Concepts of E Recruitment in Software Firms
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This research is based on a critical investigation of the E-recruitment process in the Indian software Industries. Consequently, the aim of this study is to investigate E Recruitment strategically in terms of a Cost cutting and time saving factor that would be beneficial for organization during current economic downturn. This study would also be beneficial in looking at the concept of Technology as a solution to reduce cost and save time. In addition it is hoped that the study would also benefit Strategic analyst and Human resource managers to view E Recruitment as a strategic tool.
The research focus is on the factor of E Recruitment in today's cut throat market in terms of strategic benefit towards Cost cutting and time saving. The researcher has chosen the particular topic, since it would be helpful in current downturn. To make this statement valid the researcher investigates the concept of E Recruitment in Software industries in India. The rationale for investigating software firms in India stems from the fact that such firms actually adopt Cost cutting measures in all possible practices in current downturn.
The study seeks to review the concepts of E recruitment in Software firms by understanding the subjects in terms of Human resource process. In addition the study investigates E recruitment process in Software industries by acquiring data through Questionnaire and Semi structured tool that shall constitute questions based on the critical sections of E Recruitment in terms of Human resource process, Cost cutting and Time saving factors. The primary research is respondents and population would be the Human Resource managers and employees in HR department from Chennai and Bangalore working in Software firms. The researcher intends to use contacts within the IT firms to access the relevant data set.
Organizational recruitment efforts have to a great extent relied on computer technology and one vicinity that has developed is recruiting through the Internet, otherwise known as e-recruitment (Mottl, 1998). This technology can be utilized in application tracking, job posting and electronic job application. In addition, it can assist the human resource function and lessen human resource works.
From the applicable literature, there is an argument that e-recruitment is required to be used in conjunction with other techniques. Internet-based recruiting will not put back conventional practices, but a well-implemented e-recruitment strategy can facilitate the recruitment process there by making it more successful (Borck, 2000; Caggiano, 1999). Internet recruiting ought to be one of many tools used to find and recruit applicants. Likewise, even though the organizations see the advantages of e-recruitment, there is a tendency to adopt more conventional methods in the form of newspaper advertisement, personal referrals, and search agencies for most of their recruiting. Organizations therefore tend to view the Internet as a vital additional tool (Pearce and Tuten, 2001)
E-recruitment is not treated as a stand-alone human resource instrument, it is integrated into an overall recruiting and selection strategy that comprises, amongst other things, sophisticated behavioral and skills assessment, interviewing, and added means of documenting requirements and sourcing candidates. Consequently, a human resource department still uses both conventional method and e-recruitment in their recruitment process (Cullen, 2001). Accordingly to Portal (2003), Shows that more than 75 percent of HR professionals currently use Internet job boards apart from conventional recruiting method (HR Portal, 2003).
One of the key considerations of e-recruitment is that it is cost-effectiveness and the economy attained in the course of its usage. This is since publishing obtainable positions on the company's website costs less than publishing in other media for instance newspaper. In addition, employers can place the vacancy positions on the job board website as this too is at a lower cost (Pearce and Tuten, 2001).
Aim and Objectives of the Research
The aim of this research is to investigate the process of E-Recruitment as a strategic driving factor in cutting costs and saving time in the Indian IT sector.
The objectives of the study are as follows:
- To investigate the various factors and trends in Recruitment in India.
- To Explore E-Recruitment as Human resource process and evaluate various implications in hiring
- To critically examine the effectiveness of e-recruitment in Software industries
- To identify merits and demerits in E-Recruitment process
- What are the trends in recruitment in India?
- What is the impact of conducting E-Recruitment process in Software firms?
- What is the strategic impact of E-Recruitment on Software organizations - in cost reduction and Time?
- What are the driving factors of E Recruitment towards jobs with merits and demerits?
In order to fulfill the aims and objectives of this study, the study employ's both qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative method were be used through semi structured interviews with high level and Middle level Human resource managers from Software companies in India. Quantitative approach were carried out through questionnaire methods, the like scale type questions have been adopted as the suitable method, where the questions are designed in different scales like likert, and rate order with, Questions varying from open to closed end questions. The respondents will be employees working in Indian Software firms at Chennai and Bangalore in Human Resource department.
