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Abstract 

In this project I have study of “factors influencing while purchasing tyres” JK tyres manufactured by Jk Tyre & Industries.

In this competitive era of marketing where the satisfaction of the customer towards the product is become first priority, it is therefore very important to analyze customer behaviour. Consumer behaviour can be looked upon as study of how individuals make decisions on how to spend their available resources like time, effort, money in various consumption related items. The understanding of customer needs and wants is one of the major underpinning construct of marketing. Without putting customer on the top company cannot get success, forgetting success every company should target customer, because market is totally customer oriented.

This project evaluated which factors influence the customer most when he/she goes for purchasing tyres. Finally I have given some views and suggestions to the company with which they can satisfy the customer the most.

Preface

Inspite of theoretical knowledge gained through class room study, a person is incomplete if not subjected to practical exposure of real corporate world. He may have to face hurdules, which will be difficult to overcome without any first hand experience of business.

In this context, research program has been designed to make aware of happening of real business. The project entitled “Factors influencing while purchasing tyres” with special refrece to JK tyres, has been done at New Delhi and Jalandhar as completion part of Msc International Business.

In my work-based dissertation, we worked upon the analysis of the JK tyre industries in New Delhi and Jalandhar by customer attitude through the personal contact and questionnaires. During my work-based dissertation, I got opportunity to apply my theoretical skills and knowledge and meaningful concept to actual business condition and Familiarize with the marketing activities of the products. All the work done on this project is confined to my broad objective.

In today’s world of intense competition and rapid dynamism, all companies worldwide are tuning their focus on the customer. Suddenly, customer had succeeded in capturing all attention of the companies towards him, so much so, that maxim, “customer is god” has become so true and relevant today. There has been a paradigm shift in the thinking of these companies and none other than customer has brought this about.

Earlier there was seller market, since the goods and services were in short supply and sellers use to call the shots. But ever since the advent of era of globalization there has been total transformation in the way of customers being perceived. Today, marketers are marketers are directing their effort in retaining customers and customer base.

The customer importance has assumed imponderable proportion in today’s world because of inherent value that customers command. A customer can “make or break” the company. It is the responsibility of every company that to see all its customers are equally satisfied with them , for one single dissatisfied customer will tell at least nine other customer about the dissatisfaction and will spark off the chain reaction and spell doom for that company

In the past customer were taken as ride, as there were not many players in the fields, not much importance was attached to product safety, quality, service and product appeal. The attitude of manufacturer was that of “Caveat-emptor”. Thanks to the government policies on liberalization, globalization and privatization, the market has changed today. Today customer has host of defence mechanism like customer protection laws, regulation of government, the powerful hands of organization, switching to or competitors. The maxim “Caveat-emptor” has been replaced by “Caveat-venditor”.

In the past after sales service was consider as cost centre, companies were lethargic in attending the customer complaints. Availability of trainee service personal and quality genuine spare parts was serious problems. However, with rising competition, there could not be much product differentiation as product, quality was comparable and latest technology was with each and every company in the field. Since there could not be much differential a tangible assets, the companies concentrated on the intangible assets normally service factor which served as major differentiator. Today after sales is considered as major aspect for every company and it is no more considered as cost centre but now it considered as profit centre

Company profile

JK tyre is only manufacturer of truck and bus tyres and second largest manufacturers of 4- wheelers. JK tyre and Industries in counted among the huge corporate entity which is the symbol of excellence, diversification and pioneering new technologies. Since its commencement it has been supreme in the value of technology which made it grow .JK tyre manufacturers and sells the tyres and tubes fot passenger car, truck, jeep, buses, multi utility vehicle,tractors and light commercial vehicle under its brand “JK tyre”. The company is the only manufacturer of ‘T’& ‘H’ high performance tyres in India. JK ranked “Highest in customer satisfaction with original tyres by J.D power Asia Pacific Study”.

Its customers are mostly Replacement for four wheelers, entire Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) in India along with state and defence transport units. Moreover JK have customer base across 45 countries and 6 continents. 

Administrative Office:

Link House,
3, Bahadurshah Zafar Marg, 
New Delhi - 110 002

http://www.jktyre.com/j-k-industries-limited.html

Vision & mission

Vision

“To be amongst most admired companies in India committed to excellence”

Mission

· Be customer obsessed company

· No. 1 Tyre Brand in India

· Deliver enhance value to all stakeholders

· Most profitable tyre company in India

· Enhance global presence through acquisition

· Motivated and committed team development for high performance organization

http://www.jktyre.com/j-k-industries-limited.html

Key developments

JK tyre & industries Earning results for first quarter declared 30.06.09

For the first quarter company has reported net profit of INR 40.75 crores or earnings of Rs 9.92per share on the Net Sales of INR 897.67 Crores In gross sales has been INR 964.58 Crores .The board recommended@ 27% dividend on equity shares for the financial year ended 31 march 2009 . Companies profit before tax had been INR 62.16 crores and operating profit was INR 107.14 Crores. Performance during the quarter has significantly improved on account of all round cost reduction measures, better operating effeciencies, productivity, and richer product mix.

First tyre company to receive ISO 14001.

First and only tyre company to export passenger car radial to Europe.

World’s first tyre manufacturer to get QS9000 for its operation.

India’s first to get ISO 9001.

JK tyre is pioneer in promoting Rallying, karting, motor sports, JK tyre pioneer of steel radial technology.

Customer satisfaction

JK tyre is the preferred choice of the all leading vehicle manufacturers in India like

Maruti (http://www.jktyre.com/directors-report06.pdf)

BEML (http://www.overdrive.in/story-news-general_news/jk_tyre_to_produce_otr_tyres-12662-0.html)

Ashok Leyland (http://www.financialexpress.com/news/truck-tyre-mkt-on-road-to-radialisation/88811/)

TATA Motors

Mahindra

Force motors

Volvo (http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/iw/2008/03/09/stories/2008030950701100.htm)

JK Tyre meets ISO 9001, QS9000, ISO14001,E-MARK, DOT,IN METRO standards where ever applicable. JK Tyres efficient R&D department is deeply involved in making improvements in the product performance, quality, and bring out new products. Company aims to give satisfaction to its customer by offering high quality and cost effective tyres and tubes.

