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Customer Attitudes Towards Search Engine Marketing

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The present study approaches the empathizing of the UK users' behaviour with respect to internet when considere in presence of SEM (Search Engine Marketing) and related activities, conceiving the present dynamic role of online and connected consumer who uses the internet and Web 2.0 tools like Social and Media Blogs. An online form survey, reaching up to 100 respondents actively using social network sites like “Face book”, analyzed the respondents' social, demographic and general characteristics, their online behaviour, and their level of conflict with SEM activities. It also discovered the most democratic and the most often used internet tools. The review findings were mostly consistent with same kind of studies conducted in different regions of United Kingdom and Europe .the review of gathered data enabled to find relevant kinships between variables and equating answers through age, gender, and hours fagged on the internet. The results will give all internet marketers a degree of perceptivity into their direct users, and will allow them to make strategies to provide for the targeted segments effectively. Also, this study will give a vital point of cite for future research related to internet marketing, which will be useful believing the current trends and development of particular marketing activity. The application using PHP and MySQL was designed to get the responses from respondents. Based on the responses collected from the sample of 68, the data was found and the conclusion has been done based on this data collection. The online questionnaire was uploaded on the web on the url http://searchresults.net63.net From this URL, one can access the questionnaire and fill up personal details followed by the responses to different situations. Based on this response, the data was captured onto the database. This database (of MySQL) was helpful to fetch the details and behaviour of individuals towards different options available on the websites.

Technical Plan

This study is planned as following: Initially, an exploration of previous or existing research and the documented evidence found are placed in the literature review section (chapter 2). Following this is, an explanation of how the study was carried out, which includes research design, followed by sampling, data collection methods, the methods used  for analysis and limitations are discussed in (chapter 3). Furthermore, the answers to research interrogations are discussed in detail in chapter 4, with a systematic analysis of the survey results. The application was being designed using PHP and MySQL. The former was used as the programming language with the back end database support through MySQL. Their personal details followed by their responses to different options available on the web are analysed to have a study on their behaviour for different situations. Based on this approach, the important analysis was further explored. Lastly, the conclusion of our research is accomplished in chapter 5, where study findings are analyzed using the point of observation of their contact on additional academic or professional research, which may include practical testimonials, limitations of findings and other areas for further research.

For the purpose of my experiment I had designed a small application which counts clicks on particular links. I developed it in PHP and used MySQL database. The address of the application was located on the link that was made available online at http://searchresults.net63.net. One can easy get an access to this link to fill out the details in an easy manner. This helped in getting responses in a thorough manner. Through this approach, all the data was collected. 100 respondents were approached at initial stages. However, due to lack of response rate, it was noted that there is the need to reduce the sample size. So, I asked 68 participants to do the experiment. Mainly I sent emails to friends. I also went to University's library and asked some people to do the experiment. Basically I gave the address to people and once they typed it in a browser. They had to chose gender, age range and how experienced internet users they are. Then there was a short description explaining what will happen.

Participants had to imagine that they are looking for a watch to buy and were given search results copied from google on a ‘buy watches' phrase. They had to click on any link they liked. Then they had to imagine that they are looking for a new TV. Search results for ‘buy tv' phrase were displayed and they had to click on any. Lastly they were given search results for ‘buy books' and again they had to click somewhere. All the clicks were saved in a database. There were organic and sponsored links.

I used some simple SQL queries on myPHPadmin panel to extract the numbers.

Critical review

Search Engine Marketing (SEM) or else Pay per Click (PPC) marketing and is usually known in literature as well and is one of three diverse types of online marketing. The remaining two are Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and Banner Advertising. Precisely what they are, and how they work and advantages and disadvantages of different techniques are talked over in detail later in this report.

Surveys conducted by EIAA i.e. European Interactive Advertising Association show the performance of European internet users and other online buyers or shoppers. As per their Online survey (for which around 7,008 people all across the Europe including UK, France ,Germany, , Italy ,Spain, the Nordics, Netherlands  and the Belgium were interviewed) Out of the total,76% of online buyers use search engines as a source of information.

This study also stated deviations between users of the UK in particular.

Before investigating the topic more closely, it is significant to define the word of SEM. Though in writing this form of marketing is frequently addressed to pay per click (also occasionally written as pay-per-click) marketing (Anderson, C., 2006).

First of all a few definitions of term, to constitute the literature and will be introduced. An accurate explanation will follow later.

Pay per click (PPC) is placement of small ads on the search outcome on a page for a precise keyword or set of keywords in return for a individual payment when a guest actually clicks particular ad (Battelle, J. ,2005)

Pay-Per-Click (PPC) Advertising: A technique of marketing where a company pays

a certain sum of money each time somebody clicks on a small advertisement on a search engine‘s results page or a homepage and then takes to the advertiser‘s website (Brin, S. and Page, L., 1998).

Pay-per-click (PPC): The payment form used for patronized search advertising.

Advertisers set bid on keywords and pay in case when searchers click on the search results listing related with those keywords (Broder, A., 2002).

Pay per click advertising used for search engines can be explained most easily by following:

The placement of a small content only adverts on search result page which is activated by a particular keyword or phrase equaling typed in search box (Brooks, N., 2004a).

Pay Per Click: A performance based model of paying for online ads whereby payments are made for each click on a displayed advert, if there are no clicks then there will be no fee and is also known as CPC i.e. cost per click and CPA is known as cost per action (Brooks, N. ,2004a).