The type of sampling method used in this research thesis will be Non probability sampling method. It involves identifying and questioning the informants based on their experience and their roles. The type of sampling used in non probability method is Purposive sampling, which involves choosing independents on the views which are relevant to the subject (Jankowicz, 2005). The number of samples for the Semi structured interview is 5 and Questionnaire samples is 30.
Structure of the dissertation
This part of the dissertation, the researcher has made a sequence an a flow for the entire study. The study has 5 chapters, which are interconnected with each other and they are progressed as follows;
Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter explains the topic of study and the background of research in brief giving values and reasons why the researcher has chosen the topic and how the research is focused or dealt with respect to answer the research questions and also in order to full fill the research objectives.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
This chapter provides the reviews of academic literature related to the topic. The academic literature is reviewed from Books, Electronic journals, Articles etc. This chapter reviews the existing literature on research topic so that it can be helpful in identifying various gaps and also to study the various theories used by the other authors.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
This chapter highlights the methodology that is used in this research. The chapter begins with an outline of the research aim and objectives finally, the researcher explains the Sampling techniques and how well the samples are grouped to observe validity and reliability of the research.
Chapter 4: Analysis and Findings
This chapter analyses the data that are gathered through primary research and it provides a detailed outline of the research findings. This chapter also draws various conclusions from the data presentation.
Chapter 5: Conclusions and its recommendations
This chapter contains various conclusions drawn from discussion's in the analysis chapter. The limitation of this research is also discussed, and recommendations for further research presented.
In this chapter we have reviewed the research background, research objectives and the scope of research. The research aim and research objectives are stated with research question which ensures the researcher understand the subject based on the problem statement to fulfill the research. In addition it contains theoretical background on E Recruitment from different perspectives. Finally it sets out the structure of the study. In the next chapter we shall review and look into various literary articles to gain more understanding on the issues under investigation.
This chapter presents the theoretical background of the study. It review various literature articles on the topic, The main aim of this study is to analyse E recruitment in software industries in India with a focus on Cost cutting and time saving factor's. This is strategic and the research is conducted with a focus on Recruitment as a strategic tool and its various trends in software organisations. Many researchers and practitioners have identified that the necessity in the manner in which the applicants are getting attracted towards Jobs and organizations and the use of the Internet as a tool to cut cost and save time. The set of rules in filling up recruitments through the web can incur less cost than mailing paper application packets. Apart from the reported benefits in the form of cost efficiencies, According to (Rozelle and Landis (2002)) the role of HR in this model is taken as more of a facilitative role, According to the various theories it is clearly specified that this model gives a chance of time for the recruiters in order to involve the strategic issues within the resourcing.
Having outlined the research aims and objectives it is essential to look at the definition of E Recruitment to have an overview of the research. Recruitment is a process of hiring candidates in filling up the vacancies through possible stages. There are several stages in selecting suitable candidates for employment organized by the organisation. E Recruitment is different from this conventional recruitment process.
Human Resource Management & The Recruitment Process
Human resource management (HRM) and Recruitment process go hand in hand and recruitment is central to all management process. Failures in the recruitment process can lead to difficulties for any organization and consequently have an immense effect on its probability and variance levels which include inappropriate level of skills and staffing. Consequently results in some of the problems of inadequate recruitment, which leads to shortage of labors or problems in the decision making (Veneeva, 2009). From the above literature the researcher can come to a decision that recruitment plays a vital role in the central management process.
According to The University of Melbourne (2009), recruitment is an imperative process of human resource management. They suggested that there are two major stages or levels in the recruitment processes. The first stage involves the process of searching or hunting the candidates with respect to job opportunities available and the seconds stage refers with the process of selecting candidates who are qualified for a suitable job by a company with the use of technologies involving test and interviews.
However recruitment is not a simple selection process and it requires extensive planning and decision making to be able to employ suitable manpower. There exists growing competition amongst the business firms for recruiting the best potential candidates, there is now a shift focus on innovation amongst management decision making. The selectors aim to recruit candidates who would suit the ethics, corporate culture in accordance to the organization (Terpstra, 1994). This means that management would specifically look out for potential candidates capable of being a team player and team work and that would be crucial for positions available in organization. Human resource management approaches towards any business process would be based upon focusing the core objectives of an organization and realization of strategic plans by training the individuals or personnel that would be beneficial to the organization, thus improving its performance and profits (Korsten, 2003).
