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The following paper focuses on individual development in terms of motivation. It is mainly based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory inspecting the motivation levels of employees in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus. The qualitative collection of data in the form of questionnaires focused on examining the five levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and then focusing on the final level of the pyramid which is self actualization being articulated by several variables such as meaningfulness, self-sufficiency, effortlessness, creativeness, professional creativeness, self-understanding, Independence/strength, harmony with the universe, goodness and integration to civilization. Measuring these parameters, unexpected high scores were produce in most of the levels with only safety and harmony with the universe parameters being relatively low. The application of the findings is focused mainly to provide for the basis for further research and to provide some guidance in the level of fulfillment of employees in the particular industry.


1.1 Introduction

This chapter aims to define and discuss the matters concerning the problem and justify its importance in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus. The particular project researches the motivation parameters of employees in the particular industry in accordance with Maslow's motivation theory.

The author's personal interests in engineering, management, social interaction and psychology acted as an inspiration to find a way through research to incorporate my main interests. Moreover a project like this will be of aid in professional development as an engineer, as a manager and as a human being.

1.2 The problem

The current project focuses on a particular segment for the building industry, the Property Development sector which especially in Cyprus it is facing communication and coordination problems to say the least. Employees exchange their labour power and willingness to submit themselves to their employers in exchange to wage and satisfaction in a stable working relationship. On the other hand the employers don't want to spend excess funds and not get “hundred percent”, if possible, from their staff. This would be bad for the company, the industry, the country in terms of efficiency and economic growth. Therefore by investigating employees' motivation in the particular industry according to Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, the “problem” between employees' motivation and performance will be examined(Williamson, 1981).

1.3 Aim and research questions

This research targets to engage using a contextual methodology on the motivation parameters of employees in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus.

The research questions are:

-What methodology must be developed for assessing motivation parameters of employees in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus?

-How does the importance of different motivation levels deviates from the employees' point of view and in accordance to Maslow's theory?

-What is the performance in fulfilling each level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

1.4 Rationale

Through the literature review which will follow in the next chapter, the importance of motivation and quality management would be made clear. Most firms, if not all, in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus, do not have a Human Resource Management (HRM) sector and even if they do it is small and undermined, especially in regards to motivation. Therefore studies like this can help the rapidly developing industry of the country in order to be more cost efficient helping engineers and managers to get the most out of the wages they pay and employees to be correctly and rightfully recompensed for their skills and efforts.

Despite the fact that HRM and motivation techniques are not officially used, several engineers and managers use methods like wage raise, provide a company car or even a tap on the back without even realizing the effect and complexity of the consequences of their action.

1.4.1 Personal importance

Motivation is of extreme important even if most people don't realize it. It is considered to be an abstract force that is pushing animals to survive. Freud's school psychologists, studied mentally ill people trying to interpret their diseases, neuroses and dreams, placing major emphasis on human motivation, deep urges and inner drives (Shoura and Singh, 1999). Later psychologists like Maslow and Herzberg developed these researches on healthy people, calling them “superior human beings” or “self-actualizing people”, studying human evolution according to “the third force”; motivation force (Globe, 1970;Cleary, 1996). It is extremely interesting to comprehend the complexity of human motivation in all five levels of Maslow's hierarchy pyramid and understand the effects linked to peoples' evolution.

The findings of this research will help engineers in their managerial behaviour in order to perform accordingly to staff management in order to get the most out of their employees. Apart from external benefits of understanding peoples' behaviour priorities and limits like mentioned above, the certain research will satisfy internal benefits such as curiosity, joy of discovery and future professional enrichment.

1.5 Context of research

The research took samples from building sites in the 4 main provinces of Cyprus. Each province in the small island consists of only one city, Larnaca, Nicosia Limasol and Paralimni. Samples were retrieved by random and specific selection of the sites. The specific sites visited were from acquaintances made through the authors working experience. The random sites visited were selected due to the fact that they were conveniently located. The particular study surveys only technicians and low ranking employees in the property development industry of Cyprus. Particular participants were also randomly selected in each site based on own willingness to participate in the survey.

No research has been made regarding this subject in the island until now in context of the industry.

1.6 Conditions of research

For the export of valid result some conditions had to be met:

  1. The questions had to cover all levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
  2. The questions had to be clear in order for even the most illiterate person to be able to answer.
  3. To give clear instructions for all procedures to avoid any confusion.
  4. To eliminate any external influences as much as possible. If any exists they should be taken into consideration in the data interpretation.

1.7 Delimitation of problem

This project will only investigate the motivation parameter of Property Development employees in Cyprus comparing the response on each level and the importance of the level to the individual.

There are some factors such as age, professional experience, nationality, gender and marital status that will not be examined even though the data were collected since because of the word and context limitation since this is an undergraduate dissertation.

1.8 Definitions of key concepts

The incorporated absoluteness of an organism originates from owns motivation. Being the “hunger” drive (or any other physiological or psychological drive) to achieve an ultimate or basic goal, that is survival or even self-actualization (Maslow, 1965).

The broader meaning of motivation will be illustrated in the literature review following.


In this first introductory chapter of this study goes through the basic concept of motivation and explains how the research will proceed in order to investigate the motivation parameters in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus in accordance with Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. The research examined to develop a methodology for assessing the motivation parameters in the particular sector of the industry taking into consideration the problem and constrains, context and conditions of the research.


Motivation is the force that drives human being into survival, wellbeing and evolution. The current research will investigate the different motivation parameters of employees in the Property Development Industry Sector of Cyprus. The particular chapter covers the problem and justifies the importance of such a study and generally it introduces what the research is investigating and what it does not with appropriate reasoning.

Literature review

2.1 Introduction

Having a personal interest in engineering, human resource management and psychology were the driving forces in choosing the particular subject for research. The main bulk of the resources retrieved were books and articles mainly of a psychology, HRM and organisational behaviour content. Most of the resources regarding psychology are dated in the second part of the 20th century especially in 1965 were Maslow published his motivation theory were as the organizational behaviour and HRM sources are dated in more recent times showing the evolutions in these fields.