This essentially means that there exists text based advertisements and are displayed on search engine's result page and are next to natural search listings. Such Text ads are fore grounded by the search engines with different names like sponsored links and are typically on right hand side of a result page, and is clearly distinguished from natural search results which are displayed on left. From time to time one or more than one of those advertisements are showed on top of list, over the organic search results, fore grounded through a different backdrop color. The advertising companies can then decide which key phrase or words searches performed by the search engine users and where their ad should appear (Fain, D.C. and Pedersen, J.O. ,2006).The main mechanism of a search engine marketing operation are defining of important keywords, and the bidding on keywords and a good quality written text ad through a good call to act. The advantage of such methods of advertising when compared to banner ads is to facilitate the advertiser as he has to pay only when someone in fact clicks on the advertisement, and not only for imitation, which a customer might not be able to see. Search engines can show up to 8 Text advertisements of sponsored links on one page. The order of what text advertisement is displayed and the position is defined by how much amount each advertiser is ready to pay for searched keyword. The framework of pay per click advertising is founded on a bidding system.

One of the major advantages of pay per click method is that audience is already targeted, as the people are in fact looking for something connected to the product and what company is offering(Fallows, D., 2005) .While banner advertising on other hand shows the ads to customers who may not necessarily be interested in it. They may only be interested in website where banner ad is currently displayed and may not even look at banner ad or may ignore it since they are not interested in buying anything.

In addition to this, the online marketer also has the option to target clients by country and even by area or city. This utility was published in 2004 by Google. As a result online marketing is available to nearby situated business for e.g. restaurants .Similarly international companies that want to put up for sale their products outside their region (Feng, J. ,2002).

Google also takes the possibility to show the text ads not only on their search engine results pages but also on their websites, clearly displayed as ads by Google. This utility is called as content network. The online marketer has authority on websites where his text advertisements will be shown at, particularly concerning the content. Though it is very hard for online marketer to have a influence on any other fraction of campaign. In addition, the analysis of data is not very suitable, because all parameters cannot be displayed as online marketer would like them to (Feng, J., Bhargava,2007).

A very significant topic while talking about pay per click ads is the differentiation among good traffic and bad traffic. This topic impacts mainly PPC-advertising, as the advertiser pay for every single click, while in banner advertising payment method used is pay per impression. The aim of a pay per click advertising operation is not only to make users click on advertisement and visit their advertised website, but also to attract people, who are interested in their product. While in banner advertising, advertiser needs to pay for every impression and no matter if site visitor sees the advertisement and clicks on it at PPC advertising, each click costs money. As a result of this, the text ad must not just try to draw as many clicks as feasible, but attract more clicks of people who are interested in product and are more probable to purchase the product. There are special methods to try to attain this goal, both on keyword related side and on the text ad side.

In banner advertising, only method of getting improved converting traffic is to prefer the websites, where banner ad shall be displayed very cautiously.

A danger of pay per click advertising, though, is the so called text box cecity. Internet users acquire the banner blindness following banner ads have been used on different websites frequently for number of years. The people mostly just do not realize banner ad any longer or don‘t show any interest in it at all. Banner ads are considered as a necessary evil so as to help lot of websites for offering free content. It is revered by many search engines that such a phenomenon may happen again with pay per click ads. Although the same may not happen in coming time soon, as the search engine users are really looking for something while using a search engine. They may not only read the subject of a site, and are looking for piece of information or stuff to buy or other things similar to that while using a search engine and looking at search engine results page. As a result it is very likely, that people will not actually acquire text box blindness (Greenspan, R., 2004).

According to Andrew Goodman who have stated in his work in “Winning Results with Google AdWord” that international pay per click campaigns don‘t work that well. According to him the markets are too small for converting and running PPC campaigns are waste of money (Hotchkiss, G. ,2004).Another case to second his opinion is that effort for translating keywords and text advertisement in different languages is huge. On the other hand there exist products having huge consumer base. If the resources required to translate keywords and text ads are accessible, an attempt for getting international SEM movements may be a worth. This only makes sense, when a company actually sells products in relevant (Hansen, E., 2002).

Buying key phrases in search engines entirely inspire the online advertising, as these infer the idea of Cost per Click -client of such type of advertising pays only when a visitor clicks on a precise advertisement (Carrera, 2009). Equating to SEO, PPC gives more control on visual aspect in search pages, due to amount bid and relevance of text ad (Chaffey et al., 2009). Alternatively of spending time controlling site codes and relevant contents, sellers can then pay for laying in search results (Sen, 2005).

Carrera (2009) suggests that currently, main search engines have ad schemes related to hunts (Yahoo! Search Marketing, Google Adwords and Microsoft adCenter). When a particular visitor writes in search box, single or combination of  keywords, search page shows a set of sponsored links adopted by firms and organic search results, the ads are created by advertisers, with a upper limit of 25 characters in ad heading and 35 for text lines of ad and web address. As visible in Figure 2, advertisements are located in sponsored results region of searches -paid search (EConsultancy, 2008).

Though, several sources point out many a time that consumers do not see difference among organic links and sponsored, clicking in links for query but with partial content (O'Connor, 2009). In previous PPC programs, ranking of sponsored lists was founded on highest offer of cost per click for a particular keyword. But now, this is not essentially the case: search engines also need to pay attention towards relative click through rates of ads - ads having fewer clicks will cut down the listing (Sullivan, 2007). This study is part of Quality Score, a idea shared by most of the search engines, and also analysis of match between keyword and occurrence of the keyword in text, historical click by rate, the engagement of searcher while clicking on ad, and also its loading speed and significance of the associated web page (Google, 2009).

The main advantages of such an advertisement system is that it addresses the ads only to target that searched for those specific keywords, and the client only pays when users clicks on the ad. It also and allows the clients to change contents so as to the improve results, and plan the maximum amount of promotion investment and cost per click, and refine and control movements on a daily basis throughout search engine control panels (like Google Analytics). The advertisement stays online till the initial budget accomplishes the end (Google, 2009) and include the concept that PPC is very responsible, results are expected and are simpler to use in comparison to SEO, faster to get placed in search pages and branding effect. But it also has a negative side effect as well: it is highly spirited and exclusive costs per-click, scheming campaigns can be time downing, and many people will not trust ads (EConsultancy, 2008).

Therefore, the dispute of this study is to study on how UK internet users differentiates between paid search results and organic search, and how often they click such paid results.


