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Concepts and Strategies of Brand Management

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Branded products can be seen everywhere around us at all time, and is a way of communication for the buyer of the product. Brand management will play a more significant role in future marketing competition, so research on the brand management is likely to become more meaningful and interesting. Brand management can really create value like increasing more adaptability, uniqueness, recognition etc. All in all, brand management is significant and can add value to firms. The project discusses all about deciding and evaluating brand name. the logo and colour of the brand play an important role in attracting the consumers. Moreover after deciding the brand name, it is mandatory to register the name at trademark registration office. All this process is followed by launching or re-launching the new product or the recalled product respectively. Moreover companies have realised that the role of the company does not got over by mere launching the brand but they have to do continuous marketing to sustain in the competitive market. Over period of time, the value of product decline due to many factors and companies have to work on the revitalizing the brand image and thus leads to success of the product. The brand name is thus one of the most powerful sources of identity



"A brand for a company is like a reputation for a person. You earn reputation by trying to do hard things well." is a well said verse by Jeffrey Preston Bezos, the President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the board of Amazon.com


A brand is a name or trademark connected with a product or producer. Brands have become increasingly important components of culture and the economy, now being dscribed as cultural accessories and personal philosophies.

According to the American Marketing Association (AMA), brand is a "name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition." Technically speaking, whenever a marketer creates a new name, logo, or symbol for a new product or service, he or she has created a brand.

Now the question still is not clear about what all brand is about so we can say that brand is a promise, brand is and associated image and everyone and everything is brand.


First and foremost, a brand is a promise. It says 'you know the name, you can trust the promise'. As all promises, it is trusted only as far as those promises are met. Trust is a critical first step and brands aim to accelerate that step by leveraging the implied promise of the brand.


Most brands have a logo which acts as a short-cut to remind us of the brand promise. The logo uses color, shape, letters and images to create a distinctive image that is designed both to catch our eye and to guide our thoughts in the right direction. The brand may also be associated with tunes, celebrities, catchphrases and so on.

All parts of the brand image works as a psychological trigger or stimulus that causes an association to all other thoughts we have about the brand.


If you get down to the detail, everything is a brand, because we build our understanding of the world by creating associations about everything. A tree has an implied promise of beauty and shade. Even words are brands. When I say 'speed', you will conjure up images of fast cars, etc.

People are brands, too. When people see you, or even hear your name, they will recall the image they have of you, (which is something you can actively manage or 'let happen'). In a company where people are visible to customers, such as a service business, the people are very much a part the brand.

The brand name is thus one of the most powerful sources of identity. When a brand questions its identity, the best answer is therefore to thoroughly examine its name and so try to understand the reasoning behind its creation. In doing so, we can discover the brands intentions and programme. Many brands make every effort to acquit qualities which their brand name fails to reflect or simply excludes altogether. A name-like an identity-has to be managed. Certain names may have a double meaning. The purpose of communication then is to select one and drop the other.


Branding is a very powerful component in buisness. The brand must have a logo to make branding easier and more possible. The consumers decide if they will buy a product or use a service based on how they view the brand. The brand itself tells us or let us imagine how good ir bad the product is even we never tasted it before. All that brand promotion and advertising really do tell us how great a brand can be (like Nike). Once the customer likes your brand he/she will definitely come back for the repeated services or pproducts. The qualities of the product or services are ensured through the mind of customers from the image of the brand.

Therefore, Brand is not only convinient for buisness for repeated customer purchase but also easier for customers to filter out the countless generic items. Brand gives consumer the reason to buy it and wastes less time for customer to choose a particular product or service.


There are two main types of brand – manufacturer brands and own-label brands.


Manufacturer brands are created by producers and bear their chosen brand name. The producer is responsible for marketing the brand. The brand is owned by the producer.

By building their brand names, manufacturers can gain widespread distribution (for example by retailers who want to sell the brand) and build customer loyalty (think about the manufacturer brands that you feel "loyal" to).


Own-label brands are created and owned by businesses that operate in the distribution channel – often referred to as "distributors".

Often these distributors are retailers, but not exclusively. Sometimes the retailer's entire product range will be own-label. However, more often, the distributor will mix own-label and manufacturers brands.

Own-label branding – if well carried out – can often offer the consumer excellent value for money and provide the distributor with additional bargaining power when it comes to negotiating prices and terms with manufacturer brands


Brand equity refers to the value of a brand. Brand equity is based on the extent to which the brand has high brand loyalty, name awareness, perceived quality and strong product associations. Brand equity also includes other "intangible" assets such as patents, trademarks and channel relationships.

The list below shows the world's top 10 brands in 2002 (as measured by value): {Rank Brand Value ($ billions)}

    • Coca-Cola.....($69.6)
    • Microsoft.......($64.1)
    • IBM...............($51.2)
    • GE.................($41.3)
    • Intel................($30.9)
    • Nokia.............($30.0)
    • Disney............($29.3)
    • McDonalds.....($26.4)
    • Marlboro........($24.2)
    • Mercedes.......($21.0)

Source: Interbrand; JP Morgan Chase, 2002



The brand is a focal point for all the positive and negative impression created by buyer over time as he comes in contact with the brand's product, distribution channel, personnel and communication. A brand continues to be, at least in the short term, a good example for quality even after the patent has expired. The life of patent is extented, thanks to brans, thus explaining the importance of branding in the pharmaceutical or the chemical industry. The brand performs an economic function in consumer's mind and thus has a lasting and memorable effect on the company's activities.