With the following discussion the recruitment process does not end with selection and application of right candidates to the job but rather it involves maintaining and retaining the employees chosen. In spite of well structured plan, selection and the qualified management team involved in recruitment processes followed by firms, there is a possibility that the Firms can also face significant difficulties during the implementation. With this notion HRM can provide new insights towards the best practiced approach to recruitment. But companies have to use their management skills to apply theories within context of organization (Veneeva, 2009).
We have seen the recruitment context towards organization efficiency. We shall now turn to the various methods towards recruitment. According to The University of Melbourne (2009), there are two prime methods of recruitment called traditional and online recruitment. Basically the recruitment methods that are performed by the organization themselves or by a third party recruitment providers such as recruitment agencies are termed as Traditional recruitment. The information exchange in the traditional recruitment is offline but still they does not use internet as a source of information exchange. It adopts avenues such as Television, newspaper, and also through Job centers etc. The job recruitments are approached in a straight forward manner or filled through the agency or also it can be conducted by the physical address of the organization in order to conduct various test and interviews such as face to face interview.
In the past two decades recruitment has changed with number of evolutionary phases. According to the white paper of Frontier Software (N.D) these are,
Pre-online era - This is networking face to face.
1980's - These are the solutions based on the commissioned agencies that provides alternative that had become paper based and time consuming process.
1990's- The rise of Internet as a tool that made solutions as Job boards that offers inexpensive and effective solutions reaching many target audiences.
2000-present - This transition phase is the emergence of Internet recruitment called e recruitment solutions and Web 2.0 is the platform for recruitment process. Social networking style, interactivity connections as well.
The rise of job boards marked the beginning of the evolution of Internet recruitment which makes readily available a pool of job seekers and their Curriculum Vitae to the agencies that advertise jobs. Thus internet has become a major source for the active and passive job seekers. Active job seekers opt to make available their CV's and Passive job seekers are being the candidates that are not searchable and hidden but can be responded to job advertisements Frontier Software (N.D). According to the Research advisory panel (2006) of Public appointments service the most common recruitment types are Newspapers, Recruitment agencies, internal recruitment and Internet recruitment.
Having identified the two major types of recruitments as Traditional and Online recruitment. Othman and Musa (2006) cited from Arboledas et al. (2001) and in Galanaki (2002), traditional recruitment being the firms who wants to post jobs, announces the job opening at the marketplace through proper advertisements or through a job fair , or to an executive recruiter or through other medium's. From this source candidates submit their profile for the announcement. Newspaper advertisements are used more widely than any other source of traditional recruitment. On the other hand, the traditional recruitments are used in majority of recruitment processes and are effective while other types of recruitments are proved to be appropriate in specific situations. The employers use different methods based on different positions.
Accordingly Bussler & Davis (2002) cited in Othman and Musa (2006) and Mottl (1998) suggests that, In order to determine which mode of recruitment is used by the employers we have to look into various aspects. Aspects in terms of Time scale of the recruitment process, Recruitment cost as reaching the candidates and the organization culture. In recent years internet has revolutionized and made an impact on the human resource field. Now a day's organizations rely mostly on computer technology and with the recruitment through Internet. The internet technology can be used in tracking the application, job posting and electronic applications. Apart from these applications it can be used in reducing the human resource work load and human resource functions.
E- Recruitment Overview
E-recruitment can be explained as any recruiting processes that a business organisation carries out through web-based tools, in the form of a firm's public Internet site or its corporate intranet (Armstrong, 2006). The terms Internet recruitment, online recruitment and E- Recruitment are Identical and can be used interchangeably. There are various definitions of E Recruitment, According to Hoffman (2001),
"E-Recruitment can be defined as the utilization of the Internet for candidate sourcing, selection, communication and management throughout the recruitment process"
According to Armstrong (2006), the E- Recruitment process consists of attracting the candidates, screening, tracking the applicants, selection and finally offering jobs and as well rejecting the candidates.
