“MEASURING CONSUMER BRAND PREFERENCES FOR BOTTLED WATER”

Preface

“Leaders aren't born, they are made. And they are made just like anything else, through hard work. And that's the price we'll have to pay to achieve that goal, or any goal”

Vincent Lombardi

All the knowledge learning and procedures are useless without observations and practical experience. The purpose of this research is to acquaint the business graduate with empirical business practices.

As a requirement for Bachelor's Degree in Business Administration, I opted to conduct my research on “Consumer Preferences of Bottled water”, to fulfill my degree requirement. The reason for choosing bottled water was to get practical knowledge about consumer behaviour, so as to provide myself an opportunity to cope with the real life situation.

This research covers the aspect about consumer's preferences regarding usage of a certain brand of bottled water. The research focuses on the fact that why a consumer uses a specific brand of bottled water. Is it taste, health consciousness, fashion or any other aesthetic factor that makes a consumers use a specific brand of bottled water. The main idea for this research came from the observation, that why a consumer is using only a specific brand of bottled water, regardless of the fact that all the bottled water brands are providing “pure and clean” water.

I felt that the knowledge that I have gained through this experience is an excellent way to think analytically for finding solutions to problems of day-to-day life. The study of consumer behavior and their preferences itself is a massive study comprising of different factors involved. It is impossible to study each one in detail and include everything in the report. However, I studied the consumer behaviour from preferences point of view.

I am thankful to all my colleagues and higher ups for their valuable guidance in preparing this report in a presentable fashion. I am also thankful to my parents, teachers and all my friends for their cooperation.

“MEASURING CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR BOTTLED DRINKING WATER”

CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study:

Bottled water consumption has been steadily growing in the world for the past 30 years. It is the most dynamic sector of all the food and beverage industry: bottled water consumption in the world increases by an average 7% each year, in spite of its excessively high price compared to tap water and although industrialized countries consumers have, in principle, access to cheap good quality tap water.

Bottled water is often an alternative to tap water. Consumers often object to the taste of chemicals, particularly chlorine, used to purify tap water. In France, nearly half of them don't usually drink tap water because of its bad taste (IFEN, 2000), as opposed to only 7% in United States (Olson, 1999).

Consumers also drink bottled water because they care for their health. In Europe, there is a long tradition, dating back to Roman times, of spas and of drinking mineral waters for medical purposes. In the 19th century, this activity developed with the fashion for upper classes to go to spas in order to improve their health. Spas owners weren't long in understanding that they could increase the wellness of their customers and their own benefits directly supplying them their water in bottles. Until the 1950s, mineral water was sold in drugstores as a health product. It has now become an everyday product. Natural mineral water, now sold in supermarket, doesn't carry along anymore this medical image. People now buy bottled water to feel well, responding to advertising campaigns based on well-being, energy, slimming, fitness etc. Bottled water is a healthy alternative to other beverages. It is calorie-free and attractive for people willing to lose weight: “one of the sparks that ignited the bottled water fire was the fitness craze that skyrocketed in the early 1980” (Sullivan, 1996).

Increasing urbanization can also explain this trend for bottled water consumption. In Increasing standards of living and greater use of cars enabled people to buy water in supermarkets and to bring home higher number of bottled water, without difficulty. The use of plastic makes bottles lighter and easier to carry than when they were made of glass. The expansion of shopping centers, outside city-centers, provides consumers with a greater choice in bottled water brands. The explosion of bottled water consumption also reflects deep changes in working habits in industrialized countries, with the decline of the agriculture and industry sectors. In these countries, most people have office works and the bottle of water is now a common element on a desk, next to the computer and the telephone. Drinking expensive bottled water (compared to tap water) is a sign of a rise in the social scale. In addition, bottled water is the result of a huge marketing success.

The bottled water market in Pakistan is witnessing annual growth rates nearing 40 percent. Bottled water in Pakistan is not considered a ‘beverage'. Beverage processing includes carbonated soft drinks - where Pakistan has the lowest per capita consumption in the world, fruit juices, syrups and juice flavoured drinks. Drinking water - and also bottled water - is not considered an important commodity either. The Government of Pakistan described the market for bottled water, with 33 million liters of consumption per annum in 1999, as small but growing. It furthermore estimated the consumption for 2003, as 70 million liters or 0.5 liters per capita. The bottled water market in Pakistan has witnessed annual growth rates of 40 percent, and after the introduction of Nestlé's ‘Pure Life', it had the fastest worldwide growth in bottled water in 2000, at 140%. Recent s estimate a yearly consumption of about 2 liters per person bottled water.

Bottled water is not a solution to inadequate water supplies as it is simply not affordable for poor people who lack access to water. A bottled water culture which turns drinking water into a status symbol is not justifiable from the human rights perspective. The Pakistan government is obliged to adopt measures to provide access to safe and sufficient water supplies even if that means restraining corporations from turning water into a status symbol to make profits, or from polluting or extracting already depleting groundwater resources.

1.2 Purpose of the Study:

This report/study is meant to:

Understand what factors are influencing the consumer preferences to make them purchase different brands of bottled water.
Identifying that what are the factors which affect the purchase of a specific bottled water brand.

1.3 Research Questions:

1. What do people expect from their water utility in the context of drinking water services?

2. What are consumers' priorities?

3. What do customers consider acceptable in terms of the product and the service they receive?

4. What are they willing to accept for the current price they pay?

5. Why do people prefer to use a specific bottled water brand in terms of their priorities?

1.4 Scope of the Work:

Scope of this report is limited to businessmen, professionals and students of Peshawar and Islamabad who are well users of bottled water.

1.5 Limitations of the Study:

Expected limitations of this research can be:

* Unavailability or Lack of data

* Response from people

* Limited time

* Resource constraint

1.6 Research Methodology:

The methodologies used for the research are as follows:

1.6.1.: Sample Unit:

The respondents selected were belonging to different social backgrounds and different professions.

1.6.2: Sample Population:

The study was conducted in Peshawar and Islamabad only.

1.6.3: Sample Size:

A total sample size of 100 respondents was fixed for the research.

1.6.4: Sampling Procedure:

Because of the limitations, convenient sampling has been selected, as the name implies, the sample is selected because they are convenient. This non probability method is often used during preliminary research efforts to get a gross estimate of the results, without incurring the cost or time required to select a random sample.

The sampling was on the basis of Judgemental Sampling i.e. Non-Probability Sampling Method was used.

1.6.2: DATA COLLECTION:

Both primary and secondary methods of data collection are used in the study.

1.6.2.1: Primary Data:

The data-collecting tool for primary data was the questionnaire. The questionnaires were compromised of questions about personal preferences of the respondents along with questions on the subject of study. The questions used likert scale and category scale. This enabled the respondents to answer questions by marking most suitable answers.

1.6.2.2: Secondary Data:

The most important source of secondary data for the study was articles from different websites and previous researches done on internet. Also different books and some related articles in different magazines and journal of marketing served as a source of secondary data.

1.7 Scheme of the Report:

The report will comprise of following sections:

Chapter 01: Introduction

Chapter 02: Literature Review

Chapter 03: Consumer Trust, Confidence and Customer Preferences for Drinking Water

Chapter 04: Analysis and Findings

Chapter 05: Conclusion and Recommendations

CHAPTER 02: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

The global water shortage of affordable and safe drinking water is manifested in Pakistan with an estimated 44 percent of the population without access to safe drinking water. In rural areas, up to 90 percent of the population may lack such access. As one indication of the magnitude of the problem, it is estimated that 200,000 children in Pakistan die every year due to diarrhoeal diseases alone (UN Systems in Pakistan, 2003). Drinking bottled water reflects not just a certain way of life in the rich North but a necessity and the only option for safe water in the South. Beside official s, there should be no doubt that the majority of the Pakistan's population is exposed to the hazard of drinking unsafe and polluted water. In an effort to improve this situation, many consumers in Pakistan have to turn to bottled water as a first alternative to drinking unfiltered tap water or contaminated water of other sources where no public drinking water service exists (GOP, Pakistan Environment Protection Agency, 2003).

However, bottled water is a very expensive alternative and not always healthy because of infrequent testing for contaminants and sporadic inspection of processing plants. Bottled water should not be considered as a substitute to a sufficient service with drinkable tap water, but it is due to lack of access to water services or to bad quality of available resources (WHO, 2000). Bottled water consumption has been steadily growing in the world for the past 30 years. It is considered as one of the most dynamic sectors of all the food and beverage industry, where consumption in the world increases by an average 12% each year, in spite of its excessively high price compared to tap water (UNESCO, 2003).

Bottled water consumption has been steadily growing in the world for the past 30 years. It is the most dynamic sector of all the food and beverage industry: bottled water consumption in the world increases by an average 7% each year, in spite of its excessively high price compared to tap water and although industrialized countries consumers have, in principle, access to cheap good quality tap water. This research report aims to provide background information on bottled water, the use of bottled water in order to understand the reasons of a trend that goes beyond a simple fashion and turns to be a real social phenomenon. It will first identify existing types of bottled water: although they seem very much alike, bottles of water don't contain the same product. The increase in bottled water consumption has boosted the bottled water industry and market trends show very promising perspectives for the future. This report will then identify the major reasons why consumers choose to buy specific expensive bottled water rather than drink tap water. It will finally analyze the impact this industry has on the environment.

