Abstract

Can popular music play a role in conflict transformation and peacebuilding? This kind of question has started to generate a great deal of debate for peacebuilding scholars and pracitioners.  Most of the recent works have focused on the role of art as a whole without looking at particular form of art or particular genre within one form of art like music and assessing its contributions to creating a peaceful society. This paper is an attempt to show only the role popular music can play. It based on a research undertaken in Gulu town in northern Uganda. Findings show that music is playing a supporting role which is either little known or less recognized. In this paper, I argue that popular music is playing a significant role. I discuss how popular music is contributing and fostering conditions of conflict transformation and peacebuilding while relying on document analysis, examinations of “peace music? lyrics, field interviews and focus group discussion with the government officials, formerly LRA soldiers, musicians and the civilian population.

A. Background to Northern Uganda conflict

Northern Uganda has been in conflict for over two decades. This conflict is between the government of Uganda (GoU) and the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA).The conflict is “rooted in a popular rebellion against the President Yoweri Museveni’s government.?[2] but when she was defeated in 1987, Joseph Kony took over the mantle of leadership. He transformed the HSM into the LRA and with support of the Government of Sudan in Khartoum; the LRA have been able to cause destruction on the civilian population in northern Uganda.

The causes of the conflict are rooted in historical and immediate factors. These includes: The British colonial legacy which divided the north and south. Failure of the President Museveni to honor peace accord he signed in Nairobi in 1985 and finally the NRA violence inflicted on the Acholi when Museveni took over[3].

Since 1993, there have been numerous peace talks’ efforts to end the conflict but all failed to bring a lasting peace because “the government’s lack of firm political will behind a negotiation strategy and the LRA’s turn to Sudan for arms re-supplies.?[7]

The most recent attempt to end the conflict has been the Juba Peace Talks in 2006. This peace talks was held in Juba, the capital of South Sudan and it was mediated by Dr. Riek Machar, Sudanese vice president assisted by UN Special Envoy Joachim Chissano. In this peace talks, all four items of the agenda were signed[8]. But the final peace agreement has not been signed. The notorious leader of the LRA refused to sign the final peace agreement thus throwing the peace process in doubt. This led to a military offensive on LRA by the three countries: Uganda, Sudan and DRC and means the collapse of the peace talks.

Peace building initiatives?

Currently in northern Uganda, there is relative peace because the LRA have been weakened by the combined military offensive of the three nations. Many civilian populations in the 53 camps in northern Uganda are returning to their villages to rebuild their lives. Both the government and nongovernmental organizations are putting infrastructures: schools, roads and health centers to assist the former victims of conflicts resettle. But there are mixed feeling among the population whether they will have a lasting peace or not since not final peace agreement has been signed by the conflict parties. One of the key issues in northern Uganda during this transition is how to ensure victims’ justice but “Most prioritize peace over justice and show signs of reluctance countenance question of accountability.?[10] Since 2005, GoU through the Amnesty Commission have been working to resettle many LRA the ex-combatants and supported community’s approaches to local methods for forgiveness, peacebuilding and reconciliation.

B. Background to role of Music in Acoli society

In Acoli society, music occupies a central place. “Music is the lifeblood of the society.?[15]

“Musicians and dancers were highly valued and admired for their skill and their ability to entertain.?[20].

Music in Acoli was mainly by an individual or a group singing and playing musical instrument like “lokeme (thumb piano), ajar, a metal percussion instrument, and sometimes the smaller drums (bul).?[22]

Rise of Popular Peace Music in Northern Uganda

As the war in northern Uganda escalated, this was a proof that the conflicting parties had failed to resolve their grievances. There was total breakdown in communication between the parties. This resulted into lack of confidence and understanding of each party.[24]. This music is produced in “modern? studios across northern Uganda. Voices are produced on computer aided beats. There is wide use of modern musical instruments in the music. The lyrics are directed to the government, LRA and occasionally to the civilian population in northern Uganda, other parts of Uganda and the diasporas and international community.