According to the studies of Hogler (1998) and HR Portal (2003) cited in Othman and Musa (2006) employers can advertise jobs, scan and store their CV's, conduct tests and also contact the qualified applicants with the use of Internet that could match the candidates for jobs. Vidot (2000) cited in Othman and Musa (2006) suggested that the use of Internet will benefit and attract candidates of high quality, branding, reiterate the profile of the firm and also streamline application and the selection processes.
According to Cullen (2001) cited in Othman and Musa (2006) , there are various perception to E- Recruitment, it is integrated with the overall selection and the recruiting strategies as a standalone human resource tools. These strategies include interviewing behavioral and assessment skills and other additional strategies such as identifying other needs and candidates sourcing. However studies show that the Human resource departments still also use both e- recruitment and other traditional methods. According to the study by HR Portal (2003), More than 75% of Human Resource professionals use using Job boards in addition to the Traditional recruitment methods.
E- Recruitment Factual Evidences and Process
There is evidence in the academic literature to suggest that E-Recruitment is gaining popularity in today's job market. E-recruitment is significant in today's cost cutting markets to save huge amount of money. According to the research of Whizlabs Software (2006), the study of Forrester Research Institute, a famous market research firm found that by 2005 the expenditure on the recruitment based on Internet was $7 billion. Many firms as of 96% of the companies required internet for the recruitment needs. A survey conducted by Employment Management Association (EMA) of USA found that online ads would cost $377 than estimated with printout ads that cost per hire at $3295. A study conducted the CIPD (2005) found that 75% of organizations in UK use corporate website in order to attract applicants and in the 2006 research 73% of applicants use online job applications.
According to an Intelligence report of iLogos Research of Global 500 Website recruiting of 2003 survey has found that 94% of global 500 companies have corporate career websites.
Recruitment websites are more useful in saving both money and time. Apart from a Recruitment process it is becoming part of organization or corporate strategy. The online recruitment sites have continued to multiply in number in value added services and can help to improve long term time survival in the current market trend. 'E' drive is primarily based on the IT organization and software solutions. E recruitment primarily uses software solutions for effective and efficient recruitment process. There are various differences with the recruitment from an IT organization that compared with traditional or conventional recruitment process such as selection and training process. Study: also suggested that IT organizations hire more people; consequently recruiters have to really focus on providing solutions that would ultimately maximize effort, save time with the best talent pools (Whizlabs Software, 2006).
E- Recruitment - Application with HR and systems
Having explored E-recruitment and its process, at this function we now need to explore how E- recruitment is linked with technology and Management i.e., E- recruitment links with HR systems, Line Managers and Human Resource managers in the recruitment process. The application of E - recruitment and HR systems are explained by Research Advisory Panel (2006) as;
HR Role in the E-Recruitment process is essential, as the general time management seems to play a crucial role as a facilitator and coordinator in the recruitment process. With the e recruitment process it can be evident that it can reduce the HR burden and that in turn leads HR managers to operate on a strategic level within the organization. Line managers are usually involved in the process of selecting the applications in relation to the vacancies that are listed accordance with the job role. At this instant HR can work on to the overall strategy as defining and controlling. This also ensures the system is developed as effective talent strategies. In this whole process the role of Line managers would be limited with the access to the entire e recruitment systems even though the systems quickly facilitate in transferring candidates information. During this HR would acts as broker between candidates and the Line managers Research Advisory Panel (2006).
From this literature, HR acts as a central unit between the Line managers and the candidates. Many organizations who usually opt for solution or depend on the Third party suppliers can make use of the alternative form of suppliers and Job boards of systems using the application tracking software. There are two main forms of categories in enabling the E recruitment process they are, E recruitment tools such as Enterprise Resource and Planning (ERP) such as Oracle and SAP and the other being the developed products from the vendors who are specialized in the recruitment software's like testing and application tracking software's Research Advisory Panel (2006).
E- Recruitment Developments
E- Recruitment has been developed more recently with the use of job domains. Job domains originated during the early part of 2005 they make the most use of the Internet for assigned numbers and names. The job domain is in the top level of the domains that would allow efficient and easy websites navigation. The survey conducted by the society for human resource management (SHRM) suggested that those firms that use job domains can produce better results in E recruitment (Minton-Eversole, 2007 cited in White, 2008).