2.2 Water - Global Trends and Pakistan's Struggle

Water is essential for human beings to survive and develop. At the same time, water is a scarce good, and shortage sometimes results in crises. Both facts lead to the simple conclusion that lack of water hinders development and a dignified life. This can be assessed from global trends, as well as from Pakistan's national and local struggles for better access for people to safe and sufficient drinking water.

2.3 Water - A Global but Scarce Good

According to s published by the United Nations, subsidiary organizations and other international organizations, 1.1bn people are without a sufficient access to water, and 2.4bn people have to live without adequate sanitation. Under current trends, the prognosis is that about 3bn people of a population of 8.5bn will suffer from water shortage by 2025. 83% of them will live in developing countries, mostly in rural areas where even today sometimes only 20% of the population have access to a sufficient water supply (Guissé, El Hadji, 2004). This actual lack of water is opposed to the theoretical conclusion that there is enough ground water existing in all regions of the world to guarantee an adequate water supply for all people. According to international law, in the case of concurring water users, the socio-economic priorities have to rest on human development and social interests of the people (UN, 1997). However, only 6% of global freshwater is used by households, while 20% is utilized industry and another 70% by agriculture. The conclusion drawn from these framework conditions is that water shortage and the unequal distribution of water are global problems rather than regional problems that require international solutions. Insufficient supply of drinking water is the main cause of diseases in developing countries. Already in 1997, the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development concluded that 2.3bn people suffer from diseases rooted in insufficient water provision and quality (UN, 1997). More than five years later, it was estimated that 2.4bn people were suffering from water related diseases, and the World Health Organization reckons that 80% of all infections are traceable to poor water conditions. 5,483 people die daily of water caused diarrhoea - 90 percent are children under five. Taking into account all water related diseases and deaths, international organizations estimated in 2001 that 2,213,000 people died because of inadequate water supply - ten times more than the tsunami disaster caused in December 2004 (UNESCO, 2003).

2.4 Poverty and Access to Water in Pakistan

It is acknowledged that lacking safe and sufficient drinking water - as with other basic needs such as food, shelter and education - is not a geographical but social problem. Being poor or rich is mainly decided by birth, and poverty perpetuates itself from generation to generation. Development strategies should be judged by their effort to break through this vicious cycle. Single indicators, such as literacy rates or households with access to water, are a litmus test for such an assessment.

2.4.1 Access to Water in Pakistan

Pakistan is an Islamic Republic, whose aim is to enable its Muslim majority “to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah” (Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973). Water is recognized in Islamic teachings as a vital resource, of which everyone has the right to a fair share. Following the Hadith, it is reported that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Muslims have common share in three (things): grass, water and fire” (Abu-Dawood 3470). Furthermore, the Holy Quran warns human beings against unfair distribution of common goods and the majority of scholars agree that Islam forbids speculation, manipulation and unbalance profit with a common good such as water (Faruqui, Naser I, 2001). In 1995, UNDP counted Pakistan as country having among the highest water potential per person out of 130 countries that should dramatically improve its water situation to overcome the current crisis and prevent future ones (IRIN, 2001). Obviously, Pakistan failed to make any improvement. In 2003, the United Nations dropped Pakistan's ranking, because its total renewable water resources per capita per year have been estimated as 114th out of 180 countries (UN, 2003). Only three percent of Pakistan's sweet water resources are used for household purposes and drinking (GOP, Pakistan Ministry of Water and Power, 2002). Therefore the debate about access to water in Pakistan is dominated by irrigation disputes, mega-projects of dams and canals, and climate change. The focus is on water for agriculture rather than for people (UNDP, 2003). This production oriented perspective continues in the debate about groundwater use and extraction. It is estimated that surface water meets only 75-80 percent of crop water requirements. As a result, groundwater is merely seen as a reserve water source for irrigation and food production, as well as the major factor for the growth of agricultural production in the late 20th century (World Bank, 1996).

With regard to the availability of safe and sufficient drinking water, Pakistan lacks reliable statistics. While data about the availability of water and field studies about water quality exist, there is no sufficient data that take both into account. Official data about the access to drinking water vary between 60 and 90 percent of households. In rural areas - where a decline of households with access to water is documented - s about availability differ between 10 and 53 percent. Differences in these statistics mainly emerge from the inclusion or exclusion of households that rely on privately owned wells and supply systems (Pakistan Mouza Report, 1998).

In addition, having access to water in Pakistan is not similar with having access to safe and sufficient water supply. Pakistan's water quality ranks as 80th out of 122 nations. Pipe water in Pakistan is contaminated either because of leakages with all sorts of bacteria or due to geological conditions and insufficient purification, with abnormally high levels of arsenic and elevated fluoride (IRIN, OCHA, 2004). Water, extracted by hand pumps - the major water source in rural areas - is mainly brackish water and not sufficient for drinking and cooking. The Pakistan Council of Research and Water Resources (PCRWR) estimate that almost 50 percent of urban water supply is insufficient for drinking and personal use (GOP, Pakistan Council of Research and Water Resources, 2004). According to a research which took data about availability and quality into relation and concluded that an average of 25.61 percent of Pakistan's 159 million inhabitants has access to safe and sufficient drinking water (Nils Rosemann, 2005). This calculation shows that in rural areas only 23.5 percent and in urban areas approximately 30 percent can use their source of water without jeopardizing their health. These findings come close to a conclusion by independent experts who predicted that already in 2001, with prevailing consumption rates and a population growth of 4 million people per year, one out of three people in Pakistan would face critical shortages of water, "threatening their very survival". The Government of Pakistan estimated with regard to diarrhoea that this mainly water related disease accounts for 14 percent of illnesses for children under five and for seven percent of all disease in people age five and older (GOP, Pakistan Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics, 2004). The Pakistan Council of Research and Water Resources (PCRWR) assesses that 40 percent of all reported illnesses are water-related. It is estimated that 200,000 children in Pakistan die every year due to diarrhoeal diseases alone (UN Systems in Pakistan, 2003). Unsafe water affects mainly rural and urban poor, who suffer above the average from sickness and water related diseases. (GOP, Pakistan National Human Development Report, 2003).

2.5 About Bottled Water

The term bottled water seems to tell that any bottle containing water, however there are important differences: all bottles don't contain the same product. There is very little in common between natural mineral water and purified water, as the chemical compositions or the treatments these waters can undergo respond to very different criteria that can change from one country to another. In some cases bottled water is merely bottled tap water.

2.5.1 Industry Definitions

Several terms are commonly used to describe the products of the bottled water industry, including some of the following:

* Artesian water - bottled water from a well that taps a confined aquifer (a water-bearing underground layer of rock or sand) in which the water level stands at some height above the top of the aquifer.

* Fluoridated Water - often used as a health focused drink for growing children, it contains fluorine within permissible limits.

* Ground water - obtained from underground sources, pumped out using pressure that is equal to or more then atmospheric pressure.

* Mineral water - An extremely specific product that must meet certain criteria. Defined as water with at least 250 parts per million total dissolved solids. The source of water is either ground water or a spring.

* Purified water or drinking water - is water taken from rivers, lakes or underground springs that has undergone some form of treatment. It can be produced by “distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis or other suitable processes. It can be chemically treated in order to have some components disappear. It is basically de-mineralized water from public sources. Purified water is actually a manufactured product.

* Sparkling water - water injected with carbon dioxide

* Spring water - water obtained from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the earth's surface.

* Sterile water - water that meets the requirements specified under government or other "sterility tests".

* Well water - water from a hole bored, drilled or otherwise constructed in the ground which taps the water of an aquifer. (IBWA, 2000)

If these waters contain the minimum required mineral content according to US standards, they can be called “mineral waters”. So many different categories of bottled water, changing from one country to another, are not easy for consumers to differentiate.

2.5.2 What is Distilled Water?

Distillation is a process that leaves water free of minerals. Distilled water has been brought up to a boiling temperature. The steam is captured and is cooled, which condenses it back into a liquid form. When the water turns to steam, anything heavier than water (like minerals, or unwanted organic matter) is left behind.
Thus, distilled water only contains water. Distilled water is good to use in appliances such as coffee makers because since it contains no minerals it does not leave behind lime scale.

2.5.3 Packaging

Packaging used for water can have very different shapes and colours and are made of different materials. For a long time, bottled water was only available in glass, a very good but heavy material. At the end of the 1960s, bottlers started to use packaging made of PVC (vinyl polychlorure). In the 1980s, a new kind of plastic started being used: PET (polyethylene terephtalate). PET is progressively replacing PVC because of its numerous advantages.

Plastic, either PVC or PET, is the most frequently used material to make bottles of water; about 70% of the bottles used for natural mineral water are made of plastic. Bottles usually contain 33cl, 50cl, 1 litre, 1.5 litre, 2 litres or 5 litres. The biggest packaging for bottled water is a 5-gallon carboy (about 20 litres).

Packaging is an essential part of bottled water marketing strategies. “The packaging makes the brand. The brand makes the packaging. A product must have visibility to sell its presentation refers to notions such as service, security, hygiene” (Miquel, 1999). In some cases, such as Kinley, it is even possible to recognize the brand of the bottled water thanks to the shape and colour of its packaging. Some brands have reshaped their bottles in order to make them look like the marketing message they are supposed to carry. Many bottles, for instance, now high mountains not only on the labels but also on the plastic itself.

The packaging is an important part of the bottled water marketing success. All types of bottles coexist and are regularly reshaped in order to better catch consumers' attention.