As many as 70-100 peace songs are produced annually[29].

C. Literature Review

In the last decade, there have been some attempts to show that music can be used in peacebuilding.[32] The shortage of literature on the impact of music for conflict transformation and peacebuilding remains is a serious concern because stakeholders are constrained from making an informed decision on music can function as a tool of conflict transformation and peacebuilding.

Perhaps the most groundbreaking work on music and peacebuilding to date is: Music and Conflict Transformation: Harmonies and Dissonances in Geopolitics.[35] Additionally, June Boyce illustrates “several models useful when considering the link between music and peace? and finally Johan Galtung reveals how music can be used for peace. He investigates “the uplifting and uniting power music.?

Ledarach’s Moral Imagination: the Art and Soul of Peacebuilding[36], empathizes use of creativity in peacebuilding. He used a number of examples to support his arguments about art and peacebuilding.

Finally, Lisa Schirch’s Ritual and Symbols in Peacebuilding also supports the view of creativity in peacebuilding.[39]

There are some articles which show the prospect of using music in peacebuilding. Michael Shank and Lisa Schirch,[42] Their analysis justifies the role of art while at the same time it is useful for informing peacebuilders on what kind of art to employ and at what stage of conflict.

Lesley Pruitt explores how music can contribute to positive peace[44] She adds that music and dance can lead to development of new identity by both the artists and audience and it is this new identity can help in process of dialogue. Therefore, artists through their music can act as “mediators? because they create new identities and it’s this new identity that can foster dialogue between the conflicting parties.

Additionally, Alba Sanfeliu[45] discusses the role of music in peacebuilding. She remarks “Music is an eloquent language that allows us to express what is happening around us in many senses, and to reflect the times and the situation in which we live. It is inseparable from our social, political, economic and cultural reality.? She adds that music is also a form of communication. “Lyrics strengthen the message that the author wants to express, emphasizing the sense of the song.? Mores specially she touches on role of popular music and states that “many singers and groups have composed songs with themes related to peace, personally becoming involved by giving concerts in solidarity with various social causes and making their music into a kind of spokesman and instrument for peace.? She concludes by arguing for further exploration of music as a tool for conflict transformation.

Finally,

In conclusion, the reviewed works provide interesting insights into the role of art in general on conflict transformation and peacebuilding but there are not sufficient enough in explaining how specific genre like music and in particular, popular music contributes to conflict transformation and peacebuilding.

To begin with, most of the studies done on role of music were based on document reviews and this makes it very difficult to reflect the true situation on the ground.

Additionally, the reviewed works widely focus on art or music as a whole. None focuses on popular music.

Finally, these studies were based on realities in different parts of the world some of which are significantly different from those in northern Uganda. This study attempts to show the impact of popular music on the conflicting parties in northern Uganda and how this has helped in conflict transformation and peacebuilding in northern Uganda.

D. Purpose and Methods of the Study

Research was carried out in Gulu Municipality and 2 internally displaced persons (IDP) camps of Amuru and Odek[49].

In all the three locations[51]. Interview guides were open-ended and gave respondents opportunity to speak out his/her mind. This was preferred in order to get more information about knowledge, attitudes and opinions of people about the role popular music in peacebuilding.

There were 5 focus group discussions with 30 people (23 were former LRA soldiers and five female) to understand people’s perspective about the role popular music can or has played in peacebuilding[52]. The discussions were freely moderated by the researcher and every participant freely expressed their views during the discussions.

Finally, all accessible relevant literatures on the topic were reviewed. These data were got from various libraries including Gulu University, Human Rights Focus, Gulu Public Library and Hesburgh library.

E. Impact of Music in Northern Uganda

Music and conflict has have long been connected but the role music can play in conflict transformation and peacebuilding have not long been studied although there are new and emerging work in the field[53]. Therefore, to assert that music can transform conflict and promote peacebuilding may be an exaggeration but also failure to recognize the role that music can play in conflict transformation and peacebuilding would again be an understatement facts.