From the study of Schramm (2007) cited in White, 2008) explains, apart from the key development of E recruitment though Job domains, there are several advancements in the internet recruitment such as the online communities or the internet communities known as Web 2.0. These online communities are like the social networking websites that are meant for social stances. These internet communities' websites such as Facebook, MySpace that are used by the recruiters in order to find suitable candidates who are looking for the employment offers. These developments in the Internet communities would benefit in many ways by, verifying the necessary credentials and other information that are not listed on the candidates resume. In the major cases candidates would also be eliminated with the contents listed in the Internet social sites.
Merits of E-Recruitment
This section of the literature review seeks to focus on the cost cutting and the time saving measures of the E-Recruitment process.
Key role E - Recruitment in the Cost cutting measures
E- Recruitment is Cost efficient and it can bring a lot of benefit to the organization. Using the internet as a source for recruitment in the E-Recruitment process it can help us to save huge amount of money. Posting jobs in the websites costs less when compared to the job publishing in other forms of media such as newspapers. Job boards are really beneficial to the recruiters who can post vacancies at low cost than other advertisements. According to iLogos research in 1998 there are three main areas in which E - Recruitment reduces costs they are as follows,
- Direct costs savings from the advertisements posted on Newspapers
- Reduces mail costs from paying fees to the head recruiters or Job fairs
- Reduces Human resource workload in the Human resource department that yields great pace to the recruitment cycle that ultimately lowers cost (Othman and Musa, 2006)
From the above, we can see the saving benefits associated with E-Recruitment. In addition, the internet is used as a major source of E-Recruitment resumes are posted via mails which is very cheap on the other hand traditional recruitment uses communication system such as phone calls, Fax, etc and in some cases if the candidate is based long distance it costs him more for the communication itself, In addition in case of applying via post it can be more costly and the time consumption is more for communication, So it is better and also more advantageous for E-Recruitment process since the cost is reduced and communication is made easy and faster (The University of Melbourne, 2009). Launching a new career website for a company that would eventually track every details of candidates required in the recruitment process costs less. The process also reduces temporarily manpower spending of manual sorting or applicants (White, 2008).
Key role E - Recruitment in the Time Saving measures
E-Recruitment has more effective advantage that helps the employer's in time saving there by proving efficient benefits to the employer's.
E-Recruitment provides recruiters with the ability to work simultaneously with traditional recruitment processes. This means that firms are able to source and process the application quickly, thus saving long hours of hiring process (Marr, 2007). Time saving is a strategic measure in the hiring process. According to the study of Barber (2006), the ease of completing online application form and the time taken to process applications are done in minutes faster than weeks, the advantage of this, is that recruiters and job seekers are saved time. The hiring time is saved by pre selecting the application and receiving quick response electronically. The most important variance would be that, companies can update their information quickly by typically speeding up the front end processes Othman and Musa (2006), According to the Bussler & Davis (2002) E-Recruitment can reduce the amount of time used for hiring in the recruitment process by two thirds.
Other Key advantages of E-Recruitment
In addition to the cost and time saving benefits identified with E-Recruitment, there are various other merits in the E-Recruitment process. The access to the candidate pool is wider when compared to the traditional recruitment methods to the candidate pool. This would range from National, International to local levels that provides greater chances in finding the suitable candidates for job roles. This provides opportunities in the online graduate recruitment of more diverse graduate pools responding with opening all doors. This would better show off best recruitment techniques across the business units allowing more recruitment information (Barber, 2006).
Another benefit would be brand reputation as a key account of benefits to E-Recruitment by promoting the corporate brand and corporate image of an organisation. Corporate websites gives values of choices with an indication of better values and better organizational culture. It also gives a better feel of the candidate to share why they would want to work in the organisation. When any candidate applies for a job with the firm, sometime it mostly rely on the way they are treated. At this context if candidate have bad experience it would ultimately give negative impact to the brand (Barber, 2006).
