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Importance of Job Satisfaction

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Management education is unusual combination of academic learning and practical expertise and in order to produce an executive, the two have to be interwoven. The practical training in any organization in domain of a management course has pivotal importance in not only expose the management student to the actual work situations thus giving them a rich in sight in to what practically goes on behind in the industrial climate and government institution and boards of India but it also help the students, who are eager to learn, to imbibe the latest in diverse areas and capitalize on it. Thus practical training in any industry or organization inculcates in the students, the skill and aptitude, which will position them to take full advantage of opportunities.

I had privilege of receiving my practical knowledge about the training in BIG BAZAAR keeping in line with the objective of the3 customer oriented approach to be followed by a public utility organization. During my training, I was allotted a project to study the job satisfaction in BIG BAZAAR. I have tried my level best to make this project a success, obviously with in the parameters of constraints. I hope that the project report will be evaluated in this light and appreciate


Management is defined as that field of the human behavioour in which managers plan, organizes ,staff , direct and control human, physical and financial resources in an organization effort, in order to achieve desired individual and group objectives with optimum efficiency and effectiveness. It is clear from definition that management is concerned with the accomplishment of objectives by utilizing physical and financial resources through the efforts of human resources. Thus human resources are a crucial sub-system in the process of management. The term human resources is quit popular in India with the institution of ministry of Human Resources Development in the Cabinet.

The modern organization setting is characterized by constant changing relating to environment factors and human resources. As regards environment factors we find changes in the operating organization structure, the network of working procedures, customs or norms and economic, political and social patterns in which organization exist. There is a constant change in human resources, new ideas and expectations. The existing work force is constantly with new ideas, attributes and values.

To look after the various function set for the organization adequate resources in men and material have to be arranged by individual who serve as managers or supervisors within the organization. Such people have to make thing to achieve objective of organization. To achieve their objectives four important M's should be utilized. Example:

  1. MONEY
  4. MEN

The success, failure of organization depends on the above factors


Human Resource Management is the method of developing potentialities of employees so that they get maximum satisfaction out of their work and give their efforts to the organization.

Human Resource Management is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement development , compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and societal objectives of accomplished.

Human Resource Management in an extension general management, that of prompting and stimulating every employee to make his fullest contribution to the purpose of a business.


The well known Aristotelian saying is worth quoting while analyzing the scope of HRD. Aristotle said, it is as natural for human being to development and achieve his full potential as it for an acorn to grow in to a majestic oak tree. The focus of HRD essentially is on enabling people to self - actualize through a systematic process of developing their existing capabilities of people both in the present and future.

HRD has a wide - ranging scope as it's objectives included:

  • Developing a climate for the employees to discover, to develop and use their full capacities for the organization.
  • Increases the capacity of an organization to attract, retain and motive talented employees.
  • Facilitating systematic generation of information on human resources for man power planning, development placements, carrier planning and succession planning.


Human resources play a crucial role in the development process of modern economics.

Arthur Levis observed, "there are grate differences in development between countries which seems to have roughly equal resources, so it is necessary to enquiry in to the differences in human behavior". It is often felt that, through the exploitation of natural resources and international aid play prominent roles in the growth of modern economies, none of these factors more significant then efficient and committed man power. It is infant, said that all development comes from the human mind.


  • Improve performance of individual on the present job.
  • Improve competence of individual to perform future jobs.
  • Improve group dynamics and effectiveness.
  • Integrate individual goals with organizational goals.
  • Encourage creativity
  • Increase



Job satisfaction is a great concern to any organization. As a new employee, he had limited time but ample exposure to varying degrees of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has been the subject of research and pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences. An individual's attitude about his or her job should have meaningful implications about how he or she does it. Many human relations era researchers sought to establish job satisfaction. However, cited conflicting research results and questioned this view. Performance leads to job satisfaction. This has become the generally accepted view. Even so, the strength of the relationship appears to be very weak. The importance of job satisfaction lies not in it's relationship with performance but with it's stabling effects ( reducing tardiness, absenteeism, and turnover ) and through it's effects on cohesion ( increasing organizational citizenship behaviors and ornizational commitment ). Job satisfaction appears to mediate the effects of in - role performance, role conflict, and job - induced tension on intent to leave and extra- role performance.


Job satisfaction is one of the criteria of establishing a healthy organizational structure in an organization. Job satisfaction as general attitude of the workers constituted by their approach towards the wages, working, conditions, control, promotion related with the job, social relations in the work, reorganization of talent and some similar variables, personal characteristics, and group relations apart from life. Job satisfaction is the sentiments related with the job conducted.


According to Happock Job satisfaction is "Any combination of psychological and environmental circumstances that causes and person truthfully to say I am satisfied with my job".

Job satisfaction is defined as the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one's job values.


The most importance evidence which indicates that the conditions of an organization got worsened is the low rate of job satisfaction. The job satisfaction is the condition of establishing an healthy organizational environment in an organization.

Individuals want to maintain statute, high ranks and authority by giving their capabilities such as knowledge, ability, education, health etc. to their jobs for which they spend most of their time. The individuals who cannot meet their expectations with regard to their jobs become dissatisfied. Thus, this dissatisfaction affects the organization for which she/he works. Job satisfaction is very important for every person's motivation and contribution to production. Job satisfaction may diminish irregular attendance at work, replacement of workers within a cycle or even the rate of accidents.


