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Chapter 2 Literature Review
Training has become a key focus for many organizations wishing to increase their capability, to pursue their strategy and to achieve their goals. It has a great impact not only on efficiency and organizational performance, but also on employees' behaviour within the organization. Flexible training programmes may also help an organization to be more responsive to changes in its environment. Therefore, the first objective of this chapter is to explore the meaning of training and of training needs, while the second is to examine the theories dealing with these concepts. It then turns more specifically to an exploration of literature examining training needs in police organizations.
2.2 Developing Countries
According to Kinsey (1988), 'developing country' is a term used to describe countries outside the so-called Western bloc of technically advanced nations (North America, Western Europe, Japan, Australia and New Zealand) and the communist bloc. However, due to the rapid economic development in some countries (NICs) and the political and economic disturbances in the communist bloc which have resulted in dramatic changes during the last two decades, the above definition must be amended. Other terms which have been used to designate these countries include 'industrializing', 'less-developed' and 'underdeveloped'. Each tends to have certain connotations, some being more complementary than others, and some gaining popularity while others disappear. Whatever term is used, these countries are distinguished by widespread poverty. Beside this basic characteristic, Kinsey (1988) describes developing countries as having certain similarities, including low income per capita and per worker, small industrial sectors, few economies of scale, primitive technology, lack of specialization, low capital per worker, small savings per head for the bulk of the population, lack of enterprise, inadequate physical and social infrastructure, low volume of international trade per head and low efficiency. The question is: how could developing countries influence our country in management training?
2.3 Organizational Characteristics
Organizations may be characterized in many different ways, depending on the reason for the classification. For the purposes of the present research, the characteristics of the Dubai Police must be examined in relation to the need for training; several authors have suggested that organization size, type of ownership and industrial sector are the main variables affecting the management of training needs (Abdalla and AlHomud, 1995). Alternatively, Wright and Geory (1992) connect training needs with management strategy, organizational structure and corporate culture. In theory, organizations can be characterized in many ways, but there is general agreement that the size of the organization is of prime importance, followed by structure, strategy (e.g. short or long term), technology use, environment and organisational culture. These are the theoretical concepts which will be examined in this study as quantifiable conditions and variables in the management of the Dubai Police.
Definitions of Training
Training is a very important process in any organization, allowing it to develop its employees' skills and improve their performance at work. This section considers the definitions of training suggested by a number of authors. Thus, training can be described as a perfect way to learn a job or to develop employees' skills. The organization of individual skills is a significant characteristic of business responsibility today, and employee motivation potentially grows in the process (Noe, 1999). The profit from employee development extends further than the concrete skills gained and their effect on an individual's efficiency (Benson, 2002).
Among the many important definitions of training, the following selection is organised chronologically for convenience. Training has historical definitions; for example, Schuler and MacMillan (1984) defined it as part of human resource management (HRM) practice which has the potential to contribute to gains in competitive advantage. But this definition was incomplete because in 1984 there was a lack of information on HRM, which was still a new concept for many organizations. There was also a focus on competitive advantage among organizations, ignoring employee development and direct benefit to the organization's business.
Rainbird and Heyes (1994) then defined training as employee development via engaging employees in a commitment to the organization. But this definition only involved employees in commitment and did not state how they were to be developed at work, so Heyes and Stuart (1996) refined this definition by adding that training is a development process which evolves through strategic stages. This definition indicates that development in any organization, whether short or long term, involves organizational commitment.
Buckely and Caple (1995) defined training as a strategy to develop employees in skills, knowledge and attitude through a learning experience to achieve effective performance in a range of activities. Again, this definition was subject to important refinements, when Montesino (2002) pointed out that many factors may affect the effectiveness of training, including individual employees' behaviour, the training programme, the local environment and the amount of support from each trainee's immediate supervisor.
Earlier, when Smith and Hayton (1999) defined training, they also attempted to show how certain factors impact on training needs and the decision to train employees. First, employee performance is very important and should be improved. Secondly, improvement is needed in the flexibility and adaptability of employees. Finally, training always needs new technology and investment in training needs to achieve high performance in an organization. This definition indicates the importance of high performance for training decisions, of changing the roles within the organization to increase flexibility and adaptability at work and of using new technology to achieve high performance. The authors also claim that it is a more sophisticated system of human resources management.