Legally a brand is simply a symbol which distinguishes a company's product and certifies its origin and thus obtains its value through registration and conformity. The value of brand comes from its ability to gain an exclusive, positive and prominent meaning in the minds of a large number of consumers. The tangible and intangible benefits which are derived from the consumption of a product of a brand are encapsulated in the strong brand. When a brand is created at first it is worth nothing. Over the time the logo acquires significance by means of advertising. Advertising are forgotten quickly whereas a brand stays in memory along with the implications which are attached to it by public. The brand is thus stocked in the mind of potential consumers. Hence, brand can be considered as an asset of the company.


  • Greater perception of product or service performance.
  • Greater marketing communication effectiveness
  • Greater customer retention and loyalty
  • More appreciative consumer response on price increase or decrease
  • Has very high awareness
  • Receives a lot of free publicity/buzz
  • Is admired and has high purchase intent
  • Enables the owner to charge a price premium
  • Results in increased market share, especially for the target customers
  • Provides increased bargaining power with business partners
  • Provides a platform for growth beyond the current products and product categories
  • Helps attract and retain talented employees
  • Helps the management team align employees in support of the brand's promise
  • Often provides clarity for budgeting and capital investment decision
  • Increases an organization's sales, profit margins, stock price and market valuation
  • Larger margin
  • Less vulnerability to competitive marketing action and marketing crisis
  • Greater trade cooperation and support
  • Possible licensing and franchising opportunities
  • Greater brand extension opportunities


The product can be characterized into three types :

  • The qualities which are noticed by contact, before buying.

Eg. Decision to buy a pair of socks. The choice is made according to the visible characteristics i.e the pattern, the style, the material, the feel, the elasticity and the price.

  • The qualities which are noticed uniquely by experience, thus after buying.

Eg. Automobile market. The performance, consumption and style can be assessed before buying the car but road-holding, the pleasure of driving, reliability and quality cannot be entirely appreciated through test drive.

  • Credence qualities which cannot be verified even after consumption and which you have to take on trust.

Eg. In the market for upmarket car, the feeling that we have made it, that certain feeling of fulfillment and personal success through buying and owing a BMW are typically the results of pure faith.

Hence the role of brand is made clearer by this classification of sought-after qualities. The brand is a sign whose function is to disclose the hidden qualities of the product which are inaccessible to contact (sight, touch, hearing, smell) and possibly those which are accessible through experience but where the consumer does not want to take the risk of trying the product. As we can see, a brand provides not only a source of information but performs certain other functions which justify its attractiveness and its monetary return when it is valued by buyers.


The eight function of brand are presented in the table given below. The first two are mechanical and concern the essence of the brand i.e to function as a recognized symbol in order to facilitate choice and to gain time. The following three functions reduce the perceived risk. The last three have a more pleasurable side to them ethics show that the buyers are expecting, more and more, responsible behavior from their brands.

Identification To be clearly seen, to make sense of the offer, to quickly identify the sought-after products.
Practicality To allow saving of time and energy through identical repurchasing and loyalty.
Guarantee To be sure of finding the same quality no matter where or when you buy the product or service.
Optimization To be sure of buying the best product in its category, the best performer for the particular purpose.
Characterization To have confirmation of your self-image or the image that you present to others.
Continuity Satisfaction brought about through familiarity and intimacy with the brand that you have been consuming for years.
Hedonistic Satisfaction linked to the attractiveness of the brand, to its logo, to its communication.
Ethical Satisfaction linked to the responsible behavior of the brand in its relationship with society.

Table : The function of the brand for the consumer.

Hence we can say that brand plays an important role in the company. The brand of a company is created by the company and its customers together. The company has to make clear through its brand the promise it makes to its customers, based on the strategies and vision for the future of its business and products. It is vital that the company fully comprehends exactly what the customers expect from the brand, and that it continually lives up to this expectations.

The aim of brand management is to create a brand that will build this long-term relationship - an unshakeable bond - between the company and its customers. Brand management involves the design and implementation of marketing programs and activities to build, measure, and manage brand equity."1 These concepts and techniques are to improve the long-term profitability of the brand strategies.



Brand management is the application of marketing techniques to a specific product, product line, or brand. It seeks to increase the product's perceived value to the customer and thereby increase brand franchise and brand equity.

Brand management is a dynamic and a continuous process that needs consistent investment of time and money. The boardroom must ensure that brand management is allocated a specific budget as it is much more than mere marketing communications. Due to the intangible nature of branding, the results may not accrue in a short period of time a it takes time and reinforcement to build customer loyalty.

Brand management is all about the total approach says about defining the brand and control its management by the leaders of the company. Once the approach is finalised than create the promise by describing all about the product followed by making the promise by doing marketing of the product and inject the information about the product into the mind of consumer. Lastly it is important to keep the promise, what you have made during the marketing of the product.