(http://www.jktyre.com/quality-policy.html)

History of the company

On 14 February 1951 JK organization was incorporated as a private limited company. Till 31 March 1970, the company was involved only in the business managing agency. After that, company took manufacturing activities and in February 1972 company obtained the letter of intent for production of automobile tyres and tubes. In 1974 company manufactured 4 lakh automobiles tyres and tubes per annum then on 1st April 1974 company was converted into public limited company.

After this company promoted manufacturing project, it was done by J.K. Synthetics Ltd and straw Products Ltd. The company took international step by collaboration with General Tire Co.,U.S.A.,which was subsidiary of General Tire & Rubber Co.,U.S.A. ,this collaboration was for the technical services which was for about 5 years and sales agreement for the supply of technical know-how, engineer and documentation for operation facilities for eight years. According to the agreement, J.K. tyre had right to use on its products the wording made in the collaboration with General Tire Co.

Company renewed its technical collaboration agreement for further 5 years. In 1987 apart from 51 days strike as well as go slow from 14 October the overall working resulted in substantial profits. Since the strike was resolved efforts were made to launch a new pattern in steel belted Radial tyres and it was introduced for Maruti Gypsy and Tata Mobile by the company in 1988. The company proposed install latest and sophisticated R&D equipement by incurring expenditure of Rs 300 lakh. 

Due to R&D in 1989 company introduced several new pattern and sizes of tyres including a semi-lug Nylon Truck tyre, and got good response from the market. In 1991 Hidrive Finance Ltd., Radial Finance Ltd., Handeep Investment, J.K International Ltd., J.K Asia Pacific, Shivdham Properties, Pancham Investment ltd., became the subsidiaries of the companies. By 1992 company international division expanded its activities by opening its office in Moscow( Russia) apart from company’s subsidiaries already in U.K and Hongkong. Market well accepted the radial tyres for tractors launched previous year. In 1993 company introduced new brands of radial tyres ‘Brute’ and ‘Ultima’. After this compony started manufacturing steel belted radial tyres for the prestigious cars like Mercedes Benz, Peugeot,Daewoo race and Opel Astra. Market well received the new patterns developed for bus and trucks ‘PE-T8’.

Despite of rise in inputs cost and cost of raw material and the competion company maintained its progress. Company attained higher capacity and all around cost reduction on both plants at Jaykaygra and Banmore. Many new generation cars accepted the J.K steel radial as T- rated ultima launched and was accepted by Daewoo’s ‘Cielo’ and then Mercedes benz india also choosed J.K steel radial after this it G.M’s ‘Astra’. Then next were `Peugekot' FIAT's, `UNO' and M & M's `Ford'.

After this company launched premium tyre to meet heavy load market which was ‘Jet Trak’-39 with this company launched new tractor rear tyre ‘SONA’ which was also greatly accepted by the market. During 1996 company launched car tyre JET Drive XS,and nylon car tyre for maruti along with semi-lug and heavy duty lug tyre for trucks. In radial category, Ultima XR Radial, a terrain tyre was introduced.

All these tyres got good response from the consumers. Companies both the plants were operated at full capacity. In radial tyres units also launched dual contact high traction and high performance Aquasonic steel radial car tyre. As company had loan repayment of Rs 635 crores it proposed to reduced its debt by 125 crore in 2000. J.K tyre and the Indian oil corporation came collaboration to install digital air pressure gauges and setting up sales out at IOC petrol station across the country.

In 2001 managing director of J.K Industries Raghupati singhania was selected 19th chairman of ATMA (Automotive Tyre Manufacturers Association). J.K Industries in 2003 got new Marketing Director as Mr. Ajay Kapila who was earlier Senior-Vice President in Kinetic Engineering Ltd. J.K. tyres merged with Vikrant tyres along with the non tyre business, sugar and agriculture into separate companies which were J.K Sugar Ltd and J.K Agri-Gentics Ltd. On 2nd April 2007 J.K Industries Ltd changed their name to J.K tyre and Industries Ltd.

(http://www.moneycontrol.com/stocks/company_info/company_history.php?sc_did=JKT01)

History of JK Organisation

JK Organisation owes its name to late Lala Juggilal Singhania, dynamic personality with broad vision. Inspired by the cause of Swadeshi movement of Mahatma Gandhi and driven the zeal to set up an Indian enterprise .Lala Kamlapat Singhania founded JK organization in 19 century ushering in new industrial era in India. The process of industrialization and diversification was worthily and successfully carried on by Lala Kamlapat’s illustrious sons –Sir Padampat, Lala kailashpat, Lala Lakshmipat, aided in no small measures by the Late Gopal Krishna son of Sir Padampat.

(http://www.jktyre.com/founders.html)

1933- Juggilal Kamlapat cotton Spinning and Weaving Mills Co. Ltd was the first to manufacture calco prints in the country. In 1940 J.K iron and steel Co Ltd manufactured first time steel bailing hoops for jute and cotton with which country became self sufficient in meeting the entire demand. Then in 1944 they produced first time aluminium virgin Metal from the Indian Bauxite at Aluminium corporation of India Ltd, Jaykaynagar. There after J.K engineer files manufactures first time in India Engineering files in 1949. In 1959 they were the first one to set up a continuous process plant of Rayon. In 1960 J.K Iron &steel Co Ltd at Kanpur manufactured for the first time in the country a hydraulically operated cane crushing Mill for their sugar plant in Khandsari and then they completed their 100 ton plant. During 1961 J.K chemical set up world’s first plant for production Hydrosulphite of soda by the amalgamation process of sodium.

Similarly in 1962 they their company J.K synthetics Ltd at kota produced first time nylon-6 with its own polymerised raw material in India. J.K Chemicals Ltd was the first one to produce sodium formaldehyde in India. In 1968 they produce T.V sets in India along with Metallic Cops for Synthetic Filament yarn industries. In 1969 J.K synthetics manufactured acrylics fibres in the country for the first time in the country and J.K synthetics Ltd developed Dyeable Nylon. In 1973 they were the first to the licence Synthetic fibre technology to third party and produce Synthetic Fibre Machinery. In 1976 they produce steel belted radial for the first time in india for the trucks, buses and passenger cars in their tyre plant at kankroli and then they make steel belted radial tyres for three wheelers which was manufactured for the first time in the world.