According to Sparrow (1998), training can be managed to elicit the desired attitudes and behaviours in employees and to enhance involvement, motivation and organizational commitment. The main point of this definition is to motivate and involve employees in organizational commitment; the result could be to change employees' behaviour, but these processes are controlled by the organization. Bartlett (2001) adds to this perspective by noting that there are many ways to motivate employees, the best being to improve access to training and the motivation to learn from training, as well as emphasising the perceived benefits of training. This definition shows the importance of motivating employees in training programmes and the benefit to be gained from supervisory support for training within the organization.
Finally, Palo and Padhi (2003) define training as the process of developing skills, updating knowledge, changing employees' behaviour and attitudes in order to improve their performance and abilities and so to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization.
2.5 Training Theories
2.5.1 Training and Behaviour Theories
Luthans (1998) considers that training can help organisations to change employees' behaviour and that one technique of behaviour modification, encouraging desired behaviours and discouraging unwanted ones, is operant conditioning. Such behaviourist techniques were first used for the treatment of mental disorders and phobias, in psychiatric rehabilitation and in recovery from accident and trauma. Applications have since been extended to organisational settings. As developed by Fred Luthans (Luthans and Kreitner, 1985; Luthans et al., 1998), organisational behaviour modification theory has five mains steps.
The first step is to identify the critical, observable and measurable performance-related behaviours to be encouraged. The second is to measure the current frequency of those behaviours, to provide a baseline against which to measure improvement. Next, the triggers or antecedents for those behaviours are identified, as are their consequences, positive, neutral and negative. The fourth step is to develop an intervention strategy to strengthen desired behaviours and weaken dysfunctional behaviours through the use of positive reinforcement (money, recognition) and corrective feedback, noting that punishment may be necessary, for example to inhibit unsafe behaviour. Finally, there is a systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of the approach in changing behaviour and improving performance over the baseline.
Training can appear particularly attractive to managers, who are often in ideal positions to manipulate the reinforcement of certain employee behaviours. They also tend to find this approach attractive because it argues that what has to be changed is behaviour, and that to achieve this one needs to know very little about the complex internal workings of the people concerned.
Desirable workplace behaviours include speaking courteously to customers, attending training to develop new skills and being helpful to colleagues. Undesirable ones include lateness, the production of poor quality items and being uncooperative. Training should eliminate undesired behaviour and increase the frequency of desired work behaviour. Suppose a manager wants more work assignments completed on time and fewer submitted beyond deadline. The behaviour modification options are summarized in Table 2.5.1.
Luthans (1998) gives some ideas for improving performance through training, which failed to work. But Luthans argues that behaviour modification should be designed to suit organisational applications. Firstly, training should be applied to clearly identifiable and observable behaviours, such as timekeeping, carrying out checks and repairs, and the use of particular work methods. Secondly, to change organisational behaviour there should be a good strategy of rewards which are contingent on the performance of the desirable behaviours. Thirdly, training should focus on positive reinforcement, which can take a number of forms, from the praise of a superior to cash prizes, food or clothing. Finally, training can lead to sustained modification of behaviour only if positive reinforcement is continued (albeit intermittently).
Training and Motivation Theories
Smith and Hayton (1999) identify the following theories, which mention the role of training in organizations.
i. Human capital theory
This theory focuses on training in terms of economic investment. Human capital theory sees training as improving efficiency (Becker, 1964; Mincer, 1974; Strober, 1990). It is concerned with developing ideal training conditions. In the 1980s neo-human capital theory stated that organizations should train their employees consecutively to develop the flexibility and suppleness of the workforce and their receptiveness to modernisation (Bartel and Lichtenberg, 1987).
ii. Human resource management theory
This theory concerns the commitment of employees to the organization and views training and employee development as a means of engaging it (Rainbird, 1994; Heyes and Stuart, 1996). The early formulation of a hypothetical structure for HRM came from the Harvard Business School in the early 1980s (Beer et al., 1984). Training is seen as a strategy for managing the human resource flow of a venture which, with other human resource policies, creates commitment, competence, congruence and cost-effectiveness.
iii. Training and high performance theory
This is among the most widely adopted theories in organizations in Britain and the USA. It concerns the 'skills trajectory' and proposes a distinction between those occupations which are becoming increasingly skilful and others which are deskilling over time (Gallie and White, 1993; Cappelli, 1993). Studies of high-performance employment practices and HRM strategies have resulted in the concept of human resources 'bundles' (MacDuffie, 1995; Dyer and Reeves, 1995) which highlight the significance of implementing a number of HRM practices collectively in 'bundles' in order to enhance performance. Training is always cited as a critical measure within the set.