Brand management starts with understanding what brand really means. This starts with the leaders of the company who define the brand and control its management. It also reaches all the way down the company and especially to the people who interface with customers or who create the products which customers use. Brand management performed to its full extent means starting and ending the management of the whole company through the brand. It is simply far too important to leave to the marketing department.


Creating the promise means defining the brand. A good brand promise is memorable and desirable. It cannot be effective if nobody remembers it, and is no good either if nobody wants it. A good brand promise evokes feelings, because feelings drive actions. The promise must be unique and identified with you alone. The right promise comes through a deep understanding of the marketplace and the customers who are going to use the product. It also comes from a deep understanding of the capabilities and motivations of the people in the company.


Once the promise is created, the next step is to somehow inject it into the minds of the customers, the staff and everyone who receives anything from you or has any impact on what you deliver. This is where marketing people come into their own. Although it is still not their sole preserve, a large part of marketing, which includes advertising and PR, is about positioning the company and its products in the minds of customers and against your competitors.


Creating and making the right promise is one thing, but then you have to keep it. If you do not, you brand will still exist, but now the promise will be of slipshod products and inconsistent delivery. Keeping promises means managing capability. It means consistent processes that are capable of delivering what is required. It means technology and systems which are reliable and usable. It means motivated people who are willing and able to deliver the goods.

Marketers see a brand as an implied promise that the level of quality people have come to expect from a brand will continue with future purchases of the same product. This may increase sales by making a comparison with competing products favourable. It may also enable the manufacturer to charge more for the product. The value of the brand is determined by the amount of profit it generates for the manufacturer.

Brand management includes the trademark registration of the brand, brand selection and evaluation, launching a brand sustaining a brand, brand extension.

The trademark registration in India follows the trademark registration procedures and specific laws.



In the next five years, we will see a rapidly changing landscape across the globe, where the opportunities for businesses to benefit from corporate and product branding efforts will be larger than ever before.

The growing emphasis on branding will move up the boardroom agenda and it is strongly believed that branding will become one of the most prominent drivers of value across the globe in the next two decades. Businesses with a sustainable business model and with a visionary and passionate CEO with branding talent will benefit from the rising opportunities for competing in the modern marketplace and potentially taking on the global scene. It needs to be no less than the CEO who embodies the branding efforts and serves as the company's and thereby the brand's primary advocate and nurturer. The approach is particularly well suited to companies whose top executives have a passion and talent for brand strategy, but in tomorrow's tough environment all top-executives must be able to represent and lead the brand. The top executives of world class companies are directly involved in leading the branding vision, strategy and implementation, and spend a significant amount of their work hours to drive their brands forward and to achieve even better results.

Tomorrow's CEO must be a brand champion who leads corporate and product branding strategies, all strategic brand-portfolio decisions and constantly monitors the implementation of the brand locally, regionally and globally. A strong CEO has credibility and respect not only because of business talent and organizational power but also because of the depth of experience, knowledge, and insight. A suggestion from a visionary CEO with branding talent and managerial experience in branding and marketing is the key driver of the branding efforts and results in any successful organization - internally and externally.

The selection and evaluation of a product or service name is one of the brand name components. We know that :

  • It ensures legal protection of certain product or service characteristics, which prevents competition from copying them
  • It allows producers and salesmen to obtain a loyal and profitable consumer group
  • It allows easier adjustment to segmented markets as the companies are able to function on the principle of one brand name - one segment
  • It allows the company image to be established
  • It allows a connection with the desired product or service position
  • It makes the product attractive for the consumer
  • It creates various advantages and exclusiveness for the product or service


Just as parents carefully choose names for their children, companies have the same difficult and extremely responsible task for naming products.

They conduct qualitative research by which we can evaluate the relation to the product, its use, the product image and its comparison to competition. They organize brainstorming meetings from which we get an enormous amount of suggestions for the new names. They offer a chain associates with associations which relates to the product or individual names.they form a base for name suggestions. They apply eureka method helping with various literature, computer scattering of letters and creating new names. They test the name suggestion in target groups.


The process of selecting and evaluating brand names runs according to the following steps :

  1. Identification of goals and criteria for brand name.
  2. Creating bank names
  3. Selection of suggestion
  4. Evaluating the consumer
  5. Evaluating legal protection
  6. Final name decision


The basis for a targeted search of a suitable name is determining the starting points, which means criteria that are expressed by a suitable name. Apart from general ones such as easy to remember, popularity, easy pronunciation etc. it is essential to determine specific ones that derive from the desired brand name position which will carry such a name.


In creating bank names it is important to rely on many sources. In this way we are able to rely on many sources. In this way we are able to avoid fixations on only one idea which narrows the creative process. The purpose of this phase is to obtain various suggestions according to the pre determined starting points.


The next level in finding a suitable name is the selection of suggestion which have been made. A qualified team of experts that consists of many different people does the selection. The selection is finished when 8-12 suggestions that the most correspond to the expert team's opinion have been chosen.


When a qualified team of experts make its suggestion, the most suitable bank name in their opinion, it is important to evaluate them in target groups. This must be done, because the name of the brand will be given to a product or service which will fulfil the needs of certain groups of people. The chosen name must be likeable and suitable for this group of people.