    • Commitment to Quality

Organizations are required to provide objective evidence showing Proactive involvement of the management in quality acuities through: Prioritization of equity as a critical success factor for the organization Ensuring that quality performance goals, objectives and targets are set, realized and regularly reviewed ( This may include compliance the required resources (financial, human, metirial time, information and others)

    • Quality Policy & the level of it's awareness in the organization

Ensres all members of the organization are involved in the quality activities shows that the management seek and receive feedback from staff, customers and others. Requires management to regulary review the quality activities throughout the organization including quality objectivities and policy is appropriate, relavant and suitable for the achievement of the organization's vision demonstrates effectiveness of the quality system through reviews and audits is played in locations readily accessible to all.

    • Implementation of strategy

Availability of documented action plans and their communication to concerned people. Steps taken by the organization to ensure successfully implementation of quality activities ( by such techniques as determining it's strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats- SWOT or ensuring that planned activites are SMART- specific , Measurable, Achivable, Realistic and Timed) How the organization monitors or keeps track of progress in the implementation of its activates. Whether the organization carries out planned reviews and updating of the activates /plans during implementation.

    • Customer and market focus

The criteria seeks to find out how organizations reach out to existing and potential customers and how they address the markets place and customer quality requirements, expectations, needs and wants. Also organization are required to show how they care for their customers and ensure their satisfaction.

    • Customer needs identification

The organization has a documentated procedure for the collection of information on customer needs and markets - place quality demands. The organization find out the short and long term stated and implied needs , wishes and wants of the existing and potential customers. Organization decides which customer requirements to focus on and which market segments to serve.

    • Organizations establishments care education.

Organization establishes, sustain and improve its relations with customers and others. The organization educate its customers on how to make best use of the products or serves and what records are kept for customer care and education activities conducted.

    • Customer satisfaction measurements and monitoring

The organization carries out measurement s and monitoring to establish levels of customer satisfaction. The organization handle complains and review and improve current customer satisfaction levels.


To better understand employees attitudes and motivation, Fedric Hezberg performed studies to determine which factor in an employee's work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction

Hezberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction were different from those causing job satisfaction . He developed the motivation - hygine from those causing job dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation - hygiene theory to explain these results. He developed the satisfaction .He called the satisfiers as motivators and dissatisfies as hygiene factors that factors , using the term hygine in the sense that they are considered maintenance factors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction

Hezberg reasoned that because the factor causing satisfaction are different from those causing dissatisfaction, the two feelings can not simply be treated as opposites of one another. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction but rather no satisfaction . Similarly the opposite of dissatisfaction is always dissatisfaction.

Employee satisfaction and retention have always been important issues for physicians. After all, high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover can affect yours bottom line, as temps recruit mint and retraining take toll. But few practices (in fact, few organizations ) have made job satisfaction a top priority, perhaps because they have failed to understand the significant opportunity that lies in front of them . Satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative and committed to their employers, and recent studies have shown a direct correlation between staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction. Family physicians who can create work environment that attract, motivate and retain hard working individuals will be better positioned to succeed in a competitive health care environment that demands quality and cost- efficiency. What is more, physicians may even discover that by creating a positive work place for their employees, they have increased their own job satisfaction as well.


In the late 1950s, Fredric Herzberg, considered by many to be a pioneer in motivation theory, interviewed a group of employees to find out what made them satisfied and dissatisfied on the job. He asked the employees essentially two sets of questions:

  1. Think of a time felt especially good about your job. Why did you fell that way ?
  2. Think of a time when you felt especially bad about your job. Why did you feel that way ?

From these interviews Herzberg went on to develop his theory that there are to dimensions to job satisfactions : motivation and 'hygine'(see Two dimensions of employee satisfaction' ) Hygine issues, according to Hezberg, can not motivate employees but can minimize dissatisfaction, if handled properly. In order words, they can only dissatisfy if they are absent or mishandled. Hygine topics include company policies, super vision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions. They are issues related to the employee's environment. Motivators, on the other hand, create satisfaction by fulfilling individual's needs for meaning personal growth. They are issues such as achievement, reorganization ,the work itself ,responsibility and advancement, Once the hygine areas are addressed said Herberg, the motivators will promote job satisfaction and encourage production.


To apply Herzberg's theory to real- world practice, let's begin with the hygiene issues. Although hygiene issues are not the source of satisfaction, these issues must be dealt with first to create an environment in which employee satisfaction and motivation are even possible.


An organizations policies cabin be aggregate source of frustration for employees if the policies are unclear or unnecessary or if not every one is require to fallow them. Although employees will never feel a great since of motivation or satisfaction due to your policies, you can decrees dissatisfaction in this area by making your policies are fair and apply equally to all. Also, make printed copies of your policies and procedures manual easily accessible to all members of your staff if you don't have a written manual, create one ,soliciting staff in put along the way if already have manual, consider updating it ( again, with staff in put ). You might also impair your policies to those of similar practices and ask yourself whether particular policies are unreasonably strict are whether some penalties are too harsh.