From results of focus group discussions and interviews with government officials in Northern Uganda, one can argue that music is playing a supporting role to the conflict transformation and peacebuilding in northern Uganda. Popular music is contributing by: Reaching the government leaders with messages to engage in the peace process, recognizing the government efforts while demanding for a speedy end to peace process, portraying the government failures through comparison of the Acoli society before and after the war thus making the government leaders to work for amendments and finally popular music has become a tool of communication that is now a constant reminder for government about its obligations for peace.

a. Government

In northern Uganda, popular music is being used to reach both government leaders to engage in peaceful resolution of the conflict. This has been carefully done through name dropping[58]. The impact of name dropping is found to create pressure on some leaders to use their positions to engage in peace process with the LRA because musicians represent the voice of the people. This makes the leaders reach out to the president asking for peaceful engagements with the LRA. According to one government leader:

Northern Uganda is a small region. Each time musicians call my name in their songs, I feel I compelled to work for peace. The songs communicate to me personally. It appeals to me in a special way. It portrays me as a leader who can do something for my people. This creates the motivations for me to work for peace. To me, a voice of one musician is a voice of the people suffering in the internally displaced people’s camps[59]

Therefore, name dropping has been an effective way of pushing some of the leaders to work for their people. “It is a push factor for the leaders. It asks nothing from them but to use their position for the sake of the suffering people.?[60] Name dropping has an appropriate appeal for different leaders at a personal level to seek an end to conflict. This appeal is compounded by the fact that the songs are in the language the leaders understand, the leaders are widely known in the region and the songs brings out rich, truthful and powerful issues that goes on in the life of their own people. This motivates some leaders to engage in peacebuilding.

Additionally, in a politically hostile region to the current NRM government[68]. This is summed up in one statement by former internally displaced man:

When politicians in our community are openly praised by musicians in their songs, this sets the bar so high for politicians and their party because the songs are played on the FM stations across the northern Uganda. This is not only praises and recognition for their work, politicians know that as voters we use the same songs to judge them and hence some are working very hard for peace.[69]

Given an environment like northern Uganda, which has been unfriendly to the current government because of the long running conflict, people have genuine grievances again their government[72] It recognizes and praises politicians and the government, while at the same time it sets a target for them to achieve thus leading to engagement of some political leaders in the peace process.

Furthermore, the religious leaders have also not been spared by the popular artists. They have also been singled out for commitment to peace in northern Uganda and asked to do more in their capacity. Musicians like Bosmic Otim, one of the first popular artists to emerge in northern Uganda in early 2000 with very high popularity went on in his song, Too Paco, to appreciate one religious leader for his extra-ordinary courage and commitment on working for peace. He points out the impact of the war on the Acoli society. He suggests to the government to adopt the non-violent strategy of the religious leaders. He calls for a non-violence strategy because failure of the military strategy which has inflicted great pain on the civilian population. He goes on in his lyrics to say “Let’s see example from Nelson Mandela who fought for peace non violent, let us see example from Bishop Mark Baker Ochola, who is emphasizing talk peace because war increases the death toll?

Such a creative way of sending peace messages by the popular artists have been effective. Popular music have been able to communicate people’s desire for peace to the religious leaders. “Popular music has become additional call to protect their flocks from wolves.?[76].

Furthermore, popular musicians have used their songs as a comparative tool for northern Uganda especially Acoli society. This comparison is based on looking back at Acoli society before the war and comparing it with the society during war. This evokes images of past governments as more successful than the current regime[79].