Before the final decision of the most suitable suggestion it is essential to check whether the client can register the name of the brand. In most cases the client or the holder of the brand's name can do this before the testing of consumer suggestions.


The final decision on the chosen name depends on the client, who must consider not only the outcome of the evaluation by target consumer groups but also the position he wishes the product to have.

After selecting the brand name the important things on which we should focus is its character, its visual symbol and logotypes, its colour, geographical and historical roots.


One of the most important assets of an enterprise is the brand. The character of the brand is a critical success factor for the enterprise (and for the value of the brand). Character can be seen in terms of the attention, affection and trust awarded to the brand by the market.

For a brand to have character, it needs to have positive public awareness. It also needs to have clarity, and a consistent brand proposition. This means that customers know what to expect from the brand in terms of product quality, customer service and so on. It also means that people supporting the brand (whether your own staff or third parties) know how to deliver the brand proposition.


Everybody knows Nike's dash, Adidas' three stripes, Nestlé's nest, Amul's girl. These symbols help us to understand the brand's culture and personality. They are actually chosen as such, the corporate specifications handed over to graphic identity and design agencies mainly pertain to the brands personality traits and values. Logo should be:

  1. simple
  2. distinctive
  3. intuitive


Colour is one of the most important components in creating brand identity. The purpose of a brand identity system is to encode a brand in people's memory and retrieve it from their memory. In a visual system, the two most powerful components are the consistent recognizable shapes and colours. It is best if these shapes and colours are distinctive. Colour can have a significant affect on people's perception of a product or brand. For instance, burgundy and forest green are perceived to be upscale while an orange label or package indicates an inexpensive item.

Third, colours can actually have an affect on a person's state of mind and cognitive ability as demonstrated by numerous research studies. For instance, pink has been shown to increase a person's appetite and calm prison inmates. Be aware that colors can have different symbolic meanings in different countries and cultures.


The importance of an image has become an emotional part of everyone. A brand name represents the image, character and personality of a brand. A brand name should be clear, lucid, easy to remember, distinct from the competition and should not be generic to the category. It should become customer's Top of the mind brand (TOMB). Most successful brand names would satisfy these criterions to quite an extent. Brand names that are linked to associations of their origins or product will create first impressions to the user.


The vast flow of names today makes it harder to differentiate them unless they come out with their own uniqueness. This way, they could come to their special position in everyday life. The image following a particular name is also determined by the role of communication it undergoes; of which the followings are included: its manner, personality, behavior, ethics, values, etc. The importance of brands depends on the true ambitions of the company.

It is important to take into account several factors and market circumstances before finalizing the brand name and its image. Company should take into account several factors and market circumstances like company goals, consumer wishes and expectations, trade groups and several other groups. A company builds its brand image through trade communication with its consumers. That is how a company informs the consumer of what the brand represents, what its values are, what the company is offering or guaranteeing the consumer, what its advantages are, its qualities etc. The consumers interpret all obtained information and form a subjective perception of the brand or its image.




The Indian law of trademarks is enshrined the new Trade Marks Act, 1999 came into force with effect from September 15, 2003. The old Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 was repealed at the same time. The new Trademarks Act of 1999 is in line with the World Trade Organisation recommendations and is in conformity with the TRIPS Agreement to which India is a signatory.


Under the new Trademarks Act of 1999

  • Registration of Service Marks allowed in addition to Trademarks for goods.
  • No separate application necessary for each category/class of goods or services; a single application would do, however filing fee will be charged separately for each class of goods/services.
  • The term of registration of trademark is ten years, subject to renewal thereafter
  • The system of maintaining registration of trademark in Part A and Part B with different legal rights, dispensed away.
  • Registration of trademarks which are imitations of well known trademarks not permitted.
  • Registration of Collective Marks owned by associations allowed.
  • Offences relating to trademark made cognizable.
  • Filing Fees enhanced by more than 8 times.
  • Extension of application of convention countries.


A 'Mark` may consist of a word or invented word, signature, device, letter, numeral, brand, heading, label, name written in a particular style, the shape of goods other than those for which a mark is proposed to be used, or any combination thereof or a combination of colors and so forth. Subject to certain conditions, a trademark may also be symbolized by the name of a person, living or dead.

For the purpose of registration, a mark chosen should be capable of distinguishing goods or services of one person from those of the others. Further it should not be deceptively similar to an existing mark of another person and not the one expressly prohibited under the Act.

The marks devoid of any distinctive character, or which are only indicative of the kind, quality, quantity, purpose, value or geographical origin of the goods, or which are marks already in vogue in the trade due to their customary use may not be registered. But these disqualifications do not apply to marks, which have already acquired distinction due to their popularity and consistent use. Internationally acclaimed brand names are freely available for use in India.


Under modern business condition a trade mark performs four functions:

  • It identifies the goods / or services and its origin.
  • It guarantees its unchanged
  • It advertises the goods/services
  • It creates an image for the goods/ services.