Marketing and advertising campaigns are essential to differentiate the product and attract consumers. Brands tend to associate with specific activities: sport, fitness, slimming, fashion, etc. For the last 50 years, Evian has been the water of babies, emphasizing that its low mineral concentration is suitable for them. The brand's marketing strategy capitalizes on infants, from the pink colour of its labels to advertising campaigns.

2.6 Bottled water market trends and Planet's Health

The world bottled water market amounts to an annual volume of 89 billion litres, which represents an average 15 litres of bottled water drunk yearly per person (Danone, 2000).

Western Europeans are the major consumers, drinking nearly half of all the world bottled water, with an average of 85 litres/person/year (Sollberger, 1994). In United States, 54% of Americans regularly drink bottled water (Olson, 1999). More than half (59%) of the bottled water drunk in the world is purified water, the remaining 41% being spring or mineral water (Belot, 2000).

Bottled water is an extremely competitive market; hence companies need to develop diverse marketing strategies.

But according to campaigners, the planet's health may be suffering as a result.

A new report warns that people's thirst for bottled water is producing unnecessary garbage and consuming vast quantities of energy, even in areas where perfectly good drinking water is available on tap.

The report, released by the Earth Policy Institute (EPI), says global consumption of bottled water doubled between 1999 and 2004, reaching 41 billion gallons (154 billion liters) annually.

2.7 Bottled Water Market in Pakistan

Before focusing on Pakistan in particular, one should note that bottled water consumption has generally grown around the world in the past 30 years, despite its high price compared to tap water. Lured by the potential for huge profits, multinational companies have been trying to create an international market for bottled water.

The bottled water market in Pakistan is witnessing annual growth rates nearing 40 percent. Bottled water in Pakistan is not considered a ‘beverage'. Beverage processing includes carbonated soft drinks - where Pakistan has the lowest per capita consumption in the world, fruit juices, syrups and juice flavoured drinks (Pakistan Investors Guide, 2004). Drinking water - and also bottled water - is not considered an important commodity either. Water supply and prices for drinking water and bottled water are not considered under the items in the Sensitive Price Indicator, Consumer Price Index or Wholesale Price Index. From this perspective; it is obvious that Pakistan has low consumption of bottled water. The Government of Pakistan described the market for bottled water, with 33 million litres of consumption per annum in 1999, as small but growing. It furthermore estimated the consumption for 2003, as 70 million litres or 0.5 litres per capita. The bottled water market in Pakistan has witnessed annual growth rates of 40 percent, and after the introduction of Nestlé's ‘Pure Life', it had the fastest worldwide growth in bottled water in 2000, at 140% (The Bottled Water Industry of Pakistan, 2004). Recent s estimate a yearly consumption of about 2 litres per person bottled water (Nils Rosemann, 2005). Compared with Thailand's 43 litres and Philippine's 15 litres per capita consumption, this seems relatively low. But taking Pakistan's population into account, one has to estimate an annual consumption of 318 million litres. While, sufficient s are not available to prove this 964 percent consumption increase in five years, one is able to conclude that Pakistan is a highly dynamic and lucrative market.

Market expectations are as high in the retail market of bottled water as in the household and operations sector for bulk water. Besides these market expectations, the production of bottled water is also considered quite profitable. It is estimated that a bottle of 1.5 litres has production costs of PKR 12.51 while it is sold for PKR 22 (Nils Rosemann, 2005). The profit is shared between producing corporations, with PKR 0.66-0.83, and middleman, with PKR 6.66-7.08. By this standard, the producing corporation makes a profit of 4-5 percent while the middleman makes a profit of 27-30.55 percent. In Pakistan's water market, there are approximately 20 permanent players. Official s show an estimated number of 26 corporations, while in summer time, this number increases up to 70 (Nils Rosemann, 2005). But from the perspective of quality control, PCRWR is witnessing a fluctuation in the market of 50 percent, e.g. half of the brands disappear and are replaced by new brands yearly (PCRWR, 2003). In 2005, PSQCA admitted that 200 companies are selling bottled water in Pakistan, but only 27 are registered as maintaining standards stipulated for the product (Hoti, Ikram, 2005). Nestlé itself estimates approximately 150 water brands, with only 15 registered under the PSQCA scheme (Hoti, Ikram, 2005). Regardless of this data, it is unquestioned that Nestlé controls the majority of the market (over 50 percent) with its brands ‘Pure Life', AVA and Fontalia, while Danone's subsidy 22 “Sparkletts” holds 12 percent and another local brand “BSW” has an estimated five percent market share (Nils Rosemann, 2005).

Bottled water is not a solution to inadequate water supplies as it is simply not affordable for poor people who lack access to water. A bottled water culture which turns drinking water into a status symbol is not justifiable from the human rights perspective. The Pakistan government is obliged to adopt measures to provide access to safe and sufficient water supplies even if that means restraining corporations from turning water into a status symbol to make profits, or from polluting or extracting already depleting groundwater resources.

2.8 Bottled water consumption: a certain way of life

Some consumers choose to only drink bottled water; we can identify several reasons for drinking bottled water.

2.8.1. Consumers care for their health and safety

Bottled water is often an alternative to tap water. Consumers often object to the taste of chemicals, particularly chlorine, used to purify tap water. In France, nearly half of them don't usually drink tap water because of its bad taste (IFEN, 2000), as opposed to only 7% in United States (Olson, 1999).

Consumers also look for security, in emerging as well as in industrialized countries. They often mistrust their tap water, because of previous bacterial contamination for instance, and perceive bottled water as being safer than tap water. In India, the suspicion of bad tap water quality, in addition to general and seasonal shortages of tap water, lead people to turn to bottled water. In Pakistan, only three percent of the nation's sweet water resources are used by households, for various purposes including cooking and drinking. In industrialized countries, they fear faecal contamination or high nitrate levels in areas of intensive agriculture and cattle-breeding. Recent food scandals probably had an important impact on consumers' attitude. “People are scared of water running in rusty urban water pipes” (Lenzner, 1997).

However, bottled water is not necessarily safer than tap water. In 1986, an EPA survey of 25 bottlers showed that none of them had ever had a complete analysis of their water.

Bacteriological surveillance was inadequate in most cases.

Consumers also drink bottled water because they care for their health. In Europe, there is a long tradition, dating back to Roman times, of spas and of drinking mineral waters for medical purposes. In the XIXth century, this activity developed with the fashion for upper classes to go to spas in order to improve their health. Spas owners weren't long in understanding that they could increase the wellness of their customers and their own benefits directly supplying them their water in bottles. Until the 1950s, mineral water was sold in drugstores as a health product. It has now become an everyday product. Natural mineral water, now sold in supermarket, doesn't carry along anymore this medical image. People now buy bottled water to feel well, responding to advertising campaigns based on well-being, energy, slimming, fitness etc. Bottled water is a healthy alternative to other beverages. It is calorie-free and attractive for people willing to lose weight: “one of the sparks that ignited the bottled water fire was the fitness craze that skyrocketed in the early 1980” (Sullivan, 1996). Indeed, bottled water consumption is closely linked to the way consumers face their nutrition, i.e. the current trends for healthier eating. In United States, the bottled water industry openly admits that “it has substantially benefited from labelling requirements for beverages such as diet soda, which have caused concern among many consumers about the ingredients in these drinks. The IBWA's primary spokeswoman recently noted that "the more people realize what's in some of these drinks, the more they turn to water for what it doesn't have..."” (Olson, 1999). Bottled water is a more female and adult market than sodas.

However, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), bottled waters haven't got greater nutritive value than tap water. “There is almost a craze to drink “natural” or “spring” waters, either aerated or still. Many consumers believe that these waters, coming from springs, lakes, rivers or wells, have near-magical qualities and great nutritive value. This idea is false. Bottled water may contain small amounts of minerals such as calcium, magnesium and fluoride, but so does tap water from many municipal water supplies. A study comparing popular brands of bottled water showed that they were in no way superior to tap water. They have only the advantage of being safe in areas where tap water may be contaminated. However, for low-income people bottled water are very expensive and boiling local water renders it safe at a much lower cost” (Latham, 1997).

2.8.2 Changes in ways of life

Increasing urbanization can also explain this trend for bottled water consumption. In Increasing standards of living and greater use of cars enabled people to buy water in supermarkets and to bring home higher number of bottled water, without difficulty. The use of plastic makes bottles lighter and easier to carry than when they were made of glass. The expansion of shopping centres, outside city-centres, provides consumers with a greater choice in bottled water brands. The explosion of bottled water consumption also reflects deep changes in working habits in industrialized countries, with the decline of the agriculture and industry sectors. In these countries, most people have office works and the bottle of water is now a common element on a desk, next to the computer and the telephone. Drinking expensive bottled water (compared to tap water) is a sign of a rise in the social scale. In addition, bottled water is the result of a huge marketing success. Marketing and advertising are of primary importance to make the difference between brands selling such a similar product, a product that is colourless, (nearly) tasteless and odourless. Advertising costs are covered through the price of bottled water, comprising 10% to 15% of the price of one bottle of water. “Bottled water marketing seeks to emphasize the supposed purity of bottled water, in many cases contrasting "pure" and "protected" bottled water with "inconsistent" or unpredictable tap water quality. In the words of a leading industry consultant, "Water bottlers are selling a market perception that water is 'pure and good for you'...." ” (Olson, 1999). In France, sales of Evian water have grown by 5% in 1999, thanks to a successful advertising campaign.