To decrease dissatisfaction in this area , you must begin by making wise decisions when you appoint some to the role of supervisor. Be aware that good employees do not always make good supervisors. The role of supervisor is extremely difficult. It require leadership skills and the ability to treat all employees fairly. You should teach your supervisors to use positive feedback whenever possible and should establish a set means of employee evaluation and feedback so that no one feels singled out.


The old adage " you get what you for" tents to be true when it comes to staff members. Salary is not a motivator for employees, but they do want to be paid fairly. If individuals believe they are not compensated well, They will be unhappy working for you. Consult salary surveys or even your local heap-wanted ads to see whether the salaries and benefits you're offering are comparable to those of other offices in your area. In addition, make sure you have clear policies related to salaries, raises and bonuses.


Remember that part of the satisfaction of being employed is the social contact it brings, so allow employees a reasonable amount of time for socialization (e.g. Over lunch, during breaks, between patients ). This will help them develop a sense of camaraderie and teamwork. At the same time, you should crack down on rudeness, inappropriate behavior and offensive, comments. If an individual continues to be disruptive, take chare of the situation, perhaps by dismissing him or her from the practice.


The environment in which people work has a tremendous effect on their level of pride for themselves and for the wok they are doing. Do everything you can to keep your equipment and facilities up to date. Even a nice can make a world of difference to an individual's psyche. Also, if possible, avoid over crowing and allow each employee his or her own personal space, whether it be a desk, a clerk, locker or even just a drawer. If you've placed your employees in close quarters with little or no personal space, do not be surprised that there is tension among them.

Before you move on to the motivators, remember that you cannot neglect the hygiene factors discussed above. To do so would be asking for trouble in more than one way. First, your employees would be generally happy, and this would be apprent to your patients. Second, your hand working employees, who can find jobs elsewhere, would leave, while your mediocre employees would stay and compromise your practice's success. So deal with hygiene issues first then move on to the motivators:


Perhaps most important to employees motivation is healing individuals believe that the work they are doing is important and that their tasks are meaningful. Emphasize that contributions to the practice result in positive outcomes and good health care for your patients . Share stories of success about how an employee's actions made area difference in the life of a patient, or in making a process better. Make a big deal out of meaningful tasks that have become ordinary, such as new- baby visits.


One premise inherent in Herzberg's theory is that most individuals sincerely want to do a good job. To help them, make sure you've placed them in positions that use their talents and are not set up for failure. Set clear, achievable goals and slandered for each position ,and make sure employees know what those goals and standards are. Individuals should also receive regular, timely feedback on how they are doing and should feel they are being adequately challenged in their job. Be careful, how ever, not to overload individuals with challenges that are too difficult are impossible, as that can be paralyzing.


Individuals at all levels of the organization want to be recognized for their achievements on the job. Their successes don't have to be monumental before they deserve recognition, but your praise should be sincere. If you notice employees doing something well, take the time it acknowledge their good work immediately publicly thank them for handling a situation particularly well. Write them a kind to establish a formal recognition program, such as "employee of the month'.


Employees will be more motivate to do their jobs well if they have owner ship of their work. This requires giving employees enough freedom and power to carry out their tasks so that they feel they "own' the result. As individuals mature in their jobs, provide opportunities for added responsibility.


Reward loyalty and performance with advancement. If you do not have an open position to which to promote a valuable employee, consider giving him or her a new title that reflects the level of work he or she has achieved. When feasible, support employees by allowing them to pursuer further education, when feasible, support employees by allowing them to pursuer further education, which will make them more valuable to your practice.


  1. Provide workers with responsibility- and let them use it
  2. Show respect
  3. Recognize The Whole Person
  4. Mark out a clear path to growth
  5. Work flexibility in organizations.


It identifies sources of job satisfaction and disaffection and among administrative and support staff and describes their impact. It examines staff plans for the future, and the likelihood of them remaining within the higher education sector.


Most of the distractive staff who took part in the focus groups gained satisfaction from the role they played in higher education. They were less satisfied with developments in higher education which had eroded the rewards gained from working in the sector.

Staff expressed a strong commitment to higher education and the contribution they were making to the 'greater good'. Most staff derived great job satisfaction from this than they would from a job offering only monetary rewards.

Staff also felt that working in higher education was socially rewarding. Several identified the friendly and supportive relationships they had developed with students and colleagues as being something which which gave them great satisfaction. One said 'I work students all the time...they are very enthusiastic and that rubs off on you'. This was particularly the case for staff based in department with opportunities to build relationships with students. They had gained considerable satisfaction from watching students move through the higher education courses. These tangible outcomes were highly valued by some staff.

Many staff appreciated the fact that the structure of higher education enabled them to work in small enough units to develop close working relationships with their colleagues. One commented "because there's only a limited number of people, you get to know people from all across the library.... You actually really like your own staff... that's a nice feeling. They also valued the opportunities which working in higher education offered to meet other people working in different departments.

Specific sources of job satisfaction

In addition to these strong general themes of satisfaction, more specific sources of job satisfaction were linked to how staff entered higher education.

