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Importance of Motivation to Learn

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Area of Study: Training & Development

Motivation to Learn Affects the Relationship between Management’s Role in Training Programs and Job Performance

Chapter 1 Introduction

Introduction

Background of the study (management’s role in training programs based on literature) (discuss training program eg def, traditional, contemporary, significance)

(3 pages)

The term "management" is defined as a group of people such as executives and other managers who are primarily responsible for making decisions in the organization. In a non-profit term, "management" might refer to all or any of the activities of the board, executive director and/ or program directors. Another common traditional view of "management" is getting things done through other people. Apart from the traditional view, the role of management is to support the employee’s performance and productivity through training and development.

In the contemporary view, human resource practitioners suggests that management needs to focus more on leadership skills such as establishing vision and goals, communicating the vision and goals, and guiding others to accomplish them. They also assert that leadership must be more facilitative, participative and empower in how visions and goals are established and carried out (McNamara, 2007).

According to the Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles theory, management roles in the organization include interpersonal roles, informational roles and decisional roles. Management role as a leader responsible for the motivation of subordinates and provide training to the employees (Coulter and Robbins, 2005). Traditional autocratic organization with its hierarchical management systems that forces performance out of its employees is outmoded.

The modern management encourages the practice of empowerment by letting workers make decisions and inspiring people to boost productivity (Allen, 1998). Nowadays, employee’s performance and productivity are enhanced through motivation and intensive training program. Effective training is a crucial developmental opportunities in attracting and promoting commitment among talented employees (Noe, 2003, cited in Buyens & Wouters, 2004).

Training programs is defined as a planned learning event in a systematic fashion that focuses on the work environment. From this point of view, the training process can be defined as the systematic acquisition of skills, rules, concepts, or attitudes that result in improved performance in the work environment. There has been a considerable research into the effectiveness of training (Baldwin & Ford, 1988). A study conducted by Guerrero and Barraud-Didier (2004) found a significant link between training and organizational performance. (cited in Tzafrir, 2006). There has been a major revolution in the world of training and development starting in the 1980s. Traditional vocational training is no longer effective and it is replaced by competence-based training. The concept of competence includes the element of observable knowledge, skills and understanding to ensure effective performance (Brookes, 1995).

When it comes to training, managers play a critical role before and after an employee sign up for a training course (Gittlen, 2001). Several researchers (e. g. Tsui, Pearce, Porter, and Tripoli , 1997) found training was associated with higher levels of employee affective commitment. Managers’ level of involvement in reviewing the training coursework could make a huge difference for the company’s return on its training investment and training transfer.

The manager’s role in training includes proactively identifying the strengths and weaknesses of employees, identify suitable training program, design suitable training coursework, develop training benchmarks and evaluate and communicate the outcome of training to the upper management and subordinates (Gittlen, 2001). Managers need to be personally involved in the training of their employees, since the nature and quality of the training directly relates to their effectiveness on the job.

Research has been revealed the importance of environmental factor such as management’s role when predicting individual attitudes and behaviours. Supportive management’s roles in training program may contribute to the positive individual attitudes and boost work performance. Employees are left without support, encouragement and motivation when the management is not involved in the training program.

This is the problem that most of the organization faces today. Without management support, the training often fails to transfer to improve the trainee’s attitudes and performance (Coates, 2007). Although management plays a significant role in training, the effectiveness of training is estimated to be low because there is little application of training results in actual work practices (Broad & Newstrom, 1992; Baldwin & Ford, 1988).

Further understanding of the relationships between managerial communication and employee’s attitudes and behaviours would be extremely valuable for organizations (Wilkins, 1989). Roberts and O’Reilly (1979, p. 42) propose the need for specificity in investigating communication in organizations by stating that “theories relevant to communication in organizations cannot be developed until facets of organizational communication are specified and some of their correlates identified”. (as cited in Goris, 2007).

In Australia many companies are currently addressing the issue of reward and recognition for employees as part of quality and continuous improvement programs, but there remain no general guidelines or descriptions of such programmes which are readily available (London and Higgot, 1997). Informal rewards such as non-monetary recognition is increasing today as an employee’s motivators. Informal rewards are given less research attention in the management literature and practice (Nelson, 2002).

Traditional rewards such as compensation and promotion are becoming less effective to motivate employees to achieve high performance and commitment (Nelson, 2002). As Drucker points out: “Economic incentives are becoming rights rather than rewards”. Merit raises are usually introduced as rewards for good performance and in no time it will become a right rather than rewards. Merit raises are always introduced as rewards for exceptional performance. In no time at all they become a right. To deny a merit raise or to grant only a small one becomes punishment. The increasing demand for material rewards is rapidly destroying their usefulness as incentives and managerial tools”. Thus, this situation might destroy employees’ learning motivation and transfer of training.

Motivation to learn is also one the critical determinant in the training effectiveness (Mathieu et al., 1993; Mathieu and Martineau, 1997; Tannenbaum and Yukl, 1992, as cited in Tsai & Tai, 2003). Some past studies suggested motivation to learn played a more determinant role than other individual factors in regard to training performance (Tai, 2006; Cheng & Ho, 2001). Post training motivation is also linked to the employee’s behavioural change (Noe, 1986, cited in Shoobridge, n. a.). Noe (1986) assumed that motivation affects trainee’s enthusiasm for training (energising), the direction of participants to learn and master training (directing), and the use of knowledge and skills on the job (maintenance) (cited in Nijman et al., 2006).

Goldstein and Ford (2002) propose that trainee factors like readiness and motivation to learn along with work characteristics such as opportunity to practice, organizational climate and supervisor support should be investigated in developing effective training program (as cited in Shoobridge, n. a). Those points emphasize the need for additional research about the role of motivation to learn in the relationship between management’s role and individual attitudes and behaviours.