Training Needs Analysis
Training needs analysis (TNA) is a very important stage in the methodical training cycle of design, delivery and evaluation. The purpose of TNA is to take account of unusual meanings and perspectives depending upon a variety of actors in the process, avoiding misunderstandings about prospects and what can be achieved. In addition, external trainers and consultants are able to acknowledge the importance of a challenge when they rely upon TNA which has been conducted prior to their involvement with an organization. For instance, the excellence of feedback provided by the TNA process might differ significantly, from a very detailed search to a 'cheap and cheerful' canvassing of opinions about what is needed. In addition to the challenges noted above, there are considerations about whose benefit is served: Is the training compulsory? Does it represent the needs of individual people, their managers, the organization, etc?
2.6.1 Definition of Training Needs Analysis
Williamson (1993) defines TNA as a "systematic approach to determining the real training needs which exist within an organization or department". This indicates that TNA involves collecting information, for example by examining the training programmes of different organizations. A number of managers will refer to the total procedure of identifying the essential training needs, after which the next step is to analyze and address them by the best available method. The pure understanding of the term describes the last procedure simply. Although understanding can differ, it is significant that there is supposed to be constancy of practice within any organization and all employees are assumed to be completely conscious of the sense of local terminology in this field. The term 'training need' can be difficult to define in practice, with serious consequences.
On other hand, there are many authors who have defined training needs analysis as the examination or diagnostic portion of the training system. In addition, it seeks to determine whether there exists a case of supposed performance deficiency in many organizations (Camp et al., 1986). This view applies to TNA. That is to say, needs evaluation in a training needs analysis is, in truth, a diagnostic attempt, rather than an effort to identify an apparently deficient performance, because TNA does not have direct access to employees' performance. Conversely, Goldstein (1986) defines TNA as an attempt to analyze and diagnose an organization, task or individual, to decide if a cure is required and if so, which is the most likely to produce the desired results. Once more, TNA is seen as a diagnostic process at an organizational level.
2.6.2 Approaches to TNA
One of the earliest writers on TNA was Boydell (1976), who planned a methodical approach to training needs that had its roots in analyzing supplies using a method based on organizational objectives. For Boydell (1976, p. 4), "A training need exists when the application of systematic training will serve to overcome a particular weakness". He also argues that training needs must be identified before training begins. A similar perspective is presented by Bartram and Gibson (1994, p. 3): "Analyzing training needs provides a focus and direction for the investment an organization has to make in its people." Likewise, Bee and Bee (2003) assert that organizations' needs are the drivers for training solutions to close any performance gap. Two supporting considerations which influence TNA are also noted by Reay (1994). Firstly, establishing who has ownership of the TNA is likely to determine whether the findings are ignored or implemented. Secondly, the person who really pays for it will point to the real employees and this is usually senior management. On the other hand, this methodical approach to TNA tends to adopt organizational perspectives. Reid and Barrington (1999) accept these perspectives, but warn that the needs may sometimes conflict, e.g. long-term development for an individual and lack of support opportunities might contradict each other. Similarly, Sloman (1994, p. 24) notes that "in the training sphere there can be a singular divergence of interests between the organization and the individual". This viewpoint is shared by Palmer (2006), who warns against assessing training needs solely from the viewpoint of the organization. Many individual employees correctly follow their own training and development agendas and strategies. There are also sound business and motivational reasons for organizations to help employees to complete their self-development needs. Learning and development are continuing and practical (Sloman, 2003). They are supposed not to have to wait for business needs and training objectives to be set before embarking on a programme. Therefore, individuals need to take more responsibility for their own learning, rather than waiting for the organization to lead them.