Under the Indian trademark law the following are the types of trademarks that can be registered:

  1. Product trademarks : are those that are affixed to identify goods.
  2. Service trademarks: are used to identify the services of an entity, such as the trademark for a broadcasting service, retails outlet, etc. They are used in advertising for services.
  3. Certification trademarks: are those that are capable of distinguishing the goods or services in connection with which it is used in the course of trade and which are certified by the proprietor with regard to their origin, material, the method of manufacture, the quality or other specific features.
  4. Collective trademarks: are registered in the name of groups, associations or other organizations for the use of members of the group in their commercial activities to indicate their membership of the group.


A person who claims to be the proprietor of the trademark can apply for the registration of its mark for goods as well services. A person may apply for registration of a trade mark to the Trademark office under whose jurisdiction the principal place of the business of the applicant in India falls. In case, the principal place of business is outside India, then the application can be filed in the Trademark office under whose jurisdiction the office of the lawyer appointed by you is located. In case of a company about to be formed, anyone may apply in his name for subsequent assignment of the registration in the company's favor. Before making an application for registration it is prudent to conduct a trademark search in the Trademark office in context of the already registered trademarks to ensure that registration may not be denied in view of resemblance of the proposed mark to an existing one or prohibited one

The right to use a mark can be exercised either by the registered proprietor or a registered user.


The legal requirements to register a trade mark under the Legislation are:

  • The selected mark should be capable of being represented graphically (that is in the paper form).
  • It should be capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of others.
  • It should be used or proposed to be used mark in relation to goods or services for the purpose of indicating or so as to indicate a connection in the course of trade between the goods or services and some person have the right to use the mark with or without identity of that person.


Term of registration of a trademark is ten years, which may be renewed for a further period of ten years on payment of prescribed renewal fees.

Non-user of a registered trademark for a continuous period of five years is a ground for cancellation of registration of such trademark at the behest of any aggrieved party.


The Registered Proprietor: The Registered Proprietor of a trade mark can stop other traders from unlawfully using his trade mark, sue for damages and secure destruction of infringing goods and or labels.

The Purchaser and ultimately Consumers of trademarks goods and services.

The Government : The Trademark Registry is expected to earn a substantial annual revenue, which is perpetually on the rise.

The form is archived in appendix 1.



When a company makes a new product it goes through various steps like deciding and evaluating brand name, its logo, its colour. After being completion of this step it has to pass some laws that is trademark registration. In India it is a mandatory to register the name of the brand.

Focusing on pharmaceutical companies, if the drug becomes successful then the company has to work for maintaining its reputation and brand name equity. In any case if the drug is recalled or banned, the company will definitely suffer a terrific loss. Hence, in both cases the company has to come up with their marketing strategies either to re-launch the drug or to make the drug sustain in the market.

The company mainly consists of four functional subsystems namely:

  • Marketing
  • Production
  • Finance
  • Personnel

The marketing function of the company aims to promote its products among customers, which helps it to obtain substantial sales orders. This, in turn, is communicated to the production subsystem which is concerned with the management of physical resources for the production of an item or provision of a service. This means that the available facilities also need to be managed to meet the current market requirements.

Marketing strategy includes the surveillance and excellent marketing strategies prepared by the Marketing manager. These strategies are basically meant for launching the new drug or re-launching the drug after the recall.


Marketing communication options includes the following :

  • Media advertising
  • Direct response advertising
  • Online advertising
  • Place advertising
  • Point of purchase advertising
  • Consumer promotion
  • Event marketing and sponsorship
  • Publicity and public realtions
  • Personal selling


Advertising is any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor. Media advertising includes TV, radio, newspaper and magazines. From brand equity perspective television advertising demonstrate product attributes and consumer benefits. There are some benefits and drawbacks of TV, radio, newspaper and magazine which are as under :

Television Mass coverage, high reach, high prestige, and attention getting Low selectivity, short message life, high absolute cost and muddled.
Radio Local coverage, low ost, high frequency, flexible and low production cost. Audio only, muddled, fleeting message and low attention getting device.
Newspaper High coverage, low cost, short lead time for placing ads, timely and can be used for coupons. Short life, muddled, low attention getting capabilities and poor reproduction quality
Magazines Segmentation potential, quality reproduction and high information content Long lead time for ad placement, visual only and lack of flexibility.

In pharmaceutical companies, the advertising of over the counter (OTC) drugs are allowed on television and radio. The advertising of branded drugs are done specifically in pharma magazine and pharma newspaper.

Eg. Advertisement of OTC products like crocin, revital, glycodine, volini etc is done through television and radio.

Advertisement of branded products or prescription drugs like Namsafe and Namcold tablet and syrup is done in pharma magazine and pharma newspaper.

There are three steps for designing an ad, it is also knows as 3M :

  1. Model : A person who works as an ambassador of a product and convey its benefits to target consumers.
  2. Message : The objective of an ad which a company is intended to deliver to target customers.
  3. Masses : The target customers for whom an ad is designed.


Direct response advertising establish relationship with consumers and it helps to explain to consumers new development with their brands as well as aloe consumers to provide feedback to marketers as to their likes and dislikes. Direct marketing is often seeing as a key component of relationship marketing. To implement an effective direct marketing program, three critical ingredients are developing an up-to-date and informative list of current and potential future customers, putting forth the right offer in the right manner, and tracking the effectiveness of the marketing program. Direct response advertising includes mail, telephone, broadcast media, print media, computer related and media related.