Further research should be conducted to identify and remove the major impediments that prevent the effectiveness of training program. The importance of this study is to elaborate and integrate some of the key factors that can influence the effectiveness of training transfer. This study is also intended to extend previous researches that linked management’s role and individual attitudes and performance.

Background of management’s role in training programs in the studied organisation

The past 10 years have witnessed the increasing of research literature in the field of training and development. The training literature is characterised by a multidisciplinary (organisational psychology, business and management literatures) approach to training design, practice, research and evaluation (Shoobridge, n.a.). Most of past researches highlight the significant developments in training methodology, evaluation, theory (Salas and Canon-Bowers, 2001) and focused solely on the training instructional methods (Noe, 1986) (cited in Shoobridge, n. a.).

Early empirical research studying the effects of individual’s factors (eg trainee ability, personality, and motivation) and work environment on transfer of training is very few (Baldwin and Ford, 1988). Further, past researches focus in defining training program and what it is designed to achieve (Salas, 2001) instead of focusing on the influences of work environment.

In the past, training is perceived as an independent event (Salas and Canon-Bowers, 2001; Goldstein, 2002, cited in Shoobridge, n. a.). Traditional training focused on the trainer (Berge et al., 2002). Trainers are expected to demonstrate the link between training and organizational outcomes (Church & Waclawski, 2001; Hesketh, 1999), to evaluate training (Warr, Allan & Birdi, 1999), and to justify organizational investment in training programs (Baldwin & Ford, 1988; Salas & Canon-Bowers, 2001; Warr et al, 1999, cited in Shoobridge, n. a.). Gill (1995) analyzed traditional program-driven training and found the role of the training department is to conduct the need analysis and set the goals which are defined as learning outcomes.

Recent studies (direct effects model)

The fall of the Berlin wall and the opening of the communist bloc to Western capitalism increased the pace of globalization (Berge et al., 2002). Training and development reacted to the reality of globalization with an increased use of system approaches (McLagan, 1996). In recent years, training is perceived as having a strategic focus, as an event that occurs within organizational framework, custom designed to overcome employee’s deficiencies and to meet organizational outcomes (Salas, 2001; Goldstein, 2002).

Line managers have the responsibility to conduct needs analysis. The goals of the training programs are defined as business results, are based on performance, and are linked to strategic goals. Organization realized that well-designed training instruction is no longer guarantee performance. Training instruction is just one of many solutions to performance improvement (Berge et al., 2002).

Recently, more research has been done to explain individual, attitudinal, and environmental impacts on the transfer process and outcomes where some of them have shown high value relatively (Cheng & Ho, 2001). Recent studies also have focused to concerns over the “transfer of training problem” (Salas, 2001). Researchers have investigated various factors that might influence transfer of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Several researchers proposed both individual and organizational contextual factors as antecedents of learning and transfer of learning (Baldwin & Ford, 1988; Colquitt et al., 2000; Mathieu & Martineau, 1997).

Empirical studies supported the relationship between management roles (e. g. support, communication, training assignment) and transfer of training (e. g job performance). For example, in two early studies made by Rouiller & Goldstein (1993) and Tracey et al. (1995), they found that management trainees in supportive workplace were more likely to demonstrate trained behaviours compared to trainees in non-supportive workplace.

A thorough review of training prog literature – mediating model

State the nature of the problem that motivates you to further explore

Consistent with Noe’s (1986) observation, previous research on transfer of training has focused primarily on issues concerning training design. Most of the research is done specifically the appropriateness of various instructional methods. The issues of environmental characteristics such as the transfer climate (managerial support, managerial communication, and managerial rewards) have received less research attention. Despite recognition of the importance of environmental factors, empirical research examining the impact of these factors is very limited (Baldwin & Ford, 1988). Thus, the lack of research on work environment motivates the researcher to conduct this line of research.

Furthermore, Ripley stressed “A review of eleven best-selling introductory HRM textbooks from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States indicates that, generally, there is a heavy focus on individual factors and a lack of significant emphasis on the importance of work environment factors in effective training” (Ripley (n. d.), “Introduction” section, para. 1). The work environment characteristic such as the role of management in training is less emphasized. Work environment impacts individual behaviours in training transfer.

Moreover, human resource practitioner and training designer have given less attention to the impact of work environment in training design and implementation. As Ripley (n. d.) states “Impact of work environment factors is generally not taken into account in discussions of how training programs should be designed and implemented” (Ripley (n. d.), “Abstract” section, para. 1). It means the issue of work environment characteristics is neglected. He suggested that work environment issues should be taken into account when designing and implementing training program. Thus, this issue motivates the researcher to conduct a research base on work environment factors.

In addition, most organization suffers from “training transfer problem”. Trainees have high motivation to learn following the training. However, the motivation fades away as they return to the workplace. Knowledge, skills and attitudes that they had learned from a training program could not be reinforce in the job. As Allan (2003) states “My experience with surveys that I have conducted is that the initial enthusiasm quickly wanes once the trainees return to the reality of their workplace” (“Introduction” section, para. 7).

In Australia, companies spend up to five billion dollars in training and development but only 20 percent of expenditure actually giving benefits to the companies (Allan, 2003). While in the United States, it is estimated that organizations spend up to USD 100 billion on training and development annually. However, not more than 10 per cent of the spending results in transfer to the job (Baldwin & Ford, 1988). The findings suggest that training transfer problem is a global issue that should be addressed.

Noe (1986) suggested that motivation to learn and attitudes are malleable individual difference factors that play a critical role in achieving training effectiveness. Although there is an existence of preliminary support for the relationship between contextual factors and learning outcome (Tracey et al., 1995) and between work environment and training motivation (Tracey et al., 2001), researchers suggests further exploration of the role of motivation in the relationship between contextual or environment factors and various training outcomes.