2.6.3 Important TNA Factors in a Changing Competitive Environment
There are important factors which affect TNA in a competitive environment for any organization and which a professional approach to change requires those responsible to consider. These are now examined in turn.
i. Cross-competitive environment
The abolition of collective differences in vocational results can be maintained by training programmes for diverse employees in a competitive environment, which can produce admiration for individual differences in attitudes, values and behaviours, according to D'Netto and Sohal (1999), who recommend certain practices in the field of training. These include identifying exact training needs which are connected to the organization's goals and objectives; assessing individual training needs to facilitate a contribution within the training programme; developing individual annual training strategies which take account of knowledge, operational and interpersonal skills, attitudes to the job and technological skills training; evaluating literacy, language and numeracy to assess the ability to undergo training; connecting training to rewards, project agreements, development procedures and pay scales; and identifying the complementary skills of employees through a review process.
Moore (1999) suggests that a diversity needs analysis is required for the effective integration of diverse group members. Two contrasting approaches to diversity of background are to ensure that the organization is diversity blind or to provide a diversity-negative environment.
According to Moore (1999), an important starting point in an environment of diversity in TNA is awareness of different challenges faced by people from different backgrounds within the organization. Training programmes should facilitate the understanding and appreciation of actual differences between people, which can apply in communicating and using language, in learning styles, in methods of dealing with conflict and in task and relationship orientation.
Developing and integrating competencies and skills in culturally diverse employees is the next step presented by Moore (1999). It should create a mechanism whereby individuals learn to avoid damaging processes due to dysfunctional interpersonal conflict, miscommunication, higher levels of stress, slower decision-making and problems with group cohesiveness. Moore (1999) states that the development of important communication skills is needed in order to achieve effective integration of competencies. These skills are the ability to consider viewpoints that may differ from one's own, to communicate, to negotiate and to face difficulties appropriately.
According to Silverthorne (2005), leadership plays an important role in decision-making and organizational achievement. In order to develop effectively in a cross-competitive environment, leaders must understand and control their own behaviour, as this affects employees' perceptions of leadership. They must also ensure that environmental issues are considered when choosing the best management style. However, appreciating the differences in leadership styles is not sufficient to be an effectual leader, as the necessary insight also varies with the environment.
Silverthorne (2005) states that an effectual leader knows which leadership style to employ and when to employ it. There are four contrasting leadership styles: active or involved, supportive, participative and attainment-oriented. Active leaders tell subordinates what is required and put into effect individual systems to direct them; the supportive leader creates a friendly environment and is responsive to her subordinates' needs; the participative leader engages them in the decision-making process; and the achievement-oriented leader applies high standards to the decision-making process and appears confident that subordinates will reach them. Silverthorne (2005) argues that an effective leader's choice of leadership style is based on the context of the task and the needs of the subordinates.
Silverthorne (2005) also suggests that one way to achieve better communication between individuals with different competitive backgrounds is to apply TNA to managers on how to work in a competitive environment. He proposes four ways of reducing cross-environment communication problems. First, managers should focus on differences in communication styles. Understanding that employees are different means describing a behaviour, rather than the individual. This will give the manager the time to understand the subject being discussed. Thirdly, the manager should attempt to understand the subject from the employee's perspective. Seeing the employee's point of view gives the manager an opportunity to better understand what the employee is trying to communicate. Finally, the manager must listen more openly than normal and engage in exercises to improve the communication process.
2.7 Management Training
Many organizations today have training programmes for their employees but the reasons for conducting them vary widely. Some provide job orientation for new recruits; others training on new equipment for existing employees or strategic planning courses for managers. Successful managers need multi-skills training and detailed information about the organization. Training programmes for managers should cover different skills than those for employees; examples are functional, administrative, planning and leadership skills. Assessing changes in performance following training is complicated by the fact that while some of these skills can be easily observed in the short term, others will be apparent only from long-term changes in the performance of the manager, the department or the entire organisation.
2.7.1 Different types of training needs
All employees should be aware of the types of management training their organization offers, because many will be planning to be line-managers in the future, so will require certain skills. McConnell (2003) lists twelve types of training which are very useful in one's current job and helpful for the future. These are now examined in turn.
i. Group Training
Group training involves three or more individuals who participate in a common learning activity, generally led by a group facilitator.
Coaching is one-on-one job training. Generally it includes demonstrations, lectures and observation of practice.
This is a process in which experienced employees are assigned to assist newer employees through guidance. Sometimes it takes a formal approach; at others it is informal. It is also used to introduce employees to a company's culture and environment.
iiii. Self-Paced Learning
This is any learning activity in which the learner determines the speed at which the material is covered. Generally, it is an individualized form of instruction, but it can be used with groups, the speed being set either individually or by the group.