Some popular songs are explicit imagery of government failure.[82] 

This careful manipulation of music to compare Acoli societies is disastrous for the image of the government and NRM political leadership. It has compelled some government leaders to do more to save its image by protecting its citizens while at the same time creating a task that peace is the ultimate goal the government has to achieve in order to avoid comparisons with the past regimes. Dida Moses, in his song Too Oroma-wa, ask a rhetorical question and goes to show the suffering, “Our people, spiritual leaders what do we do? War that started since has not ended, Strong homes have collapsed, Seeing people run for their lives is painful…Cutting people’s legs, killing is so painful, Children are suffering, children sleep hungry, Children sleep with blankets, children do go to school, Today I pray to God, the rate of death is too much?

In some of these songs, the government commitment to northern Uganda is questioned indirectly. The reference to pre-Acoli society invokes images of better days of freedom, schooling, ability to meet basic needs and above all a peaceful society under previous government.[84]. This creates a drive for leaders to engage more in peace talks in order to deliver peace, the ultimate wish of the people.

Finally, popular music is being used to communicate and remind government of its obligation for peace in a region where people seem to have given up after two decades of war and accepted the status quo. Musicians have not given up. They have continued to remind the government and create awareness about the war in northern Uganda, nationally and internationally.  Popular music is a constant “burden? and reminder to Acoli government leaders.[86] These peace concerts bring popular artists from all over the country in northern Uganda to sing for peace and fundraise for the IDP communities.

In April 2004 feted Ugandan musician Jose Chameleone teamed up with Richard Kaweesa, another renowned Ugandan musician, in a peace restoration project called [87]

In these musical concerts nothing else is sung about but peace.[90] Therefore, popular music has become medium of reminding the government on what people wants while at the same time creating awareness and building a coalition for peace in the northern Uganda which generates public pressure on the government to seek an alternative to the conflict

As a result of this constant reminder and call to the government and LRA for peace, the governments of Uganda and South Sudan have come to recognize the role of music in conflict transformation and peacebuilding thus exhibiting the power of popular music in northern Uganda. In 2005, Loketo Lee, was recognized for his outstanding contributions to the peace process. His contribution was first felt outside his own country-Uganda to Southern Sudan and Sudanese vice president, “Salvar Kiir…handed Loketo Lee a Peace Award for his contribution, through his music, to the country's peace process.?[93]. This points to the role music can in a musically responsive society like northern Uganda.

b. Lord’s Resistance Army

In northern Uganda, popular music is being used for informing and educating the LRA on amnesty[95] These musical messages have had some impact on LRA through the radio. According to one participant, a former LRA foot soldier:

Mega FM has been useful for amnesty messages. The religious leaders and also some songs were very influential in letting us know what amnesty was all about. When our leaders realized we were listening to amnesty messages whether talk shows or music, they stopped us and whoever was found was punished severely.

From the perspective of some formerly abducted children interviewed, popular music on the FM stations particularly Mega FM proved to have been effective in disseminating amnesty information. Consequently, some LRA fighters were able to return home. This statement by the former LRA solders is corroborated by Boniface Ojok, in his remarks about the impact of radio communication to the LRA.

On realizing that they were reducing in numbers, the LRA leadership discouraged its middle ranking commanders and foot soldiers from listening to radios. Many of the former LRA rebels we talked to said that when the LRA realized that radios were becoming so effective in luring the midlevel commanders and foot soldiers, a warning was issued that radios should be used only by the top leadership[96]

Popular music therefore is being used to communicate important messages for the LRA. These messages are effective in informing and educating the LRA. To some former child soldiers, popular artist had become their role models. Some agreed to being persuaded by popular musicians. Their songs about amnesty and asking them to abandon the rebellion was informative and as well as appealing to them to come out of the bush[97].

Additionally, popular musical is helping in confidence building among the LRA.[100]  These cases have been used as propaganda by the LRA leadership to deter foot soldiers from returning but popular artists have razed this propaganda. Strong message for brotherhood, reconciliation, forgiveness and welcome have been sung by the musician including making a personal call to the LRA top leadership about their safety on return.