Tracey et al. (2001, pp. 20-21) state: “Future research should examine the impact of training motivation on other types and levels of effectiveness criteria.” Thus, this research is not only replicate previous studies but also responds to the calls from other researchers to further explore the roles of motivation to learn in the relationship between work environment (management’s role) and employee’s attitudes and performance.

Objective of the study

1.4.1 General Objective

The general objective of this research is to examine the effect of motivation to learn in the relationship between management’s roles and individual attitudes and behaviours.

1.4.2 Specific Objectives

  • To determine the effect of motivation to learn in the relationship between managerial support and individual job performance
  • To determine the effect of motivation to learn in the relationship between managerial communication and job performance
  • To determine the effect of motivation to learn in the relationship between managerial recognition and job performance
  • Research framework

Provide theoretical evidence before drawing a conceptual schema

(3 pages)

Managerial Support/recognition

Job Performance

Motivation to Learn/transfer

Managerial Communication

Assignment method

Research hypothesis

Provide empirical evidence to support each hypothesis

(at least 1 case study/survey for 1 hypothesis)

H1: Motivation to learn affects the relationship between managerial support and job performance

H2: Motivation to learn affects the relationship between managerial communication and job performance

H3: Motivation to learn affects the relationship between managerial recognition and job performance

  • Definitions of term

Conceptual definitions of term – language/organisation/hr perspective

1.7.1 Managerial support

Conceptual Definition

The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines “support” as “help or encouragement given to somebody or something especially in a difficult situation”. In human resource perspective, managerial support is defined as immediate supervisor provides and facilitates the transfer of employee’s knowledge, skills and attitudes. It is the extent to which supervisors behave in a way that is optimises employees’ use on the job of the knowledge, skills and attitudes gained in training (Nijman, 2004). Managerial support can be in a form of verbal and non verbal cues. Verbal and non verbal cues include encouragement to attend, goal-setting activities, reinforcement activities, and modelling of behaviours (Baumgartel, Reynolds & Pathan 1984; Huczynski & Lewis, 1980; Maddox, 1987).

Operational Definition

In this study, managerial support is defined as immediate supervisor gives encouragement to the subordinates to attend training program, goal-setting activities prior and after training program, reinforcement activities to encourage trainees apply newly acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes from training to the actual workplace, and modelling of behaviours as a non verbal cues to encourage trainees to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes.

1.7.2 Managerial communication

Conceptual Definition

The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines “communication” as an act “to make one’s ideas, feelings clear to others; to exchange information, news, ideas, etc with somebody”. Communication is both an observable and a changeable supervisory behaviour (Wilkins, 1989). In organization context, Katz and Kahn (1978) provide a comprehensive categorization of the types of communication which take place from supervisor to subordinate. The five types of communication are job instruction, job rationale, procedures and practices, feedback, and indoctrination of goals. The relationship between supervisory communication and subordinate performance and satisfaction among professionals.doc

Operational Definition

In this study, managerial communication is defined as immediate supervisor communicate the information about the specific training program to subordinates, discussion of what is expected to be learn in the training program, and provides constructive performance feedback to the trainees.

1.7.3 Managerial Recognition

Conceptual Definition

The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines “informal” as “not official or not following established procedures”. The word “recognition” is defined as the act “to show official appreciation for somebody’s ability or achievements, for example by giving them an award”. Thus, informal recognition means to show appreciation to somebody through unofficial procedures.

In organization, recognition is used to show the company appreciates employees’ efforts, their unique gifts and contributions (Gentry, 2007). Tracey describes recognition as “intangible, non-monetary acknowledgement of outstanding performance in the form of praise, accolades, commendations, appreciations and tributes. It may be formal or informal”. (Gentry, 2007).

Operational Definition

In this study, managerial recognition refers to manager provides an informal recognition when the trainees are able to practice the newly acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes to the workplace. Informal recognition program by the manager is communicated to all employees before, during and after the training program to motivate the employees.

Recognition are such as the manager congratulates subordinate who are able to do a good job, manager writes a personal notes for good performance, manager publicly recognizes employees for good performance, and manager hold a morale-building meeting to celebrate successes.

Motivation to Learn

Conceptual Definition

The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines “motivation” as “the interest of somebody” or to cause somebody to want to do something. “Learn” means “to gain knowledge or skill by study, experience or being taught”. Motivation is typically defined as “variability in behaviour not attributable to stable individual differences or strong situational coercion” (Quin˜ones, 1997, pp. 182-3). Therefore, it is likely that trainees cannot obtain the full benefits of training without considering training motivation (Tai, 2006). Motivation to learn also influences the willingness of an employee to attend the training (Maurer and Tarulli, 1994; Noe and Wilk, 1993) and affects a trainee’s decision to exert energy toward the training program (Ryman and Biersner, 1975).

Operational Definition

Motivation to learn is defined as a trainee has a desire and willingness to learn the content of the training program. An employee with high motivation to learn is likely to be able to learn the content of the training program and transfer the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the workplace.

Motivation to Transfer

Motivation to transfer can be seen as the trainee’s desire to use what she or he has learned on returning to work. Short and long term training transfer.pdf

Job performance

Conceptual Definition

The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines “job” as “a particular piece of work or task”. “Performance” is “an action or achievement, considered in relation to how successful it is”. Therefore, job performance is an achievement in the context of profession. In organizational context, job performance is associated with transfer of training. Trainees’ who are able to apply the content of the training to the workplace is likely to perform well.

Operational Definition

Job performance in this study means the training outcome and the ability of the trainee to apply newly acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes upon returning to the workplace.

Significance of the study

Significant to theory/body of knowledge

Another significance of the study is to provide a better understanding of the factors which would affect the transfer of training. This study could enhance our understanding of the problems underlying the transfer of training. A better understanding about the influence of motivation to learn and management’s role on individual behaviours could lead to improvement and enhancement in training program. Thus, it could promote transfer of training that leads to improvement in job performance.