2.2 Background Information:

As mentioned above, early psychologists belonging to Freud's school of thought studied mentally disturbed people in order to learn more about human nature and its defiance's. In order to expand their knowledge on human inner self they studied dream interpretation. Furthermore some of these researches focused on human motivation, deep urges and inner drives (Shoura and Singh, 1999).

Behaviourists led by John Watson using strictly scientific principles established their theory according to external environmental influences. This school of psychologist based their ideas of human behaviour on the assumptions that human beings are flexible, malleable and passive victims on their environment (Globe, 1970).

2.3 Third Force, Maslow's Theory

Originally studying the Northern Blackfoot Indian Tribe in Alberta Canada and later concentrating on high fliers in their line of work characterizing them “superior human beings” or “self-actualizing people” integrating the positive and applicable aspects of the two earlier theories mentioned in the above section, making the what later became known as “The Third Force” (Globe 1970; Cleary 1996). In his search for the “whole truth” on human development he focused his research on high achieving human and advised everyone to try and become a “well developed people”. He rejected his predecessors' theories of analyzing human in animal proportions since it defies unique human characteristics such as martyrdom, scarifies, love, honour, art, beauty, philosophy and science. These characteristics are not shared by other primates contributing to the human inimitability in latent learning.

Understanding human behaviour was Dr Maslow's main contribution to the field. Especially feelings, desires, hopes and aspirations he introduces his “holistic approach” treating man as an entity or system instead of being just a sum of parts. Explaining the significance of factors such as job, human integration, the discipline of hard work and freedom Maslow confirmed ancient Greek philosophers' Plato and Socrates agreements that “virtue is rewarding”. He managed to sketch the characteristic of self-actualized human beings by studying “his superior people” coming to the conclusion that self-actualizing people enjoy life more along with whatever it brings, good or bad. Some of these characteristics are:

* Creativity

* Harmony with the universe

* Meaningfulness of life

* Professional creativeness

* Integration with civilization

* Independence

* Individuality

* Self-sufficiency

* Self-understanding

* Goodness

* Sense of mission

* Effortless

In accordance to Cleary some other characteristic were drawn (1996):

* Playfullness

* Justice

* Aliveness

* Richness

* Completion

* Beauty

* Simplicity

* Truth

* Order

* Perfection

2.4 Acceptance of Maslow's theory

Highly respected especially in his own time Maslow's Third Force Theory is widely accepted till today in management sciences (Roberts, 1982). Along with these literary thousands of researches were based on his theory and are being taught in fields like management, medicine and psychology. Probably the reason behind the enormous recognition and acceptance of this theory is the fact that it applies to every single human being on the planet (Diligensky, 1981). Maslow's perception of human behaviour such as love, self-esteem and spiritual development are essentially accepted by managers, teachers, doctors and psychologists illustrating the basic and important impact that his work had on mankind. Some interesting and very helpful for the completion of this project, researches, were made, based on Maslow's model such as Socoroccos's and Ramirez's in Venezuela (1986) and Hankins's and Clark's in the USA (1986). Another survey done in Israel regarding human personality factors proved Maslow's self-actualization features (Megen, 1985). An extremely important research in Lesotho is also backing up the concept that people are motivated according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs (Russell, 1984). This research was related to Maslow's since it was proven to closely assure the satisfaction of the five levels of the hierarchy neuroticism since the sample revealed high levels of neuroticism and belief in lack of mental control therefore evaluating that Maslow's theories have scientific credibility (Lester et al, 1983).

It is obvious that Maslow's work is largely based on Aristotle's Metaphysics which is the foundation of Western philosophy for at least two millennia regardless the fact that he criticized the use of empirical methods (Ivie, 1985). The basis of Maslow's reflections on self-actualization (non-linear characteristic) is the essence of his theory's transcendence and spiritualism. As his supporters advocate in opposition to critics is that the linear way of thinking promoted by them is not applicable to the human character and psychology (Ginsburg, 1984). Furthermore stimulus-response models lack in respect to Dr Maslow's explanation on human adaptation thus strongly supporting that the hierarchical standards are effective in augment of worker motivation (Melewski, 1980).

The essentiality of the self-actualization pronouncement is therefore vital to the enhancement of construction productivity and more specifically in the property development industry context. This parameter refers to the analysis of a feeling derived from the respect by and to others. Also it encompasses to the respect that an employee has and pays to co-workers, supervisors and supervisees. This fourth level of hierarchy is earned and exerted by respecting the skills, expertise, efforts and qualities of an individual adding the so called prestige. Since the assent on the ladder of the hierarchy of needs, the fulfilment of the particular parameter provides an individual with a sense of charisma, uniqueness and self-confidence. The lack of these qualities causes humiliation, low self-value being translated to low command power and lack of respect of owns qualities' and expertise.

2.5 Organization and motivation

According to Maslow organization and civilization is exactly the same thing yet being over organize or organized the wrong way is harmful to an individual's organization and civilization. The simplicity of Maslow's holistic model offers an established set of need elements (Argyris, 1964). According to Maslow, when rules regarding enlightened management are initiated, the question on how much each member of a group shall acquire in terms of technical and administrative qualities in order to perform ideally to the position granted. Also he claimed that the creed of human relations comes first and the purpose of the situation second. In order to develop more efficiency in terms of productivity in a sector, firstly and most importantly to hold the balance between formality and humanity (1964).

2.6 Hierarchy of needs parameters

In order to aim for self actualization by the superior human first the foundation of the hierarchy of need had to be put (Maslow, 1943). In order of priority these needs are:

(, 2004)

2.7 Self Development potential (TSD)

The drive that is pushing an individual to expand its awareness further than ordinary materialistic knowledge to an increased level of consciousness of existence is called total self development (Singh, 1996). In order to achieve operationally successful and effective individuals, the combining of the knowledge and application of total quality management (TQM) and Maslow's self-development concepts form the ideal compound. The link between self-actualization and spiritual mysticism has to be investigated more according to Maslow (1964).