CHAPTER 03: Consumer Trust, Confidence and Customer Preferences for Drinking Water

3.1 Overview

Today, when fresh water supplies are stretched to meet the demands of industry, agriculture and an ever-expanding population, the shortage of safe and accessible drinking water will become a major challenge in many parts of the world. In the wake of a boost in the general awareness about health and hygiene, there is growing concern for the safety and quality of drinking water. A solution to this problem has come in the shape of bottled drinking water which is widely available in both industrialized and developing countries. No doubt this bottled drinking water represents a significant cost to the consumer, but the consumers buy it for various reasons such as taste, convenience or fashion, emergency or necessity, but for many consumers, safety and potential health benefits are important considerations.

This report takes an overview of the research that addresses the following general questions in relation to drinking water:

1. What do people expect from their water utility in the context of drinking water services?

2. What are consumers' priorities?

3. What do customers consider acceptable in terms of the product and the service they receive?

4. What are they willing to accept for the current price they pay?

5. Why do people prefer to use a specific bottled water brand in terms of their priorities?

Water is in many senses unique among consumer products and it has a number of features that mark it out as different from other consumer goods or services. First, access to clean drinking water is now a human right. When the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was first drafted water and air were omitted as they were regarded as necessary preconditions for all other human rights and so were not explicitly mentioned. In November 2002 the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights finally affirmed that access to clean water was indeed a fundamental human right. Second, safe water supplies are a prerequisite for stable healthy societies. While wealthy consumers can choose to drink bottled waters to avoid health risks, this is not an option for large portions of the citizens of even in the most developed nations. The current large population and the success of the growing economies of our country are fundamentally dependent on the existence of safe drinking water supplies and thus government is motivated to ensure its continued existence and success. Unlike electricity or gas supplies, which are increasingly the subject of competition between privatized suppliers, most Pakistani consumers have little choice over their tap water supply. If they desire a better or different water supply they have to either purchase water in bottles or seek private well supplies if such are available locally, and this is not a market in the traditional sense.

In common with other utilities like gas and electricity supplies, Pakistani consumers generally take these for granted until there is some disruption in supply or price rises are proposed. However, unlike gas and electricity, humans have an intimate physical relationship with their water and any health risks it might pose can vary over time.

Given these special features of water much of the general literature on the behaviour of consumers exercising preferences in markets is of questionable relevance. In this report the focus is primarily on consumer's preferences in selection of bottled water.

3.1.2 Consumer Trust and Confidence: An Overview and Customer Preferences

For Drinking Water

Researching preferences in the water sector is a far from straight forward task. Consumers often cannot articulate their preferences or indeed may not have considered preferences for a product or service which they take for granted and rarely think about. In some situations they may even be motivated to misrepresent their preferences to researchers especially if they believe that their answers will have an effect on the prices they pay for their water.

The discussion includes consumers' taste and odour preferences but do so only in the context of these as triggers for consumer complaints and use of bottled waters. This research do not discusses particular threshold levels of contaminants as there are large in number and are already embedded in the Pakistan Standard Specification for Bottled Drinking Water Directive's and WHO standards. Most suppliers conduct their own sensory research relating directly to their own waters and supply circumstances and should be well aware of this aspect of consumer preferences.

3.2Consumer Preferences and Related Concepts

As with much research on consumers, and indeed social science in general, there is a lot of terminological confusion. The following definitions of key terms are provided in the hope of clarifying the following discussion of the literature.

3.2.1 Consumer Satisfaction

Consumer satisfaction and acceptance are often considered in the literature to be closely linked yet these are distinct concepts. Satisfaction is the fulfillment and gratification of the need for a stated good or service, here, bottled water.

3.2.2 Consumer Acceptance

Acceptance describes consumer willingness to receive and/or to tolerate. For example, a customer might accept the occurrence of a certain number of yearly supply interruptions given a certain price. Consumer acceptance and satisfaction are related, as the first is a precursor of the latter. However, despite the fact that satisfaction and acceptance can be thought of as lying on a continuum, acceptance does not automatically lead to satisfaction. Weighing needs or preferences against provided product or service attributes results in the balance of satisfaction pointing in a negative or positive direction, depending on whether interests are conflicting or corresponding. This determines the way in which people evaluate companies' or utilities' performance. Only when a consumer's needs for a stated good or service are met, i.e. when the service provided corresponds with their preferences, will they feel satisfied. Customer satisfaction can be enhanced when their needs are met (in terms of both quality and quantity) and accord with their preferences. At the other end of this dimension, where the service provided conflicts with the prevailing needs or preferences, customers may experience feelings of dissatisfaction.

3.2.3 Consumer Concerns

These are expressed anxieties or unease over an object broadly defined, e.g. discoloured tap water.

3.2.4 Consumer Preferences

This is used primarily to mean an option that has the greatest anticipated value among a number of options. This is an economic definition and does not tap into ‘wishes' or ‘dreams' (for e.g. that safe drinking water was free, that there should be world peace) but for all practical purposes is an appropriate definition. Preference and acceptance can in certain circumstances mean the same thing but it is useful to keep the distinction in mind with preference tending to indicate choices among neutral or more valued options with acceptance indicating a willingness to tolerate the status quo or some less desirable option.

3.2.5 Consumer Expectations

The distinction between expectations and preferences is often blurred though the concepts are distinct. Expectation is used in three slightly differing senses in the literature. One is the act of expecting or looking forward - a belief about what will happen in the future. Most consumers in Pakistan expect that clean and safe water will come out of their taps the next time they turn them on. A related but more technical use of expectation is to denote a more formal estimation of the probability of an event occurring. These first two definitions can be distinguished from preference in that preferences refer to some desired state and, as in the above definition, imply that more than one state is possible and that there are some options. Unfortunately expectation is also used more loosely to mean a requirement or demand for something and in this sense is a kind of strong preference. When reading the literature it is important to ascertain which definition is being used.

3.2.6 Consumer Awareness

Consumer awareness is the level of knowledge about, in this case, water which includes the water company, regulatory framework, supply system and service, or the water itself. In most research the adequacy or otherwise of this awareness is anchored against the service provider or regulator's perspective on the supply. Where consumer awareness does not equate with this industry perspective this is often termed a consumer (mis)perception. However, it should be noted that there is a distinction between holding factually incorrect knowledge about the supply system (for e.g. that the water comes from a river when it comes from an aquifer) and differing perspectives on, say, the safety of the supply. In the latter example assessments of safety are judgements made under uncertainty about the future and thus have a legitimately contestable truth status. What is acceptably safe is a matter of judgement (potentially based on ‘good science' but a judgement under uncertainty nonetheless) and may or may not be a mis-perception'.

3.2.7 Consumer Attitudes

An attitude is a positive or negative evaluation of a social object or action. A ‘social object' in the present context might mean the water company, water regulations, supply system and service, or the water itself. Many theories of attitudes (e.g. the well-known theory of planned behaviour, Ajzen, 1985) have attitude as a factor involved in determining behavioural choices, however there is considerable continuing debate about when, and in what circumstances, attitudes are important determinants of behaviour. An attitude toward something should thus not be taken to imply that attitude consistent behaviour will automatically follow.

3.2.8 Consumers and the Public

While discussing definitional clarity it is worth acknowledging that ‘the consumer' is not a representative of a single homogeneous group, ‘the public'. Social scientists prefer to use the term ‘publics' to reflect the idea that not all members of ‘the public' share the same goals and values nor have the same relative power status within any society. A crude example we will return to later is that the poor/unemployed are unable to pay for some services and it would be a mistake to ignore the importance of this different status when studying preferences.

In the case of water consumption, all members of the population have to consume water from some source but some are the direct payers of water bills (customers), some pay indirectly (e.g. those living in care homes, or some forms of rented accommodation) and others are dependents of customers. These differing groups will have differing relationships with suppliers and may well have different preferences (Dr. Chris Fife-Schaw, Dr. Tanika Kelay, 2007).

3.3 Water Quality - Taste and Odour and other Aesthetic Judgements

It will come as no surprise that most studies show that consumers' primary expectation is that their supplier will provide safe, clean drinking water (Bates, 2000). Burn, Tucker, Rahilly et al (2003) for example found that in the context of water companies' management of Australia's state water resources, the main priorities set by the consumers is, quality of water supply.

Research carried out by the UK's Drinking Water Inspectorate also explored consumer preferences and issues of concern about drinking water. They found that consumers prioritised safe clean drinking water. For example, the UK's Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI, 2000) demonstrated that most respondents were relatively satisfied with their drinking water. Similarly, Dutch research has demonstrated that consumers are not particularly concerned about water quality issues (Martijn, de Rooy & Piriou, 1998) and this seems to be a general finding across the EU. But in Pakistan, this might not be the case. Pakistan lacks reliable statistics on water supply for human consumption. Researchers point out that the varying estimates often overlook whether available water is safe or sufficient. Available piped water in Pakistan is often contaminated due to leakages or geological conditions or insufficient purification. And that is the reason why people in Pakistan are mostly concerned about drinking water quality issues.