Further, this study could support the relevant theories that support the relationship between management’s role, motivation to learn and individual behaviours. Besides that, the empirical findings of this study could support the previous researches. In fact, most of the theories and researches were developed and made in the context of western countries. More research should be made locally to determine whether or not the theories and findings can be applied in the context of our country.

Significant to research methodology

Additionally, this study has a significant impact to the research methodology. Empirical findings from literature review, survey questionnaires and in-depth interview could increase the validity and reliability of the study. With increased validity and reliability, errors can be minimized in the data collection procedure. This study could serve as a guideline for future researchers that try to extend in this line of research.

Significant to practitioners

This study also could assist organizations in designing the appropriate management’s role to maximizing the effectiveness of training transfer. The outcome of the study may serve as guidelines to human resource practitioners to develop a work environment that could motivate workers to improve their attitudes and performance. This study also aims to provide empirical evidence to all human resource practitioners about the effects of motivation to learn in the relationship between management’s role and employee’s attitudes.

Besides, this study would ensure the human resource practitioner, training designer, as well as co-worker to realize the importance of management’s role in contributing to the effectiveness of training. The trainer and designer of the training program can improve and identify the weaknesses of the present and future training program with the better understanding of management’s role factors that influence the transfer of training.

Research methodology & procedure

1.10 References (APA/Havard Style)

Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.0 Introduction

Chapter 2 covers the literature review about the relevant theories and some of the past empirical researches that have been done on this research line. These theories and past researches will be used to explain about the relationship of the managerial roles, motivation to learn and job performance.

2.1 Conceptual Framework

Support (morale and material)

Job Performance

Communication

Feedback/discussion

Training Motivation

Job Commitment

Training Assignment

(Mandatory/ Voluntary)

Mentoring (formal/informal)(individual/group)

Commitment/satisfaction/ethics

2.2 Training Program Defined

Early definition of training program is a planned learning experience which is designed to improve an individual’s knowledge, skills and behaviours (Campbell et al., 1970). In later years, training program is defined as a planned effort made by organization to facilitate an employee’s learning of specific knowledge, skills and attitudes to be successful in their job (Goldstein, 1992). Potential factor affect training.pdf

2.3 Role of Training Program

Purpose, approaches, significance & impact on org and employees

A strategic approach to training…..training program measurement.pdf

Purpose of Training Program

The purpose of a training program in organizations is to facilitate employees to learn, grow and cope with the issues that are important to them. Training program also help employees to gain knowledge, skills and attitudes to improve job performance and organization’s effectiveness (Tai, 2006; Treven, 2003; Ibrahim Mamat, 2001).

Training involves the changing of employees’ interaction with their co-workers and supervisors (Treven, 2003). Most of training program in organization is developed and provided by trainers, managers, and in-house training consultants. It can also be outsourced to external training providers (Ibrahim Mamat, 2001).

Green (1999) argue the main purpose of training is to foster the organization’s common culture, enhance employees’ commitment and attract good quality workers instead of just simply improving employees’ skills. Potential factor affect training.pdf. Training system should be in line with ongoing organizational process while training programs should be in in line with organizational strategic goals (Chen et al., 2007). Potential factor affect training.pdf.

Training Delivery Methods

Training is delivered in various methods depending on needs analysis. Managers will choose a method based on training objective (DeSimone, Werner & Harris, 2002; Ibrahim, 1993). It is important to consider employees’ current level of expertise before managers choose a training method (DeSimone, Werner & Harris, 2002). Training methods can be classified into three broad categories such as on-the-job training, classroom training (Robbins & Coulter, 2005; Treven, 2003; Ibrahim Mamat, 2001) and self-paced training (DeSimone et al., 2002).

On-the-job training (OJT) is the most common training conducted in the workplace (DeSimone, Werner & Harris, 2002). Trainees are required to perform the task right after a brief introduction to the task (Robbins & Coulter, 2005). OJT have advantages than classroom training because trainees have the opportunity to practice work task (DeSimone, Werner & Harris, 2002). Moreover, OJT reduces cost because organization doesn’t have to provide training equipment or trainer (DeSimone, Werner & Harris, 2002) and OJT have the ability of integrating job cycle method (Ibrahim Mamat, 2001).

Job rotation is defined as a formal and planned training program which allocates employees to perform various jobs in different departments. Trainees are usually supervised by the department supervisor. Job rotation is usually implemented to train employees about the different functional areas, career objectives and interests, (Treven, 2003) International training:training of managers for asgnment abroad.pdf. and getting exposure to variety of tasks (Coulter & Robbins, 2005). Job rotation requires trainees to learn more by observing and practicing new skills rather than receiving instruction (DeSimone, Werner & Harris, 2002).

Coaching is defined as informal and unplanned training and development activities provided by supervisors and peers (Harris, 1997). International training:training of managers for asgnment abroad.pdf. Trainees are working together with senior and experienced workers who provide information and support (Coulter & Robbins,….). Coaching should be viewed as supplement rather than substitute to formal training program (Treven, 2003) International training:training of managers for asgnment abroad.pdf.

Classroom training method is defined as “those conducted outside of normal work-setting” (DeSimone, Werner & Harris, 2002). Lecture method is the most common classroom training technique. In lecture, an expert in particular subject matter will convey information to the large audience. (DeSimone, Werner & Harris, 2002).

Lecture is aims to provide understanding to trainees rather than to upgrade skills or change attitudes (Ibrahim Mamat, 2001). Burke and Day (1986) suggest lecture training resulted in positive learning either conducted alone or combination with other methods. Earley (1987) found role playing and lecture methods are equally effective to develop skills among trainees. (as cited in DeSimone, Werner & Harris, 2002 )

Experimental methods consist of role play, case studies, and business games and simulations. The most popular experimental training method is role play. A case study is a training method that aims to develop trainees’ analytical and problem-solving skills by giving trainees a particular case that requires them to solve problem and make decision. (DeSimone, Werner & Harris, 2002). Business games and simulations aims to develop and refine problem-solving and decision-making skills.