The strive towards self actualization enables individuals to discover new spiritual and mind boundaries helping the human to evolve. Most of the times, peoples' accomplishments created and realized in moments named by Maslow “peak experiences” were individuals experience joy, happiness, wholeness, beauty, justice, simplicity richness, euphoria, effortless, playfulness and self-sufficiency (Cleary, 1996). In an employment scenery, in order to go beyond a peak experience, the individual's horizons have to be broadened above ones knowledge listed on its job description, managing this way to increase owns efficiency and productivity levels.

2.8 Conclusions

In conclusion, the essentiality and effectiveness of integrating Maslow's models in life and occupation is enormous for the evolution of the “superior human”. Firms, especially of the magnitude of the Property Development Industry of Cyprus, can cap vast benefits using these unutilized management frontiers. “Maslow's motivation principles are based on acquiring the higher knowledge to seek the ultimate potential in awareness” (Shoura and Sign, 1999).

The particular study uses the already developed theories in order to enrich efficiency and productivity of employees in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus. The research will also utilize a customized mould in order to identify the suitable motivation measures.


The bulk of this chapter provides useful data regarding the basis of this research. In thoroughly explains Maslow's Third Force theory enabling the reader to get familiarized wit h subject. Furthermore it highlights several important information and knowledge that will be essential in the following parts of this dissertation, the methodology and the analysis of the data. Lastly the literature review is an essential part of any piece of work as it acts as a detailed and explanatory bibliography for the particular subject, allowing the author and the readers to acquire the basic knowledge to follow the research and most importantly to have several resources introduced to them and made available to study at anyone's interest.

Chapter ΙΙI


3.1 Introduction

This chapter mainly focuses on explaining and illustrating the methods that the actual research will be done for this project. As the title implies, it is considered to be a small scale quantitative and qualitative research. The methodology part of this dissertation aims to clarify how this kind of search is conducted and for what reason it is conducted. In more detail the basic question that this chapter investigates is how to examine the motivation parameters of employees in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus.

The questions emerging from the research question made above help the drawing a research plan for this chapter. This chapter is responsible in answering questions regarding the nature that the data will have in order to be analyzable being valid and accurate, how the instrumentation will be built and use in the research field and what the difficulties that will be faced are.

Lastly the word methodology comes from the Greek word “μεθοδολογία” which is a composite word consisting of two words “μέθοδος”, method, and “λόγος”, reason, therefore the meaning of the word implies what will be done, how will the research be done and for what reason it will be done summing up the actual and total meaning of this chapter.

3.2 Aim and research questions

This research tries to determine according to the suitable methodology, what are the motivation parameters in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus.

The research questions are:

i. What methodology must be developed in order to asses employees' motivation parameters in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus in accordance with Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory?

ii. What is a sufficient sample?

iii. How errors will be limited?

3.3 Research methodology and approach

The actual meaning of dissertation is; a small scale research. In this research a sample of 57 employees from the property development industry of the main four provinces of the island is taken. As Anderson and Burns state methodology is the nature of knowing (1989).

There are two ways of collecting and interpreting data, the quantitative and the qualitative method.

In this particular research a quantitative, in the form of a questionnaire instant respond questions, will be used since the sample is large. Furthermore the motivation parameters are in an abstract form, thus in by using a quantitative method of data collection, an attempt is made on making feelings, beliefs and personal views into numbers in order to understand them and analyze them more easily.

3.3.1 Research Target Group and Response

The groups targeted are employees in the Property development industry of Cyprus. In more detail they are from a simple worker to builders, plumpers, electricians, site-managers form-workers and metal-workers all working on the building sites. Collectively these groups are all involved in the overall technical operations concerned with the property development industry and the basic strata for this survey were acquired with the filling out of questionnaires targeting the groups motivations parameters.

This survey was conducted in the form of group or individual interviews by the author and with the help of a translator were applicable, managing to acquire a sample of 57 people out of the 65 questionnaires given out.

3.3.2 Sufficiency of Sample

By managing to acquire 57 out 65 questionnaires given out an 88% of the sample was satisfied, managing to get the questionnaire being filled out by all the basic occupations involved in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus. People participated voluntarily and randomly.

3.3.3 Holistic approach

The particular industry is performing as a living organism or as an engine having various organs or component that have to cooperate in order to work properly. Therefore by giving emphasis and thus taking sample from all types of workers, work, experience, nationality, age etc, in the particular industry a holistic approach of the motivation parameters is retrieved. Having a holistic approach is an essential component of Maslow's self-actualization level.

3.3.4 Triangulation of data

According to Denzin who developed the triangulation theory, it enables researches to asses and complete theories and hypothesis. This involves the testing of variables by using rival hypothesis and/or alternative explanations for the same variable (1989). In simpler terms this can be illustrated in the questionnaire in the appendix Figure 1 and 2 where it is obvious that questions studying the same variable were repeated more than once and also not put in a certain order but were randomized, in order to check the respondents honesty by seeing if the response to the same or similar questions is related.

3.4 Instrumentation and Data Collection Procedures

In the following sections the data collection methods are going to be illustrated.

3.4.1 Questionnaire

As mentioned in the previews parts of this methodology, the questionnaire enables to develop a quantitative assessment of the motivation parameters in respect to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. By this method the organizational settings of the particular employee sector of the Property Development Industry of Cyprus will be investigated. Figure 1 of the appendix illustrates the 32 questions which cover the 5 levels of the hierarchy of needs and are eligible to a Likert response scale of 1 to 7. Furthermore a parallel set of responses is met in regards to the respondents' personal value of importance on each question. The seven degrees with 1 being totally disagree and 7 being totally agree with respondents associating their feelings of agreement and importance for each level of the hierarchy. These questions are designed in order ro represent the various need parameters. Appendix Figure 2 Table 1 presents the distribution of the study parameters over the questions.