Artists like Baby Dalvin, believes that amnesty from the government without further assurance from civilian population was not enough for the LRA to return.  The LRA fighters were aware of the pardon through the amnesty but they did not know how the civilian populations in the camps would be reacting to them. Government assurance from prosecutions was not enough. Artists had to step in and assure the LRA fighters about their safety from the civilian populations. Popular music was able to fill the void left by the government. Popular music sent assurances about safety and that people are willing to reconcile with them. These have been able to restore some level of confidence in the LRA. “Some artists have even called the LRA fighters as brothers and for Acoli people when someone has called you a brother that is best assurance of acceptance without revenge.?[102]

Similarly, when the leaders of the LRA were indicted by International Criminal Court, its impact was expected on the peace process.[105] Such opposition of the external forces to the peace process has been cited to create confidence on the LRA because they feel the masses and the government are willing to save them ICC prosecutions. Thus the artists have been able to add their voice to already a “hostile? region to ICC creating a feeling of “safety? among some LRA from the government and people in northern Uganda.

Furthermore, the role popular music is playing today is a replica of the role songs played in Acoli traditional community. Traditionally, songs were used to entertain and teach. Leaders with unruly behaviors were mocked.[107] This role of music still lives on in the popular music today. Popular artists have not downplayed the atrocities the LRA have committed in the two decades. Lyrics reflect LRA atrocities and challenge the LRA. Popular music have exposed the atrocities and blamed the LRA. Artists have reacted to what they see as contrary to societal values.

In northern Uganda, both the government and the LRA have been seeking to dehumanize and blame each for the atrocities but many popular artists have blamed LRA and asked them to end atrocities. Towngweno, in their song, Bedo I camp, hits the LRA “everyone is talking with name, what popularity are you seeking? Orphans, widows are becoming many because of you!  Why do you want to finish Acoli?? Such songs not only expose but also strike guilt for atrocities among the LRA[112] “I am alone now! What can I say? I am now alone in our home! What can I say? I now have no mother, No sister, No brother, No father, No uncle, War has finished all the sons and daughters of Acoli?

According to another respondent, a former rebel, “popular music have summed up what has happened and if you have carried such atrocities you feel compelled to lay down your gun and come and ask for apologies.?[114]

Finally, popular artists have used their music to frame the conflict in a way that affects the LRA positively forcing them to reconsider peace.[116] The framing has changed perceptions and made information relevant and persuasive to the LRA. The framing is based on the notion of “defeat? and “interest? of the LRA in the war.

To many people interviewed, the conflict should have been ended if the government had pursued peaceful means[120] in his songs, Dok Paco, he plays with the notion of “defeat.? He calls the LRA to negotiate with the government. He says “negotiating does not mean you are defeated? to dispel the myth defeat. 

Additionally, Bosmic Otim frames the conflicts on “interest? of the LRA. While the LRA claims to be fighting for marginalization of people in northern Uganda, they are at the same time committing gruesome violence on the people. Bosmic, in his song Peace Returns, he says “If a government soldier dies tomorrow, you will find an Acoli, if a LRA soldier dies…you will find an Acoli.? His framing reinforces the view that one tribe is finishing itself meaning there is no point in continuing the fight.

These framings help in changing perceptions. It can be very persuasive. According to former rebels, they cited two impacts. First, they have been persuaded by this framing which made some rebels “ready to move to another life??[121] Secondly, they have been able to see the reality of the conflict and its impact. “We were able to see the other side of the coin.? This frame has made some large-scale changes in society.

Concluding Observations

Music has some problems too. There are in fights among some popular musicians and this has sometimes affected their position in society as peacebuilder. There have been incidences of popular artist fighting and how can they talk for peace if they are involved in violence. This is simply because of public rating people give to the peace songs. This has resulted into creating camps among the popular artist leading t to in fights.