The niche-finders

This group of staff gained job satisfaction from the factors which had initially attracted them to higher education. They liked the variety offered by their work in higher education. They found their jobs interesting and stimulating. More important, they expressed the belief that, despite the increasing pressure of their jobs, higher education remained a less stressful working environment than the private sector and still compared favourably to the private sector. Yet many felt that the gap between the two sectors was closing.

The job is interesting, but unfortunately that interest is becoming a pressure now. I mean I still enjoy my job (but there's no time to) sit back and enjoy it.

The subject specialists

Staff in this group also derived most of their job satisfaction fro the factors which had originally attracted them to higher education. They still appreciated the opportunity to work in a stimulating and interesting environment. Most also felt that they had developed intellectually from contact with academics and students.

The subject specialists often displayed higher levels of job satisfaction then the niche-finders because of their commitment to their subject and the satisfaction they derived from pursuing their interest or specialism. One explained..... my passion in life is careers education... that's all I think about. (1) absolutely love it.

An administrator elaborated further:

It is the subject, not the job, I enjoy, I am actually earning money out of doing something that I enjoy... it's purely because I am actually earning money doing something that I enjoy doing. It is the subject, not the system.

This group of staff gained particular satisfaction from their involvement with academic staff and students who were working in their subject area.

The new professionals:

This was clearly the group of staff who were getting the most satisfaction from working in higher education, at the time of the group discussions. Rather than being threatened or undermined by recent developments in higher education, they were products of the change. They benefited from the direction and pace of change and valued the dynamism of a rapidly changing environment. One explained.

I like my work. I was interested in (the subject) and I saw a job advertised, but it is .....improved. You know ... I've grown into the job.

These staff, more than any other group of administrative and support staff, believed that they received recognition for the role they played within higher education. They were also the only group who said that they felt valued and appreciated by the new management culture. Some of the younger members of this group also perceived themselves to be relatively well paid for the work that they did.

General sources of job dissatisfaction

Unlike job satisfaction sources of job dissatisfaction were not strongly related to individual's original motivations for working in higher education. This was because:

  • General levels of dissatisfaction were high among all staff; and
  • The factors causing dissatisfaction related more to the context within which staff worked, rather than their specific individual circumstances.

Several important, recurring themes were raised in all of the group discussions.

Lack of opportunities for progression

The biggest single source of job dissatisfaction identified by staff was the nature of the career structure for administrative and support staff. The experiences of the high proportion of staff who where stuck at the top of their grade with no possibility of progression as have the general feelings about the lack of career prospects. Dissatisfaction was intensified by the perception that regarding decisions were motivated by financial concerns rather than judgments about individuals performance or the demands of their job.

Lack of recognition

Dissatisfaction of staff around lack of recognition was not simply related to an inability to make progress in their careers. Most of the anger and frustration staff expressed focused on their perception that their lack of opportunities result from a general low regard for administrative and support functions within higher education. This lack of recognition ahs probably always existed in higher education. Yet significant changes in the roles and responsibilities of administrative and support functions within higher education and the increasingly important central role these staff now play. Despite these changes, staff believed that their contribution was still neither recognized nor valued.

Administrative and support staff who worked closely with academics were particularly likely to feel undervalued. They found that academics either dismissed their views or did not consult them at all. Many felt that the academics they worked with did not recognize the importance of the service they provided. A central administrator said: I don't like dealing with (academics)... they don't think (my job's) important and they think it's a waste of time. I don't like dealing with (them). A departmental administrator agreed. I do think they sometimes think they are above the admin.' As a result, administrative and support staff often felt their work was undermined by academic staff.

Staff attributed the undervaluing of administrative and support staff at least in part, to the fact that their work went largely unnoticed. For many of them, the most important indicator of success was that systems ran smoothly and efficiently without giving other people cause for complaint. In this sense, they were only visible when systems broke down or went wrong. One said:

.... If you're doing wrong it's clearly shown "This is wrong". But if you do something right it's never told 'You've done right'. So you always are in the repeat state of (thinking) "This might be wrong".

A computer officer explained:

...with the advent of the new technologies and advances of IT... more has been able to go wrong. And when they go wrong, they go wrong in a slightly more spectacular manner. And academics always pick up on this... even when no member of the university is at fault, we are the first people into the nest, because.. we should know about these things.

This lack of recognition and reward for good performance was common to all staff and contributed considerably to negative feelings about their job. One said:

'It would be nice if it's recognized elsewhere, from the management and staff... saying "Yes, you have done a good job. You are achieving. You are somebody who we are lucky to have".

Another expressed a similar sentiment, saying: 'You do need those pats on the back. You do need those'.


The issue of financial rewards was a further source of job dissatisfaction for most administrative and support staff and was strongly related to concerns about progression and recognition. The basis for staff dissatisfaction, however, was not simply low pay. Most of them had knowingly entered a relatively low-paid sector. Their dissatisfaction stemmed from their belief that their pay levels did not recognize the increasingly central role played by administrative and support staff within higher education. Nor had their pay scales kept up with the growing level of responsibility that administrative and support staff were taking on. An administrator explained.