3.5 Methods of Evaluation

The following section will explain the basic methods of quantifying the results of the questionnaires.

3.5.1 Quality index (QI)

Quality Index is the numerical parameter that is being developed by taking the mean value of the respondent of the questions which are relevant to the particular parameter.

This parameter is formulated by: QI =


where QI = instant satisfaction index by one respondent, n = number of questions involved in each hierarchy level, SQ = score awarded by a respondent for a question Q.

In this particular research the range of values vary from a low 1 to a high of 7. By averaging the QIs of all the respondents of a particular group the group quality index is obtained (QIg). The importance of this particular index is that it clarifies the magnitude of the instant perception of the respondent regarding the question (Shoura, ).

3.5.2 Relevance Factor (RF)

Similarly to the QIs the relevance factor (RF) will be obtained by the responses to each question. Again the Likert Scale of 1-7 will be used and respondents will be required to fill out the second column in the questionnaire. This relevance shows the importance of the particular issue concerning the respondent.

3.5.3 Scaled Quality Index (SQI)

The Quality Indexes are determined by dividing the average Quality Index (QIg) and Relevance Factor (RFg) providing new parameters for group assessment. Since the genuine fulfilment and its importance are both calibrated, the Quality Indexes provide a more realistic approach of the need parameters, hence, SQI in a relative ranking system. In order to regulate the SQI scores between 0 and 100 all scores are divided by an arbitrary “convenience factor” of 0.70 for better comprehension of the performance of measured parameters (see appendix Figure 3 Table 2).

SQIg =

SQIg = percentage of need category scaled quality index

QI = need category quality index of the group

RF = need category relevance factor on the Likert scale

K = convenience factor (constant 0.70)

For example, in numerical terms, if the average QI=6, the average RF= 5.5 and k=0.70 (constant) then:

3.5.4 Central Tendency

By the analysis of the questionnaire results the responses followed the central tendency theorem. The answers in each question fluctuated closely around their average. In the cases were central tendency is observed it is important to analyse these fluctuations since important conclusions can be drawn. Therefore the standard deviation of QI, RF and SQI results for each category should be calculated. It can be observed that these fluctuations of the responses cluster around the average, which are the key characteristic of the central theorem thus giving more emphasis on any minor fluctuations, should be taken into consideration. In appendix Figure 3 Table 2the QI, RF, SQI, mean and standard deviation are presented.

3.6 Findings for QI, RF and SQI

The results of the survey made on the staff in the Property development industry of Cyprus is being illustrated in charts and graphs in the appendix. Several comparisons are made between the performance index of the surveyed groups and the motivation levels thus the terms QI, RF and SQI represent group values.

3.6.1 Quality index Results

The QI results are presented in Figure 2 of the appendix in a chart format for the particular motivation levels and Figures 3a and 3b illustrate the sample distribution of answers of the response scale of the employees.

3.6.2 Relevance factor results

In Figure 4 the results of the survey are shown. Since the data, from all job titles had a low variability in respect to the relevance factor, they were combined. Moreover for a more substantial representation of the relevance factor an importance scale is developed from -3 to +3. Essentially this is the same as the Likert scale. The only difference is that the origin is shifted from 1 to 4 which is the median value. Thus by making our median zero a more illustrative presentation of the results is shown by -3 being extremely unimportant and +3 being extremely important. An example of the comparison of the two scales is shown in appendix Figure3, Table 2 and Figure 8, Graph 3.

3.6.3 Scaled quality index results

The scaled quality index results (SQI) enables a complete insight to the status of thr parameters which is considered of great importance an operating group in an industry sector. If the score in terms of need parameters is high (high RF) the SQI would be become low (since QI is divided be RF) highlighting the importance of improve the parameters and vice versa. The SQI values are included in Figure 5.

3.7 Discussing the methodology effectiveness

After the answering the question mentioned in section 3.2 of this chapter regarding, what methodology must be developed in order to assess the motivation parameters in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus, a discussion of its effectiveness must be made.

In general there weren't much implication since the methodology developed was rational and triangulated. The instrumentation of this research was based on several sources specialized on the particular field such as (Witt 2000, Boyd 2000). Furthermore, Shurras and Slingh helped in the final formulation of the instrumentation with their work in examining the motivation parameters of civil engineers in Honolulu (19).

Some of the problems faced, were the small scale of the research, since no variables such as sex, age, marital, status, nationality and work experience were taken into consideration even though they were collected. Secondly the human factor was also faced in this research since there is a trend when people are being studied their behaviour might change. Lastly the language barrier was an obstacle that had to be overcome, either by talking in two languages (Greek and English) in order to explain the questions since the people could not read either of the two languages, or with the help of a translator that was brought along to help in the research.

3.7.1 Practical issues and Ethical considerations

It is important to emphasize once more that this is a small scale research and therefore the results cannot be generalized. Mostly this research can be used for references and for some contextual findings that might be used for further research.

The subjects of this research were explained thoroughly the instructions of this researching order to understand what was required by them. This was done due to the lack of educational level of some of the participants since they could not read or could not comprehend some of the meaning of the questions even though they were written as simple as possible. Moreover they we assured that this research would remain anonymous and would not affect their professional development. This information was also available along with each questionnaire. In further relation to ethics, participation to this research was voluntarily and participants were explained the procedures followed. All completed questionnaires were kept in a safe place in order to keep anonymity. The firms were also reassured that no information regarding their employees' motivation parameters would leak to any other competitors. Also written notice of what the dissertation was about was signed and stamped by my supervisor Mrs Anna Parkin and was demonstrated to all sight engineers, managers and to the participants assuring the purpose of the project. In addition, a copy of the finished paper will be allocated to all engineers that approved the research to take place on their building sites (Borg & Call, 1983, Robson, 2002, and Katsaridi, 2002). In conclusion results were gather in a generally way in order not to reveal anything about the particular firms or respondents.