Marketers can also promote their products through online advertising by developing their own websites. Websites are low cost and contain much information about products. It should be family friendly. Websites must be updated frequently and offer such as customized information as possible, especially for existing customers.


Place advertising also called out of home advertising that captures advertising outside traditional media. Place advertising includes, billboards and posters, product placement and movies, airlines. Billboards are very effective means of advertising. It is showing up everywhere. Many marketers pay fee for their product placement in television programs. Product place can be combined with the special promotion to publicize a brand's entertainment tie-ins.


In-store advertising includes ads on shopping carts, cart straps, shelves as well as promotion options such as in-store demonstration, live sampling and instant coupon machines.


Consumer promotions are designed to change the choices, quantity and consumer;s product purchase. Consumer promotion includes samples, coupons, premiums, refund and rebates, contests and sweepstakes, bonus pack and price-offs. Sampling is seen as a mean of creating strong relevant brand associations.


Event marketing refers to public sponsorship of events. Event sponsorship provides a different kind of communication option for marketers. Marketers reports a number of reasons when they sponsor events. The reasons includes identification of a particular target market, to increase awareness of the company, to create consumer perceptions of key brand image associations, to enhance corporate image dimensions, to create experiences and evoke feelings, to express commitment to the community, to entertain key clients, to permit merchandising opportunities.


Public relations and publicity relates to a variety of programs and are designed to promote a company's image and its product. Publicity refers to non-personal communications such as press releases, media interviews, press conferences, feature articles, newsletters, photographs, films and tapes. Public relation may involve such things as annual reports, fund-raising and membership drives, lobbying, special event management, and public affairs.



If the brand is managed badly, any brand can disappear from the mind of the consumers. Many great and well-known brands have disappeared, others are struggling. Time is a proxy variable, a convenient indicator of the changes that affect society as well as markets, subjecting the brand to the risk of obsolescence on a double front i.e technological and cultural. With time, technological advances become more widely available and new cheaper entrants arrive that destabilize the balance of added-value of established brands, forcing them into never ending cycle of constant improvement. Time also marks the cultural evolution of values, more and consumer habits as time goes by, current clients grow older and a new generation emerges which has to be won over from scratch all over again. Finally time also wears down the sign, words, the symbols and the advertising campaigns of the brand.


Innovation is the conversion of new knowledge into new products and services. Innovation is about creating value and increasing productivity, and therefore growing your business. Success in business doesn't come from feeling comfortable. With many markets becoming more and more competitive as a result of new competitors from global or deregulated markets, those who innovate best will win in the future. You need to accept risk, measure performance, and embrace innovation. In today's technology-driven world, business life cycles have accelerated exponentially, but good innovation management basics always apply. The challenge is to keep a step ahead of changing market conditions, new technologies and human resources issues. To remain competitive, today's companies need to do more than simply deliver products or services that are better or cheaper than those of their rivals. They must also add features, improve performance, and reduce prices more quickly. They must be faster to launch new lines.

Innovation is the activity of people and organizations to change themselves and the environment. It means breaking routines and dominant ways of thinking, introducing new things and behaviours, launching new standards. A brand is the name that progress takes to gain access to the market. Innovations, source of growth and competitiveness, does not come easy. Moreover they are not miracles. Companies spend a significant amount of their turnover on innovation i.e. making changes to their established products, processes and services. The amount of investment can vary from as low as a half a percent of turnover for organisations with a low rate of change to anything over twenty percent of turnover for organisations with a high rate of change. The firm which innovates most devote an average of 3.2 percent of their sales to research and development. Innovation does not have to mean a technological breakthrough.


The marketing strategies of the company, as expected, are much more inclined towards the financial hookup. Public welfare is always given second preference. This means that most of the strategies are intended to recover financial losses rather than protecting the public. This is not to say that public interest is ignored. Public interest is one of the main points kept in mind while forming the strategies. But it takes a backseat with respect to the financial goals of the company. After the recall procedure is completed, the company suffers financial losses. These losses are unrecoverable because there is no other option than to destroy the recalled drug. Therefore, marketing strategies are not focused on recovering these losses. The only solution to make up for the loss is by increasing sales of some other product.

Some of these strategies are described below:

Suppose we have a Product-X which was moving very fast in the market prior to the recall or is a completely new product. Now after the recall when we have to re-launch the drug, the first thing to do is to make it available to the retailer base. This strategy must be the same in all of the headquarters of the company.

Then, we have to prepare a special marketing campaign on this product. We have to take the permission from the customers i.e. the doctors to visit them thrice in a month so that the product is registered in the doctor's mind.

The first visit is the "Rose Campaign". In this, before the starting of the Out Patient Department, the Medical Representative (M.R) keeps a Rose on the doctor's table in his cabin along with the product reminder. This helps the doctor to remember our product. On the same day, the M.R. writes a letter to the doctor's address reminding him to prescribe our product as much as possible. He also talks to the retailers and tries to convince them to "take care" of our product.