'I'm ... on a secretarial grade and secretarial pay but I'm.... actually doing the administration that academics should be doing but are too busy..'.

They were also acutely aware of inequities in the pay scales for different types of staff. One senior administrator commented:

'Before we amalgamated... in each department an academic would have to look after finances, and another would have to look after the research. I now look after all the research and all the finance and I still earn a fraction of any lecturer. The person who was doing the job, of a sort... with just one of the departments, when I had the job, they dropped the salary from what she had been earning. And yet she'd only been looking after one department and I had four.

Moreover, financial rewards had become increasingly important to staff as other sources of job satisfaction had been eroded.

Insufficient resources :

The pressures of working within ever-tightening resources constraints was also an important element of job dissatisfaction for all staff. They found cooping with a constant lack of resources both difficult and draining.

They were especially concerned about reductions in the quality of the service they were providing. One said: 'It's becoming a burden now because... I feel I can't provide the same service that I did ten years ago. This, in particular, eroded the satisfaction they derived from their work. A computing support officer remarked.

'I feel frustrated because I can't ... I used to enjoy helping people. I would say ten year ago it was different. I jus haven't got the time to give the same sort of support, level of support. And I find that frustrating because I do get a buzz out of, you know, solving someone's problems....'

Some staff also felt guilty that they were no longer able to provide the level of help and support that they believed students required.

Staff also found that the effort of trying to maintain service quality within ever-tightening resource constraints demoralized them and had resulted in a general feeling of apathy.

Others, particularly the longer-servers, found working within severe resource constraints profoundly deskilling. A systems manager remarked.

'I'm certainly doing very little of what I perceive my job ought to be, or used to be about. In other words, not taking any strategic or management role.... I'm acting as a jack of all trades, master of none'.

Resource constraints were particularly frustrating for computing and technical support staff. A relatively high level of investment was essential to their jobs and their job satisfaction. A technician said:

The apparent lack of recognition of the increasing significance of administrative and support staff meant that they believed that they were largely ignored in institutional and management decision-making. They claimed that they were unrepresented on working groups and committees within their institutions. As a result, they were not consulted over decision-making, even where decisions would have a profound impact on their work. They lacked a "voice" which could represent their views and protect their interests.

Staff even perceived the trade unions which represented them to pay little attention to staff at the lower ends of the grades. One said:

A future in higher education ?

The likelihood of staff remaining in higher education was strongly associated with their reasons for joining the sector, and their experiences of working in higher education.

The niche-finders 6.41 overall, niche-finds are likely to stay working in higher education for the foreseeable future. Few of them were planning to seek work outside the sector. They had developed a strong commitment to their work and to higher education. Even those considering leaving were unlikely to move outside the sector because they did not perceive their alternatives to be particularly attractive.

Several of them thought they were 'too old' to find other jobs. This applied to staff as young as 35, who believed that they would be unable to compete with new graduates in the job market.

In addition, despite the growing pressure on administrative and support staff working in higher education, they still viewed private sector employment as more stressful. Some also believed that they were unlikely to find work in the private sector because of the low opinion that private employers held of people who had worked in higher education.


Employees today are coping with greater demands than ever on their time, energy and resources. The increase in dual-income families, the responsibilities of caring for children and aging parents, financial pressures and legal concerns all have a significant impact on employees' productivity, job satisfaction and retention.

As you may already know, it's unlawful for employers to discriminate on the basis of age, religion, gender, or national origin when hiring or terminating an employee. There is, however, a major exception to this rule. It occurs when any of those factors is considered a 'bona fide occupational qualification'. A bona fide occupational qualification is defined as any requirement which when viewed on the surface seems biased, but actually is reasonably necessary for the performance of the job. For example, religion could be considered a bona fide occupational qualification when membership in a certain religion is reasonably necessary to the performance of a job. A company selling religious books might be allowed to insist on hiring sales people of the particular religion involved. The company, however, could not refuse to hire a janitor because of his religion, as it would not be 'reasonably necessary' to the operation of the business. Any limitation or specification made by an employer, which otherwise would constitute discrimination, is only permitted if it's based upon a bona fide occupational qualification. To establish a case for BFOQ, the employer must be able to demonstrate that the discriminatory criteria is sufficiently related to the job in question and that it's a necessity for the general operation of the business. If employers can't demonstrate a business necessity for the discriminatory criteria, they must stop using that procedure or alter it in such a way that it's no longer discriminatory. Keep in mind that even if employers can demonstrate that a discriminatory requirement is valid, they can't use it if there are other procedures or requirements that would accomplish the same goal and have less of a discriminatory effect. It should also be noted that unless privacy is a concern, a BFOQ exception can't be used in cases where the refusal to hire is based on the personal preferences of co-workers, the employer, clients, or customers. For example, gender-based staffing in a medical setting may be a BFOQ when it is necessary due to patients' privacy concerns, but not hiring a female for a sales job because particular customers refuse to conduct business with women is unlawful. Consequently, even though it is generally good business practice to try to provide customers with what they want, employers may nonetheless be held liable under the employment laws for doing so.