The topic of this explore, “Examination of UK Online Consumers' sensing and Attitudes towards Marketing governed by Search Engine in context of Web 2.0” .Firstly, we need to understand what is Search Engine Marketing and is essential for contextualization of project. Carrera (2009) and Chaffey et al. (2009) have defined Search Engine Marketing as an action that affects promoting firms with the help of online search engines, to meet marketing targets by providing relevant content to users' and search results, thus motivating to click on particular link.

As for Search Engine Marketing Park and Kim (2008) have defined it as most measurable, strategic and governable way to build a dynamic and mutually good consumer to consumer and  also consumer to marketer communications about a certain service, product or company. It is acknowledged in field of marketing that the knowledge owned by customers, their prediction of relative conduct, and meeting expectations which is important and is key to success.

As a result, internet marketers need to understand characteristics of users and internet habits of users in order to effectively find and reach target segments (Carrera, 2009; Chaffey et al., 2009). From position of consumer marketing, study of internet users' and their decision making process should be based upon users' characteristics and relative online behaviour.

This study aims to critically find how UK online consumers comprehend and act in front of Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and other activities, and main objectives are as follows:

  • To realize impact of internet on existing modern day marketing.
  • To look into the current circumstance of the Web 2.0 consumer, and its role on web
  • To realize the modern day internet Consumers conduct towards marketing
  • To look into key concepts related to Internet Marketing, poring specifically on SEM (Search Engine Marketing).
  • To examine the ways UK consumers comprehend SEM activities, and evaluate mental attitude towards SEM activities.
  • To suggest testimonials for further study or schemes in internet marketing context
  • During the procedure of secondary search, there are several key questions ,  which forms the foundation of form elaboration:
  • To what extent trust issues are a concern when analyzing activities for internet marketing and their effectiveness?
  • How do consumer performs searches using search engine pages and what is considered more important during the search?
  • Why internet users choose massively the organic results retrieved from a search engine page, instead of frequented links?
  • What incites internet users in forward marketing emails to their friends and other users?
  • How far consumers engage in company blogs and various social network pages?
  • How do users interact with blogs and various social network pages?

From a point of view of a user, web search engines require to provide applicable and useful results in reply to some user input, usually a query. Web search engines employ dozens of factors in knowing how to score significance and to rank the found results. Typically, the internet user has no thought what factors has lead to particular result being ranked and retrieved.

One exception to this is sponsored links. Many web search engines currently give at least two types of search listings for web Search Engine Results Page (SERP). First type of links is non sponsored list, which web search engine show with the help of proprietary algorithms (Hotchkiss, G. ,2006).

The other type of link is the sponsored list, which comes due to a bid on phrase that searcher has entered in his query. Most of the major web search engines available today present sponsored and non sponsored listings in different areas of SERP. For this one (and frequently only one

Category), searchers are informed in broader terms how these result are retrieved. Why other results are not highlighted (for e.g., anchor text, page rank)?

Certainly, the causal motivation is to highlight the economic motivation that caused the sponsored listing to come into view. Study shows that web searchers are biased against sponsored links (Hotchkiss, G., 2004). Though, assuming that web searchers wish relevant and helpful results in reply to their queries and sponsored links are as appropriate as against non sponsored results, are web search engines doing the web searchers a disservice by stressing the sponsored links so prominently?

1.1 The impact of the Internet on consumer marketing

Analyzing the internet with regards to consumer marketing is important to understand .A simple question which arises is: What factors affect Internet consumer marketing?

According to Chaffey et al. (2009) internet has enhanced marketing as first website made in 90's was (http://info.cern.ch/) (CERN, 2008), and now, there are more than one billion users using internet regularly and the manner companies sell products or services and way consumers react has changed emphatically. Peterson et al. (1999) honor this idea, debating that World Wide Web owned maximum potential for marketing. Drawing Success in business mostly depends upon technological knowledge and further gives competitive edge and remains continuous process.

There are many authors who conceive that Internet play an important major impact on Marketing mix 4 P's: in Product Mix, digital brought different services and products (e.g. software) and further added new features to already existing ones (Carrera, 2009). Avlonitis and Karayanni (2000) admit to the fact that internet helped the discovery of user needs, cut across and product testing; In Price Mix, Carrera (2009) expresses that there is significant reduction in costs is seen, which developed firms selling products or services at a very low price, with the use of web sites for e.g. a low-cost airlines.

Nevertheless, the customization of services and products allows companies to appoint premium price, as they abide by with buyer's tastes and is studied in detail by (Chaffey et al., 2009); For the Place, products and services like home banking has facilitated the interaction and reduced costs in comparison to other distribution channels. Besides, the ability to continue information related to clients is much more effective than traditional transfers, dealing the Promotion, with regards to digital context and advertising adapts directly to the needs of consumers, as it collects information related to these for e.g. detection  of IP address and profile of buyer for suggestions (Carrera, 2009). Furthermore, the promotion of a service /product is now also built by C2C basis, which is very difficult to control and there are different ways to manage (Mangold and Fauls, 2009), and will be analyzed later in project.

All these elements have changed the manner consumers behave with companies, thus bringing a wider choice from all the different suppliers, and are a means to selecting and purchasing of items has turned out to be easier and faster. But for long customers are engaged and confident of this new way of marketing.

1.2 Web 2.0

A paper was published by Microsoft (2007), stating that web 2.0 is changing the internet into a powerful and authoritative medium, changing the way how society believes and behaves or reacts. The report confirms that especially social networking process is gathering people from different communities, and acting as a medium for personal reflection. This is consistent

And is in accordance with Fu et al. (2007), and is said that use of collaborative technologies leads to an extraordinarily fast growing community which is virtual, here people pass by and share their information. These authors have agreed on the fact that World Wide Web is moving towards social web, and users have an important role in all the aspects of business and remains to be the main focus in this study.