In 1984 they produced white cement in India for the first time in India through dry process. Then J.K Synthetics produced Cathonic Dyeable fibre first time in India and nylon tyre cord based on Spin Draw Technology. In India J.K magnetic produced first magnetic tapes with cobalt technology. In 1991 company set up a tyre palnt at Banmore with annual capacity 5.7 lakh tyres. Then in 1992 HASTERI R&D centre was established bu the company after two years in 1994 they launched India’s first T-rated tyre and Banmore tyre plant crossed 100 TPD. Next year mecedez benz was launched on J.K tyres and they got the ISO 9001 which was given to first time in history to tyre manufacturer. In 1996 they introduced steel wheels and launched first time in India dual contact high traction steel radial- aquasonic.

Next was the big year for the compay they acquired Vikrant tyres ,awarded national export award for 96-97, first and the only tyre manyfacturer to get ‘E’ mark certification, they launched first H rated tyre and their research institute got ISO 9002. In 1998 they were awarded capexil’s highest export award for 1997-98, got QS 9000. In 1999 Jk tyre was ranked world’s 16 largest tyre company, synergy with VTL in procurement, marketing and production flexibility, they got ISA-14000 certificate for environment and safety. In 2000 National Go-Karting championships were introduced by the company. In 2001 company received CAPEXIL award and FOCUS LAC export award. In this year 2nd Go-karting championship was held by the company.

(http://www.jktyre.com/milestones.html)

Jk tyre acquisition of Mexican tyre company tornel

JK tyre acquired Mexican based –company with the annual capacity of 6.6 million tyres ,this deal cost Rs 270 crores. This deal made the JK tyre No.1 tyre maker in the country as their annual capacity increased to 15 million units because they have surpassed Apollo tyres which was earlier No.1 with the capacity of 8-10 million. This acquisition not only gives JK tyres an additional tyres but access to the lucrative market of Latin and North America.

(http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=5&hid=3&sid=4ecaa301-5728-44f4-a030-3750f6b0b500@replicon103)

The company is planning to sell both the brands JK and Tornel in U.S and Canada. They have planned to spend million more on the Tornel plants to add new shape to JK brand and launch the JK radial and Tornel passenger and light truck brands for U.S customers.

(http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=10&hid=101&sid=4ecaa301-5728-44f4-a030-3750f6b0b500@replicon103&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=35120934) 

JK tyre and motor sports

It’s been two decades that the JK tyre is closely related to adventurous world of motor sports. JK tyre has been constantly promoting motorsports not just only to discover several winners, but also using their awareness and knowledge of R&D department to develop tyres on which world can race upon.

JK tyre realised the absence of the infrastructure, which is necessary for the accomplishment of the motorsports in India. Over the last five years, JK tyre has embarked over Rs 15 crore to support the motorsport in India.

(http://www.jktyre.com/motorsports/jk-in-motorsports-history.html)

Global presence

Jk tyre along with its associates Vikrant Tyres Ltd is the leading exporter of tyres from the country which counts roughly 26% of exports.

JK tyre is the world’s first manufacturer of tyre to receive ISO 9000 along with QS 9000 for its operations. Across the world only JK tyre has received has certificate of QS 9000 for its multilocation operations. In the country it is only JK tyre was the first company to receive ISO 14001 in recognition of its environmental management systems.

Nowadays, products manufactured by JK tyres compete with international players in the international market across the world. The products are exported to to more than 55 countries and in 6 continents. The company has robust and well developed distribution network for exports and the distributors get the full support from technical team for the product development so that they can meet the market requirements. JK tyre products are internationally certified in Europe, US, Middle East and South America.

For commitment of offer in superior quality , standards and path-breaking breaking innovation the company has received numerous awards for exports for last years.in 1999-00 JK being the largest tyre exporter to Latin America it was acknowledged by the Indian trade promotion organization (ITPO). In 200-01 company was honoured with ‘The Special Export Award’ from Capexil, with this company made its fourth consecutive award from India’s premier industrial association. JK tyre is constantly making any eefort to deliver value to customerswith along with sound marketing strategy forms which are establishment consistent performance in international market. 

To develop new products of excellent and distinguished products so that they can compete in the international market, JK tyre had had maintained its marketing and distribution strategies for export market. This credit goes to India’s biggest in-house R&D centre, HASTERI (Hari Shankar Singhania Elastomer And Tyre Research Institute). This centre is well equipped with latest testing facilities which helps in getting excellence by evolving technologies for superior product performance and it also reduces waste and thinks about the consumer needs.

All over JK tyre has obtained many milestones. Despite of , bencjmarking customer sevice and plans to bring in several pioneering technologies there, a lot which will roll out in future in JK tyre’s winning path.

(http://www.jktyre.com/global-business.html)

JK tyres in North America

In Mexican based company Tornel, JK tyre bought 100% stake. By this move JK tyre got access in the markets Of US along with this company can entered into the markets of South America. Tornel has total three manufacturing units with total capacity of 6.6.Million tyres per annum

(http://www.business-standard.com/india/storypage.php?autono=319837)

Technology at JK tyres

Error proof Computer Aided Design & Analysis

JK tyres use updated tools and techniques which help them to figure out and annihilate failure at the drawing board only.

World class manufacturing on Automatic Machines

Manufacturing of radials is done at air-conditioned plant fitted with the finest machinery to provide customer consistent good quality.

Rigorous Testing

Before the JK tyres reach the market it has to go through tough validation tests, both indoor and outdoor. Jk is one of the few companies that test their tyre so rigorously.

Network of JK tyre

Marketing

Steel Wheels

With the objective of meeting customer demand s and bringing best products and services form the customers, JK tyre established franchised chain nationwide retiled outlets as JK tyre steel wheels. It is considered to be one stop solution for the problems of and requirements of tyres and their services. In these they provide facilities like computerized wheel alignment, automated tyre changing, wheel balancing, air care, tyre rotation with the high technology and trained personnel guidance.

Dial-a-tyre

JK tyre has started delivering the tyre at the customer’s door. With this JK trained technician will deliver and fit the tyres at a pre-appointed time. In this wheel changing, balancing, and alignment is including. This step is user friendly to make the customer comfortable and for his convenience.

AD-Campaigns

JK tyre launched different types of ad campaigns to promote the product and the brand. The company publicized its product by placing its information in the media. Following are some of the ad-campaigns of JK tyres.