All organization, whether involved in manufacturing, or supplying services, need to keep their customers happy. If they don't they will lose them to the competition and may have to deal with customer complaints. To keep customers happy an organization must ensure that it is meeting their needs successfully. To do this an organizations needs their people from shop floor to boardroom - to do a good job and produce quality work. Organizations recognizing the importance of their people can help them to develop their potential, improve their skills and gain greater job satisfaction. Successful organizations are those that appreciate their people and value the contribution they can make. By being given encouragement and praise everyone within the organization pulls together as a team. We all know of employers who have a good reputation for involving their people and keeping them informed, and chances are they are already signed up to Investors in People.

The Training Connection (TTC) is a professional development firm dedicatee to helping organizations grow and develop their people. TTC is the outgrowth experience in business, product and people development.

TTC with a vision of helping organizations tap into the unlimited potential of their most valuable resource - their people. To attain her vision, it placed great importance on designing organizational support systems that strengthen the connection between employee development and organizational effectiveness.

Under the training connection specializes in four vital areas:


Helping organizations build relationships, foster communications and create non-threatening learning environments where employees can find support for career and professional development.

Career and Leadership Development

Helping individuals develop the skills and motivation they need to respond to the workplace of the 21st century.

Team Building

Creating an environment where individuals learn how to collaborate effectively, value the strengths and differences of others and define their roles and responsibilities.


As an Employee you gain:

  • Job satisfaction
  • A good working environment
  • Recognition and development
  • Pride in being part of a successful organization

The organization gains

  • Competitiveness
  • Greater profits and outputs
  • Customer Loyalty
  • A motivated and loyal workforce.

The customers gains

  • Better customer care
  • Satisfactory service
  • Confidence in the organization's ability to meet their needs.

Achieving Quality work

The supply of goods and services depends upon people. It is clear that the better the people, the better the business. The most important investment any organization makes is, therefore, in the people who work for it.

Everyone in the organization must:

  • Know, understand and have agreed what is required of their job
  • Know how to do the job and why they are important
  • Have the necessary materials, tools, training and information to do the job well.
  • Be able to measure how well they are doing.
  • Know what to do when things do wrong
  • Work within systems and guidelines designed to help, not hinder
  • Be led and guided by managers.

It's all very simple and straightforward. It's extremely effective and results are beneficial all round.

The Vision

By working to be an Investor in People, you organization will have a clear vision of where it is going in the future and how it's going to get there. This information about your organization's plan will be passed on to you and ALL your colleagues. Each member of staff will know what role they have to play and what they are responsible for.

How this vision is communicated to you depends on the size of your organization. This may be by:

  • Team briefings - a two way means of getting information to and from senior managers and all members of staff.
  • Newsletters
  • Staff Meetings
  • Performance reviews with your supervisor or manager.

Whichever method is used you will receive regular information so that you will always be kept in the picture and know what is happening.

Planning for success

The person or people who manage your organization will have a written business plan. This will identify the organization's goals and targets and how they will be achieved. Then plan will show what everyone needs to be able to do to make it a success.

Matching your development to business needs

Having identified goals and targets it's important that everyone has the necessary skills and training to do their job well. Together with your line manager or supervisor you will identify any areas where training may needed how your job may develop and what steps would need to be taken. This could be on in the form of on-the-job training, correspondence courses, day release or evening class.

Reviewing your development

The way that development needs are reviewed varies from one organization to another. It will probably involve on of the following :

  • Performance Review
  • Job Appraisal
  • Skills Audit
  • Staff attitude surveys or careers planning meeting.

Organizations' training targets are often linked to recognized and valued external standards and qualifications. These might be special to your organization or industry. National Vocational Qualifications and Scottish Vocational Qualifications are good examples of these.

Training and development needs will be regularly reviewed against the organization's objectives. They will be changed or modified to meet the needs of the organization and changing market circumstances.

Your role in the organization

Your employer already believes that you and your colleagues are its best assets. You line manager also realizes that no-one knows more about your job than you do. That's why when you work for an Investor in People organization you will be able to make contributions and comments in ways such as:

  • Team meetings and briefings
  • Suggestions schemes
  • Quality circles
  • Action teams

You will be encouraged to put forward your ideas at any time

Benefits for you

Employees in organizations which have achieved the Standard may see benefits such as :

  • Good quality training when required
  • Improved job satisfaction
  • Better communication
  • Skill and career development opportunities
  • Increased responsibility and involvement
  • A better working environment
  • Health and safety gains.

DISC: Train-the-Trainer

Providing internal trainers with time-tested, reliable models for improving communication, performance and job satisfaction. The Training Connection, IOnc. Uses careful planning, highly experienced consultants and tested, proven products and programs, meticulously designed to meet each client's needs.

Past Experience

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The Training Connection is composed of a cadre of human resource development professionals committed to improving organizational effectiveness and employee well being. TTC's valued partners bring with them extensive experience in organizational development, in-house group facilitation and training trainers. They are strategically located throughout the country and provide low-cost nationwide accessibility and availability.

Updated job descriptions

Job descriptions should clearly describe the employee's current duties and performance expectations. Position descriptions should be specific, clearly defining the job function, required skills, deadlines and goals, and should delineate expectations for the employee's relations with peers and customers. Keep job descriptions current, especially during times of organizational change. Rapid growth and downsizing inevitably and new responsibilities and shift employees' workloads.