Consumers' sensory perceptions of their water are quite well tuned (cf. Falahee & MacRae, 1995) and thus aesthetic estimations of tap water quality (e.g. taste and odour and colour) will have an impact upon judgements of apparent quality and safety. Taste and odour while being interlinked, tend to relate to different factors, with the sense of taste being most attuned to the inorganic constituents of water, with the sense of smell relating more to organic constituents of water (Health Canada, 1995; WHO, 1997). Much lower concentrations of substances can be detected by odour than can by taste, with taste; odour and temperature all contributing to complex sensation of flavour (Health Canada, 1995).

McGuire (1995) reported that, if consumers detect an ‘off-flavour' in their drinking water, they are likely to believe that it is unsafe to drink. Thus changes in the system and/or water source can have a large impact upon perceived water quality and resultant levels of expressed concern. Sensory perceptions of tap water which may or may not relate to the underlying quality or safety of the water, can lead to modifications in behaviour and in some cases individuals may seek alternative sources. For example, in the DWI (2000) study some participants who felt concerned about the physical properties of their tap water modified their behaviour by filtering their tap water before drinking it. Others opted not to drink the water at all on the grounds that it looked, smelt or tasted unpleasant. Many studies find that consumption of filtered or bottled water reflects aesthetic preferences (e.g. taste and odour) rather than overt concern for risks associated with tap water (DEFRA, 2002; IFEN, 2000; Means et al, 2001; DWI, 2000), although some studies (Doria, 2006; Dupont, 2005) find both aesthetic preferences and health concerns can lead consumers to opt for bottled water, with consumer trust in the water company also influencing consumption choices. Some consumption of bottled water may also occur because of consumer preferences for water that is chilled or sparkling.

Certainly the growth in bottled water consumption in developed countries is largely independent of objective tap water quality (UNDESA, 2006). A survey of 1846 people across England and Wales found that, compared with the risk of consuming food items such as chicken and beef, drinking tap water was perceived to be of low risk (DWI, 2000). The study found that 69% of respondents were satisfied with their tap water quality. The main reasons cited for dissatisfaction were related to aesthetic qualities of the water. Eighty-six percent of those surveyed said they regularly drank tap water, whilst only 6% drank bottled water only. Here, bottled water consumption was attributed to a dislike of the taste and odour of tap water. Consumers have a finely attuned sense of taste where water is concerned. Falahee & MacRae (1995) carried out a study using untrained members of the public to evaluate preferences for different types of drinking water. They found that bottled waters were preferred to distilled or tap waters by the majority of assessors, with waters of higher mineral content being preferred. Similarly Koseki and colleagues (Koseki, Nakagawa, Tanaka, Noguchi, & Omochi, 2003; Koseki, Fujiki, Tanaka, Noguchi, & Nishikawa, 2005) found clear preferences for alkaline electrolysed waters over tap waters (and, indeed, some bottled waters). These kinds of findings lend some credence to consumers' claims to be choosing bottled waters because they can taste the difference.

In slight contrast to the above, a survey conducted amongst 400 residents of Georgia, USA (Adote Abrahams, Hubbell, & Jordan, 2000) found that consumers who were dissatisfied with the taste, odour, and/or appearance of tap water were willing to pay for bottled water but claimed that they were also doing so to avoid health risks from tap water. These authors found that use of bottled water tends to be higher amongst consumers who had experienced problems with their municipal tap water. People who felt their water was ‘unsafe' were also more likely to use treatment devices, whereas the aesthetic qualities of water did not feature as significant determinants of use of these devices though they were significant in the case of bottled water use. They state that the use of water filters is an averting behaviour undertaken to reduce the risks associated with drinking tap water. Bottled water use in this study seems to be both a risk avoiding and taste enhancing behaviour.

3.4 The False Perception:

A bottle of spring or mineral water has become the lifestyle accessory of the health-conscious, no longer a luxury item, the beverage has become a common sight worldwide. In Pakistan, the core proposition of bottled drinking water lies in hygiene because the quality of tap water is bad and is rapidly deteriorating due to the aging of the water and sewerage pipes. This is in stark contrast with the West where 'mineral water' indicates the attendant minerals present in the water. Mineral water in Western countries is obtained from natural springs and is, generally, named after those springs. Most of the bottled water passed off as mineral water in Pakistan, however, is filtered, boiled or purified by other means such as chlorination, deionization and reverse osmosis. A better description of bottled drinking water sold in Pakistan therefore, would be “purified bottled water”. The non-existence of strict norms on bottled drinking water in Pakistan has led to the mushrooming of many small-scale units producing bottled water under different brand names.

A 1997 United Nations report concluded that bottled water has no nutritional advantage over tap water, so why do so many people think otherwise.

Co-op America advises consumers “to be wary of words like ‘pure,' ‘pristine,' ‘glacial,' ‘premium,' ‘natural' or ‘healthy.' They're basically meaningless words added to labels to emphasize the alleged purity of bottled water over tap water.” The group points out that, in one case, bottled water labeled as “Alaska Premium Glacier Drinking Water: Pure Glacier Water from the Last Unpolluted Frontier” was actually drawn from Public Water System #111241 in Juneau.

The Natural Resources Defense Council, which carried out a four-year review of the bottled water industry, concluded "there is no assurance that just because water comes out of a bottle, it is any cleaner or safer than water from the tap."

The New York City-based action group added that an estimated 25 percent of bottled water is "really just tap water in a bottle—sometimes further treated, sometimes not."

In Great Britain the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management recently published a report questioning the quality, labeling, and environmental cost of bottled water.

"Branding and bottling of water where there already exists a wholesome and safe supply of … drinking water cannot be seen as a sustainable use of natural resources," said Nick Reeves, the institution's executive director.

He says the perception that the bottled product is purer than tap water is unfounded.

"For example," he said, "the high mineral content of some bottled waters makes them unsuitable for feeding babies and young children."

Meanwhile, in many developing countries, tap water is either unavailable or unsafe, making bottled water a better option.

Although there are relatively few regulations on what bottled water can contain, people have very differing opinions on possible benefits and drawbacks of bottled water. Currently there are multiple studies showing numerous bottled water brands containing harmful substances. According to a four-year scientific study by the Natural Resources Defense Council, over a third of the tested brands contain contaminants such as arsenic and carcinogenic compounds. This study of 103 different brands encompassing over 1,000 bottles showed that one-third of the water in these bottles exceeded state or industry safety standards.

An earlier study by Ohio State University (found at Common Dreams News Center) found that 39 out of 57 bottled water samples did indeed have "purer" water than tap water. However, 15 samples had significantly high bacteria samples. The scientists agreed that all of the water was safe to drink, but the study clearly showed how claims of bottled water purity can be misleading. While one can evaluate the chemical contents of water, most consumers choose bottled water for its taste. A large majority of bottled water consumers drink bottled water because they believe it has better health benefits, and many consume such large quantities due to its taste. Globally most people associate bottled water with tasting better. There have been few quality studies regarding health effects of drinking bottled water. Many researchers believe that the benefits of bottled water are based mainly on a common ideology.

More than a quarter of bottled water is just plain tap water. Coca-Cola bottles water from municipal sources in Calgary and Brampton for its Dasani brand. Pepsi bottles water from municipal sources in Vancouver and Mississauga for its Aquafina brand. In October 2007, in the US, Pepsi was forced to admit the truth: It must label its Aquafina bottles as "tap water from a public water source." (Larsen, 2007)
Kahlown and Tahir (2001) conducted a research study on quality analysis of bottled/mineral water. A sample of 21 available bottled water brands was collected and analyzed. Aesthetic and physical quality of most brands was found acceptable, whereas many brands of mineral water were found to be bacteriologically contaminated.

Bottled water brands do not ease the identification of the product, often showing misleading images on their bottles' labels, such as lakes and mountains when the water actually comes from municipal networks.

A 2001 World Wildlife Fund (WWF) study confirmed the widespread belief that consumers associate bottled water with social status and healthy living. Their perceptions trump their objectivity, because even some people who claim to have switched to bottled water “for the taste” can't tell the difference: When Good Morning America conducted a taste test of its studio audience, New York City tap water was chosen as the heavy favorite over the oxygenated water 02, Poland Spring and Evian. Many of the “facts” that bottled water drinkers swear by are erroneous. Rachele Kuzma, a Rutgers student, says she drinks bottled water at school because “it's healthier” and “doesn't have fluoride,” although much of it does have fluoride (Brian C. Howard, 2007)

The number one (Aquafina) and two (Dasani) top-selling brands of bottled water in the U.S. both fall in the category of purified water. Dasani is sold by Coca-Cola, while Aquafina is a Pepsi product. As U.S. News & World Report explains, “Aquafina is municipal water from spots like Wichita, Kansas.” The newsmagazine continues, “Coke's Dasani (with minerals added) is taken from the taps of Queens, New York, Jacksonville, Florida, and elsewhere.” Everest bottled water originates from southern Texas, while Yosemite brand is drawn from the Los Angeles suburbs. (Brian C. Howard, 2007)

Over the past few years the displays of bottled water in supermarkets and other retail outlets have grown to occupy anywhere from a single shelf up to one complete aisle of sales floor space containing brands of table, still, sparkling and flavoured water. The rapid increase in sales of bottled water to the general public in spite of its high costs compared to tap water may be due to a variety of reasons, including: an increased awareness of the need to consume regular quantities of fluids in order to maintain good general health, the questionable quality of reticulated water systems in relation to disease, convenience, fashion or other as yet unidentified reasons. (MacKenzie et al., 1994)

3.5 Introduction to Bottled water companies in Pakistan

Bottled water in Pakistan is not considered a ‘beverage'. Beverage processing includes carbonated soft drinks - where Pakistan has the lowest per capita consumption in the world, fruit juices, syrups and juice flavoured drinks. The bottled water market in Pakistan has witnessed annual growth rates of 40 percent, and after the introduction of Nestlé's ‘Pure Life', it had the fastest worldwide growth in bottled water in 2000, at 140% (The Bottled Water Industry of Pakistan, 2004).