Products

JK tyre is leading manufacturer of tyres in India. It manufactures tyres for entire segment of Truck/Bus, LCV, Passenger and Farms.

Truck/ Bus-:

JK Tyre is the leader in the segment of Truck/ Bus tyres. It has 70% market share in the truck and bus tyre segment. However this is very small sector Indian market but it is expected to grow in near future. They make Bias and radial types of tyres for this segment. 

LCV-:

In LCV segment they manufacturer such type of tyres and this they provide Bias and Radial. JK is the second largest market share .

Corporate social responsibility initiative by JK tyres

J.K tyre believes that they get numerous inputs from the society, it adds value to these and offers the needed products and services to public at large. The profit which company makes is the enhancement by the public for value added.

The purpose of CSR is enhance the government efforts by helping the citizen of the country, with which they can lead life which is prosperous, healthy, happy and more meaningful. It is believed that it is not only the job of the government to do the needful to the extent needed. That’s where the role of corporate citizen comes. In fact, it is helping ourselves because inputs and outputs comes from society and go back to society. So it is long run.

J.K tyre and Industries undertook three major initiatives, 2004 onwards, as per deliberation in the central HRD Committee, presided over by Shri Hari Shankar Singhania, where all presidents and all time directors are members.

Adult Literacy

In 1950 the condition of china and india was same i.e 18% of literacy. If the so huge population is illetrate then it is very difficult to imagine society making scientific progress and citizen leading purposeful and meaningful lives. From1950 there has been progress in this issue. China has got illiteracy 95% but our country got stuck at 65%. Looking at this J.K group took initiative, started in may 2004 has made 6900 citizens of the country literate. Today, another 700 are participating in learning session in 30 groups at 10 different locations in different six local languages viz.

Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Oriya, Gujarati & Hindi, under the guidance of our plants' local management. The company has target for the year 2009 which 3000 plus. The various place where classes are taken are J Central Pulp Mills at Songadh in Gujarat], Lakshmi Cement in Sirohi Rajasthan, J K sugar nr. Barielly, Fenner [ Hyderabad & Madurai], J K agri in Hyderabad. For this company use the software developed by M/s TCS at the locations. The photograph shows a class in progress in a village near Hyderabad, organized by J K agri.K Tyre [ Banmore nr. Gwalior, Vikrant in Mysore, Kankroli in Rajasthan], J K paper [Rayagada in Orissa &

Prevention Of Hiv / Aids : Focus on Outside Community

Mainly truckers and their helpers who are highly attacked by the disease HIV/AIDS. Looking at this scenario J.K tyre started in November 2005, and is supporting three clinics in situated at National Highway at Indore, Dhanbad, and Vishwa karma Nagar. J K Tyre supports the work being done by Melinda & Bill Gates Foundation in collaboration with TCI Foundation.

Awareness is the main objective of the project so that people should use preventive measures. In ‘Infotainment Melas' which are held near the clinics company also participate , in these mela’s entertainment is combined with spreading message.

Despite of 3 clinics run by TCI foundation and supported by JK tyre , one clinic named “JEEVAN KIRAN” which is fully financed by JK tyre has been opened in Nov 2007 at Transport Nagar, Jaipur and 2nd clinic at shahpura on NH-8, which 70 Km short of Jaipur on way from Delhi on 25th May 2008. It’s day-to-day operations are controlled and managed by NGO called, “Vatsalya”.

Till now , in all five clinics more than 39000 persons have been attended to for ailments, of which 9590 were treated for STI’s [sexually transmitted infection] and rest for general ailments. Suspected cases were referred to government centres.

Prevention Of Hiv / Aids : Inhouse , Focus on Our Employees
JAN 2008 = MOU signed ; between ILO [Internationaal Labour Organization] for helping us in this endeavour ; also a 2 hr presentation was made to group of Sr executives by ILO.

March 2008 = J K TYre HIV /AIDS POLICY was announced & has been widely disseminated. Four pillars of this policy are : AWARENESS, NON-DISCRIMINATION, CONFIDENTIALTY & CPOLLABORATION.

APRIL 2008 = among employees a survey was carried out at all the location to assess the level of knowledge on the subject by an outside agency.

MAY 2008 = among the employees training of 31 master trainers by ILD took place who will address the other employees for 2 hour awareness session at all location.

By the starting of July 2008, approximately 7000 employees took part in the 2 hour awareness program addressed by the Master trainers/Peer Trainersand this was highly appreciated by the workers and unions.

HIV / AIDS, As additional initiative in 2008 for Observing WORLD AIDS DAY
ON 1st December 2008 Company joined TCI foundation in observing the WORLD AIDS DAY at 13 locations across India [Delhi, Kanpur, Ghaziabad, Agra, Varanasi, Jaipur, Indore, Nagpur, Pune, Dhandbad, Jamshedpur, Hyderabad, Bangalore]

The function called Truckers ‘Utsav' was attended by 22000 truckers which combined awareness generation with entertainment. Many invitations went out in transport community with J.K tyre logo. JK tyre also facilitates their products and banners and speaks few minutes about the company on the mike.
(http://www.jktyre.com/corporate-social-responsibility.html)

What is tyre?

Review of literature

What is Tyre?

“A tyre is just black and round with hole in the middle. Actually, it’s a complex piece of high technology that is essential for the passenger safety and the efficient running of the vehicle. It’s a composite product. A tyre is a composite product that is, an inseparable assembly of materials with very different properties, whose manufacture demands great precision.” 

(http://www.michelin.co.uk/michelinuk/en/car-van-4x4/what-tyre/20070301111326.html)

Structure of Tyre

· Tread is that part of which comes into contact with road. It provides high grip, longer life durability and protects carcass.

· Steel belt also protects carcass and provides stiffness to tread.

· The work Spiral layer contributes to high durability and manoeuvrability.

· Shoulder being thickest part of the tyre it saves the carcass from outer shocks and damages.

· Side wall being most flexible protect the carcass and provides comfortable ride to the driver.

· Main body of the tyre is ply cord, it’s that which manages inflation pressures and endures load and road shocks.

· Bead filler contributes in the high durability as well as manoeuvrability.

· A bead wire is that part which hold tyre on rim.

· Heat generated due abrasion of bead and rim flange id protected by chafer.

NOTE: Construction of tyre may vary with size and pattern.