Performance measures and standards

Once you have job descriptions in place, you need to establish performance standards that describe what constitutes below-average, average, and above-average performance. Start by thinking about the best and worst case scenarios until you reach realistic standards for measuring performance. Next, determine how your'e going to measure the expectations outlined in the job description. This requires both objective and subjective methods of assessment. In some situations it's easy to gauge performance by looking at the numbers: for example, how many new accounts an employee brought in or how many products an employee assembled.

Quantifying an employee's coping skills, customer service skills or attitude is much more difficult. Some managers also have biases or poor evaluation skills. Establish clear guidance and measures that eliminate potential bias and prevent evaluators form subjectively determining what constitutes excellent tend unacceptable behavior.


High performance workplace practices and job satisfaction

An analysis shows that high performance work practices impact positively on work satisfaction. Autonomy in the workplace, participation in decision-making, and increased communication with co-workers are key factors for workers' well-being. However, team work, job rotation and supporting human resource practices have only a limited effect.


The study high performance workplace practices and job satisfaction examines the effects of innovative workplace practices on the quality of work, and investigates how being involved in high performance workplace organizations (HPWOs) affects job satisfaction.

Key advantages of HPWOs for firms are seen in achieving more flexibility, product quality, performance and cost competitiveness. The benefits for employees are seen in higher wages and increased job satisfaction.

The main feature of HPWOs is understood as a change from a 'Tayloristic' work organization to a more holistic work organization, characterized by: flat hierarchical structures, enhanced skills through job rotation, self-responsible teams, multi-tasking, a greater involvement of non-managerial employees in decision-making, horizontal (rather than vertical) communication channels, and greater autonomy for employees over the way they performance their tasks.

Such innovative workplace practices are often accompanied by complementary human resource practices. The study assesses these practices, with a focus on payment systems, such as profit-sharing, group bonuses and company shares, and on employer provided training.

Several features of HPWOs can lead to detrimental effects on employees, by increasing work-related health problems and the risk of occupational hazards. However, this issue is not investigated further.


The study constructs four key indices and several component indices. The assessment of the impact of HPWOs on self-reported work satisfaction builds on these indices. The construction of these indices.

Work system index

This index measures the opportunity of workers to participate in substantive decision-making and the degree of worker autonomy over the way they perform their job. The work system index includes the following components.

Autonomy index

The autonomy of an individual in decision-making is based on workers' responses to the questions of the organization concerning.

Communication index

This index measures the degree of horizontal and vertical communication. It is derived from responses to five questions. The index investigates whether there is an exchange of views and problems among colleagues, superiors and/or staff representatives and whether this exchange of views takes place on a regular and/or formal basis.

Team work and job rotation

The third component is based on whether the worker is involved in team work, while the sub-index on job rotation explores whether the job design incorporates rotating tasks among colleagues.

These four indices describe the involvement of an individual in a flexible work system.

Skills index

Workers need appropriate skills, in order to assume responsibility to perform multiple tasks, and to be able to react in a flexible way to a changing environment.

The skills index is based on whether an employee received training and the number of days training paid for or provided by the employer in the past 12 months.

Incentive Index

The incentive index is drawn from responses regarding components of remuneration. It includes information on whether an individual participates in profit-sharing schemes, receives income from company shares, or from group bonuses.


Organization skills series teaches how to make the best use of the stream of information that flows through work environment on a daily basis. The program explores a variety of techniques to process, retain, prioritise and preserve messages and data that are key to productivity and effectiveness.

Organizational skills develops the skills you need to manage your time effectively in organizational skills students will use various time management techniques to meet your own deadlines as well as help your employees meet theirs. Time Management and Organizational Skills can be completed as an individual course or within the Organizational Skills Series.

Organizational skills can and do help you to cope with the world around you. They provide structure, they create a semblance of order and they reduce daily stress levels. How ? well, there is SO MUCH in the world today, so much to do, so much to read, so much to know, so much to learn, so much to choose from, so many places to go, so many routes to get there - SO MUCH! Without organizational skills to help us cope with the sensory overload, with the "so much" we're exposed to constantly, we'd be overwhelmed and paralyzed by an endless stream of information to process and decisions to make. Don't believe me ? Probably because you take this area of organizational skills for granted. Think about it. What if you didn't organize each day ? You would not wake up at a consistent time each morning. You may not get dressed. You might not make it to work. You'd never have groceries in the house. You would not get the laundry done. You may not pay your bills. You probably would not accomplish anything. You'd spend your days thinking about al the things you COULD do but you'd probably never get around to doing them. This area of organization involves making a decision about what to do and figuring out when to do it.

The organizational skills you apply toward planning each day insure that you are at least somewhat productive and that you accomplish what you must. They direct the demands on your attention and give you some sense of control.