This is a term used to describe learning activities conducted from the user's desktop via the Internet or e-mail. It is generally an individual activity.
Vi. Computer-Assisted Instruction
This is the delivery of training via a computer. Again it is generally individualized. It can include programmes on modelling, simulation, practice and knowledge.
Vii. Distance Learning Training
This describes instruction in which the teacher is geographically separated from the learner. Connection can be via satellite or phone line with the instruction delivered to a PC or to a room specially equipped with video or audio conferencing equipment.
Self-study refers to learning activities initiated and participated in by an individual. Programmed or computer-assisted instruction and reading assignments can all be self-study activities.
These are controlled and standardized representations of a job, activity or situation used as a basis for developing skills in dealing with the simulated situations.
These are structured oral presentations delivered for the transfer of information.
VVi. Job Assignments
Job assignments place an individual into an actual job, generally for a limited period of time, the primary goal being to learn all or part of the job.
VVii. Job Rotation
This is similar to job assignment but generally includes several assignments in a planned order or the exchange of jobs with another person.
2.7.2 Different levels of training needs
The objective of a training needs analysis is the identification of the training required to meet the recognized needs. In point of fact, while these may be accepted or revised by the employees, a senior person may be assigned to decide what training is necessary. The person conducting the training or assessing the needs is not always the individual who develops or recommends the training. On the other hand, the most important step in TNA is to translate the recognized needs into objectives. Then individual objectives can be used to develop or choose a training approach at individual and organization level. Beside the types of training, McConnell (2003) specifies the levels of needs for individual and organization and the personnel who will conduct the training.
These are the people who manage the people being trained.
ii. Human Resources
These are the professionals in the human resources department. If training is a function of the HR department, it is treated separately.
iii. Operating Department Employees
These are the employees of the department for which an individual is to be trained.
iiii. Training Department Personnel
These are generally training professionals employed by the training department. Their strengths are their skills and knowledge of training techniques and procedures. The most common criticism of such people is that they lack specific job or operational knowledge. Some organizations assign their trainers to specific areas-sometimes even to temporary work in the operating departments-to overcome such weaknesses.
V. Operating Department Personnel on Temporary Assignment to Training
These are people who usually have excellent job knowledge but often lack training skills. Many organizations use this approach because it gives greater credibility to the training sessions, while the operating personnel on such an assignment benefit greatly from the experience and learning of training techniques.
Vi. External Professionals
These are usually training consultants, supplier employees, or academics. Generally, they are used when the required degree of knowledge or skill is not available within the organization. These people are usually excellent trainers, but they can be expensive to use. If they offer similar classes on a regular basis, consistency may be lost if the same external person does not conduct all classes.
Vii. External Organizations
Local schools and professional organizations often conduct registration programmes in general subjects. Knowing the types of training currently being used by an organization and who conducts each training type provides an initial indication of what can be done. However, in some cases the training will have to be designed and/or obtained elsewhere.
2.7.3 The Roles of HR, Trainers and Line-Managers
The many roles within the training function can be analyzed and their strengths and weaknesses identified. The training function within an organization should have as part of its mission the meeting of the organization's requirements; its success at accomplishing that will be the basis for the analysis.
HR people and line-managers in the training function should help the organization to improve and involve employees in training courses which could be helpful in enhancing their skills and hence their performance, so HR people and line-managers must undertake a number of tasks, summarised below.
Training organization: the mission of the training function, its internal structure, and internal and external relationships.
Training personnel: the selection, qualifications, and motivation of department employees.
Employee training in the requirements of specific jobs or activities.
Employee development training in the requirements of future jobs and broadening their abilities in their current posts.
Remedial training, conducted to correct inadequate basic skills such as mathematics, reading and writing.
Organizational development: improving communication and understanding throughout the organization in order to produce effective, functioning teams; establishing or changing to a desired culture; and responding to changing conditions.
Internal and external communication of the training department's abilities, results, and offerings.
Training facilities: the physical space and equipment allocated to conduct training.
Identifying training needs: determining the training required by individual employees and the organization.
Training design and development: creating, structuring, or obtaining a training programme to meet specific objectives or outcomes.
Training delivery: implementation of training to meet specific needs and objectives (e.g. courses, programmes, self-study).