(http://www.bridgestone.co.in/tyre/tyreknowledge/radialtyre.asp)

Maintenance of tyre

Maintenance of tyres is very essential to obtain the best performance. Following steps should be followed for proper maintenance of tyres-:

Proper tyre mounting and de-mounting

· New tube should be used with new tyre.

· It should be kept in mind that tyre and tube are of same brand.

· Combination of tyre and rim should always be correct.

· Rim should be dirt and rust free and no bend should be there on the rim.

· It should check that rim valve is smooth and round.

· Before the tube is placed in the tyre, it should be cleaned the properly.

· Mounting machines should used as much as possible and use of hammers and chisel should be avoided.

· Ensure that before mounting and de-mounting tyre beads are lubricated.

· Before inflating the tyre, ensure that tyre beads are seating correctly on rim or not.

Tyre balancing

An un-balanced tyre may cause vibration. So it is very important. Balancing of tyre should be done under following circumstances-:

· When vehicle covers 5000 Km

· If vehicle is coming across any vibration

· Mounting/de-mounting

Tyre rotation

Tyres must be rotated if any defect is found or vehicle have covered the distance of 5000 Km. First tyre rotation is very important as it sets stage for long and even for tyre wear.

Wheel alignment

· Proper wheel alignment should be maintained of the vehicle.

· It should done when ever required or after every 5000 Km.

Daily tyre check

Every morning before starting the vehicle, tyres should be properly checked. If the damages are exposed in the tyre, it should be changed. Remove the entrapped stones and nails from the tyre.

Tyre change

When tread wear indicator (1.6mm height) is exposed it should be replaced by the new tyre.

Inflation pressure maintenance

· Ensure that inflation pressure is maintained as per guided by the vehicle manufacturer.

· Check the inflation pressure when the tyre is cold.

· New tyres have tendency of expanding which increases inner pressure so new tyres should be checked after 3000 km.

· Inflation pressure of the spare tyre should be kept higher and at the time use must bring at recommended pressure.

· Air leakage should be checked and lost valve should be replaced, and valve core should be renewed.

(http://www.bridgestone.co.in/tyre/tyrecare/tyrecare.asp)

Given below are the various conditions of tyres in different stages of inflation:

UNDER INFLATION

PROPER INFLATION

OVER INFLATION

(http://www.falcontyres.com/tyremaintenance.php)

Tyre Industry

International Scenario

Global tyre is very large its turnover is $130 billion in 2007. It employs more than 600,000 people directly or indirectly.( http://www.worldtirereport.com/) Worldwide tyre industry is dominated by half a dozen prominent players . Following table show the share of each prominent player. 

Companies

Market share (%)

Michelin

19.4

Bridgestone

19.4

Goodyear

16.6

Continental

7.1

Sumitomo

4.9

Pirelli

3.9

Yokohama

3.5

Kumho

1.7

Others

23.5

Adapted from Financial Times

Worldwide Sales of Tyres

Mn nos.

Cars

% of total

Truck

% of total

Total

% of total

OEM

217.7

31.10

50.6

20.3

268

28.3

Replacement

482.4

68.90

198.2

79.7

681

71.7

Total

700.1

100.00

248.8

100.0

949

100.0

Adapted from Financial Times

The prominent feature which comes out from the table is the major tyres sales is from replacement market. However, some recent trends in new vehicle manufacturing will go to help the OEM segment. World over the time needed to bring a car from the drawing board stage to the market place has shrunk from six to two years in the last decade. Today, tyres are being purpose-developed for each new model with technicians working alongside car suspension engineers. Secondly, new markets like India and China offer the world major tyre producers a large market to exploit.

(http://www.indiainfoline.com/sect/tyre/ch06.html)

Forecast of world tyre industry

The world wide tyre market is expected to grow at compounded annual rate (CAR) of more than 3.0%. Europe represents the biggest markets with highest share of 29.5% of entire industry and OEMs shipments are expected at 415 million units, which constitutes 28.5% of market share. Asia-Pacific is rapidly flourishing OEM tyre market with CAGR of 6.85%in the period of 2001-2010. Global replacement market is projected to be 188 million in 2010 where as in OEM shipments for passenger cars is projected more than 293 million.

(http://www.autoindustry.co.uk/news/19-03-08_5)

Indian Tyre Industry

Evolution of Indian Tyre Industry

Dunlop Rubber ltd was the pioneer in Indian tyre industry by setting up in West Bengal in 1926 than it was followed by the MRF in 1946. Since, then Indian tyre industry grows rapidly. Tyre industry is directly correlated with Transportation industry and both rely on each other. Transport industry in India developed a lot with 10% increment each and every year with 870 billion ton of freight. Road constitutes 85% of the all freight movement and road network improved by 3.2 million Km in India.

(http://www.fadaweb.com/indiantyresindustry.htm)

Natural Rubber Industry

In 2008-09 there was increment in the production of the Natural Rubber (NR) in the country in comparison of 2007-08 .it was found that production has increased to 865,500 tonnes to 825,345 in 2008-09 and growth of 4.7%. The consumption also increased in 2008-09 to 871,720 with a rate of 1.2% as compared to 2007-08 which was 861,455 tonnes. But auto sector showed lower of 2.5% in comparison of 7.2% of last year where as imports in current year were 81,545 tonnes. But imports last year were high than current year which was 86,394 tonnes according to data provided by directorate general of commercial, intelligence & statistics. There was down fall found in the exports also which was 60,353 tonnes last year and in 2008-09 it was 46,926 tonnes.

PRICE OF NATURAL RUBBER (Rupees perquintal)

Month Year

RSS-5

RSS-4

RSS-3

Latex (60% drc)

ISNR 20

SMR 20

Domestic

International

Domestic

International

Domestic

International

June

2008

12389

July

"

13180

August

13549

September

"

13284

October

"

8831

November

"

7413

December

"

6279

January

2009

February

"

March

"

April

"

May

"

June

"

Industry Overview

Indian tyre industry was shiny till FY08. The industry tonnage production recorded a 5 CAGR of 8.02% between FY03-08. In this period truck& bus tyres recorded 5.90% whilst light commercial vehicle (LCV), motorcycle, and car tyre grew by 13.34%, 12.27%and 13.98% respectively.