Consumers have embraced role of an important agent, who can express themselves using new tools, like wikis blogs or social networks (Carrera, 2009). In similar manner, Cheung and Lee (2009) contend that web has moved from being mere medium of information into a medium of content creation and further sharing. Chaffey et al. (2009) further gives arguments that the widespread acceptation of high speed broadband and world-wide media experiences are more and more used to absorb consumers with each other and also with companies.

More and more people discuss online and interact with products and brand campaigns, in a manner of “viral effect”. These authors are in line with Carrera's definition, which suggests that by addition of Web 2.0 it enhances in promoting interaction and user yielded content using virtual community and participation of social network, content ratings and widgets and tagging. However, it remains to be seen is how users are willing to absorb the internet marketing campaigns and further motivates user to share the latter.

1.3 Online Consumers' behaviour towards e-Marketing

Online users mostly don't have physical comfort provided by offline stores and a communication which is face to face. This concept is related to security problems and stories of fraud and internet commerce (Chaffey et al., 2009). As a result, consumers look for evidence of trust on a website, which may include brand familiarity or site appearance and quality of content, site may have official recognition and other recommendations given by users. Ha (2004) completes this discussion, by excusing that consumers have grown more internet savvy, they now insist on interacting with firms they trust. Various other trust factors are also added like privacy (risk of giving personal information), security related with payment risks, navigation like fulfilling access to various kind of information and related to order fulfillment (Bart et al., 2005; Ha, 2004).

However, there are consumers who buy only on company websites: but also have other online sources, is important to purchase choice. Following the research conducted by AOL UK (2006), about 77% of all the respondents' accord that if they read a negative review about a product on internet related, it would make them think about their purchase, 42% assumed that they had to switch and move towards a different brand. One of the most important sources for online information is the search engines, which is followed closely by websites of famous brands, price comparison websites and reviews/opinions available on internet, are written by experts, customer reviews on websites. One of the important factors is that these online sources for information reduce time spent in comparing product quality which is to be done before purchase, this is a common aspect related to offline context (Huang et al., 2009). As a result, it is important to

carry on here  that the trust factors has an important role related to consumers perceptions towards online marketing, also consumers need to reach for different sources related to information of products they want to buy.

1.4 Attitudes of Online Consumers' Towards e-Marketing

Breitenbach and Van Doren (1998) studied five distinguished kind of internet users, which are accorded by different academics to continue valid currently (Chaffey et al., 2009):

  • organized information seekers: Those who want to get information for product or leisure, services information, that generally are not brought online
  • Unorganized information seekers: They are referred as “surfers”, and such users want to browse and change web sites using links, looks for interesting or different things and are  more expected to click on ads or banner
  • Organized buyers: Such users are usually get online to purchase something specific. Websites which compare various products have an important role in this case.
  • Bargain hunters: Users who want to get offers and promotions, so as to vindicate their investment in shopping.
  • Entertainment seekers - Such users look for complete online entertainment in various contests like puzzles ,quizzes, or games for multi-player, and lik to interact with various animated features available on web site

Recently, a study from EConsultancy (2004) found a similar classification for online consumer behaviour, stating it does not involve behaviours which are applied to various people on the basis of product or occasion; different individuals may react or behave differently. The report found the “Tracker” and the “Explorer” concept. But it needs to be explored in detail, and is the kind of consumer who don't have any buying intention, and is exposed to internet marketing action (like Search Engine Marketing), which may result in a conversion.

1.5 Attitudes towards search engines

To conduct product or service explores, consumers mostly use search engines. These are powerful consumer tools which retrieve relevant information related to products or services. Consumers can perform quick searches which are online by simply issuing queries built up of search products or services (Kumar and Lang, 2007). However, it is very important to note that not all consumers are searching for particular products; consumers mainly want to know for information on search engines. In reality, as Smith (2009) states, Yahoo and Google's (world's most used search engine) objective is to retrieve relevant information related to the words queried. More so, information websites forever rank higher in comparison to profit-driven sites, continuing here an important dispute for Search Engine Marketing.

To understand this consumer search engine conduct, iProspect a Search marketing company in

(2006) carried out a research on the way consumers use search engines. The major findings were that 62% of users only look only at first page of results and ignore the rest. Aula and Rodden

(2009) accomplished this finding, by demonstrating that users assess search results very quickly and most of the times make unconscious decisions, centering mainly on first two results for a particular search as shown in (Figure 1). iProspect also expresses that when consumers do not get what they were looking for, about 41% change their search term and 82% complicate their search with other complementary words.

As for prestige, it was ascertained that about 36% consider that the firms enrolled at the top of search are best brands in market. The final feeling was that comparing with sponsored area, which is between 60% and 80% and click on natural or organic listings of search page. It remains to be searched why users mostly like organic links, and reasons behind not flicking on sponsored links.

1.6 Attitudes towards Emails

Following a analysis by Habeas (2008), irrespective of email and other internet threat concerns,

users are still and will continue to be dependent on email, irrespective of their relationships with business organization or from each one other through web 2.0 applications. The study  has revealed that nearly 69% of total users expressed concern related to email fraud scams, and many of them do not know how can they distinguish between possibly dangerous and emails that are trustable. It also showed that majority prefer firms that offer choices and content of emails.

Mintel (2008) added up users that trust emails which come from similar companies who provide relevant information with least effort. In a seminar conducted by dotMailer (2009), it was mentioned that even though the current circumstance of web 2.0 era in which consumers have the power, still email is gateway to consumers'. Users today have digital lives where every single user owns an email account (or may be more than one).However, what actuates users to send marketing emails is a key point in our research. According to Lin et al. (2006), users may have stronger intention for forwarding certain email if it provides them positive emotions and gives relevant information, or mails are greater in length, or may include some interesting multimedia. On the flip side, Phelps et al. (2004) differentiated between infrequent transmitters and Viral geniuses: the first ones choose rigorously which emails are important and then decide to forward them, and send them to their mailing list; while Viral Mavens are patronize senders who feel helpful ,excited, or satisfied as they forward emails to persons who they think will wish the message. In other perspective, a report presented by Mintel (2008) indicates that nearly half of all the responders open emails that have special offers if mails come from individual they know, and lie in the age group of 25-44 years.