3.5.1 NESTLE:

In regard to the dynamic prospects of Pakistan's bottled water market, it is not surprising that Nestlé wanted to take shares of it. In its mission statement, Nestlé concludes that its brand ‘Pure Life' is the “base of operations to meet the need of the continent's emerging nations for clean, good-tasting water in convenient sizes and packages to satisfy a family's daily requirements”. The development of Nestlé's market share, in the bottled water market in Asia, is closely linked to its leading world-brand ‘Pure Life'. It is now available in 17 countries and highly successful in Uzbekistan, Turkey, Jordan, Thailand, Philippines, Argentina, UAE, and Saudi Arabia. But this worldwide business began in 1998, in Pakistan.

In April 2002, Nestlé renamed its water business as Nestlé Waters, which now represents 10 percent of its sales. Today, Nestlé Waters is established in 130 countries and markets about 77 different brands.138

Nestlé's operations in Pakistan go back to the merger with Milkpak Ltd. in 1988, renamed as Nestle Milkpak Ltd. Nestle Milkpak Ltd. continued and enlarged operations in the production of UHT milk, butter, cream, desi ghee and fruit drinks. Between 1990 and 1998, 21 branded product lines were added, including Nestlé ‘Pure Life” bottled water. Nestle Milkpak Ltd. now operates the largest, as well as an extremely efficient, milk collection system in Pakistan. In the social sector, the company provides over 1,100 job opportunities for skilled, unskilled and professional workers. It constitutes a major factor in the rural economy by disbursing over PKR 1.37 billion annually through milk purchases from approximately five million household members of dairy farms.

3.5.2 Aquafina:

Aquafina is a bottled water brand of PepsiCo. It was first distributed in Wichita, Kansas in 1994, and was distributed across the United States, Canada, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Pakistan and India. As of 2003, it had become the United States' top-selling bottled water brand in measured retail channels. Aquafina is sold in 1-liter, and 1.5-liter bottles. Pepsi Cola's beverage brands in Pakistan include Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Aquafina, Sierra Mist, Tropicana Twister Soda, and Tropicana Juice Drinks.

Aquafina uses PepsiCo's own seven-step purification system, which it calls HydRO-7, which includes charcoal filtration, reverse osmosis, and ozonation. PepsiCo states in marketing material that this system removes substances that may be in other brands of bottled water. As of July 27, 2007, PepsiCo put a disclaimer stating the water comes from a "public source" (meaning tap water) on each bottle. Aquafina uses the term "Purified Drinking Water" on its label. In Canada the current 1.5 L bottle of water displays "Demineralized Treated Water".

3.5.2.1 Steps of Purification:

Aquafina water is municipal water that has undergone their trademarked HydRO-7 process. Distillation is not included, so Aquafina water is not considered distilled water.
The Aquafina water purification process is as follows:

The first step is pre-filtration, which removes all the small particles in water, then a polishing filter removes even smaller particles. Then the water gets exposed to ultraviolet radiation, which eliminates organic material including bacteria and viruses.
The fourth process is reverse osmosis (RO). In this process, water is forced through a membrane and impurities are left on the other side of the filter.
The activated carbon filter, which is the fifth step, removes trace minerals such as copper and magnesium from the water. Another polishing filter removes any particulate matter left after the previous three steps and makes the water clear.
The final purification stage consists of exposing the water to ozone, which will remove any residual chemical or biological products that remain in the water.

3.5.3 Kinley:

Kinley is a brand of purified or carbonated water owned by The Coca-Cola Company and sold in many Central European countries and Pakistan. Its carbonated forms are used for mixers, and also available in a variety of fruit flavors.

The new Kinley bottle has been made in an ‘easy-to-hold shape' with transparent labels. The new packaging innovation is design based on consumer needs to offer a more convenient grip and is in keeping with the ‘Spirit of Purity' along with reaffirming the company's commitment to purity.

Kinley uses reverse osmosis to purify its water, and with a Coca Cola brand image, it is considered to be one of the foremost bottled water brands of the world.

Chapter 04: Analysis and Findings

The questionnaire was designed to measure the consumer preferences of bottled water in Peshawar and Islamabad. Questionnaire was filled by a sample size of 100 people which included businessmen, professionals and students.

The findings are as follows;

Q1. Name the brands of bottled water you remember?

In the first question respondents were asked to recall bottled water brand names, and it was analyzed that surprisingly more than half of the respondents only knew about Nestle and no other brand name. It was also analyzed that most of the respondents knew about Nestle, Aqua Fina and Kinley only. While other brand names which were recalled included Sparkletts, AqWah, Aqua Bara and Spring.

When the respondents were asked about the last purchase of their bottled water, the result showed that maximum respondents bought Nestle on their last purchase, which shows that people are more exposed to Nestle, and it's their first choice. It was also seen that Aqua Fina was the second most bought brand amongst the respondents.

When the respondents were asked to tell which brand of bottled water had the largest market share, it was analyzed that every respondent had a view that Nestle was the most famous brand and it had the largest market share. This result showed that Nestle Pure Life is the most favourite and common brand amongst consumers.

Rank according to your preferences;

Q4. You use bottled water because;

Options

1

2

3

4

5

6

A. Trendy, Part of Fashion

29

25

8

19

6

13

B. Convenience

41

17

18

9

14

1

C. Care about my Health and safety

71

23

5

1

0

0

D. Worried about tap water

51

25

11

9

3

1

E. Substitute for other beverages

4

8

13

21

37

17

F. Tastes fresh and good

13

13

6

15

16

37

Chart 4.4

Above mentioned factors are represented in the form of following charts, according to the preference of the respondents mentioned in the above table.

The respondents were asked to rank six factors according to their preferences i.e;

1. Trendy, 2.Convenience, 3.Care about health and safety, 4.Worried about tap water, 5. Substitute for other beverages, 6. Tastes fresh and good

It was observed that in general, maximum respondents ranked “Care about health and safety” as their 1st preference, proceeded by Worried about tap water, Convenience, Trendy/Part of fashion, Tastes fresh and good, and Substitute for other beverages respectively. The study can be referred to the study of Sullivan, 1996 which stated that “Consumers also drink bottled water because they care for their health”.

The respondents were inquired whether they would prefer using routine tap water with a possibility that it might be clean or not, or they would switch to bottled water. As Lenzner, 1997 clearly mentioned in his study that people often mistrust their tap water.

And the responses showed that maximum number of respondents were likely to switch towards bottled water or opt for a safety measure. A reasonable amount of respondents were also observed who did not care about water quality and keep on drinking water from any where, regardless of the fact that it might be clean or not.

Maximum respondents agreed to the fact that advertisement plays an important role in the purchase decision of the consumers and act as a driver towards the buying behavior of bottled water. As Oslon (1999) in his study mentioned, that bottled water is the result of a huge marketing and advertising.

It was also noticed that 18% of respondents were indifferent about the fact that advertisement plays an important role in purchase decision.

A dramatic result found was that, irrelevant of the fact that Nestle was the famous brand amongst people, Aqua Fina's advertisement was remembered by most of the respondents, which clearly shows that Aqua Fina is highly concentrating on its advertisements and creating awareness through advertisement in consumers. This favours Aqua Fina, and it would be fruitful for it in the long run.

Another factor that was noticed amongst respondents was that people do not consider taste as an issue; they only prefer water which is pure, natural and healthy. As Bates (2000) in his study said, “It will come as no surprise that most studies show that consumers' primary expectation is that their supplier will provide safe, clean drinking water”.

It was also observed that people are also conscious about taste while drinking bottled water. They expect the taste should be fresh and not unfavourable to them. But according to WWF (2001), “Even some people who claim to have switched to bottled water “for the taste” can't tell the difference”.

Respondents, when asked about the claims of bottled water being clean, pure and healthy gave a result that maximum people agree to the claims. Oslon (1999) says, “Water bottlers are selling a market perception that water is 'pure and good for you”.

But according to Co-op America “Consumers should be wary of words like ‘pure,' ‘pristine,' ‘glacial,' ‘premium,' ‘natural' or ‘healthy.' They're basically meaningless words added to labels of bottled water to emphasize the alleged purity of bottled water over tap water.”

When asked about respondent's favourite brand, the result indicated that 91 out of 100 respondents preferred “Nestle Pure Life” as their favorite brand.

Respondents were indifferent about the healthy factor of bottled water. The respondents also agreed to the fact that bottled water makes them feel healthy. Indeed, bottled water consumption is closely linked to the way consumers face their nutrition, i.e. the current trends for healthier drinking.

Sullivan (1996) said, “People now buy bottled water to feel well, responding to advertising campaigns based on well-being, energy, slimming, fitness etc. It is calorie-free and attractive for people willing to lose weight: one of the sparks that ignited the bottled water fire was the health and fitness craze that skyrocketed”.

Maximum respondents were of the view that their favourite bottled water quenches their thirst. This shows that people tend to buy bottled water just to quench their thirst and nothing else.