Additional, commercial interest of some musicians and recording artists has overshadowed peace music. Many times they are diverted from real issues and forced to sing what the government wants or because their promoters have already got money. This causes diversion and hence reduction in the peace messages in northern Uganda

Furthermore, some upcoming popular artist stated that there is alot of politics of the FM stations which only play music from recognized artists leaving them to suffer and languishing with their peace songs. Some artist suggested that music managers at the FM stations ask them lump sum money to include their songs on their playlist. This limits the peace songs to only a few and popular artist leaving out some upcoming musicians. This sometimes kills the potential of young artist who could be having genuine interest in promoting peacebuilding in the region.

Finally, artists also expressed fear at the government. Some artist believe they cannot confront the government because they fear for the lives and fear that FM stations will not play their songs and this limits them from being neutral and hence affecting their reputation and neutrality in the songs.

In spite of these limitations, there are also a number of arguments why popular music is still effective in conflict transformation and peacebuilding in the case of northern Uganda. To begin with, in considering that music can contribute to peacebuilding, one has to look at the cultural context. In northern Uganda has been sued since time in memorial.....Therefore, this provides a best opportunity to use music further for peacebuilding.

Secondly, within music, there are more than songs. There is communication, rhythm and movement which when combined becomes a very powerful gesture for peace. In listening to music and watching videos, one can see that these are very effective in reinforcing......

There is very good creativity and understanding of the local context by musicians. The use of name dropping was suggested by one politician as the most effective way

Finally, the popular music is very relevant to local issues in northern Uganda. Music and power especially electoral democracy

In this article, only a limited number of songs, most of which come from the musical genre ‘Bongo Flava’ have been described. There are undoubtedly songs about AIDS from other types of music, including gospel music that may be influential. Nevertheless, the songs described here do provide insight into the promise held by utilizing musicians as popular opinion leaders and song as

a medium not only to convey important health information, but also as a mechanism for triggering social and behavior change….SHERI BASTIEN

[122]

4


[(]* Is a MA candidate at the University of Notre Dame. He earned a B.A. in Humanities from Makerere University. He also holds a Post-graduate diploma in Conflict Management and Peace Studies and a Post-graduate diploma in Education from Gulu University. He has served as an Information Officer for a relief organization and a health communication group. Recently, he worked for the Norwegian Refugee Council as communication and Monitoring and Evaluation Manager. He has conducted many researches on the role of the media in conflict transformation in northern Uganda.

[1] Moses Cyprus Okello and Lucy Hovil, “Confronting the Reality of Gender Based Violence in Northern Uganda,? The International Journal of Transitional Justice 1(3) 2007: 375-390.

[2] See Behrend, Heike, Alice Lakwena and the Holy Spirits: War in Northern Uganda, 1985-97 (James Currey, Oxford 1999)

[3] See Allen, Tim, 1991, Understanding Alice: Uganda’s Holy Spirit Movement in Context. Africa, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 370-399. Branch, Adam, ‘Neither Peace, nor Justice: Political Violence and the Peasantry in Northern Uganda’ (2005) 8(2) African Study Q 1,

[4] Lomo, Zachary and Hovil, Lucy, “Behind the Violence: Causes, Consequences and the Search for Solutions to the War in Northern Uganda,? Refugee Law Project Working Paper No. 11 (February 2004), p43

http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4a3f8d3c1e.html [accessed 21 January 2010]

[6] Moses Cyprus Okello and Lucy Hovil, “Confronting the Reality of Gender Based Violence in Northern Uganda,? The International Journal of Transitional Justice 1(3) 2007: 375-390.

[7] See Justice and Reconciliation Project, Cooling of the Hearts: Community Truth Telling in Acholi-land,  2007, 6

http://www.csopnu.net/?jc=juba [accessed 21 January 2010]

[9] Moses Cyprus Okello and Lucy Hovil, “Confronting the Reality of Gender Based Violence in Northern Uganda,? The International Journal of Transitional Justice 1(3) 2007: 375-390.