3.8 Conclusions

In the particular chapter, the methodology of investigating the need parameters of employees in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus was explained, along with data collection and analysis procedures.

This small scale quantitative research, as described in section 3.3, also engages in the methodology part how the data will be collected (questionnaires) and how the results will be analyzed (section 3.5). Moreover the triangulation of the data along with the acknowledgment of the limitation in order to minimize errors and get a more sincere sample was introduced in this chapter.

Finally, this research done in several building sites in the four main provinces of the island and focused on employees of generally low educational background, of different nationalities work experience and backgrounds with the language barrier being the main difficulty. This was partly solved with the help of a translator that came along in the days that the research took place. Another way to limit this error is to survey first the nationality of the prospective samples and manage to translate the questionnaire in all the appropriate languages.


Summarizing the above chapter, the basic methods of gathering and analyzing the results of the survey are presented and explained. Moreover the basic questions that are explained in this chapter are illustrated. Moreover the method of acquiring quantitative data with the aid of a questionnaire is presented. Then a thorough explanation of how the data will be analyzed is shown along with explanation and appendix situations of the tables of results. In the last parts of the methodology chapter the effectives of the methods is discussed and the ethical considerations and practical issues faced. In conclusion this chapter analyzes, as the compounds of the word imply, how and why this research will be done.

Chapter V

Discussions and Result Illustration

4.1 Introduction

The following chapter will have the major tabulation and graphical representation of the result after being processed. Moreover it contains a detailed analysis of the results retrieved dividing separating the parameters into individual sections. Furthermore the self-actualization parameter is further divided into the appropriate subsections. See table of the appendix which shows which question in the questionnaire corresponds to the particular parameter. Please refer to Table1, Graph 1, 2, and 3 for the general QI, RF and SQI values and averages. Table 2, 3 and graph 4 illustrate QI, RF, SQI and Standard Deviation Values and for differentiation of the Likert scale and the Quality Index Scale.

4.2 Basic Needs Findings:

Human nature has the response of giving emphasis in satisfying first the physiological needs and then progressing with the satisfaction of the rest in an ascending manner. Nonetheless, minute sums of accomplishment in all groups and hierarchies exist in all people. Moreover, needs that are placed in higher levels of the hierarchy pyramid occur more or less in progression thus as satisfaction increases, humans are driven more towards self-actualization. The response value that different individuals illustrate varies as per person (Maslow, 1954).

The results tabulated Table 1 show the data for the populations' basic Needs. The total average of the QI is calculated to be 5.5 and the overall SQI mean to be 60.6% for an overall RF average of 6.4 in the Likert scale and thus 2.4 in the importance scale.

Table 1: Performance of Industry on Hierarchy Parameters

Level of hierarchy of needs



Likert Scale


Importance Scale

SQI (%)

Level 1, physical





Level 2, safety





Level 3, social





Level 4, esteem





Level 5, self-actualization










Standard Deviation





Graph 1:

Graph 2:

4.2.1 Performance of Physical Needs

Physical needs are the focal point of man's existence in terms of physical existence and physiological being. Since the above statement any scarcity in physical need significantly and rapidly influences human functions. In terms of physical needs in can be reviewed by the data of Figure 3, Table two that employees in the property Development Industry of Cyprus exhibit a rather high QI and a relatively low SQI value with the RF values being extremely high. By this it can be understood that the relatively high QI result means that they feel their job rather satisfies their physical needs and with the Relevance Factor being even higher the vast importance they accredit their physical needs. The relatively low SQI shows the gap between the Quality Index and the Relevance Factor shows that they feel there is still a relative room for improvement for their physical needs to be satisfied totally (See Graph1, 2 and 3 for particular results).

This category, scores highest than all other parameters in terms of importance (6.7). Moreover the mean QI of 5.7 and RF of 6.7, are above the overall average of all parameters combined, for QI (5.5) and for RF (6.4), leading to the conclusion that their physical needs are satisfied more than the average satisfaction of the other parameters and that they consider it more important. In conclusion to this section it has been understood the employees in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus consider physical needs extremely important and that there is relatively high fulfilment.

4.2.2 Performance of Safety Needs

Physical and mental safety is essential in order to maintain physiological and psychological health. The safety parameter is essential to attain stability in owns life at home, at work and generally at the society in order to acquire sanity and productive generation of the thought process. Lack of this parameter produces instability and incoherence in the individual's environment. In Table 1 it is observed that Safety need scored the lowest from all the other parameters in terms of QI and SQI and particularly high in the Relevance Factor. This shows that the participants of the research consider safety in their life and workplace essential (RF=6.6, second in order) and that they are relatively unsatisfied with the levels of safety (QI=4.6) in their lives scoring the lowest of all parameters. Moreover the lowest SQI (49.3%) is derived by the fact that there is a low fulfilment of the safety parameter and a large importance. Therefore by the data generated from this parameter is the essentiality for working towards improving safety in the particular sector of the industry, since the people that work in it consider this parameter fundamental. This improvement will result into enhancing the harmony in the employees' workplace and life which will surely affect positively productivity and quality of their work


4.2.3 Performance of Social, Love and Belonging Needs

This third parameter engages on human social behaviour in the various contexts of workplace with colleagues and personal with friends, family, neighbours etc. This parameter provides individuals a vital part of their human characteristic and thus lack of fulfilment in this area is a cause of antisocial behaviour (Maslow, 1954). The sense of belongingness is essential in any profession; in the Property Development Industry team spirit and employee relationships are crucial since most of the work is done in groups. By fostering a sense of belongingness in an industry can lead to common professional aspirations and visions.