In FY09 due to economic slowdown in general, there was decline in automobile industry and tyre demand was also affected. In first nine months tonnage growth decline to 2.19% which was 7.38% in the same period. The tyre demands by Original Equipments Manufactures reduced by 6.17%where as Truck& bus tyres demand was least affected, as it diminished by 0.01%. But the major affect was faced by exports as it depreciated by 9.82% in that duration.

Due to demand pressures, there was found adjustments in the production by all dominant players. The government too gave the stimulus to the industry bringing down the excise duty of 6% which was earlier 14% then reduced to 10% on 7 December, 2008 the further reduction of 2% on 25 February 2009. In the darkness, reduction in raw material price has been like silver lining for the industry.

(http://www.prlog.org/10202260-indian-tyre-industry-expected-to-grow-at-cagr-of-821-till-fy13.html) 

Indian tyre industry is highly stuffed as few dominant players with four ruling companies covers the 77% of market share. The industry is raw material concentrated with raw material composed of 55% of the sales turnover and 70% of production cost, of which rubber accounts the major share of the material cost. The major consumption is natural rubber smoked sheets and technically specified natural rubber (TSNR) which constitutes 42%of raw material cost of tyres.

Replacement market is main growth driver as it constitutes 48.70% of market and then it is followed by the Original equipment manufacturers with the market share of 42.80% exports accounts 8.50%. As sustained growth of GDP of more than 8% there has been increase in the demand OEMs. The Indian tyre industry has perceived a CAGR of 7.7% over the last decade.

Primarily tyre industry demand depends upon factors like GDP growth, agriculture, industrial production and growth in vehicle demand. Some secondary factors like infrastructure development and interest rates. Primary and secondary factors had favoured the industry only factors of worry are rising automobile rate interest and increased rubber price.

According to the Indian federation of Tyre makers, car tyre production in the march 2007 was 14.26 million as compare Bus & Truck tyres which was 12.4 million. The largest segment was the two wheeler segment which amounts 35.7 million tyres in that year.

Now India produces more car tyres as compare to truck tyres .production of truck tyres is increasing at CAGR of 4% but at the same time car tyre is increasing at 14%annually.

Researchers believes that car sales have increased in last few years so it will need replacement, so solid growth is expected in near future.

In April 2006 prices of tyres increased the reason according to the report was offset increase in the price of raw material but the real reason isindian manufacturers were not able fulfil the demand of the market. In last two years, manufacturers are running their factories on 90% capacity and sales have grown strongly.

(http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=102&sid=1d832692-4e5a-420e-8c0c-5ae46fc332a6@sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=26414771)

Demand and supply gap

The demand for the tyre is either in the domestic or in the export market. As far asdomestic market is concerned, the OEMs and replace market are likely to witness strong growth, given the current performance of the automotive sector. Given the strong linkages of tyre industry with automotive industry, its demand is likely to be increase over the short to medium term. A for the export market demand, outlook is positive even though some downsides remain.

As regards supply of tyres, currently the major players are in the process of expanding their capacities, in anticipation of uptrend in sales. For instance Apollo tyres has set up a joint venture with Michelin for manufacture and sales of bus truck tyres radials. J.K is expanding truck and bus radial facility with eyeing acquisition of smaller units. Ceat increased its capacity 3 times from Pirelli. However a characteristics of Indian tyre industry is that most of the tyre manufacturers in the past has increased capacity in the anticipation of surge demand but when it did not materialise, they reduce their addition capacity. Thus, the demand –supply gap is likely to be important issue for the Indian tyre industry over the short to medium term. 

Raw Material

Tyre industry is highly raw material intensive because its raw material constitutes about 62% of tyre industry turn over and 70%production cost. Tyre industry is the main consumer natural as it consumes up-to 57% of the total production, and rest of the production by non tyre industries. Total cost and raw material consumed by the industry is Rs12500 crores and 13.39 lakh M.T.

respectively.

Given below is the composition of raw-materials as a percentage (%) of Total Raw Material Cost:

Natural Rubber

41%

Nylon Tyre Cord Fabric

18%

Carbon Black

10%

Rubber Chemicals

5%

Butyl Rubber

5%

PBR

6%

SBR

5%

Others

10%

Raw Material Availability

There is no production of Butyl rubber, Polyester Tyre Cord and Styrene Butadiene rubber of tyres in the country . Insufficient production of the Nylon tyre cord Fabric , , Polybutadiene Rubber, Rubber Chemicals, Steal Tyre Cord.

Following are the factors on which industry imports depends-:

· Duty free imports only against export of tyres

· Multiple source of supply is required for business strategy

· Domestic demand not sufficient to meet complete requirement

(http://www.atmaindia.org/Overview.htm)

Carbon Black

The entire consumption in India of carbon black is 4, 50,000 tonnes along with 100,000 is exported. the main manufacturers of carbon black in the country are

Phillips Carbon Black Ltd with capacity of 2,70,000

Aditya Birla Nuvo with capacity of 1,70,000

Continental with the capacity of 60,000

Cabot with annual capacity of 50,000

Ralson with the annual capacity of 15,000

(http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=102&sid=1d832692-4e5a-420e-8c0c-5ae46fc332a6@sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=26414771)

Increasing Radialisation in India

The tyre industry is now changed to radial tyres. The nylon cords had been replaced by cotton ply which given addition strength.Rate of radialisation is an index status of road development. Despite of several advantages radialisation in India did not catch, it was due to Indian roads or older vehicles did not have suitable geometry for fitment of radial tyres. But now in recent years scenario have changed, in passenger car tyre segment have crossed 85% and is expected to cross 95% in following two years where as in medium and heavy vehicle it has gone up-to 2% and that in LCV is expected at 10%. 

Imports of tyres and its Impact on the Industry

Due to agreement signed by India in Bangkok with ASEAN countries in October, 2003 have imposed extereme threat to Indian tyre industry, by providing custom duty down by 5%. This lead to cheaper imports of tyre from China, South korea, Japan, Thailandand Indonesia. Their price is 25%less than Indian truck/LCV tyres.

(http://in.biz.yahoo.com/prebudget_tyre_industry.html)

Imports of tyre had been 10% in FY2008 and were more than 90%was imported from china. Even though anti-dumping duty has been imposed on Chinese T&B radial, beyond this industry interested on custom duty relief on raw material which is not available /manufactured in the country so that they can match with Chinese tyres.