[10] Interviews with a leader, Odek, 27 December 2009

[11] Interviews with a 67 year old in Odek, 27 December 2009

[12] Interviews with a leader, Odek, 27 December 2009

[13] Interviews with a leader, Odek, 27 December 2009

[14] Schumann, Anne “The Beat that Beat Apartheid: The Role of Music in the Resistance against Apartheid in South Africa,? Stichproben. Wiener Zeitschrift für kritische Afrikastudien Nr. 14/2008, 8. Jg., 17?39 p:2

[15] Kaiser, Tania 2006. ‘Songs, Discos and Dancing in Kiryandongo, Uganda’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 32, no. 2, March 2006, pp. 183–202, pp184

[16] Ibid 188

[17] Interviews with a leader, Odek, 27 December 2009

[18] Interviews with a leader, Odek, 27 December 2009

[19] Interviews with a leader, Odek, 27 December 2009

[20] Interviews with a leader, Odek, 27 December 2009

[21] Kaiser, Tania, pp 7

[22] Kaiser, Tania, pp 7

[23] Interviews with a leader, Odek, 27 December 2009

[24] Interviews with a musician, Gulu Town, 3rd January 2010

[25] Interviews with a studio owner in Gulu Town, 23rd December 2009

[26] There are 5 radio stations in Gulu

[27] There are 10 recording studio in Gulu

[28] Interviews with a studio owner in Gulu Town, 23rd December 2009

[29] Interviews with a studio owner in Gulu Town, 23rd December 2009

[30] Olivier Urbain, ed., Music and Conflict Transformation: Harmonies and Dissonances in Geopolitics. London: I. B. Tauris, 2008

[31] Michael Shrank and Lisa Schirch 217

[32] Playing for the crowd 274

[33] Oliver Music and Conflict Transformation: Harmonies and Dissonances in Geopolitics

[34] Olivier Urbain 7

[35] Olivier Urbain 32

[36] John Paul Ledarach. The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace (New York: Oxford Press, 2005).

[37] Lisa Schirch. Ritual and Symbol in Peacebuilding (Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2004).

[38] Lisa Schirch, pp 42

[39] Lisa Schirch, pp 44

[40] Michael Shrank and Lisa Schirch

[41] Michael Shanks and Lisa Schirch, pp219

[42] Michael Shanks and Lisa Schirch , pp223

[43] Lesley Pruitt, “They Drop Beats, Not Bombs: Music and Dance in Youth Peace-Building? Australian Journal of Peace Studies, vol 3 2008: 14-32,pp 3

[44] Lesley Pruitt, pp5

[45] Alba Sanfeliu, A paper presented to the first meeting of the ICTM study group Applied Ethnomusicology, conference Historical and Emerging Approaches to Applied Ethnomusicology (Ljubljana, Slovenia 9 – 13 July 2008) 

[46] The researcher lived and worked in Gulu. He speaks the language of the respondents

[47] The studios include:

[48] FM radio stations are:

[49] Odek is 47 Km and Koch Goma is 17 Km

[50] Odek, Koch Goma and Gulu Municipality

[51] There were 15 government leaders and 8 workers for NGOS

[52] There were 18 males and 12 female for the FGDs and a total of 4 girls were former LRA soldiers

[53] See Lederach, J.P. (2005) The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace. Oxford University Press., Taylor, P. (2003). Applied Theatre: Creating Transformative Encounters in the Community. Heinemann Drama.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Name-dropping

[55] Interviews with Baby Dalvin, Director Baby-Dalvin Studios, 23 June 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda.

