while (10%) people said that it is of most attention taker.

Numbering of Serving / Units per Container

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

15

10.0

10.0

10.0

2

41

27.3

27.3

37.3

3

41

27.3

27.3

64.7

4

42

28.0

28.0

92.7

5

11

7.3

7.3

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Attention to Product Ingredients:

For attention to the product ingredients, respondent also ranked this factor as and important factor, that while purchasing consumer do look at this. It was mostly ranked by 2, 1 and 3, which shows that 38.7 % of the respondents do seek this information as well.

To know the Ingredients of Products

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

37

24.7

24.7

24.7

2

58

38.7

38.7

63.3

3

30

20.0

20.0

83.3

4

25

16.7

16.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

When Respondents most preferably Read Food Label?

In a question where respondents were asked when would you most prefer to read the food label, 37% of the respondents says that ‘when buying the product for the ist time', while 30% of the respondents says ‘when comparing two different brands of the same product category.

Pie Chart- 4

When Respondents Don't Read The Food Label:

Despite of the fact that mostly consumers do read the food label whether choosing the existing food product or the new one, there could be certain situations when they are unable to do that, these factors are given below:

Pie chart-5

Combine Pie Chart of five variables which are mostly influence the never to repurchase decision of a new product.

Pie char-6

Mostly consumers ranked poor quality of the product as the most influence factor to never purchase the product, as result shows that 56% of the people will never purchase the product when its of poor quality, similarly secong most influence factor to never purchase the particular food product was "poor packaging" (14%), so it is clear from the results that consumers will never purchase the particular FMCG food product again when they are not satisfied with product quality or if the packaging is poorly designed.

CHAPTER 7

CONCUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

7.1 CONCLUSION:

After doing all the analysis of the data I have come to know that the packaging has an important role to play in terms of influencing Consumers' buying behavior and make them to purchase decision because from the responses which I got through Questionnaire I concluded that for existing food products consumers are already familiar with the product, and although while choosing an existing food products Packaging do influence consumer behavior but as compared to packaging features, consumer are more satisfied with the Price, product performance and taste of the particular FMCG product, that's why they purchase it.

While for the new products, where consumers aren't familiar with the product and where packaging plays an important role to influence them an to purchase, so while choosing a new product or brand especially the food item, the packaging element is very crucial because it is the last way to influence consumers at the shelf space when he or she is in search of such product category. Because for existing product consumers are much familiar about the brand, its features and its packaging and they can easily recognize the product but in the case of a new product the first factor which is most influencing is the Visual Element of Packaging (37.8%) of that product which consists of its Graphics, typography, Coloring, and Design and how it looks like so visual impact of a product package has the potential to attract a customer but if it is developed in a proper way, secondly the rated Advertisement (28%) was most influence factor to make decisions. For existing food product the most influencing factor is the Taste of food according to my data analysis and this is very much true because in food industry first priority should be given to the taste and secondly the most influencing factor is the price in terms of making a purchase decision, and thirdly come the performance and then the visual Impact of the product. For the product where the level of involvement is high so there is a great chance of looking for the information being given on the package and where there is low level of involvement so there is a great importance given to the Visual Impact.

Knowledge about the issues summarized in my research study is very necessary for developing effective packaging, which can maximize in-store consumer purchases. This and the other limited research about consumer response to packaging gives package designers some guidance. However, much more detailed understanding is necessary, and careful examination of the issues much more broadly among consumers is also important. It is clear that package plays a very large role in product choice, and it is also clear that poor packaging can push consumers away from buying the product. Certainly, better understanding of these issues in the packaging design process will become a key element in the competitiveness of packaged food products. And no doubt this packaging element can be the identity of the product forever.

The other two variables which I included in my Questionnaire were the gender and age groups but after doing my analysis I reached to the conclusion that both of these variables have no significant effect been noted as far as the perception of packaging is concerned so therefore food is perceived similar by both of the genders.

7.2 RECOMMENDATIONS:

The influence of visual elements on purchase decision is stronger when consumers have short time to make a purchase decision, and weaker when they do not have time pressure. As from my study it is cleared that I have selected the low level of involvement products and in which the time pressure is less so therefore only Packaging can influence the consumers as our most of the purchase decision is made at the point of sale.

So product package for such product should be carefully designed keeping every aspect of packaging in mind in order to attract a consumer.

The influence of informational elements on choice is stronger when consumers have more time to make the product choice. When they have time pressure, they tend to perceive less information from the package, and the influence of informational elements will be weaker.

When consumers face time pressure, the visual elements of packaging will have more impact on the purchase decision than will the informational elements. Conversely, when consumers do not have time pressure, the informational elements of packaging will have more impact on the purchase decision than will the visual elements.

The influence of visual package elements on choice is stronger when consumers have low levels of involvement with the product, and weaker when they have high levels. The influence of informational package elements on choice is stronger when consumers have high levels of involvement with the product, and weaker when they have low levels.

Visual elements of packaging will have more impact on the purchase decision than will the informational elements when consumers have low levels of involvement with the product. Conversely, the informational elements of packaging will have more impact on the purchase decision than will the visual elements when consumers have high levels of involvement with the product