Assessment and measurement using valid and reliable methods to determine the current abilities of an individual and the results of training activities
Previous Studies Related to Training Needs Analysis
2.8.1 Training Needs Analysis in the Dubai Police Force
Training needs analysis is a new concept for the Dubai Police and there are few relevant TNA studies, so it is important to base this research on previous studies in developing and other countries. First, however, it is important to consider what type of TNA is appropriate for policing organizations, given their skills requirements and other conditions. This section will consider TNA and police organizations in various developing countries.
2.8.2 TNA and the Police
The most important function of the police is to provide security and safety by reducing crime. Its members need training in areas including problem-solving, criminal investigation and finding lost children; TNA is required to specify exactly what kind of training they need. Maguire and Uchida (2000, p. 495) note that "police organizations do many things. They make arrests, process offenders, find lost children, quell disturbances, respond to emergencies, solve problems, and form relationships with the community". Consequently, police organizations work within multifaceted environments, which forces them to try to find the training programmes best suited to these environments; TNA is therefore indispensible.
Behavioural theories are important in TNA and it is helpful to know if employees improve after training programmes, so Hassell et al. (2003) consider that Wilson's theory is very important, as police behaviour is regarded as one of the most significant theories of police style, founded on the earliest experimental research on police organizations.
In an alternative approach to TNA, Langworthy (1986) argues that behavioural studies are not sufficient to assess the results of training, since there are many factors affecting management training, such as environment and technology, which can have an effect on TNA; thus, one should concentrate on the work environments which apply to employees of the organization (Maguire and Uchida, 2000). In police work, the environment is particularly self-motivated and multifaceted; it embraces society, judges, prototypes of crime, management, political culture and other external factors, which therefore influence the TNA and the programmes which are chosen. Each police organization must select the best training programmes for its particular environment (Maguire and Uchida, 2000).
Training Needs Analysis in Developing Countries and Elsewhere
The relation between TNA and development has been mentioned in many research studies and articles on HRM. On the other hand, the majority of TNA comes within reach of the problem of extra perspective. The focus is on topics such as TNA, training programmes and needs evaluation (e.g. Schlick, 1988; Campbell, 1989; Wright et al., 1992; Harp, 1995; Nelson et al., 1995), trainee motivation (Spitzer, 1995), opportunity trends in organizational training (Golden, 1993) and training and learning procedures (Truelove, 1992; Dulworth and Shea, 1995). These academic approaches provide a comprehensive understanding of this movement within an organization, but they are most helpful for HR managers, rather than for training suppliers. From the latter's viewpoint, there are a number of studies on TNA in organizations. For example, Perry (1993) and Bramwell et al. (1994) analyze the advantages and disadvantages of external training programmes and provide information on hiring the best trainers. Kimmerling (1995) conducted an investigation on the training suppliers' market. He emphasizes that changing technology affects training not only for organisations but also for employees, who must keep up to date. He predicts that the market for community training is likely to increase in general, while interactive multimedia training will take an increasing share of expenditure. Organizations that are able to combine TNA with just-in-time methods will dominate the market. Watson (1995) also emphasizes the position of domestic TNA. He promotes the idea of a 'corporate university' for large companies, which, despite its considerable expense, appears to be the best model. The above authors, on the other hand, do not focus on TNA and managerial variables affecting practical difficulties. It is significant that very little research has been found comparing results in developed and developing countries.
Much research has been conducted in the USA into TNA, training programmes and the evaluation of training needs, which are important for different countries to train employees of organizations. Saari et al. (1988) conducted a comprehensive investigation into managing TNA and education practices. They examined the issues of evaluating needs after TNA to investigate how training effects employees, the management of training needs programmes, reasons for selecting particular programmes, the individuality of participants, how decisions are made concerning who would contribute, TNA and follow-up of participants, the evaluation of training programmes, future trends in management training needs, and the content of training required. Based on the responses of over 600 organizations with more than 1000 employees, they found that size and sector had positive effects on the above issues. Thus, the larger the organization, the more use was made of training evaluation and TNA in its formal management training programmes. Financial firms were most likely to use organization-specific training programmes, while some other industries used fewer than expected. They also reported that the planning of management training, decision-making and HRM were mostly related to employees' skills. This research provides many useful findings related to TNA. On the other hand, its findings were based on large organizations in a developed country where the economy is complex. Additionally, the associations between organizational variables, the satisfaction of training needs and the level of interest were not reported.