On the second visit, we get the feedbacks from the retailers. If the doctor is not prescribing our product, the M.R. again visits the doctor and asks him, "Sir, what can I do to register our product in your mind?" Until the doctor replies, he doesn't leave the doctor's chamber. Some doctors are really good at talking but do not prescribe even a single prescription. They may even lie to the M.R. and tell him that they are prescribing our drug but are not actually doing so. In this case, the M.R. responds in a diplomatic way by saying, "Sir, you are right but I have taken feedbacks from the nearby retailers and not even a single prescription has been sold." This makes the doctor more alert and more responsive towards our product. The M.R. thanks those doctors who have actually prescribed our product and asks them to continue their valued support.

On the third visit, again feedbacks are taken from the retailers. For the doctors who still haven't started prescribing our product, not much can be done. For those who have started prescribing, three cases are possible:

Some doctors may have prescribed the product only once or twice after the second visit. The M.R. again has to make some efforts to make the doctor more inclined towards our product.

Some doctors may have prescribed the product thrice or four times. The M.R. thanks them for prescribing the product but tells them that the product sale is not happening according to the doctors' potential. The doctor feels that he is important and he may start paying more attention to our product.

For those doctors who have been prescribing our product regularly, simple but sincere thanks is sufficient.

The three visits are scheduled at a gap of 10 days. Most companies convince the doctors to sell their product by giving them either simple gifts like pens, key chains etc. or big offers like family holidays, discount schemes etc. The choice of gifts depends on the willingness of the company to spend money on marketing procedures. But before offering such gifts, a good rapport has to be built with the doctor otherwise he may think he is being bribed. This strategy is very effective if pursued in a proper way.

When a new product is launched then MR took the permission of the doctor to call them regularly, to send postal reminder, to send email, to send text messages through mobile every morning before the starting of OPD. This strategy is applied to register the brand name of the product in the mind of the doctors. This procedure is continued for one to two months.

Another strategy includes celebration of 1st anniversary of the product. Take prior permission of the doctor about the celebration. Suppose the X product is launched on 21st September, than on completion of first year of that product, celebrate the success of the product with some of the potential doctors who have prescribed the product most and have contributed to make the product successful. According to the Executive Marketing Managers, this strategy works a lot and also helps to maintain the personal relation with the doctors and the doctors continues to prescribe that product for a longer period of time.



The brands decline when they are not respected. In far, their decline always comes from mismanagement. When a manufacturer ceases to be interested in his brands due to lack of innovation, advertising or productivity, he can expect the consumer to lose interest in the product.


If the consumer is losing its interest in the product then it is sure that their might be some problem in the management or the interest of the consumer is different. Some factors which are responsible for decline of the product are as follows.

  1. The first and surest road to decline is through the degradation of quality of the products. The brand ceases to be a sign of quality.
  2. The second factor of decline is the refusal to follow immediately a durable change. At the level of product policy, the brand associated with a single product is more vulnerable.
  3. Pricing policy can also accelerates the declining of the bramd by displacing it from the centre of the market, and by inviting premature arrival of distributers brand.
  4. The relationship with the distribution channel can be a factor of decline if the brand does not live up to the new expectations of it.
  5. Sometime brand have collapsed because they have allowed themselves to become trapped in a declining distribution network.
  6. Finally, communication can accelerate the decline of the brand. Beyond the obvious fact that ceasing to advertise means ceasing to exist in the market and ceasing to be an key actor, the sensible management of communication consist of modernizing the signs, but keeping the essence.


The awareness of the value of brand capital has led companies to re-examine their portfolios of weak brand, not with the intention of phasing them out but to give them a second life. The cost of launching a new brand are such that they justify the savings to be made resurrecting old and weak brand which may even have disappeared, but is still remembered and above all is legally registered. This is why brand which had disappeared from the market were reborn.

The notion of renewal covers a wide range of possibilities including the following :

  1. To halt the abrupt fall of sales of the leading brand to enable the recovery of a company on the verge of bankruptcy.
  2. To halt the slow but systematic fall of sales of a leading brand in its market. Refusing to accept the brand had come to the end of its life cycle, a new marketing team recognize the entire marketing mix including packaging and advertising. This drastic program cover all aspects of the marketing mix.
  3. To halt the fall of sales of an aging brand which has almost lost contact with the opinion leaders and the younger generation.
  4. To revive brands which have become marginal in terms of market share but still have goodwill among the public.
  5. To revive marginal brand which still have a certain fame but whose goodwill has disappeared or has been replaced by ill will among distributors, opinion leaders and the media.
  6. An extreme situation is the restoring of brands of another era which has already disappeared from the market.


The term "revival" of a brand is not quite accurate since it always implies a change in the product. In other words, a new product needs to be launched which meets the expectations of the new client and brings a true plus in comparision with the competitors. The brand must on the one hand become a model of quality, but also represent a concrete and significant change for today's customers who are already widely solicited by an over abundance of brands they are happy with. In fact, old brands need to be innovative.

Revitalizing a brand is first of all a task of creating a innovative product in line with the taste of today's new customers, not those of yesterdays. The revival of the brand sometimes requires a change of market. Rather than persist with the impossible it may be advisable to use the brand in market which are related and rapidly growing. Co-branding is an efficient tool for brand rejuvenation. Rejuvenation may also entail a name change. The issue of price is a very sensitive one when rejuvenating or trying to bring back old brands. If during the decline, the price had been slashed, a come back will be almost impossible. Not only will consumer resist, but so woll distributors who used that brand a promotional attraction.