1.7 Attitudes of User towards Social Media

The visual aspect of web-based societal media has helped the communication among one person and hundreds or thousands of other users, for the airing of products by companies. This consumer to consumer position has gained awful power amidst the business world, also provided new opportunity for firms to communicate intimately with their consumers and discussed in detail by (Sinha, 2008). However, due to its irrepressible nature, the challenge for firms lies on the power to shape consumers' treatments in order to mould them with company's goals (Mangold and Faulds, 2009). These sources described five different social mass medium platforms: communicating using (micro-blogs blogs, , and other social networks), Collaboration (Social Bookmarking ,Wikis, and Opinion Sites), Multimedia (Audio Sharing Sites ,Photo and Video), Opinion Sites (sites for Product Review and sites  for Question & Answers), and Entertainment sites (Games  and Virtual communities).

Research done by iProspect (2007) ascertained that various social media sites are called by quarter of internet users; and very few execute searches in sites for firms or brands; about 34%

of users of such sites have been shaped to purchase a wares through them; majority still don't have such habit to add user produced content; and that younger is the user, the more apt will he visit and absorb proactively with societal media sites. Ramos (2009) amended these findings in his study by showing how users use social media to arrive at buying decisions: it was chanced that the majority (69%) are just “Spectators” and read and check user generated content; about 37% are “Critics” who contribute with their comments; and remaining 29% are “Collectors” who use social technology as a means collect information.

The main result of the study was that more than the social media application which influences their buying pattern; it is online peers' beliefs. As a result the main issues which remain to be researched are how consumers engage and commend company blogs, pages, micro-blog and other social network pages.

2Literature Review

Most searches on a major Search Engine such as Google will call up two types of search results: Paid search and Organic search (also known as Pay-Per-Click). Organic search results on Google appear on the left of the page, whilst Paid search results appear on the right. The basic difference between these types of results is simple. Paid search results are those for which an advertiser has paid Google - the prominent position is secured by a financial transaction. Organic search results have not been paid for - a prominent position is assigned by Google based on a complex set of algorithms that determines how relevant the website is to the search term used.

Both Organic and Paid search have their advantages, and which is appropriate to use and depends on the nature of the campaign in question. To explain, let's look at each in more depth.

Search Engines such as Google assess a website according to a wide range of factors and assign it rankings for relevant key phrases. In the case of Google, this assessment takes in more than 200 different metrics, among them such things as keywords, number of quality in-bound links from third-party websites and portals, coding, information architecture and usability. Securing high rankings is essential for Organic search to be successful, and websites engage in ongoing Search Engine Optimization campaigns to do so. Each results page on Google shows 10 Organic search results, and more than 75% of Internet users move on after the second page of results. So to be truly effective, Search Engine Optimization needs to secure listings in the top 20 results for targeted key phrases. This can take some time, typically 6 months, but with proper maintenance it is possible to keep high Organic rankings in the long term.

Paid search listings, such as Google AdWords, are accomplished by "bidding" (paying) for specific key phrases related to your product or service. High rankings are achieved immediately, but are only retained for as long as you keep paying for them. The exact position of Paid search listings depends on a range of factors, including the price paid and the quality score assigned by the Search Engine to the landing page or website. Advertisers pay only in case an Internet user clicks their paid link.

According to Jupiter Research, four out five clicks from a search results page come from Organic search results. This is a clear indication of how much more seriously Internet users regard Organic search. So does this mean that Organic search is always the best method to use? Actually, no, it doesn't. In the long-term, Organic search yields the most cost-effective results, but there are specific circumstances in which Paid search is more appropriate.

Paid search can provide you with an immediate boost in pre-qualified website traffic, leads and online sales. As Paid search advertisements appear straight away, results can be seen within days, even within hours, of the start of a campaign. This makes Paid search extremely useful for tactical campaigns, or for promotional campaigns involving time-sensitive or seasonal offers which need immediate exposure.

The other major time when Paid search is the best option is during the early stages of Search Engine Optimization. As a typical SEO campaign takes 6 months to “ramp up”, Paid search is a effective way of getting fast results and also good return on investment whilst waiting for higher Organic search listings to be gained. In the short-term, paid search is often the best option.

The major disadvantage of Paid search is cost. In the long-term, paid search is significantly more costly than Organic search, with cost running into hundreds or even thousands of dollars each day, particularly for the most valuable key phrases. And cost is increasing. Google's reinforcement of “Quality Score” has raised costs for non-targeted key phrase buys that get a “Poor” quality score. This has had a serious effect on the cost of Google AdWords, in particular for affiliate sites. With various strategies for optimization you can lower your costs for Paid search, but over the long term organic Search Engine Optimization gives a higher return on your marketing dollar.

2.1 How Paid Search and Natural Search Bring New Sales to Your Company

Paid search marketingis a strategy whereby you develop a list of “keywords” which are relevant to the products and/or services your business offers. Actually, the best keywords and not a single words at all, but rather phrases that describe your business. Relevancy is absolutely critical when building this list of keywords. With your list of relevant keywords you must then choose an online search advertiser who will display your advertisements when users perform searches using one or more of the keywords in your list. The three main search advertisers are Google, Yahoo!, and MSN (Microsoft). Each of these advertisers offer an advertising program referred to as a Pay-Per-Click, or PPC.

A PPC advertising program works like this: You take each one of the keywords in your list and find out what the current “bid price” is for those keywords with the online advertiser you've selected. Let's say that you're using Google's Adwords PPC program for your online advertising and one of your keywords is “portable blue widgets”. A research tool in Adwords will tell you, among other things, how many searches were performed last month using the keyword “portable blue widgets”. The tool will also tell you what you would have to “bid” on this keyword to insure that your Google advertisement (which you'll write later on) will appear on the all-important first page of a search result for that keyword.