When respondents were inquired whether their favourite bottled water tastes bad, the sowed that maximum number of respondents disagreed that their favourite bottled water brand taste bad. It was also observed that consumers select bottled water as their choice because it tastes fresh, and tempting.

It was seen that a maximum number of respondents always look for their favourite bottled water brand before buying. This shows that consumers are brand conscious towards bottled water and select bottled water having a good brand image, because they associate brand image with purity and health.

The result showed that people consider their favorite bottle water brand to be the better amongst all other brands, and they feel comfortable when using their favourite brand.

The result clearly shows that maximum respondents strongly agreed to recommend their favourite brand to others also. This shows that people tend to have brand loyalty in bottled water also.

A dramatic result seen was that, maximum respondents simply did not know the difference between bottled mineral water and bottled pure water. Most of the respondents were of the view that both are the same thing. This shows that most of the consumers simply do not know what they are drinking, and have a misperception that there is no difference between mineral and pure water.

Chapter 5: Conclusion & Recommendations

Conclusion:

Drinking bottled water has become a trivial habit in many people's everyday lives. Bad tap water taste or quality, fitness objectives or safety purposes, numerous reasons lead consumers to buy bottled water. In Pakistan, the core proposition of bottled drinking water lies in hygiene because the quality of tap water is bad and is rapidly deteriorating due to the aging of the water and sewerage pipes. Bottled water may even be necessary, for instance in case of temporary tap water contamination. The trend toward consuming more and more bottled water will keep increasing in the coming years. This flourishing market is profitable for a high number of companies, and employs thousands of people world-wide.

Bottled water quality is generally good, although it can suffer from the same contamination hazards as tap water. In Europe, natural mineral waters quality is frequently tested, both by independent labs and by companies' internal services. These latter controls may not be fully reliable. Yet, it is not in the interest of the companies, who base their marketing strategies on the purity of their products, to hide away occasional and traceable contamination. We need to identify the key service quality dimensions that are specific to the water sector. Some of these are evident from the literature (aesthetic qualities, customer relations responsiveness etc.) but there will be others and these need to be identified.

Increasing urbanization can also explain increased trend for bottled water consumption. In Increasing standards of living and greater use of cars enabled people to buy water in supermarkets and to bring home higher number of bottled water, without difficulty. The use of plastic makes bottles lighter and easier to carry than when they were made of glass. The expansion of shopping centers, outside city-centers, provides consumers with a greater choice in bottled water brands. The explosion of bottled water consumption also reflects deep changes in working habits in industrialized countries, with the decline of the agriculture and industry sectors. Most people have office works and the bottle of water is now a common element on a desk, next to the computer and the telephone. Drinking expensive bottled water (compared to tap water) is a sign of a rise in the social scale. In addition, bottled water is the result of a huge marketing success. The bottled water culture's recent explosion in the last decade is due to many corporations' advertising efforts to promote the need to drink "healthy" bottled water rather than tap water. Multinational companies across the globe are racking in billions of dollars with very little effort. Marketing and advertising are of primary importance to make the difference between brands selling such a similar product, a product that is colourless, (nearly) tasteless and odourless.

Drinking bottled water is essentially a part of our culture today. We can look at any local, national or international sporting event and see the prevalence of bottled water. Apparently regular tap water in a bottle or cup has slowly begun to be looked down upon. Although many individuals will carry a reusable water bottle such as a Nestle, most bottled water containers are thrown away after just one use. This may be due to the convenience of bottled water, as it is almost more readily available than tap water.

Currently there are multiple studies showing numerous bottled water brands containing harmful substances. Many researches show that bottled water has no nutritional advantage over tap water, a large majority of bottled water consumers drink bottled water because they believe it has better health benefits, and many consume such large quantities due to its taste. The research analysis also showed that people mostly rely on brand names and feel comfortable using top brand bottled water. Nestle Pure Life was the consumers foremost choice of bottled water and they consider Nestle as the best option available. Slowly and gradually other brands are also creating awareness in consumers mind such as Pepsi's Aquafina and Coke's Kinley. These brands are already established top brands in the world, but Nestle is the key operator in this market and consumers consider Nestle as their first and favourite choice. It was seen that consumers were unaware of the fact that there is a huge difference between bottled mineral water and bottled pure water, and they consider both of them as same.

Recommendations:

* To make sure bottled water quality is as good as it is claimed to be, companies should release their quality tests on a day-to-day basis and make them available to a wide number of people, for instance through the internet. It is essential that consumers have access to major information, directly on the bottles' labels, i.e., the “type” of water (natural mineral water, purified water, etc.), its mineral composition, and the location of the spring or the treatments this water may have undergone.

* International companies locally investing in bottled water businesses should make sure that the products are of good quality and packed is hygienic conditions, particularly in emerging and developing countries. They should also be careful to the additional pressure they put on local water resources.

* To solve the water crisis and lack of drinking water the Government of Pakistan, international agencies, and NGOs must play an active role. First, of all the Government of Pakistan should acknowledge a water crisis and start to collect sufficient data.

* Bottled water is not a solution to inadequate water supplies as it is simply not affordable for poor people who lack access to water The Pakistan government is obliged to adopt measures to provide access to safe and sufficient water supplies even if that means restraining corporations from turning water into a status symbol to make profits, or from polluting or extracting already depleting groundwater resources.

* Specific areas in a locality should be installed with water purification plants, so that residents can have access to clean water.

* To avoid the expense and danger of bottled water it's best to purchase a home water system.

* The citizens of every nation in the world need to stop purchasing bottled water and replace these containers with more durable and reusable containers, and make our tap water of higher quality so we can rely on it for our drinking supply.

References

* Abu-Dawood 3470

* Article 5, 10 of Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses, adopted by UN General Assembly Resolution 51/229 of May 21, 1997, U.N. Doc. A/RES/51/869 8 UN Commission on Sustainable Development, Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World, Report of the Secretary General, New York 1997, page 39

* Adote Abrahams, N., Hubbell, B.J. & Jordan, J.L. (2000). Joint production and averting expenditure measures of willingness to pay: Water expenditures really measure avoidance costs? American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 82, 427-437.

· Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behaviour

* Brian C. Howard, “Message in a Bottle: Despite the Hype, Bottled Water is Neither CLEANER nor GREENER Than Tap Water” by, E magazine .com

* Bates, A.J., (2000) Water as consumed and its impact on the consumer - Do we understand the variables? Food and Chemical Toxicology, 38, 29-36.

* Belot, L. (2000): “L'eau en bouteille, bataille des géants de l'agroalimentaire”, in Le Monde, 23 May 2000

* Burn, L. S., Tucker, S. N., Rahilly, M., Davis, P., Jarrett, R., and Po, M. (2003) Asset planning for water reticulation systems - the PARMS model. Water Science & Technology: Water Supply, 3(1-2), 55-62.

* Commission on Sustainable Development, Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World, Report of the Secretary General, New York 1997, page 39

* Dr. Chris Fife-Schaw, Dr. Tanika Kelay, Ir. Irene Vloerbergh, Dr. Jonathan Chenoweth, Prof. Greg Morrison, Ms. Christina Lundéhn: “Measuring customer preferences for drinking water services”, TECHNEAU WA 6

* Description of “Water Crisis” in: UNDP: Pakistan National Human Development Report 2003 “Poverty, Growth and Governance, Karachi 2003, page 7f.

* Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) (2000). Drinking Water Quality Report of Public Perceptions. http://www.dwi.gov.uk/consumer/marketr/cr2000.htm

* Department of Environment Food and Rural Affairs (2002). Survey of public attitudes to quality of life and to the environment - 2001. Available at: http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/pubatt/download/pdf/survey2 001.pdf

* Danone (2000): “Annual report 1999”, Groupe Danone

* Doria, M.F. (2006). Bottled water versus tap water: understanding consumers preferences. Journal of Water Health, 271-276.

* Dupont, D. (2005) Tapping into consumers' perceptions of drinking water quality in Canada: Capturing customer demand to assist in better management of water resources. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 30, 11-20.

* Dr. Chris Fife-Schaw, Dr. Tanika Kelay, Ir. Irene Vloerbergh, Dr. Jonathan Chenoweth, Prof. Greg Morrison, Ms. Christina Lundéhn. 2007 “Measuring customer preferences for drinking water services”.