In Table 1 in can be retrieved that the QI and RF values are high showing that the particular need is quite satisfied and fulfilled. Especially the high level of RF of 6.4 illustrates the necessity that employees feel to have good relationships with the co-workers. The low SQI value refers to the fact that even though people are relatively satisfied in regard to fulfilment to this parameter (QI=5.7) there is still some room for improvement since the difference between RF (6.4) and QI is a bit high. Therefore it can be concluded that a bit of work for improvement in terms of social health is needed since it is regarded extremely important by the employees. Firms in the industry should promote and foster a sense of belongingness amongst employees in order to increase workforce satisfaction, i.e. happier personnel higher production quality and quantity.

4.2.4 Performance of Esteem Need

The data on Table 1 show the highest QI score achieved in the particular parameter of 5.9 showing that employees attain high respect levels by co-workers and general public. This seems to be of great importance to them since the RF value is also high (6.3). According to the results, esteem fulfilment scores the highest than any other parameter making the SQI being well above average (See Graph 1, 2 and 3 for the values mentioned).

Respecting others opinion is vital in an environment that co-operation amongst its constituents is involved in order to complete a task. In the Property Development Industry this is translated to the fact that people have to respect each other in order to co-operate and be productive in terms of quality and quantity.

Table 2: Performance of Industry on Self-Actualization Parameters

Self Actualization Parameters



Likert Scale


Importance Scale

SQI (%)


























Professional creativeness















Harmony with universe










Integrated with civilization





Graph 3:

4.2.5 Findings on Self-actualization Parameters

Early psychologists and thinkers supported the theory that incentives to increase labour productivity were not necessary if their basic needs were satisfied. According to Maslow's Third Force theory though all individuals are forced by their nature to strive for better and instinctively endeavour to fulfil a higher level in the hierarchy of needs once the fulfil the lower. Moreover he studied the metamotivational and metapay factors which imply that if reward regarding the fulfilment of a motivation parameter comes then the individual will strive for more (Cleary, 1996).

So far in this chapter the first four levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs pyramid are discussed. The last and ultimate level of Maslow's pyramid is self-actualization which as stated in the literature review chapter is articulated by several factors being combined in order to composite a state of harmony towards an individual. In the following part of this chapter the elements composing self-actualization will discussed according to the results of the research. The constituents of Maslow's self-actualization parameters open the proportions for whole new dimensions regarding human potential (Singh, 1996). The data for this section are illustrated in appendix Figure 4 and along with the corresponding charts. Performance of Meaningfulness, Self-Sufficiency and Effortlessness

On day to day basis people that are involved in the Property Development Industry undertake activities that require logical, practical, organizational, empirical and scientific procedures. In order to be able to accomplish these tasks they undergo, deliberately or not, several learning procedures which take tears to accumulate. After reaching those levels, individuals look for ways to complete a task with more self-sufficiency and less effort. This can also include improved understanding, fluency, competence, and facility. By attaining these qualities, significant steps are taken towards being the “absolute” employee.

In the table in Table 2 the QI scores regarding Meaningfulness, Self-Sufficiency and Effortlessness are quite high since they scored 5.6, 6.4 and 6.2 respectively. Moreover they have scored high in terms of RF showing that the employees consider these parameters very important. To sum up the results, the SQI values are kept high coming to the conclusion that employees have fulfilled these parameters which they consider extremely important. Graph 3 illustrates the findings in a more parastatic form. The low standard deviation values from Table 3 show that most of the responses did not fluctuate much. This particular section thus highlights of the importance of meaningfulness independence and effort efficiency of the industry employees. Performance of Creativeness and Professional Creativeness

Creativeness in general refers to the manner an individual acts according to his/her imagination using the resources available. Specifically professional creativeness refers to the ways an employee performs in terms of technical, ingenuity and originality aspects. Construction is considered to be a very creative and innovative job even though rough and stressful. Creativeness in the particular industry is sometimes overlooked by the fact that deadlines have to be met. Nevertheless construction is and has to remain creative in order to continue its evolutionary course.

Quality index and relevance factor values remain in high levels like most of the other parameters in terms of creativeness and professional creativeness with professional creativeness being slightly higher. These results thus reflect on the SQI values keeping them as well in high standards showing the large agreement and importance of the fulfilment of the parameters. The standard deviation of creativeness which scored lower than professional creativeness has a slightly large standard deviation stating that the response fluctuated a bit. In general this parameter is highly fulfilled giving credit to employers and employees for the creativeness and innovation they put in their work. Performance of Self-Understanding and Independence/Strength

These two categories include self-worth completeness and individuality and therefore translated into faith on capabilities and understanding of personal limits. In terms of QI the results are slightly lower that most of the other categories but still they can be considered as high. The RFs for these two parameters are even higher showing the importance that, employees in the industry accredit self-understanding and Independence/strength. These results therefore reflect on the SQI result which is almost 63% for both parameters. Slightly high results of standard deviation in terms of self-understanding which shoe that slight inconsistency in the response of the questions for QI and RF.

In general, employees in this industry consider their work to be enhancing in term of understanding their selves and strengths. Furthermore they deem these qualities they acquire highly which is extremely important since it enables them to evolve and become better. “Harmony with Universe” and Integration to Civilization

The particular two parameters can be considered difficult to understand and explain. They refer to something as abstract as the majestic nonentity and the poor sumptuousness. It a simple order to chaos highlighting the view of separating an individual's self from extraordinary limits realizing the importance of both. In simpler words is managing to become so fulfilled in order to reach the prefect proportions of the universe.

The significantly lowest QI and RF were produced by the Harmony with the Universe parameter. Respondents showed a negative attitude in this level by scoring for QI=3.1 and for RF=3.0 (-1 using the importance scale). Therefore from the result it can be understood that most of the employees didn't feel that their occupation drove them towards being one with the universe and actually did not care about that. Nevertheless and interesting observation is that the standard deviation is significantly high revealing that a small proportion of the volunteers actually felt this parameter being fulfilled.