Self-paced

Significance of Training Program

There are several reasons as to why training program is important to employees and organization. Training is critical to responds to the changes in the workplace and the workforce. Technology usage is increasing rapidly and the increasing of global business as well as continuing shift from manufacturing to service economy force organization to provide training. In term of changing workforce, the increasing of immigrant workers with limited educational background force organizations to provide training (Goldstein, 1989).

International training:training of managers for asgnment abroad.pdf. Training program is important to maintain organization’s competitiveness and improve employees’ productivity (Treven, 2003; Elangovan & Karakowsky, 1999). International training:training of managers for asgnment abroad.pdf. trainee n environment in training transfer.pdf

Employees gain extrinsic and intrinsic rewards such as skill development and performance improvement with proper training (Elangovan & Karakowsky, 1999). trainee n environment in training transfer.pdf. Organizations utilize training program as a tool to increase workers’ adaptability and flexibility which is increasingly important today (Tai, 2006). General self-efficacy and motivation.pdf

Training has become increasingly important as human capital, knowledge, and skills become competitive assets or tools within organizations, with the presence of the globalization of markets, increased diversity of the workforce, and the rapid entry of foreign investment into ThirdWorld countries (Zakaria, 2000; Bhagat and Prien, 1996).

The cost of investment in continuing training is considerable. Based on a survey on 550 enterprises in 42 countries conducted by the American Society for Training and Development in 2000 (Marquardt et al., 2002), training expenditures in Europe were between 2 percent and 2.5 percent of total expenses. American firms spend up to $US60 billion and Canadian companies spend about US$4 billion on training per year, and the average employee receives about 30 hours of training annually (Belcourt and Wright, 1996).

This show very clearly the important role training plays in the success of the organization and growth in productivity. Bartel (1994) tried to prove this concept by looking at the link between training and productivity using 150 firms from another survey of the Columbia Business School, and found that there is a positive effect of training on productivity.

We are fully aware that training is a key element for the success and growth in productivity of organizations as well as companies: this is why Noe and Ford (1992) and Schuler and Walker (1990) stated the importance of training as an integral part of the strategic planning process of the firm.

Potential factor affect training.pdf

  • Management Role in Training Programs
  • Management Support

def., elements, peranan & kesan pd individual attb & org.

Management support can be defined as immediate supervisor provides and facilitates the transfer of employee’s knowledge, skills and attitudes. It is one of the important work environment supports in the workplace (DeSimone et al., 2002) and is an important tool to facilitate employees’ transfer of training (Elangovan & Karakowsky, 1999).

Managerial support can be in a form of verbal and non verbal cues. It is a multidimensional construct, which could include encouragement to attend, goal-setting activities, reinforcement activities, and modelling of behaviours (Baumgartel, Reynolds & Pathan 1984; Huczynski & Lewis, 1980; Maddox, 1987).

Wexley and Baldwin (1986) suggest that managerial support can occur in term encouragement to attend training programs. Encouragement from managers has the greatest impact on employees’ training motivation, which in turn lead to training success (Guerrero & Sire, 2000). Motivation-training outcomes.pdf. Managers could support subordinates to attend particular training program by setting goals prior, during and after the training.

Moreover, reinforcement activities should be developed to ensure the trained behaviours will be retained. Rouiller and Goldstein (1993) identified that social cues such as the influence and behaviour of supervisors may affect the transfer climate. Indeed, supportive managers in training might affect trainee’s motivation to learn and lead to transfer of training.

There are numbers of past researchers that suggest managerial support affects learning motivation. For example, Facteau et al. (1995), Huczynski et al. (1980), Rouiller et al. (1993), Tracey et al. (1995), Warr et al. (1999) and Weiss et al. (1980) found that managers play a significant role in their subordinates’ training motivation.

Management Communication

def., elements, peranan & kesan pd individual attb & org.

Managers have the responsibility to communicate effectively with employees about the training program. Feedback is part of managerial support to enhance employees transfer of training (Elangovan and Karakowsky, 1999). Forza and Salvador (2000) state feedback from managers can provide the information about the type, extent and direction of errors so that they can be corrected by employees.

According to Forza and Salvador (2000), performance feedback provides direct and indirect guidance to employees. That is, direct guidance consists of providing the employees with the information about the consequences of actions, while indirect feedback consists of monitoring employees’ effort in a particular aspect of work (Forza and Salvador, 2000). Feedback is a series of an over time process in which employees receives, absorbs and use the information (London and Smither, 2002).

Managerial communication is found to be associated with motivation and performance improvement (Tai, 2006; Tsai and Tai, 2003; Lim and Johnson, 2002; London and Smither, 2002). Other studies (e. g. Vuuren, de Jong and Seydel, (2007), Boon and Arumugam (2006)) found managerial communication is linked to employees’ affective, normative and continuance organizational commitment. Informal verbal feedback from managers in addition to formal written feedback might motivate employees to improve their performance and behaviours (Daily and Govindarajulu, 2004).

Open and honest discussion about performance between managers and employees is critical in motivating employees to learn and promoting performance improvement (Tsai and Tai, 2003; Lim and Johnson, 2002). Tai (2006) suggests managers that provide realistic information to employees prior to the training will enhance pre-training motivation, which in turn will increase training motivation. Managers who are able to practice open and honest discussion might encourage trainees to feel easy to voice their comments and problems in the training program.

Thus, managers can improve future training program by reviewing the comments and problems raised by the trainees. Open and honest discussion also might demonstrate that managers are truly concern and priorities training. Employees that perceived the importance of training are motivated to learn and transfer the content of training to the workplace (Elangovan & Karakowsky, 1999).