The benefits of E-Recruitment strategy on the talent pool is supported by Shipton (2004), according to him talent pool is efficient in E-Recruitment strategy in that it helps group candidates who have applied for the advertised position in terms of either a speculative basis or as a result of direct responses to an advertisements. These are done by communicating at regular intervals in the form of E-newsletters. The author also found the benefits after the implementation of E-Recruitment system in The Tussaud's Group in the form of saving time of hiring reduction up to 66 percent.
E-Recruitment would provide proper access for the passive job seekers who are the individuals already working or already in a job. It gives opportunity to apply for better job roles advertised on the Internet. These are the type of job seekers of better quality due to the fact that they are not desperate for change in job when compared to the active job seekers who are frustrated in finding a new opportunity (Richardson, 2005).
Demerits of E-Recruitment
We have reviewed various literatures on E-Recruitment processes and the merits in terms of Cost and Time saving benefits. We shall now look at the various demerits of E-Recruitment process. E-Recruitment is very effective in saving cost and time; apart from these prime benefits it also provides wider access to the candidate pool, as well as improving brand reputation of a company etc. There are many challenges that needed to be reviewed and be aware of the fact that it has disadvantages over the traditional recruitments.
The demerits outlined by Othman and Musa (2006) include:
E-Recruitment can impact to the certain groups of ethnic minorities in particular, as they are the kind of kind of people who are not able to access the internet. The role of impact on certain minority groups would be a threat for the organization that can lead to discrimination issues.
Lack of Access to the Internet
Basic knowledge is needed for Internet access hence in this case it has been limited to particular demographic groups.
Inability to Target Executive Personnel
Recruiting top or executive personnel online would be a disadvantage, due to the fact that they would prefer personal contacts.
Sources to Apply Jobs
There can be other better resources available for the applicants such as newspaper or by advertisements on the website or both.
Lead to Resume Over Load
There is a possibility of resume overload, since there are no restrictions for the applicants in posting their application for the job.
Low Level of Applicants
Internet is a big source that allows candidates to submit resumes any time and this could create a vast number of unqualified applicants to job in the database. Also there is a probability that it can yield towards huge volumes of low quality applicants.
In addition if there is an increase in application for job vacancies then this can create complexities in terms of the time needed to scrutinize and remove unsuitable candidates where can only be done by major resource intensive methods. Furthermore a candidate who is unfamiliar with IT can be deterred if there is technical problem. Other extensive challenges would be that if people working with lack of knowledge in HR and software's that are inflexible, these would be a difficult task to execute proper recruitment process (Barber, 2006). The University of Melbourne (2009) argues that, in E-Recruitment privacy is one of the major threats that could expose people's personal information or it can be misused by other persons, thus providing personal information online can lead to security issues.
Furthermore traditional face to face interview is said to be better than online interviews since it can measure lots of personal abilities. Only in the traditional interviews are candidates really able to prove their knowledge, ideas and experience significantly.
In this chapter we have reviewed various useful literature and theories on the research subject. We have reviewed literature on E-Recruitment in the Cost cutting and Time saving measures. The Recruitment processes are explained from the HRM perspective as being a central unit of recruitment process and also also reviewing trends in the recruitment. E-Recruitment is the latest trend which major organizations implement as a Cost effective and time saving recruitment tool. We have also provided factual evidences on the recruitment trends by looking into various surveys. We have also reviewed the merits and demerits of E-Recruitment process. In the next chapter we shall look into methodology that will be adopted in order to answer the research question and methods that are followed to acquire the primary data.
This chapter explains the research methodology and research approach utilized in order to carry out the primary research. The main aim of this research thesis is to investigate strategic driving factor towards Cost cutting and Time Saving measure in Software Industry in India. To prove the research valid, possible answers to research question through primary and secondary research would constitute key factors to data collection. The primary data collections used are qualitative and quantitative data collection methods.
For the purpose of this research thesis, the researcher has implemented appropriate primary research methods in order to acquire the data in accordance with the aim-objectives and the research question's. The researcher has implemented semi structured interview technique for the qualitative method and questionnaire technique for obtaining the quantitative method. This chapter also outlines the sampling and sample elements of population.