(http://www.prlog.org/10202260-indian-tyre-industry-expected-to-grow-at-cagr-of-821-till-fy13.html)

Government Policies

Due economic slowdown tyre industry was heavily affected, net profits reduced to 0.96% inFY09 as compared to 4.84% during last year. (http://business.rediff.com/special/2009/jun/29/budget09-tyres-cut-customs-duty-on-inputs.htm)

Trade Policy - Tyres & Raw Materials

· Each and every tyre can be exported freely

· Except Truck &Bus all tyres are allowed to import freely

· WTO do not have any bound rates on tyres and tubes

· Except Carbon Black, all raw material needed for the production of tyres is allowed to import freely.

Custom Duties : Tyres

Normal rate of Basic Customs Duty (MFN)

10%

Preferential/ concessional Customs Duty under Trade Agreements

* Asian Pacific Trade Agreement
(formerly known as Bangkok Agreement

8.60%

* Indo Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement

Nil

* SAPTA ( SAARC Preferential Trading 
Agreement)

Nil

5%**

* India Singapore Comprehensive
Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) 

2.5%

For details please refers to Preferential Tariff Table for Tyres/ Raw-Materials of Tyre Industry (Ref. Section on RTAs)

Excise Duty: Tyres

All categories of Tyres

14%

Bangladesh, Bhutain, Maldivies and Nepal.
** When import from Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

(http://www.atmaindia.org/Tax.htm)

The recent government policies has also not brought such relief. Major issues like high import duty on raw material, ban in import of used tyres, lack of exemption in import duty of steel and polyester tyre cords (currently being imported) and imports of tyres from South korea at lower duty is not solved.

(http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/4023)

Custom duty on natural rubber being (principal raw-material) being 20% which makes the 42% of the cost of the tyre and import duty on tyres (finished products) @10% has disappointed the manufacturers. Manufacturers assume that trend will diminish the exports of tyre from India and increase in the imports.

Automotive production 2008

Production flash report for March 2008

Category Segment/Subsegment Manufacturer.

Jan
2008

Feb
2008

Mar
2008

Apr
2008

May
2008

Jun
2008

Jul
2008

Aug
2008

Sep
2008

Oct
2008

A: No of seats not over 6

A1: Mini

Maruti Udyog

3815

8133

5275

6060

6256

7550

6634

7030

A2: Compact

Fiat India

417

450

369

448

585

647

379

457

General Motors

3518

3576

3514

3165

2541

2686

3352

2851

Hyundai Motor

24965

35426

33325

30471

35272

41663

42020

37074

Maruti Udyog

50906

48022

44867

45914

35200

45654

39241

46354

Tata Motors

16083

14548

10971

13097

12411

11529

10636

11017

Total

95889

102022

93046

93095

86009

102179

95628

97753

A3: Mid-size

Fiat India

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Ford India *

2932

2342

1067

669

3870

2349

1957

1751

General Motors

645

503

349

280

308

337

283

538

Hindustan Motors

920

1150

913

813

780

576

529

687

Honda Siel Cars

5150

4592

3077

1575

2802

2220

3322

2090

Hyundai Motor

2650

5936

6770

5495

6128

5900

6285

5711

Maruti Udyog

2791

6911

4812

5476

5225

6992

5377

6500

Tata Motors

2579

3343

1401

1148

1568

1468

1082

1666

Total

17667

24777

18389

15456

20681

19842

18835

18943

A4: Executive

DaimlerChrysler

197

268

0

0

General Motors

342

1984

381

309

444

477

613

517

Hyundai Motor

0

228

0

0

0

0

0

0

Hindustan Motors

SkodaAuto India

894

1226

1316

1388

1282

1212

961

251

Toyota Kirloskar

500

647

423

365

168

74

1605

2171

Total

1933

4353

2120

2062

1894

1763

3179

2939

A5: Premium

DaimlerChrysler

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Ford India

Honda Siel Cars

6

20

0

751

710

485

597

632

Hyundai Motor

1

10

45

70

45

26

7

16

Toyota Kirloskar

0

0

108

90

85

0

0

0

Total

7

30

153

911

840

511

604

648

A6: Luxury

DaimlerChrysler

69

63

60

61

0

0

0

0

Total A

119380

139378

119043

117645

115680

131845

124880

127313

Utility Vehicles

B: Max. Mass upto 3.5 tn

B1(a): No of Seats not over 7

Bajaj Tempo

0

8

7

2

4

5

1

1

Ford India

407

453

329

200

316

317

252

259

General Motors

921

718

606

641

589

714

421

739

Hindustan Motors

110

201

165

201

165

190

203

138

Honda Siel Cars India

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Hyundai Motor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

M&M

6235

6293

0

6731

5793

6248

5044

0

Maruti Udyog

0

Tata Motors

4254

3941

2446

2242

2039

1925

1793

1262

Toyota Kirloskar

1684

2316

1994

1585

1923

2087

1580

1653

Total

13611

13930

5547

11602

10829

11486

9294

4052

(b): No of seats over 7

(M1 (B2)) but not over 9

Bajaj Tempo

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

General Motors

163

252

153

182

143

140

145

163

M&M

2839

2576

2584

2886

2246

1950

1555

2403

Maruti Udyog

244

170

546

771

690

Tata Motors

497

223

1425

1560

923

0

150

256

Total

2123

2802

2678

2355

2667

2800

2223

2109

Total B1

5866

6023

7386

7754

5979

4890

4073

5621

19477

19953

12933

19356

16808

16376

13367

9673

B2: Max mass upto 5 tonnes

(a) No of seats not over 13

Bajaj Tempo

834

819

607

625

497

567

457

287

General Motors

707

830

918

855

622

704

555

540

Hindustan Motors

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

M&M

895

413

895

1214

700

948

942

0

Tata Motors

1356

1704

1342

1178

892

1051

1309

761

Toyota Kirloskar

Total

3792

3766

3762

3872

2711

3270

3263

1588

Total B(Utility vehicles)

23269

23719

16695

23228

19519

19646

16630

11261

(http://www.fadaweb.com/production.asp)

Total sales of year 2008

Domestic Sales flash report for 2008

Category Segment/Subsegment Manufacturer.