Suppose the current bid price for “portable blue widgets” is, say, $1.00. Your bid should be something greater than $1.00 to make sure your ad shows up on the first page of a search result consistently. So, you bid $1.15 to start. You then write a few small text ads promoting your business which include a link to a relevant page on your website.

Once you've written your ads and bid on your keywords the fun begins! Google rotates your ads on their system and within minutes of launching your PPC campaign your ads start to appear for searches relevant to your keywords. Up to this point you haven't paid Google a thin dime - not even for opening an Adwords account. However, the moment someone uses one of the keywords, your Google ad, and further clicks on the ad taking directly to your website and thus pay Google the amount for that visit. What you pay is your bid price for the keyword that was used to land that visitor on your website. If your bid is $1.15 then Google charged your account for the amount of money.

Using a paid search program like Google's Adwords PPC program offers you a way to get your advertisement on first page of Google search result for a particular keyword almost instantly. Plus, you only pay for click-thru's to your website. If you've written your ad properly, this click-thru will represent qualified prospects. This may all sound pretty easy - but it's actually very complex. In fact, we believe it is so technical that it does NOT encourage clients to get started using a PPC strategy for one very important reason: PPC campaigns can drain your bank account faster than the U.S. Congress can spend a billion dollars!.On the contrary, a professionally managed PPC campaign is able to generate more business for a company that cannot be dreamed of with any form of advertising. That is a fact. Our own company has seen a dramatic rise in leads and new business as a direct result of using PPC to market our services.

2.1.1 Disadvantages of Paid Search Marketing

Requires a quite a technical expertise for mastering and using effectively. Users must thoroughly understand the concepts involved with valid keyword research, ad writing, ad testing, target marketing, and more.

Benefits of Paid Search Marketing:

  • Immediate first page search result ranking for relevant keywords.
  • Highly-track able results for each keyword and each ad.
  • Offers fast, reliable testing of headlines, keywords, product interest, and more.
  • Offers method to control costs of advertisement on a daily basis.
  • Offers ability to conduct geographic target marketing (geo-targeting).
  • Offers ability to select which online ad mediums (search, content, mobile, etc.) for ads to appear.

Natural (Organic) search marketing is different from paid search marketing in that you do not pay an online search company such as Google whenever someone clicks-thru to your website from a search result page. Your website earns its ranking “naturally”, or “organically”, as a result of bearing highly valuable content on website itself.

Is it easy to get a systematically high search ranking by natural means? No, and it is getting harder all the time as the number of online competitors increases. Does it deserve the time, money, and resources to accomplish a high natural search ranking? Well, it depends on how badly your company wants to stay in business. After all, online marketing is probably how your competitors are finding (and keeping) their new business.

Finally, surveys have shown that a natural search ranking converts visitors to paying customers about 30% more frequently than paid search.

Disadvantages of Organic Search Marketing

  • Requires a high degree of technical expertise to master and use effectively. Businesses must continually add valuable, original, relevant, and compelling content to the site to achieve and maintain a high organic search ranking.
  • Achieving a high organic search ranking is not immediate. Results from executing an effective organic search marketing campaign require a minimum of 4-6 months on average before they are realized.
  • Less of a direct connection between resources invested in organic search marketing and results realized.

Benefits of Organic Search Marketing:

  • Achieves a higher conversion rate on average.
  • A high organic search ranking is not reliant on competitive keyword bidding. Organic ranking is more stable and predictable over a longer period of time (assuming the site is kept current with fresh content).

2.1.2 Is Natural Search Marketing Better Than Paid Search Marketing?

Many times our clients ask us “Can we stop paying Google once our site achieves a high organic search ranking?” There is a debate going on about this among online marketers, but we look at this issue purely from the standpoint of onscreen real estate.

The onscreen “real estate” on a Google search results page is limited to only 23 possible listings both paid and organic. The more places you can get listed the more likely your competitor will be relegated to the next (and far less important) page of a search result. If you're listing is seen in both Sponsored areas of results page also in organic listings and as a result you are viewed with greater authority by consumers and other online searchers (“Geez! This company

is listed everywhere - they must be really good!”)

2.2 Internet Advertising

In the end of 90s Carrera argues that, there was a conviction that marketing would monetarily support web sites, in the same manner the offline channels used it. The same tactics were used for the online, with motionless streamers without interactivity which did not work at all marketing earnings was not adequate to support the new business models, foremost to the dot-com bubble rupture in 2001. But this thought is not shared with Razi et al. (2004), who expressed that the DotCom was unsuccessful because of lack of customary business and advertising knowledge of online consumer behaviour and perceptions. This difficulty originated a higher echelon of demand, followed up by uncommon imagination levels (Google, 2009).

Hence, this imagination led, to new alleyways of promotion through the Internet: search engine marketing social media, Email Marketing, Website Sponsorships and Interactive Banner Advertising. These new publicity tools derived numerous advantages for the companies like actual time figures, immediate interaction; no limits to market attain and improved cost advantage balance. However, still there are certain drawbacks that have to be measured: complexity to attract clientele due to augment of online marketing; and there is still certain reluctance towards the digital world (Razi et al., 2004). But this writer did not point out an essential issue, introduced by Chaffey et al. (2009), who claim that for internet advertising to be flourishing, it is still obligatory to put together its techniques with customary media support, and that the investment in Internet Advertising should be resolute by the attainment of advertising objectives.

2.3 Search Engine Advertising

Carrera (2009) express that until the simplification of Google, the search for information in relation to companies, goods and people had not evolved considerably, i.e. the main source of information was the traditional telephone lists or ad. Currently, the potency of this search engine is so apparent that the term “google it” has substitutes the term “search”. The verb “Google” has also been formally listed in the Oxford English Dictionary in 2006 (Foley, 2006).