Before reviewing the theories on research methodology it is essential to understand the various research philosophies and assumptions. According to Cohen et al. (2005) there are various assumptions based on philosophical stances that is reflected in the work of Burnell and Morgan (1979), cited in Cohen et al. (2005) and are termed as Ontological assumptions, they are mainly concerned with social phenomenon concerned in investigating with the result of individual's awareness and knowledge. This concept was further reframed by Gray (2004) that a researcher's technique in undergoing a research would ultimately be influenced by theoretical perspective and epistemological terms. Epistemology according to Gray (2004) was a philosophical term concerns with deciding what types of knowledge would be legitimate and adequate.
This theory was supported by Cohen et al. (2005), as these assumptions would be further influenced or concerned with nature of the phenomenon and knowledge and how this knowledge is acquired in the real world? How this knowledge can be communicated to others? These assumptions are logical and they determine the issues of whether that can be something which can be acquired or can be experienced by a person. The natures of these epistemological stances in general are human nature assumptions that are primarily concerned with the relationship between human and the human environment. Methodology assumptions expresses forcefully in search of universal laws. Methodology is characterized by rules or procedures that are framed in discovering general laws referred to as Nomothetic and Idiograph which emphasizes on individual approach particularly approaches in understanding the behavior of the individuals.
Secondary data are concerned with collecting someone else's work for the aim of the research and are being used as such as reference (Morris, 2003). This data can be any type of existing unpublished or publish data, and can be any material that are exists in the form of journals, business articles that would be useful for the researcher to pursue research (Sekaran, 2003). Secondary data is important for every research in the real world in order to gain knowledge on the topic of the research and suggestions from various sources. This secondary data is very important for the researcher to carry out primary research since; it helps the researcher to explore his/her existing research and prove an effective source in answering the aims and objectives of the research. It also helps in forming suitable questions for primary research such as Questionnaires and interviews in the researcher's context. The researcher has used both published and unpublished information in his research. The various secondary sources for this research would be Journal articles, Internet sources, Online Magazine articles and books.
Data that are used in enhancing the conceptual project or the data that are used as a major source of argument for a research are termed as Primary data (Hackley, 2003). These types of data are utilized by collecting data which makes use of individual perceptions. According to Sekaran (2003), these perceptions will be mainly used in measuring attitude of the respondents towards the aim and objectives of the research. These are gathered by observation through questionnaire or through interviews directly from the respondents whom the researcher as chosen to draw conclusions with reference to secondary data. Data that are collected from the respondents in measuring certain attributes are termed as Primary data.
Without primary data or primary research it would be highly impossible to drawing references and come to conclusion. Even though secondary data would be useful, it cannot be used to achieve the aims and objectives of the study neither were it be appropriate in answering the proposed research questions. Data can only be used to provide direction and guide the research on the right path. Before exploring primary data it is essential for the researcher to understand the significant concept of research approach because without understanding research approach data collection will not be relevant towards the research question framed in the introductory chapter.
Deductive & Inductive approach
There are two types of research approach and they are termed as deductive and inductive approach. Testing a theory is defined as deductive approach that can be based on generalized or established theory. Testing theory that can be applied on any instances specifically is termed as Deductive theory (Spens and Kovacs, 2006). It is supported by Gummesson (2000) as these concepts and theories must exist in the real world, it means that before testing a theory we need to test hypothesis that must be linked to a causal relationship. According to Hackley (2003) they are developed by pre existed theory that will be further subjected to present theories and the findings would thus modify these theory. Cohen et al. (2005) states that it limit's the study in findings other alternatives of a research but rather used to test the validity at empirical level.
Inductive approach according to (Spens and Kovacs, 2006; Gummesson, 2000), is based upon collecting specific empirical cases to the observations. Thus it shows a real feeling by experience in the research field. This is more suitable in study fact than theory happening with in real world concepts. This is supported as positive insight to a research by Hackley (2003) as it would be beneficial in finding new insights towards research question that has not been in the academic point of view.
The study adopts the Inductive approach since, the researcher will attempt in building a theory rather than testing a hypothesis and theory. Another reason to pursue Inductive approach is that it cannot bring any new insights for the study by not presenting any alternatives to different explanations and it basically limits the study to a strict methodology.