In developing countries, some TNA-related research has been found which assesses the importance in any organization of the provision of special training programmes for senior managers which differ from employee training programmes in addressing issues of leadership, decision-making, strategic planning, etc. For example, Analoui (1995) states that TNA is important to measure the skill levels of managers; he conducted a study of 74 senior managers to assess the level and type of managerial skills training they needed. He hypothesized that more senior managers would have a greater need for employee-related than task-related skills and found that this did indeed appear to be the case.
Other research conducted in India by Sharma (1992) sought the best TNA programmes for managers and employees, and found that there was little point in performing management training in India. There were structural differences between those organizations which provided training for their managers and ones which did not. Whether a manager was subject to TNA depended on three factors: his or her level of responsibility, the size of organization and its ownership structure. This research found no significant association, however, between management training and industrial category, which contrasts with the results of Saari et al. in the USA, reported above.
There have also been studies in TNA and development in the developing world. In Africa, for example, Perry (1993) found that as government controls are imposed, managers need to appreciate the significance of market research and TNA, which should be aimed to improve performance in a competitive market. One more finding was that managers of major enterprises worked with assistant managers; consequently, greater importance was placed on communication skills, sharing, respect for others, decision-making and self-discipline. In other words, managers need employee-related skills more as organization size increases.
Research in China also raises issues of improving TNA and development. Bu and Mitchell (1992) studied the development of Chinese managers and employees. They approached the issue from a macro-environmental point of view, investigating differences in culture, technology, traditional Chinese pedagogy, etc. Their results suggest that the methods and programmes used by Western organizations in training employees and managers are more effective when supported by training needs analysis in China.
A comparative study was performed by Abdalla and Al-Homoud (1995) in an effort to find differences in organizational TNA between developed countries (represented by the US research of Saari et al.) and a developing country (Kuwait). They found first that TNA and evaluation were practised less in developing countries than in developed ones. Secondly, TNA is an approach which has proved very helpful in the West, but rarely so in Kuwait. Thirdly, when selecting participants for TNA, the current criteria in Kuwait are little different from those in the US, particularly in government organizations. Finally, similar results were found in the two studies, in that theoretical skills were needed more by senior managers, while there was more need for purposeful skills at lower levels.
In sum, the above research findings help to explain some relationships between organizations and TNA in different countries. However, due to the different objectives of the researchers, these relationships have not been comprehensively studied and stated.
This chapter has reviewed a number of training needs theories and principles which underlie the design of training programmes in organisations. Other topics examined are management training, organisational characteristics, the training needs of police organisations and training needs in different countries.
Training theories pay attention to formal organisation. Accordingly, an organisation can have effective training by rigid supervision, the clear definition of responsibility and accountability, and the division of labour. Training theories identify employees' behaviour and show how this can be improved by training programmes to provide high performance at work. These theories also show how to improve efficiency, to develop human capital by engaging the commitment of employees to the organisation and to obtain improved performance at work.
On the other hand, management and leadership training is an issue where the perspective adopted emphasizes the importance of managers' skills, motivation, teamwork, communication and leadership style. All these skills should be improved in managers, because it is important to have excellent performance in leadership skills in order to run an organisation effectively and motivate its employees.
Furthermore, the organisation characteristics have been shown to interact significantly with the external and internal environments in which it operates. The focus here is on the size of the organisation, its structure, its strategy and the technology it uses, particularly its adoption of new technology, in relation to its external and internal environments. Thus, the external environment itself can determine the best training needs programmes to assist the organisation to cope with environmental changes. Moreover, in the internal environment, a high level of differentiation and integration can help the organization to respond more effectively to changes.
When examined closely, police organizations can be seen to operate in a multifaceted and unstable situation. There are indeed many factors which may jointly contribute to determining the organization of a police force, such as the size of its managerial team, local governance, community characteristics, crime patterns, the age of the organization, political structures, population size, density and heterogeneity, management distance and vertical demarcation.
The Dubai Police Force was identified in chapter one as being regarded as a military organisation. However, its training programmes should be oriented towards community policing and crime reduction. Improved performance at work is another aim, as with many different training programmes, in order to respond to and control the changes in its external environment and to implement community policing and a crime prevention strategy. Only then can the Dubai Police play a major role in maintaining stability, reducing crime and promoting reassurance and safety within the community it serves.