Opposing the above parameter results, scores regarding integration with civilization were encouragingly high as both the quality index (5.9) and the relevance factor (6.1) showed high fulfilment and importance. Lastly the low standard deviation showed small fluctuations in the response and a rather consistent manner. Even though most of the personnel in the industry are technicians and are generally uneducated they tend to have a romantic point of view of their work considering their occupation more as a contribution to their environment rather than a job. Performance of Goodness

Comprehending the sense of goodness elevates individual understanding in mortality, purity and complete virtuosity. The particular parameter is engaged to beauty, aliveness, competence and truth. In conclusion this parameter refers to individual's perception of righteousness and life. According to the results, this parameter also enjoys a high level of fulfilment. This is illustrated by the levels of QI (6.1) and RF (6.3). These numbers imply that a soaring level of goodness is achieved which they appreciate extremely. The SQI which is retrieved to be 68.4% exemplifies the fact that little effort needs to be put by the industry in meeting maximum actualization and fulfilment in this parameter. Lastly the standard deviation is quite low showing that the results did not fluctuate with no extreme responses.

Table 3: QI and RF Standard Deviation

The standard deviation of the response (QI) and importance (RF) scale of each of the questions regarding the self-actualization parameters is illustrated:






Professional creativeness



Harmony with universe


Integrated with civilization

QI Standard Deviation












RF Standard Deviation












4.3 Overall Performance of the Industry

Interestingly enough all parameters apart from one enjoyed relatively high values in terms of Quality Index and Relevance Value. It is probable that the outcome of this survey reflects on the fact the people working in the particular industry live their lives in a high level of intensity. This could also mean that they accredit life seriously caring for the parameters of life. Therefore this conclusions add up to a verification that they enjoy in a high extend universal truthfulness. In Figure 3 Table 2 the average response in all five levels of Maslow's hierarchy are illustrated all scoring relatively high values of fulfilment apart from level 2 regarding safety were the importance factor RF is high but safety is rather on the low side. This is totally fair since the particular jobs have high health risks. It will be to Dr Maslow's satisfaction that the results for the parameters were relatively high and significantly self-actualization verifying his theory of “superior humans” which will strive for more once the lower level is satisfied, according to the literature review. In addition the correlation between RF and SQI reveals that little effort is needed in order to achieve maximum fulfilment in each parameter. This can be understood by the fact that the RF values are high and the SQI are high. Therefore it is clear that employees in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus are rather fulfilled on parameters they consider important with little room of improvement.

4.4 Areas to be Developed Based on SQI

It can be considered that the parameters that enjoy SQI values lower than the average (60.6%) are in need of attention by the firms and the particular industry. This refers to the safety parameter which provides and SQI of 49.3% and slightly to the physical needs parameter which has an SWI of 59.6%. The difference between the average SQI and each parameter's SQI should indicate the effort and intensity that has to be put in for achieving fluffiness. For example the large difference between the health parameter SQI and the average imply that much effort must be put in order for employees to feel safer in their working environment and the small difference between the physical needs SQI and the average show that with little improvement their physical needs will be fulfilled. Lastly in terms of specific self-actualization parameters Table 2 and all SQI percentages are higher than the average shown on Table 3. Even the parameter concerning “harmony with the universe” which scored the lowest values in terms of QI and RF produced a high percentage of 71.7% which is translated to the fact that employees do not regard the parameter important for their work and their life and thus there is no need for improvement.

Graph 4:

4.6 Conclusions

By analyzing the motivation parameters, this particular research attempts in accordance to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory to unravel the cosmic scope of human poetical in accordance to work performance. The initial expectation and prediction in terms of parameter fulfilment were that scores would have been relatively low especially moving towards the higher levels of the pyramid but the results showed mostly the opposite. According to Maslow the need are basic essential and powerful and thus had to be met.

The particular project uncovers the main areas of human development in order to reach self-actualization. Specifically the areas that need most improvement are safety and physical needs. The particular industry shows positive signs in terms of fulfilment justifying the economic boom which occurs the past decade. The process of developing the two lacking parameter will be slow since the size of the industry is quite large and it will yet be affected by the economic crisis. Also in terms of safety whatever the measures taken of improvement it would be little since in general it is a high risk job.

The research illustrates three different result parameters. QI is the personal quality regarded to each parameter, RF is the importance of each parameter and SQI is the relative quality validation. The higher the QI the more the satisfaction for the particular parameter and the higher the RF the more important the particular parameter is to an individual. SQI is distinguished by the integration of QI and RF with the higher the difference between them the higher the percentage the more that need and effort needed in order to achieve fulfilment of the particular parameter.


The results chapter illustrates in the form of tables and charts the different parameters used in the analysis of the result in order for conclusions to be drawn. Also it illustrates the calculated figures retrieved for making the data readable and analyzable. Moreover the performance on each level of hierarchy is discussed with close referencing to the result collected making some suggestions on which parameters need special attentions to achieve higher fulfilment.

Chapter IV


5.1 Introduction

The aims of this final chapter of the dissertation are to sum up, summarize and present the procedure and general conclusions emerging. By creating a contextual methodology this project aims to determine the motivation parameters of employees in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus in accordance with Maslow's theory of the hierarchy of needs.

The particular chapter consists of five main sections plus the introduction. Firstly a brief summing up of the main conclusion established by this study are presented. Furthermore the sections referring to any basic implications for the practical aspect of this research being followed by implications the limitations of the study. Lastly some recommendations for further research are made and the acknowledgment section being last.

5.2 Conclusions

It is widely appreciated that management of a firm seeks to motivate workers in order to achieve high performance. This though most of the times is overshadowed by the attempts of meeting deadlines and achieving goals, especially since all industries are struggling in the ongoing period of globalization. Nevertheless the particular industry studied showed unexpected high margins of self fulfilment. This though does not necessarily mean that little effort is needed in order to achieve self-fulfilment. On the contrary, in order to make the difference in an already highly fulfilled parameter more effort has to be put to satisfy individuals make the relationship a bit more exponential than linear. Generally low scores in the parameters are important to spot deficiencies and high scores are important to point out satisfaction and fulfilment. Summing up his small scale project can be the base for future measurements and studies serving as foundation to determine the particular motivation levels of the certain industry.