On the other hand Carrera (2009) express that 90% of the Internet users use search engines to find information on the web, research by AOL UK (2006) demonstrates that 71% of the people use online search engines when bearing in mind dissimilar information basis to choose an item for consumption. Consequently, pay no attention to the positioning of a company and its goods in search engines can cost many associates and probable sells. As per SEO Consultants (2009), in May 2009 these were the top 4 search engines, dominating jointly with a 99% share of market:

  1. Google - 73,66%
  2. Yahoo - 15,55%
  3. Bing (MSN) - 5,64%
  4. Ask - 3,81%

The above said search engines have a fascinating way of searching for web pages, usually within 0,07 seconds per search. They use spiders also called robots or web crawlers, which can be well known as involuntary explorers that search the whole web for happenings of a precise subject in a web page. These spiders will then nourish the database of the search engine with the keywords found in that web site, referencing its position and often ness of usage. Lastly, the user types the keywords in the explore box of the search engine, and the latter searches in its database to find comparable links (Bhargava, R. ,2006).Search Engine Advertising involves advertising companies through online search engines, in order to get together advertising objectives by delivering pertinent substance in the users search outcomes and inspiring them to click on a precise link. There are two dissimilar kinds of Search Engine Advertising that should be incorporated in advertising activities: Search Engine Optimization attaining the uppermost situation/ranking in the natural or unrefined listings of a search page, inside a blend of specific keywords and Pay-Per-Click Search advertising inserting text advertisements with a link to a company web page that will be put on show in a specific area of a search page - generally “sponsored links” - when users type specific keywords (Boyd, D.M. and Ellison, N.B. ,2008).

2.4 Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Carrera (2009) states that secret to be on top of the ranking of search engines page exists, but the secret is religiously hidden. The algorithmic rule that originates the sort of web sites following a search is unknown, and consequently it is only probable to argue the techniques that help place a web site in top rankings. However, (Introna, L. and Nissenbaum, H. ,2000) suggests that currently there are more than one algorithm  for example, Google claims to apply more than 200 factors used in its search algorithms for getting the ranking, including all  factors irrespective of positive and negative factors.

The main proficiencies used to amend the rankings admit the optimization of following:

Web page title - It concerns about objective, pertinent and comprise the most significant keywords (Oard, D. and Kim, J. ,2001).Except it is not the only factor or variable: Chaffey et al.(2009) states that because it is call to action hyperlink which is shown on search engines results on a page, it is necessary to be sturdy enough to cover more clicks.

  • The Meta Tags - Meta tags are portions of text enclosed in HTML code of page, unseen for page viewers but noticeable to available search engine spiders - helpful for scheming in some degree how web page is depicted by search engine (Carrera, 2009).now, Meta Tags also indicate the information which will be displayed in search engine outcome page, after the hyperlink (Google, 2008)
  • Structure of URL- By creating explanatory structure and filenames to website documents will help organize and enhance the website and make easy spiders' crawling; furthermore it creates a friendly URL for users and other people who wish to link or click the site (Google, 2008).
  • Structure of the website - Carrera (2009) suggests that since spiders are routine web navigators, they require easily getting in a website and further navigating throughout it. Consequently, a clean, easy, well connected and well controlled web site will include more chances so that it is better ranked, and in addition help visitors find swiftly the intended or desired content (Google, 2008).
  • Site linking - It is calculated by number and excellence of links linked to web site (Carrera, 2009). Encouraging external links is important for best page position and it is measured as the most significant issue of success in search engines. However (Pachauri, M. ,2002) believe that the inner linking structure is also significant, by linking internal relations to pages and are planned to be well ranked.
  • Keyword analysis - For Keyword analysis there exists two alternatives: this includes many keywords so as to get more visits however less conversions, or fewer keywords to acquire better results (Rose, D.E. and Levinson, D. ,2004) and uses term “key phrase” rather than using keyword, since search engines ascribe more consequence when there is a word combination flanked by keywords typed by users.
  • Use of Keywords in content - keywords must be time and again repeated in the content used in a webpage, without any use of equivalent word (Saaksjarvi, M. and Pol, G. ,2007).However, Chaffey et al. (2009) suggests that keywords should not be frequent too many times and is measured as “search engine spamming”.

There are quite a few advantages and disadvantages related with treatment of SEO. The most important advantage is that it is a highly aimed marketing approach, it is possibly a low cost and a very dynamic (EConsultancy, 2009) and adds to advantages the information that it is probable to have actual time statistics - it is potential to know reaction of market every minute, altering adjustments if results are not as per expectation.

Yet, the SEO practice is not simple: the results are unpredictable and may take time for implementation, and complexity of factors of page (Silverstein, C.,1999).What continues to be researched in study is how users on internet perform searches: whether they type one, two or more keywords on the search engines or whether if a user types phrases or words; and what is to be considered more important in results page (the description, the title, the recurrence of typed keywords).

2.5 Pay-Per-Click i.e. Search Engine Marketing

Buying key phrases in search engines entirely inspire the online advertising, as these infer the idea of Cost per Click -client of such type of advertising pays only when a visitor clicks on a precise advertisement (Carrera, 2009). Equating to SEO, PPC gives more control on visual aspect in search pages, due to amount bid and relevance of text ad (Chaffey et al., 2009). Alternatively of spending time controlling site codes and relevant contents, sellers can then pay for laying in search results (Spink, A. and Jansen, B.J. ,2004).

Carrera (2009) suggests that currently, main search engines have ad schemes related to hunts (Yahoo! Search Marketing, Google Adwords and Microsoft adCenter).

When a particular visitor writes in search box, single or combination of  keywords, search page shows a set of sponsored links adopted by firms and organic search results,

The ads are created by advertisers, with a upper limit of 25 characters in ad heading and 35 for text lines of ad and web address. As visible in Figure 2, advertisements are located in sponsored results region of searches -paid search (EConsultancy, 2008).