This supposed importance stems both from notions of the effects of social support in general and from the works of industrial and organisational psychologists, who indicated supervisors to be among the most significant sources of feedback for employees on their performance (Van der Klink et al., 2001). Diff effects of sprvsr supp on training transfer pdf.

Training Assignment

def., elements, peranan & kesan pd individual attb & org.

Training assignment refers to the employees’ participation to attend training program. “Participation” means the employees’ choice in making pre-training decisions (Quinones, 1997; Tannenbaum and Yukl, 1992; Wagner and Gooding, 1987; Wlodkowski 1985). In organization, management have the role to decide whether employees attend training program mandatory or voluntarily.

Pre-training decisions is whether employees’ have the choice to participate or not participate in training program. Pre-training decisions also means whether or not employees’ have a choice in selecting training program. Therefore, training assignment consists of whether employees’ are force by managers or voluntarily attend training programs (Tsai & Tai, 2003).

Previous research advocated mandatory training assignment lead to high training motivation (Tsai & Tai, 2006; Baldwin & Magjuka, 1991; Wagner & Gooding, 1987). Mathieu and Martineau (1997) suggest employee’s perceived “message” of the training program affects influence the relationship between training assignment and motivation.

For example, Mathieu and Martineau (1997) mentioned that they have developed a “safety climate” training program for a team of diverse employees at a nuclear power plant. At first, employees did not pay serious attention to the training program and considered it to be a waste-of-time exercise. However, employees soon realized that they were forbidden to leave the training site, and that, in fact, executive-level managers were invited to discuss relevant issues with them. Consequently, employees’ training motivation was much enhanced. Because of this finding, Mathieu and Martineau (1997) concluded that the influence of a training assignment (mandatory versus voluntary) on trainees’ motivation would depend on the perceived “message” of the program.

Choice in attending training: employees attend training programs for different reasons: the organization may deem training to be mandatory, the organization may recommend training while the decision to attend is left to the employee, or employees themselves may request training be provided. Employees offered a choice of entering a training program may develop a greater appreciation for this training than those ``forced'' into a program regardless of their personal interests.

Consequently, the motivation to learn will be higher when employees have a choice in attending training (Hicks and Klimoski, 1987). As a result, the motivation to transfer the newly acquired skills and knowledge would also be increased. PA2: Motivation to transfer training is positively related to the degree of freedom in attending the training.

Motivation to Learn Theories

General Definition & its application dlm organisasi & training.

Sub theories

e.g., adam,– definition, elements &

  • Direct effects correlation with individual att & b (dlm konteks training).
  • Indirect effects = linker/tanpa mtl tidak berlaku kesan individual at b (ref), such as JP (ref), Com (ref)

.g., locke,– definition, elements &

  • Direct effects correlation with individual att & b (dlm konteks training).
  • Indirect effects = linker/tanpa mtl tidak berlaku kesan individual at b (ref), such as JP (ref), Com (ref)
  • Empirical evidence supporting the relationship between management role, motivation to learn and individual attitudes and behaviours
  • Empirical evidence supporting the relationship between mgt support, motivation to learn & job performance

Beri direct effect support + motivation

Further research - mediating

2.5.1 Empirical evidence supporting the relationship between mgt communication, motivation to learn & outcome 2

Beri direct effect communication + motivation

Further research - mediating

2.5.1 Empirical evidence supporting the relationship between assignment, motivation to learn & outcome 3

Beri direct effect assignment + motivation

Further research - mediating

Research questions

2.1.3 Managerial Recognition

Informal rewards and recognition are effective to motivate and encourage employees’ to improve their performance. It is also a powerful tool for managers to encourage employees’ motivation to learn in training program. Many studies show that employees want to be acknowledged and appreciated for a job well done. Informal recognition is less structured and it is very flexible and can be done on-the-spot. For example, a manager praises her subordinates on-the-spot whenever the subordinates perform well in their job. Recognition programs can range from simple thank-you, public recognition, personal congratulations notes and so on (Nelson, 2002)

Keller (1999) advocates employees are motivated to perform well if they receive positive recognition from their managers. Previous research indicated that intrinsic motivators such as recognition and praise from managers could positively impact employee’s attitudes and work behaviours (Ingraham and Barrilleaux, 1983; Romzek, 1985; Hill, 1991). Miller (1991) suggests that employees expect appreciation and recognition from supervisors, colleagues and even their families for their effort.

Motivation to Learn

Motivation is commonly divided into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is an internal drive that directs the individual, while extrinsic motivation is an external environmental incentive that directs an individual to perform something. Amabile et al. (1994), Deci (1972) and Wiersma (1992) suggest that an employee can be considered intrinsically motivated if they perform a task for no apparent reward except the activity itself and when they perceived their behaviour is self-directed. Extrinsic motivation is primarily in response to something apart from the work itself. Extrinsic motivation may be in the form of support and communication from managers, rewards and recognition, status, money and so on (Amabile et al., 1994).

Recent researchers have suggested that trainees’ training motivation has impacts on the effectiveness of training outcomes. Elangovan and Karakowsky (1999, pg 273) state: “We believe that an employee's motivation plays a critical role in the ultimate success of a training program with regard to skill transfer.” Moreover, researchers have found that training motivation is strongly affected by managerial actions such as intentional or unintentional cues (Baldwin & Magjuka, 1991). Colquitt et al (2000) suggests that trainees with low motivation might fail to benefit from training even though they possessed ability to learn the training content. This implies that motivation to learn is an important aspect that managers should deal with.

Empirical study also supports the relationship between motivation to learn and transfer of training. For example, Tracey et al. (2001) developed a basic managerial knowledge and skills training program with managers from 40 hotels owned by a private organization. Their studies found that trainees’ motivation to learn positively influenced trainees’ reactions to the training program and their amount of learning. Another study made by Axtell et al. (1997) aimed at improving technical staff’s interpersonal skills at work found that trainees’ motivation to learn was positively influenced immediate and long-term transfer of training.