Finally, a new opportunity to revive brand which have disappeared but which are still know and appreciated should be pointed out. Once again, manufacturers wil be able to profit from the numerous brand in their portfolio which were very well known yesterday but which are today more or less absent from the market.




Generic drugs are considered identical, or bioequivalent to the brand-name originals. They contain the same active substances and have the same quality, efficacy and safety. Generics may contain different inactive ingredients that do not have therapeutic effect. Generic name is the scientific name used to identify a specific molecule. Generic drugs are generally known by their INN rather than under a trade mark name.

An example of a generic drug, one used for diabetes, is metformin. A brand name for metformin is Glucophage. (Brand names are usually capitalized while generic names are not.) A generic drug, one used for hypertension, is metoprolol whereas a brand name for the same drug is Lopressor.


When a pharmaceutical company first markets a drug, it is usually under a patent that allows only the pharmaceutical company that developed the drug to sell it. Generic drugs can be legally produced for drugs where

  1. The patent has expired
  2. The generic company certifies the brand company's patent are either invalid, unenforceable or will not be infringed
  3. For drugs which has never held patents.
  4. In countries where patent are not in force

The expiration of a patent removes the monopoly of the patent holder on drug sales licensing. Patent lifetime differs from country to country, and typically there is no way to renew a patent after it expires. A new version of drug with significant changes to the compound could be patented, but this requires new clinical trials. In addition, a patent on a changed compound does not prevent sales of the generic version of the original drug unless regulators take the original drug off the market.

This allows the company to recover the cost of developing that particular drug. After the patent on a drug expires, any pharmaceutical company can manufacture and sell that drug. Since the drug has already been tested and approved, the cost of simply manufacturing the drug will be a fraction of the original cost of testing and developing that particular drug.

Many people become concerned because generic drugs are often substantially cheaper than the brand-name versions. They wonder if the quality and effectiveness have been compromised to make the less expensive products. The FDA requires that generic drugs be as safe and effective as brand-name drugs. Actually, generic drugs are only cheaper because the manufacturers have not had the expenses of developing and marketing a new drug.


Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. Generics are as safe as effective as the brand-name drugs. They show exactly the same pharmacological and clinical effects, and have the same risks and benefits as the brand-name products. So there's no truth in the myths that generic drugs are manufactured in poorer-quality facilities or are inferior in quality to brand-name drugs. The FDA applies the same standards for all drug manufacturing facilities, and many companies manufacture both brand-name and generic drugs. In fact, the FDA estimates that 50% of generic drug production is by brand-name companies.


The generic products must be bioequivalent to the originator medication. As generic drugs contain the same active substance, there is no necessity to repeat the pharmacological and clinical tests made with the original. Instead, they are replaced by bioequivalence studies. Both drugs are considered bioequivalent when they show same rate and extent of absorption in the human organism.


Their quality is ensured by FDA. Each generic drug is tested. It must enter the bloodstream at the same rate and extent as the brand name drug. Generic drugs must also be tested to show they are stable. A generic drug must have the same active drug ingredient and the same strength and quality as the brand name drug. FDA inspects the factories of generic drug companies. FDA decides whether generic drugs are safe and high quality before they are sold in the USA.

It's a myths that generic drugs are manufactured in poorer-quality facilities or are inferior in quality to brand-name drugs. The FDA applies the same standards for all drug manufacturing facilities, and many companies manufacture both brand-name and generic drugs. In fact, the FDA estimates that 50% of generic drug production is by brand-name companies. Both brands and generics are of the same quality, as their facilities have to meet the same strict productions standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP).


When a company brings a new drug onto the market, the firm has already spent substantial money on research, development, marketing and promotion of the drug. Generic drugs are considerably less expensive than the brand-name products, as the generic manufacturers do not have the costs necessary for development of an original product. Without the startup costs for development of the drug, other companies can afford to make and sell it more cheaply. The price of the generics is 30%-80% lower than the price of the equivalent brands.


Generic drugs provide a major benefit to the society. The healthcare systems save much money by the use of cost-effective generics. About 50% of all prescriptions in the United States, and more than 40% of all prescriptions in Canada are filled with generic medications.



Of the 11,167 FDA-approved drugs listed in the FDA's Orange Book, 8,400 have generic equivalents.


The global sales of generics have increased from $29 billion in 2003 to $78 billion in 2008 (IMS Health). The sales of generic drugs are expected to increase by 10-15% per year. The US market of generics is currently estimated at $33 billion and represents 42% of the global sales.


In 2004, the average price of a brand-name drug was $96.01, whereas the average price of a generic medication was $28.74 (data from the National Association of Chain Drug Stores). Generic drugs account for 51% of all prescriptions dispensed in the U.S.


FDA-approved generics provide the same health benefits as brands, but cost on average 70% less. These medications save consumers approximately 10 billion each year at retail pharmacies.


In a survey performed in 2002, 59% of the

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