Jan
2008

Feb
2008

Mar
2008

Apr
2008

May
2008

Jun
2008

Jul
2008

Aug
2008

Sep
2008

Oct
2008

A: No of seats not over 6

A1: Mini

Maruti Udyog

5470

6353

4458

6830

5361

4953

3717

3467

A2: Compact

Fiat India

316

450

400

461

550

403

352

243

General Motors

3424

3416

2687

3086

2218

3866

3660

2876

Hyundai Motor

21114

25704

18771

21242

18114

12139

18274

18840

Maruti Udyog

45957

41869

43121

44539

37767

34795

37667

45621

Tata Motors

12360

13042

7430

9686

8560

7525

7756

8598

Total

83171

84481

72409

79014

67209

58728

67709

76178

A3: Mid-size

Fiat India

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Ford India *

2047

2576

1685

1505

2871

1740

1496

1839

General Motors

389

570

331

378

349

205

273

336

Hindustan Motors

947

1310

966

810

709

597

555

703

Honda Siel Cars

5801

6492

1981

2375

2491

2948

2763

1933

Hyundai Motor

3156

3645

2668

3209

3716

2893

3296

3453

Maruti Udyog

2939

7536

4187

5946

5807

6009

5427

7413

Tata Motors

2901

5135

3763

4542

4747

4487

4460

4667

Total

18180

27264

15581

18765

20690

18879

18270

20344

A4: Executive

DaimlerChrysler

231

710

0

0

General Motors

217

2074

393

383

457

344

410

384

Hyundai Motor

1

225

3

14

0

1

0

0

Hindustan Motors

SkodaAuto India

839

1284

953

1025

1026

830

520

691

Toyota Kirloskar

480

790

438

301

257

71

0

3424

Total

1768

5083

1787

1723

1740

1246

930

4499

A5: Premium

DaimlerChrysler

72

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Ford India

Honda Siel Cars

46

37

0

544

844

510

460

372

Hyundai Motor

25

165

50

41

47

28

37

14

Toyota Kirloskar

73

87

79

61

42

27

88

53

Total

216

289

129

646

933

565

585

439

A6: Luxury

DaimlerChrysler

54

101

33

57

0

0

0

0

Total A

108859

123571

94397

107035

95933

84371

91211

104927

Utility Vehicles

B: Max. Mass upto 3.5 tn

B1(a): No of Seats not over 7

Bajaj Tempo

1

2

8

5

3

3

1

2

Ford India

366

392

297

282

289

265

269

248

General Motors

695

1008

1044

924

916

781

932

812

Hindustan Motors

148

242

194

211

192

204

221

143

Honda Siel Cars India

269

329

272

273

294

331

129

127

Hyundai Motor

5

5

9

4

4

5

3

4

M&M

6868

7083

0

6036

5218

4327

4937

0

Maruti Udyog

45

Tata Motors

3081

3447

1703

2405

2099

1901

1695

1838

Toyota Kirloskar

1657

2722

1902

1678

1931

1808

1715

1493

Total

13135

15230

5429

11818

10946

9625

9902

4667

(b): No of seats over 7

(M1 (B2)) but not over 9

Bajaj Tempo

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

General Motors

97

215

223

181

132

109

120

131

M&M

2769

3109

2872

2185

2000

1680

1814

2273

Maruti Udyog

187

585

31

673

746

Tata Motors

302

1019

965

1329

743

0

555

403

Toyota Kirloskar

2222

3513

2629

2383

2608

2468

2355

1858

Total

5577

8441

6720

6751

5483

4257

4844

5411

Total B1

18712

23671

12149

18569

16429

13882

14746

10078

(http://www.fadaweb.com/domesticsales.asp)

Threat of Substitute Increasing

In FY2008,1.4 lakh tyres were imported every month. However reduction of custom duty and the import of tyres will increase. 

High Bargaining Powers of Buyers

In tyre industry OEM’s have total control on price .In fact; OEMs faced with declining profitability have reduced the number of component suppliers to make the supply chain more efficient. 

Objectives

To identify the factors that influences the customers in tyre industry.

To determine mind share and heart share.

To compare the performance of the major market players with respect to their 4P’s.

To determine position strategy.

Research Methodology

Every project work requires research, successful completion of any project and getting the genuine result s from that depends upon the research methods used by researcher. The whole research process used by us is as follows-:

1. Problem Formulation

2. Research Design

3. Sample Design

4. Source of Data

I. Primary Source of Data

II. Secondary Source of Data

5. Collection of Data

6. Analysis of Data

7. Interpretation of Data

8. Project Report and Writing

Research

Research can be defined as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search of new facts in any branch of knowledge. Redman and Mary defines research as a systematized effort to gain new knowledge.

Market Research

Market research is the systematized gathering, recording and analysis of data about marketing problems to facilitate decision-making.

Marketing research is the systematic, design, collection, analysis and reporting of data and finding relevant to specific market situation facing the company.

Types of Market Research

Market research is now placed under the control of some staff executives to provide adequate information to the line management. In these days of specialisation numerous ways of marketing research is adopted.

Five major types of marketing research with several sub types are as follows-:

· Marketing Performance Research

· Product Research

· Promotion Research

· Distribution Research

· Pricing Research

Methods of Data Collection

The key for use system is the selection of the method for collecting data and linking it to analysis and decision issue of action to be taken. The accuracy of collecting data is of great importancefor drawing correct and valid conclusions from the detailed investigations.

Primary Data-: the primary data are those which are collected for fresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. There are several methods of collecting primary data, particularly in survey and descriptive researches.

Some important methods are as followings-:

· Observation Method

· Interview Method

· Questionnaire

· Schedules

Secondary Data

Secondary data are used means that are already available i.e they refer to the data which already been collected and analyzed by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. Secondary data may be either publishes or unpublished.

Collection of Data through Questionnaire

This method of data collection is quite popular, particularly in case of big enquiries. It is adopted by private individual’s research workers, private and public organization and even by the government. In this method questionnaire is sent to the person concerned with request to answer question and return the questionnaire. A questionnaire consists of number of questions printed, typed in definite order or form or set of forms. The respondents have answer the question on their own

Collection of Data through Observation

We also use the observation method for the purpose of data collection. In this method we have taken sample of 500 vehicle models like Hyundai, Mitsubishi, Skoda, Maruti, Mahindra &Mahindra etc.

Through our personal observation we have observed the tyre used in the above models and presented them graphically. These observations were done in the various parts New Delhi.

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