Job Performance

Job performance is the employees’ observable behaviour and actions in their work. It is also considered as the level of employees’ accomplishment in their work. Job performance is associated with training effectiveness and transfer of training. It is influence by the work environment (managerial support managerial communication, managerial recognition), training design (principles of learning and retention, sequencing, principles of training) and trainee’s characteristics (abilities, personal characteristics, motivation to learn, motivation to transfer) (Baldwin & Ford, 1988).

2.2 Theoretical Evidence supporting the relationship between Managerial Roles, Motivation to Learn and Job Performance (refer to Guerrero and Sire, 2002)

2.2.1 Adams’ Equity Theory

Adams’ (1963, 1965) equity theory can be used to support the relationship between managerial support, managerial recognition, motivation to learn and job performance. Equity theory advocates that employees are more likely to be motivated when they are treated fairly by managers. When employees feel they are treated unfairly, they will be not motivated. Adams’ equity theory extends beyond the individual self by incorporating influence and comparison of other people’s situation in forming a comparative view and awareness of fairness.

Equity, in the sense of fairness which commonly underpins motivation, is dependent on the comparison a person makes between his or her input to output (reward/investment) ratio with the ratio enjoyed (or suffered) by others considered to be in a similar situation. Employees will be likely to feel motivated when they feel their input to output ratio is equal to the ratio of their colleagues (Chapman, 1995)

Employees are motivated to learn the content of the training program if they feel that their inputs (effort, commitment, loyalty) is fairly rewarded by outputs (support, benefits, recognition). Additionally, if the employees feel their ratio of inputs to outputs are equal the ratio of referent others, they are likely to be more motivated. However, they will not be motivated if the ratio is less. Similarly, employees are motivated if they think that they received fair support from their managers to attend training program.

Adams’ equity theory also can be utilized to support the relationship between managerial recognition, motivation to learn and job performance. The employees’ behaviour is further increased if there is a positive relationship between performance and recognition. (Nelson, 2002) Informal rewards to recog performance.pdf. For example, when employees receive recognition for the job well done, they will perceived equity and motivated to learn in the training program.

2.2.2 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Vroom’s (1964) expectancy theory suggests that motivation can be measured by how much employees want something. Motivation is a combination of valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence is defined as the value of the perceived outcome; expectancy is the belief that one’s effort will result in attainment of desired performance; while instrumentality is the belief that if one does meet performance expectations, he or she will be rewarded. (Vroom, 1964). Vroom suggests that desired behaviour in a work setting will increased if an employee perceives a positive relationship between effort and performance.

Several researchers have been applied the expectancy theory framework in their studies to explain the process of how managerial support affects an employee’s training motivation. Farr and Middlebrooks (1990) suggest that managerial support positively influence learning motivation because it impacts trainee’s expectancies and instrumentalities. Meaning to say, a manager might cue the importance and implications of training through performance evaluations.

Besides, a manager may provide support such as encouragement to attend training program, goal-setting activities, reinforcement, and modelling of behaviour to motivate employees to attend training program. When managers manage to convey the importance of training to improve performance, employees will be motivated to learn the content of the training program and this will lead to transfer of training and subsequently performance improvement.

2.3 Empirical Evidence supporting the relationship between Managerial Support, Training Motivation, and Job Performance

Managerial support in training program has been identified as an important environmental aspect that affects transfer of training (Ford et al., 1992; Huczynski and Lewis, 1980; Chen et al, 2007). It is likely to be of central importance in creating a “transfer-friendly” climate (Axtell et al. 1997). Most of early researchers focus on the direct relationship between managerial support and transfer of training. Smith-Jentsch, Salas and Brannick (2001) conducted a study to examine variables that influencing transfer of flight training for 80 pilots in Naval Air Warfare Center.

The study indicated trainees who are provided with support from team leaders in the training demonstrated more trained behaviours (better performance) compared to trainees that received less support. Meaning to say, supportive team leaders positively correlated with trainees’ performance. Guerrero and Sire (2000) conducted a study about antecedents of training motivation with the sample size of 335 respondents in three large companies and a training organization. This study found that support from hierarchical manager positively influences employees’ training motivation (in term of instrumentality). Motivation-training outcomes.pdf.

Interestingly, Cromwell and Kolb (2002) suggest manager support directly affects transfer outcomes or indirectly through trainee’s motivation or different factors in the transfer climate. Facteau et al. (1995) studied about training transfer based on a sample size of 967 managers and supervisors. Outcomes of the study show a positive relationship between manager support and transfer outcomes. Manager support positively effects motivation to learn but have indirect effect on transfer outcomes. It is suggested that training motivation mediates the relationship between manager support and transfer outcomes. Support-motivation-outcome (facteau).doc (Nijman et al. 2006).

Chiaburu and Tekleab (2005) carried out a longitudinal study about training effectiveness with the sample of 119 trainees in a large organization located in United States. This study found a strong relationship between manager support and employee’s training motivation. Although the study did not found a direct relationship between training motivation and training transfer, the study revealed that training motivation interacted with performance goal orientation in influencing transfer of training and training generalization. Individual and contextual.pdf.

Nijman, Nijhof, Wognum and Veldkamp (2006) conducted a study about transfer of training with the sample size of 32 supervisors and 179 trainees who attended four different training programs in three organizations. This study found manager support has a positive effect on trainee’s transfer outcomes through motivation. Specifically, managerial support (emotional and instrumental support) indirectly influences transfer of training (knowledge, skills and attitudes) via trainee’s motivation to transfer. Consequently, trainee’s motivation mediates the relationship between managerial support and job performance.