5.3 Limitations of the Study

There are three major limitation associated with this study. The first limitation is the size and magnitude of this research since it is done in the context of an undergraduate degree therefore there is the limit of time. The second limitation which originates actually from the first one regards sample size. For an undergraduate dissertation the sample can be considered satisfactory but if this research was to be used by the industry then a much larger sample should have been gathered. The last limitation refers to the fact the particular industry does not have an HRM sector which specializes on motivation and there are not government bodies that focus on gathering statistics and making researches on the particular things. If such bodies existed then interviews of officials would have been extremely useful. Therefore since no previous publication on the particular mater no verification can be done in terms of the correctness and validity of the data retrieved.

5.4 Recommendations for future research

While completing this research several interesting areas of worth for future research are traced. The most obvious part is researching the motivation parameters the highest ranking engineers, managers and employers and then comparing with lower ranking employees. Reading an article on high ranking engineering officers' motivation and comparing the results with this particular research showed that employees are extremely more fulfilled than employers where as expecting the opposite.

Moreover a survey of how different parameters such as age, work experience, nationality, sex and marital status affect the motivation parameters would have been extremely important considering the facts that these data are already gather in the context of this research.

Vastly interesting, following the current trend, would be a research on how the credit crunch affects motivation parameters in the particular industry.

Lastly a comparison of motivation parameters in the public and public sector of the construction industry would have been extremely interesting since there are major differences such as working hours, wages, work load and vacation periods.

5.5 Acknowledgments

Special and sincere gratitude to my Supervisor Mrs Anna Parkin for the close cooperation guidance and understanding she showed. Furthermore a big thanks to my parents Kyriacos and Christiana Alexandrou in providing me with the suitable and essential resources and acquaintances in order to be able to gather all the necessary information. Huge gratitude to my friend Stavros Sellas which was of vast aid in translating the questionnaires and doing the interviews in Bulgarian in order to retrieve the data. Lastly, enormous credit is given to my friends Panos Rizos, Nicholas Pettis, Savvas Trichas, and Christula Laina for their help, guidance and moral support.


This final chapter sums up the whole project presenting some final conclusions in regards to the project. Also the limitations of the survey are illustrated along with some suggestions for future research in accordance with the particular subject. To sum up this dissertation, this last chapter puts the finishing touch in the building up of the fulfilment of Maslow's hierarchy parameters in the Property Development Industry of Cyprus.

Chapter VI


* QI= Quality index referring to the satisfaction of a particular parameter

* RF=Relevance factor referring to the importance of each parameter to each individual

* SQI= Scale quality index results referring to the integration of QI and Rf.

* k= Transformation constant

* Stimulus response refers to the response of an individual which is driven by a particular factor such as any type of hate, love, favourite football team etc. (stimulus).

* Self actualization refer to a rather abstract meaning concerning and individuals level of personal completeness

Figure 2: Questionnaire:

Motivation in the property Development industry of Cyprus

The following questionnaire has been designed to assess the motivation levels of employees in the property development industry of Cyprus. The information supplied will be used for research purposes only and respondents will remain anonymous.

Employee Information

Please tick the appropriate boxes below and fill in the required information.

Age (years): under 20 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59

60 and over

Sex : M/F


Work experience (years): 5 or less 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25

36-30 31-35 over 35

Job title/Profession:

Region (e.g. Larnaca):

Marital status:

Highest Educational Qualification:

FIG. 2 Questionnaire:

Please indicate using the scales below;

a) your level of agreement with the following statements

b) how important the subject of each statement is to you

a) Agreement Scale: b) Importance Scale:

(Definitely Disagree) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (Definitely Agree) (Not Important) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (Extremely Important)


1. My physical needs are satisfied in my life.

2. My workplace is safe from hazards.

3. My supervisor can damage my career.

4. I feel my job makes a positive contribution to the state.

5. I feel secure in my job.

6. Outside my working environment my life and safety are secure.

7. My job comes as second nature to me.

8. I feel I have the opportunity to develop good friendships in this job.

9. I feel intimidated by my supervisors.

10. My job gives my life meaning.

11. I feel a sense of identity is derived from working for this firm.

12. I derive a sense of self-esteem from my job.

13. I feel “needed” for my professional knowledge and competence.

14. People outside the firm regard my job to be prestigious.

15. There is a sense of teamwork and belongingness at work.

16. I consider myself fulfilled.

17. I have good friends in my workplace.

18. I consider my job meaningful.

19. My co-workers help each other.

20. I have what it takes to be in this job.

21. The firm provides the adequate resources for me to perform my job.

22. I find it easy to understand my work.

23. I can be creative in this job.

24. My supervisors foster a sense of belonging amongst employees.

25. My job helps me explore my talents.

26. My job helps me explore myself

27. I feel independent in my job.

28. I feel my job is in harmony with the universe.

29. I feel intimidated by my co-workers.

30. My job makes a contribution to the development of civilization.

31. I am respected by others in my work.

32. I feel safe doing this job.

Figure 3, Table 1: Question Distributions Amongst Parameters:

Hierarchy of needs

Survey questions used in parameter

Total questions used

Stage 1: Physical



Stage 2: Safety

2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 32


Stage 3: Social

8,11, 15, 17, 19, 24,29


Stage 4: Esteem

12, 13,14, 31


Stage 5: Self actualization




10, 18,



20, 21



7, 22





-Professional creativeness









-Harmony with universe






-Integrated with civilization



Figure 4: Graphical Response Distribution According to Each Parameter:

Graph 1:

Graph 2:

Graph 3:

Graph 4:

Graph 5:

Graph 6:

Graph 7:

Graph 8:

Graph 9:

Graph 10:

Graph 11:

Graph 12:

Graph 13:

Graph 14:

Graph 15:

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