Though, several sources point out many a time that consumers do not see difference among organic links and sponsored, clicking in links for query but with partial content (Wolfram, D. ,1999)

In previous PPC programs, ranking of sponsored lists was founded on highest offer of cost per click for a particular keyword. But now, this is not essentially the case: search engines also need to pay attention towards relative click through rates of ads - ads having fewer clicks will cut down the listing (Sullivan, 2007). This study is part of Quality Score, a idea shared by most of the search engines, and also analysis of match between keyword and occurrence of the keyword in text, historical click by rate, the engagement of searcher while clicking on ad, and also its loading speed and significance of the associated web page (Google, 2009).

The main advantages of such an advertisement system is that it addresses the ads only to target that searched for those specific keywords, and the client only pays when users clicks on the ad. It also and allows the clients to change contents so as to the improve results, and plan the maximum amount of promotion investment and cost per click, and refine and control movements on a daily basis throughout search engine control panels (like Google Analytics). The advertisement stays online till the initial budget accomplishes the end (Google, 2009) and include the concept that PPC is very responsible, results are expected and are simpler to use in comparison to SEO, faster to get placed in search pages and branding effect. But it also has a negative side effect as well: it is highly spirited and exclusive costs per-click, scheming campaigns can be time downing, and many people will not trust ads (EConsultancy, 2008).

Therefore, the dispute of this study is to study on how UK internet users differentiates between paid search results and organic search, and how often they click such paid results.


The research methodology was designed considering the circumstance of the research subject, the kind of information required, and the time and resources obtainable for completion. This research design directed the researcher in terms of following the proper methods of data collection, in order to respond the projected title of investigate. One can squabble that the secondary data research was restricted to the literature obtainable in the MMU library resources, academic periodicals and books, considering the restrictions of the assignment, and that the research for prime data was restricted by the taster number, due to limitations of time to complete the assignment and wherewithal to support it. An additional significant matter was the verity that no research project can be carry out without functional into principled concerns (Burns, 2000). Numerous principled issues should be taken into account concerning to this project:  knowledgeable permission; clear revelation of the nature and reason of the investigate to respondents; solitude and confidentiality apparent common understanding of the use that will be made of the data comprised; Right to Break-off respondents must be open to decline to react to a questionnaire or parts of it; and periodical of findings the investigator has the compulsion to open with the results of findings, permitting contemporaries to vet the research and its insinuations (BrandRepublic ,2008).

3.1 Primary Research

The prime data was comprised through the quantitative research process of survey carry out by online feedback forms sent to Internet users in the UK. Prospective respondents were given an indistinguishable range of closed questions in a set order regarding their Internet habits and their acuities/attitudes towards the diverse methods of Internet advertising. These questions were detailed keeping in view certain features that were not found in the journalism accessible; the research questions that were come up in the preface; and the relevancy to the research subject.

The accentual process offered several face up to the investigator that had to be taken into account: it needs imagination, tolerance and discipline in the setting up phase; the data compilation may present technical troubles, requiring doggedness and uninterrupted concentration; and the tasks of data investigation and critique are driven by the way the assignment was premeditated (Bruyn, A.D. and Lilien, G. ,2008).

Accentual process was selected over the accentual method since the reason of the assignment was to evaluate the way clientele perceives and take action towards internet advertising, and not comprehend why they do it. Accentual procedure needs rich textual data and in depth understanding of the matters concerning to the research (Bryman, A. and Bell, E. ,2007), which was not the accusative of the investigator. The investigator, lastly, opted for the handling of online questionnaires, rather than structured interviews, due the time and wherewithal accessible, and also because of its relevancy for the particular issue selected (internet). Other benefits of this type of data compilation are the nonexistence of interviewer influence to the replies of respondents, and its expediency to interviewees, who can answer the questions when they wish and at their own velocity. On the other side, the main disadvantages over the structured interviews are the fact that the interviewees have no help in questions they have the complexity to comprehend, and they get weary very easily, which makes the task of the researcher harder - cannot ask too many questions, which confines the data compilation (Davies, M.B. ,2007).

3.2 Online Questionnaires

As for the use of Internet to deliver questionnaires and take delivery of responds, it corresponds to various benefits to the investigator, particularly with the time restrictions forced by the change of way. It is effortless to structure the questionnaire, send it by electronic means, compose click-button answer opportunities and include visual and multimedia elements. This process can cut down the period of data compilation significantly; however, outside a skeleton of a group to which the investigator belongs, the reply rate can be unsatisfactory (Davies, 2007). Other pessimistic aspects consist of the fact that internet based vignettes are very frequently seen as SPAM, which can decrease the response rate, and also the truth that technical malfunctions might take place in some respondents' computers, which are out of control of the investigator (Fallows, D. ,2005).

The possible subject of some respondents not having internet approach is not a pertinent matter, since the internet usage in the United Kingdom achieved practically 80% of the whole populace (Internet World Stats, 2009). Through the leader in UK (Foley, S., 2006) social networking website “Face book” the questionnaires were delivered. A connection of the questionnaire-landing page was sent to the associates who belong with the investigator's “friend list” about 50, consisting only of UK inhabitants, who were also backed up to onward it to other associates; in addition, the same connection was posted in the conversation wall of Face book particular groups like UK Face book - 272 members, UK Internet Marketing - 78 members, Google UK - 115 members; UK Blogger - 46 members. The truth that the researcher's friend list is serene by multiethnic backgrounds, adding to the fact that the Britain is a melting pot of dissimilar genesis, might make possible this research to take a broad view of the results to the outside countries of the United Kingdom.

Prior with this, a pilot review was carry out on Face book, through the formation of a particular page of this assignment, entitled “UK Web 2.0 Project”, advertised in groups of professionals and the researcher's “friend list”. This eased to assess the capability of the questionnaire, and evaluate accurately the time to consume for revi

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