2.4 Empirical Evidence supporting the relationship between Managerial Communication, Training Motivation, and Job Performance

Previous study found effective communication in the workplace between managers and subordinates play an important determinant of employee’s attitudes and behaviours. Increased communication from the manager is found to affects employee’s performance (Burke, 1970; Schuler, 1979; Winkler and Murphy, 1973; Smith and Brown, 1964). There are numerous past studies that confirmed managerial communication can influence motivation to learn and performance improvement.

Pavett (1983) found constructive feedback from the manager to be related to instrumentality, motivation to learn, role perceptions and performance. A study made by Martocchio and Webster (1992) about performance feedback and cognitive playfulness based on the sample size of 68 full-time employees in microcomputer training found positive feedback resulted in higher test performance and affective outcomes. Martocchio n Webster.doc.

Trainees that received positive feedback are more motivated to learn and apply their newly acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes to the workplace. Effective transfer of training might enhance their job performance. Longenecker and Stansfield (2006) carried out a two-month study about goal-setting and timely feedback involving a sample size of 310 workers at a manufacturing plant in Midwestern USA. This study confirmed feedback and goal-setting are associated with performance improvement. Specifically, the study supported timely feedback as well as goal-setting improved work performance, greater efficiency, and the establishment of more challenging goals.

Several researchers posited the significant role of training motivation in the relationship between communication and job performance. Sheela, Azman, Tan and Ong (2007) made a study about the mediating role of training motivation in the relationship between supervisor’s role and job performance with a sample size of 100 technical employees of Kuching Utara City Hall. Result of the study found communication (e.g., provide feedback, encourage discussion and openly deliver information on training) indirectly affects job performance through training motivation.

Lim and Johnson (2002) conducted a qualitative study involving 10 human resource practitioners who participated in training program for performance improvement technologies in Korea. This study revealed the most important work environment factors affecting training motivation and transfer of training are such as discussion between manager and subordinate on the use of new learning, manager involvement and familiarity with the training program and constructive feedback from manager. Lim n Johnson 2002.doc.

Tai (2006) conducted a longitudinal study about training transfer involving the sample size of 126 employees who entered a computer software operation and design training program. The study found managers training framing (e.g. manager communicate the importance of training program to subordinates) affects trainees learning and transfer motivation. That is, managers training framing predicts trainee’s self-efficacy and training motivation, which in turn affects their reactions, learning and transfer motivation. As a result, trainees’ training performance, transfer outcomes (Cheng & Ho 2001) and behaviours (Noe, 1986) will be improved.

2.5 Empirical Evidence supporting the relationship between Managerial Recognition, Training Motivation, and Job Performance

Although they are given little or no attention in management literature and practice, informal recognition is very effective to increase motivation and performance (Nelson, 2002). Some scholars believe that motivation is an intrinsic property of human nature rather than a behaviour to be instilled by management (Scholtes, 1995). Though, recent results of survey from US Council of Communication concluded that recognition for the job well done is the top motivator of employee performance (Sweatman, 1996).

In fact, a survey conducted by the Society of Incentive Travel Executives Foundation in 1992 found 65 per cent of the respondents ranked informal reward like “a pat on the back” by their managers as a meaningful incentive. This implies that motivation is not just influence by intrinsic factors but it is also influence by extrinsic factors.

In another study of 65 potential incentives, Graham and Unruh (1990) found that four out of the top five incentives ranked by employees as most motivating were initiated by their manager and based upon performance are such as the manager personally congratulates employees who done a good job, manager writes personal note for good performance, manager publicly recognizes employees for good performance, and manager holds morale-building meeting to celebrate employees successes.

Front-line managers’ recognition serves as a motivator for the employees to learn and motivate them to transfer their knowledge, skills and attitudes to the workplace. Results of the study by Xiao (1996) show verbal praise and promotion chances can moderately increase transfer outcomes that in turn will increase job performance. Another Chinese study on transfer of training by MBA graduates indicates that rewards and recognition enhance the trainee’s motivation to learn and performance improvement (Cheng, 2000). Those empirical findings suggest that managerial recognition indeed have a relationship with motivation to learn and job performance.

Empirical Evidence supporting the relationship between Management Training Assignment, Training Motivation and Job Performance.

Ayres (2005) conducted a study about training motivation based on a sample size of 156 workers in continuing professional education program. The respondents participated in 11 nursing CPE programs in North Carolina. This study found nurses who attended the training programs voluntarily have higher motivation to learn compared to nurses who are forced by management to attend the training.

A study conducted by Guerrero and Sire (2000) involving 335 samples from three large companies and a training organization found voluntary training assignment plays a minor role in the success of the training program. Specifically, employees’ voluntary action is positively influenced by intrinsic rewards. Instrumentality related to intrinsic rewards might affect employees’ training motivation, which in turn will enhance job performance. motivation-training outcome.pdf

Interestingly, while most research advocates voluntary participant in training positively influence training motivation, Tsai and Tai (2003) found inconsistent results. Tsai and Tai (2003) conducted a study in Northern Taiwan involving 184 trainees belonging from 18 banks who attended training programs offered by Taiwan Academy of Banking and Finance. The training program involved introductory banking and financial laws. Each of the training programs lasted for five to seven days and involves 20 to 40 trainees.

The study found employees have more training motivation when they were assigned to attend a training program by management than they made their choice freely. Management that force their employees to participate in training programs sends a clear message to employees that training is important. That is, mandatory training affects trainees’ training motivation through perceived importance.

Empirical Evidence supporting the relationship between Management Support, Training Motivation and Job Commitment

Cheung (2000) conducted a study of organizational commitment from non-Western societies involving 927 employees in eight high-technology organizations in Taiwan. This study found management support has strong reciprocal and positive relationship with organizational commitment.

Battistelli, Mariani and Bello (2006) conducted a study to examine the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment involving 687 employees. The study found perceived organizatio


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