* Evian (2000): “Water... it's life”, SA des eaux minérales d'Evian

* Faruqui, Naser I.: Islam and water management: Overview and principles, in: in: Faruqui, Naser I, Biswas, Asit K., Bino, Murad J.: Water Management in Islam; Tokyo, New York, Paris 2001, page 1 (2); and: Kadouri, M.T; Djebbar, Y., Nehdi, M.: Water rights and water trade: An Islamic perspective; in: Faruqui, Naser I, Biswas, Asit K., Bino, Murad J.: Water Management in Islam; Tokyo, New York, Paris 2001, page 85 (90);

* Falahee, M., & MacRae, A. W. (1995). Consumer Appraisal of Drinking Water: Multidimensional Scaling Analysis. Food Quality and Preference, 6, 327-332. Government of Pakistan (Ministry of Environment / Pakistan Environment Protection Agency): Clean Drinking Water Initiative Project, Revised PC-I, Islamabad 2003 (on file with author)

* Guissé, El Hadji: Relationship between the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights and the promotion of the realization of the right to drinking water supply and sanitation, Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Geneva 2004; U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2004/20, Article 4, 5 and 8

* Global Water Supply and Sanitation 2000 Assessment, WHO / UNICEF 2000 actualized in: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) / United Nations World Water Programme (WWAP): Water for People - Water for Life (The United Nations World Water Report), UNESCO 2003, page 102f. (105)

* Government of Pakistan (Ministry of Water and Power / Office of the Chief Engineering Advisor/ Chairman Federal Flood Commission): Pakistan Water Sector Strategy - Detailed Strategy Formulation, Islamabad 2002, Volume 4, page 111

* Government of Pakistan (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics / Statistics Division / Federal Bureau of Statistics): Priority Diseases Report (FG 3) Period July- September, 2004, available at: ttp://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/fbs/statistics/social_statistics/social_statistics.html

* Government of Pakistan (Ministry of Industries, Production and Special Initiatives / Experts Advisory Cell): Pakistan Investors Guide 2004, page 117

· Government of Pakistan (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics / Statistics Division / Federal Bureau of Statistics): Monthly Price Indices; available at: http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/fbs/statistics/price_statistics/monthly_price_indices

* Government of Pakistan (Ministry of Industries, Production and Special Initiatives / Experts Advisory Cell): Industrial Digest - The Bottled Water Industry of Pakistan, Islamabad 2004, page 62

* Gleick, P. H. (2004). The myth and reality of bottled water. In P. H. Gleick (Ed.), The world's water 2004-2005 (pp. 17-43). Washington: Island Press.

* IRIN (Integrated Regional Information Networks as part of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)): Special Report on the water crisis, http://www.irinnews.org, 2001

* IRIN; Action Aid Pakistan: Degrading of Indus Delta & Its Impact on Local Communities, Islamabad 2004

* IRIN (Integrated Regional Information Networks as part of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)): PAKISTAN: Focus on poisoned water and disabilities, http://www.irinnews.org, 2004

* IBWA (2000): “Frequently asked questions”, http://www.bottledwater.org/public/faqs.htm

* International Bottled Water Association (IBWA). (2000). Findings from a survey of American adults conducted by Yankelovich Partners for the International Bottled Water Association. http://www.bottledwater.org/public/BWFactsHome_main.htm

· IBWA (2000): “Frequently asked questions”, http://www.bottledwater.org/public/faqs.htm

* IFEN (2000): “La préoccupation des Français pour la qualité de l'eau”, in Les données de l'environnement n°57, August

* José, Raphel (1998): “Bottled water enterprise in India” un-published study 39 pages.

* Kahlown and Tahir (2001), Dr. Muhammad Akram Kahlown, Dr. Abdul Majeed and Muhammad Aslam Tahir, “Water Quality Status in Pakistan” (1st Report 2001-2002), Pub. No. 121-2003

* Koseki, M., Fujiki, S., Tanaka, Y., Noguchi, H. & Nishikawa, T. (2005) Effect of water hardness on the taste of alkaline electrolysed water. Journal of Food Science, 70, 249-253.

* Koseki, M., Nakagawa, A., Tanaka, Y., Noguchi, H & Omochi, T. (2003). Sensory evaluation of taste of alkali-ion water and bottled mineral waters. Journal of Food Science, 68, 354-358.

* Kane, T. (2000) European gets down to business. New regulations open up European water cooler market. Water Tech Online. Available at: http://waternet.com/article.asp?IndexID=6631009

* Lenzer, R. (1997): “A monster beverage event”, in Forbes Magazine, 20 October 1997

* Larsen, Janet. "Bottled Water Backlash Is Growing." People and Planet. 7 Dec. 2007.

* Latham, M. (1997): “Human nutrition in the developing world”, in Food and Nutrition Series, n°29, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

* Martijn, C., de Rooy, M. & Piriou, E. (1998) Beleving van water: effective communication strategies. Wageningen University and Research center Publications (The Netherlands).

* MacKenzie WR, Hoxie JB, Proctor ME, Gradus MS, Blair KA & Peterson DE (1994): A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of Cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply. N. Engl. J. Med. 331, 161-167.

* Miquel, G. (1999): “Recyclage et valorisation des déchets ménagers”, Rapport 415 (98-99), sénat - Office Parlementaire d'Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Technologiques, http://www.senat.fr/rap/o98-415/o98-415.html

* McGuire, M. (1995). Off-flavour as the Consumer's Measure of Drinking Water Safety. Water Science and Technology, 31(11), 1-8.

· Nils Rosemann, “Drinking Water Crisis in Pakistan and the Issue of Bottled Water” The Case of Nestlé's ‘Pure Life' April 2005

* Nestle Waters: Asia: A dynamic market, available at http://www.nestle-waters.com

* Olson, E. (1999): “Bottled water: pure drink or pure hype?”, Natural Resource Defense Council (NRDC)

* Pakistan Mouza Report 1998: The Pakistan Government admitted also in its Mouza Report 1998 about social and living standards in rural villages and settlements that the availability of drinking water declined from 32'232 settlements in 1993 to 29'884 in 1998. Again, in its Mouza Report 2003 29'254 out of 37'280 (78.47 percent) villages or settlements report their drinking water as sweet water, while 6'753 (18.11 percent) report it as brackish and 1'273 (3.41 percent) as not available. See: Government of Pakistan (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics / Statistic Division / Agricultural Census Organization): Pakistan 1998 - Mouza Statistics (settled areas), available at http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/pco/statistics/housing_indicators98/housing_indicators98.html; and Pakistan 2003 Mouza Statistics (settled Areas), Lahore 2005, page 47

* Preamble, Article 1 and 2 Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (1973)

* Pakistan Council of Research and Water Resources (PCRWR): National Water Quality Monitoring Programme, Report 2004, Islamabad 2005

* Pakistan Council of Research and Water Resources, see endnote 38

* Pakistan National Human Development Report 2003, see endnote 32, page 73

* Pakistan Standard Specification For Bottled Drinking Water (3rd Rev.)

* Sollberger, E. (1994): “Soif d'eau minérale”, in Bilan 10/94 at 93-94

* Sullivan, E. (1996): “Bottled water”, The Food Channel, http://www.foodchannel.com/ifc/pros2/stories/bottledwater .html

* Pakistan Council of Research and Water Resources (PCRWR): Quality Analysis of Bottled / Mineral Waters Report 2003-04, Islamabad 2004

* The Bottled Water Industry of Pakistan, Islamabad 2004, page 62 Government of Pakistan (Ministry of Industries, Production and Special Initiatives / Experts Advisory Cell): Industrial Digest -

* Hoti, Ikram: Water and beverage brands go untested in market, in: The News (Lahore) of February 14, 2005

* United Nations System in Pakistan: Water - A Vital Source of Life, Islamabad 2003, page 63

* United Nations System in Pakistan: Water - A Vital Source of Life, see endnote 10, page 60

* UNESCO: Facts and s: Bottled Water, Paris 2003, available at: http://www.wateryear2003.org

* UNESCO: Water quality indicator values in selected countries, at: http://www.unesco.org/bpi/wwdr/WWDR_chart2_eng.pdf

* World Health Organization (WHO): Bottled Drinking Water (Fact Sheet No. 256), Geneva 2000, available at: http://www.who.int/

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* http://www.researchwikis.com/Bottled_Water_Marketing_Research

Annexure

I am a graduate student at the IM|Sciences, Peshawar. I am conducting this survey on consumer brand preferences for my research report, which is my degree requirement. It would mean a lot to me if you would take a part in the following survey.

AGE: GENDER: PROFESSION:

Q1. Name the brands of bottled water you remember?

* _____________________

* _____________________

* _____________________

* _____________________

Q2. The last time you purchased a bottle of water, what brand did you purchase?

* Nestle

* Aquafina

* Kinley

* Any other (Please specify_______________________ )

Q3. Which brand of bottled water is most famous and has the largest share of market?

* Kinley

* Aqua Fina

* Sparkletts

* AqWah

* Nestle

Rank according to your preferences;

Q4. You use bottled water because;

1. Trendy, part of fashion _____

2. Convenience _____

3. Care about my health and safety _____

4. Worried about tap water _____

5. Substitute for other beverages _____

6. Tastes fresh and good _____

Q5. Would you prefer using routine tap water whether it may be clean or not, or you would likely to switch to bottled water?

* I drink water from any where, whether it's clean or not.

* No, I would prefer using bottled water, or opt for other suitable measurements.

Q6. Do you think the advertisement plays an important role in purchase decision of bottled water?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

Q7. If AGREE, in your opinion which advertisement of bottled water brand is remembered by you?

* Nestle

* Aquafina

* Kinley

* Any other( Please specify______________ )

Q8. In your opinion, do taste matters to you while selecting bottled water or you drink any bottled water which claims it is pure, natural and healthy?

* Yes, taste does matters.

* No, taste is not an issue; the water should be pure, and healthy.

Q9. Do you think the claims by bottled water brands are true, that they provide clean, pure, natural, and healthy water?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

Q10. Using the given scale please indicate how strongly you feel about your favorite bottled water brand for the following statements.

YOUR FAVOURITE BRAND: _____________________________

1. Drinking my favourite brand makes me feel healthy.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

2. It quenches my thirst.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

3. It tastes bad.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

4. I look for my favourite brand when purchasing bottled water.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

5. My favourite brand is better than any other bottled water.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

6. I would recommend others also to use my favourite brand?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree Nor Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

Q11. Do you know the difference between bottled mineral water and bottled pure water?

* Yes

* No

Thank you for your participation!