[56] Ibid

[57] Interviews with Baby Dalvin, Director Baby-Dalvin Studios, 23 June 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda

[58] There are many station in radio station in northern Uganda and various statistics put the number between 20-30 FM stations but one most popular radio is 102 Mega FM which was set by for conflict resolution by DFID

[59] Interviews with senior government official involved in the peace talks with the LRA, 23 December, 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda

[60] Ibid

http://www.ifra-nairobi.net/resources/cahiers/Cahier_41/4Bwana.pdf

[62]Musicians like Loketo Lee, have produced praised songs for government involvement in the peace process. In his song, he motions the government delegation and asks people to support their efforts in bringing peace in northern Uganda.

[63] Ibid

[64] Interviews with Acan Dorothy, Odek IDP camp, Gulu District, Uganda.

[65] Interviews with senior government official involved in the peace talks with the LRA, 23 December, 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda

[66] Interviews

[67] Interviews with Otto Mathew, Cwero IDP camp, Gulu District, Uganda.

[68] Ibid

[69] Ibid

[70] Ibid

[71] Bosmic Otim songs for Museveni

[72] Interviews with Oloya Paul, Cwero IDP camp, Gulu District, Uganda

[73] Interviews with Okello Mark, Cwero IDP camp, Gulu District, Uganda.

[74] Interviews

[75] Interviews

[76] Interviews with a government official, 27 December, 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda

[77] Interviews with Otto Mathew, Cwero IDP camp, Gulu District, Uganda.

[78] Interviews with a government official, 27 December, 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda

[79] Interviews with a government official, 27 December, 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda

[80] Interviews with a government official, 27 December, 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda

[81] Interviews with a government official, 27 December, 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda

[82] Interviews with a government official, 27 December, 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda

[83] Obote’s Government were cited to be good

[84] Interviews with a government official, 27 December, 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda

[85]Interviews with a government official, 27 December, 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda

[86] This implied better to have Christmas early in August when there is relative peace than wait till December when people are unsure of government ability to provide peace

http://www.ugpulse.com/articles/daily/Arts.asp?ID=395>

[88] Interviews with a government official, 27 December, 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda

http://parlorsongs.org/issues/2004-4/thismonth/feature.php

[90] Interviews with Okodi Emma, Radio Producer, Mega FM, 28 June 2009, Gulu Town, Uganda Interviews

[91] See The New Vision, Uganda’s Leading Daily, October 4th,2008 accessed online 17th.December, 2009

<http://allafrica.com/stories/200810060562.html>

[92]See The New Vision, Uganda’s Leading Daily, October 4th,2008 accessed online 17th.December, 2009

<http://allafrica.com/stories/200810060562.html>

http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=77168>

[94] Amnesty in Uganda was

[95] Music and Arts in Action/Ugo Corte & Bob Edwards 2008 | ISSN: 1754-7105 | Page 8

[96] Ojok Boniface

[97] Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[98] Confidence building is……

[99] Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[100] Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[101] Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[102] Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[103] ICC issue…..The LRA have been indicted by the ICC and this has been suggested as a major stumbling block for the peace talks at Juba in South Sudan

[104] This is the PAM awards which…..

[105]Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[106]Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[107] Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[108] Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[109] Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[110] Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[111] Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[112] Interviews, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[113] Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[114] They drop beats 4

[115] Music and Arts in Action/Ugo Corte & Bob Edwards 2008 | ISSN: 1754-7105 | Page 9

http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/4/0/0/6/p40064_index.html>

http://www.istr.org/conferences/bangkok/WPVolume/Kasaija.ApuuliPhillip.pdf >p5

[118] Focus Group Discussions, 27 December, 2009, Gulu District, Uganda.

[119] Interviews

[120] His story of how he lost his father…see the new Vision

[121] Kathy Bon, Emily Tynes, Henry Griggs, Phil Sparks, Strategic Communications for Nonprofit, Step by step Guide to working with Media, Jossey-Bass Publishers, p 44.

[122] “Pride appears to have motivated individuals to exert greater effort on a taxing task due to their receiving social acclaim.? P 4 Williams, L. A., & DeSteno, D. (2008). Pride and perseverance: The motivational role of pride. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(6), 1007-1017.