Organizational skills are also at work when you have large or time-consuming projects you must accomplish. Thinking about them in their entirety can be overwhelming and discouraging. But by breaking these projects down into smaller more manageable pieces (i.e., organizing them) they don't seem to be as difficult to achieve. For example, I am in the process of building a web site. The thought of building a whole site is very intimidating and, I must admit, it stopped me dead in my tracks for a while. But I finally took the task apart piece by piece and organized it. As a result I have registered a domain name, found a web host, built the shell of the site, and opened a merchant account. As a whole, the project was overwhelming. Individually, the tasks involved were small and accomplishable. Suddenly, I was not tackling the whole all at once. I was tackling pieces. It felt better. And so it was.

Finally, yes, organizational skills are about having "a place for everything and everything is in it place". When this has been mastered you don't waste countless hours trying to find your most recent bank statement or last year's tax return. You know exactly where they are because they are in their proper place. Conversely, when a bank statement arrives in the mail or when the tax return has been completed you know where to put them away immediately. This action prevents them from lying around, only to be moved over and over again, whenever they get in the way. Remember, the less you touch something, the more time you save. It is true that perhaps the time saved may mean only seconds here and seconds there. But throughout the course of a day or a week those seconds add up to minutes and hours.

Organizational skills are the keystone to having a more balanced life. They work hand in glove with conscious prioritization and time management to help you design a more fulfilling life your way !.

Of course, cost is still a consideration, but excellent training programs are available at affordable prices. For example, the Service Quality Institute (SQI) offers several customer service training programs, including FEELINGS, which can be conducted online, or in a classroom setting with an SQI facilitator or the company's own facilitator. Technology-based training can cost 50 percent less than facilitator-led training (FLT), because it negates the need for training room space and long periods of time spent away from the office. On the other hand, the benefits of a FLT program include group interaction, which increases employee involvement. I recommend a blend of both types of training to maximize the results.

Whatever route you choose, training must be continual in order to reinforce the skills and behaviors employees need to perform well for your customers. Train each employee with the first two weeks of hiring and provide additional training at least every six months. And, just as you vary the advertising you use o lure customers through your doors, you must vary the training you use to train and keep your employees. Make that training fun, focus on the fundamentals of customer service, and use a variety of media to keep employees interested.

Employee training, as with every company expenditure, involves a return on investment. While that return is easily identifiable for expenditures such as new computer systems, it is more difficult to calculate for soft skills. How do you measure the impact of an employee is who impathetic with customers and solves their complaints quickly and to their satisfaction ? One way to do so is to determine the lifetime value of each of your customers.

The bottom line is this: If you want to increase customer loyalty and reduce employee turnover provide training that not only teaches employees the technical aspects of their jobs but gives them the soft skills they need to provide superior customer service.


Customer service is the cornerstone of a successful business, and training is the cornerstone of customer service. If you train your employees in the skills that will allow them to do their jobs with skills and efficiency, they will provide exceptional customer service. And, if you provide your customers with exceptional customer service, they and their money will return to you week after week, year after year.

Also critical to your success is the focus of the training you provide. Many training programs concentrate on technical skills, completely ignoring the soft skills-which include listening to and understanding what the customer is saying that are vital elements of customer service. They fail to realize that how employees treat customers is every bit as important as their mastery of the technological systems your company has in place. Put another way, it is not enough for an employee to know how to use a computer to solve a customer's problem, the employee also must be trained to ask the appropriate questions to determine the cause of that problem and to empathize with the customer in the process.

Before developing or purchasing a training program, you must identify both the technical skills and the soft skills your employees need in order to take care of your customers.

Ahearn goes on to say that every customer satisfaction survey she has conducted places issue resolution at the top of the list, while product knowledge and technology training rank toward the bottom. Not surprisingly when companies boost their soft skills training, their customer satisfaction ratings and their sales increase.

Employees who haven't been trained in the art of customer service will find themselves frustrated at their lack of skills in, for example handling customer complaints. That frustration will quickly turn to anger, at both the customer and the company, and will result in employees who do more to turn customers away from your doors than to invite them in.

It's important to realize that most employees don't go in search of new jobs in order to make more money. They do so because they haven't been trained to handle the jobs they're currently doing. Training has

Customer Service Skills

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By assessing its utilization of experience, measurement, systems and relationships, paradigm logic, and value sharing, the organization can gain a clear understanding of its level of quality development. Then it can use this understanding to assess and formulate its vision, to identify and involve its participants, and to create an environment (supported by its experience, measurement, and systems) in which its total focus is directed toward delighting internal and external customers. This becomes the heart and soul of service quality.

Significantly, as we move more and more toward implementation of service quality, survival become less significant as the driving force. Instead, service quality is driven by the internal desire to delight internal and external customers. This is fifth dimension motive which is supported and enhanced by all the other dimensions of quality as vision is driven into actualization (through paradigm logic) and as the system of service is constantly measured and standardized for greatest efficiency.

There are plenty of ways to improve customer service that don't have to cost a bundle to implement but will give your organization a customer service reputation that will be hard to beat.

Many organizations announce that their employees are their most valuable resources. While this phrase has lost its meaning in many organization, nowhere is it more appropriate than when discussing the gathering of information about client satisfaction levels. While surveys, response cards and the like can play important roles in data gathering, it is the staff that interact with clients every single day who have the best opportunities to gather data, and make sense of it so that service quality can be improved. We are going to take a look at ho you might go about using your staff resources for this purpose.


Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited was incorpora

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