Positivism and Interpretivism theories
This theory is purely based on the inquiry of understanding the descriptive aspect of qualitative research in a particular situation and this descriptive or theoretical perspective is called Interpretivism. These inquiries can be of development of theory, explanations or about an observed phenomenon (Gray, 2004; Gummesson, 2000). In the other context such as quantitative research where the sample elements would be of statistical samples and it helps in examining the hypothesis. Gray (2004) claims that both qualitative and quantitative methods to research have an influence on both Positivism and interpretivism theories concerned with social sciences.
According to Cohen et al. (2005), positivism stance is based on social reality and observer point of view. It is mainly concerned with clear objection for ideal knowledge. In other terms it can be explained as, the researcher providing findings without references to personal frame towards the results that are obtained by primary research. Anti-positivist or Interpretivist stance on other hand involves sharing the researchers or observers frame of references or individual perspective but not the frame of reference from the outside. There exists three varied approaches to Interpretivist theory they are, Phenomenology, Ethnomethodology and Symbolism interaction. Phenomenology is the study that is directed towards experiences that is gathered at face value and as such concerns human experience in a real world. Ethnomethodology on other hand concerns how people make sense in everyday world. This involves social interaction by understanding the social means on its own from the participants. Symbolic interactionsim is based upon the researcher himself as a subject in relation to the research aim and objectives. The researcher has taken care in exploring new insights towards personal experience in to real world. This research thesis falls involves investigating E Recruitment in Cost cutting and Time saving measures in software sector that would be suitable by exploring insights in India and thus this research falls under Phenomenology research.
The researcher has looked at various theories on research and has given the rationale on why phenomenology research and inductive approach have been adopted. In addition the researcher has reviewed Positivist and Interpretivist theory that would be used in drawing personal frame of references on the empirical results. The researcher now look into Qualitative and Quantitative methods used to carry out primary research.
Qualitative and Quantitative Research methods
The researcher adopts both Qualitative and Quantitative methods in this research. According to Parasuraman et al. (2004), quantitative research primarily concerns measuring aspects such as measurement and frequencies that would help relate the concepts between Primary and Secondary data useful in drawing discussion and conclusion, there by proves the research value. According to Sarantakos (2005), Qualitative research on the other hand help is in understanding the concept more clearly and is used to explore what are the feelings, thoughts and intentions. The real conclusions or frame of references of respondents can be easily explored through Qualitative research method.
Zikmund (2003) supporting the positive aspects of Qualitative technique states that it helps understand the descriptive feeling of the concept very clearly than quantitative method where provides measurement samples and numbers. Thus the focus is on both qualitative and quantitative research methods. We shall now look into qualitative Interview techniques and Quantitative questionnaire technique that would be useful to acquire primary research.
Questionnaire is based or designed on quantitative survey according to the research area but definite sets of alternatives are designed prior to the data acquisition. It is useful in studying social sciences in known format and the questions are designed and later checked for completeness. It is designed using the research aim, the questions are framed and comprise of some closed ended and open ended questions. In addition it contains some multiple options termed as Likert scale instruments. The prime aspect of using questionnaire as a method for the research is that it helps in measuring the personal frame and attitude of the respondents (McDaniel and Gates, 2005). The questionnaire samples will be analysed through frequency analysis.
There are three types of interviews they are; structured, semi structured and unstructured interviews. The researcher adopts semi structured interview for qualitative data analysis. The questions are designed based on the research aim objectives and also the research question. Sinkovics et al. (2005), suggests that the interview is a significant method in conducting qualitative research.
Selection of Respondents:
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the concept of E-Recruitment as a strategic issue towards cost cutting and time saving measure. The respondents being the employees working in Human resource department of Software Firms located at Chennai and Bangalore.
Sampling Design and Size:
Sampling is very important in identifying possible population or respondents to carry out primary research. Jankowicz (2005) has studied sampling techniques and states the sampling technique which would be best suited for conducting primary research. Acccording to Jankowicz (2005) sampling is a deliberate choice of inputs of people in a population amongst valid group corresponding to the research. In this context the researcher has identified the population as Software organization's and employees working in the Human resource department. There are two types of sampling techniques; probability and non probability sampling. Non probability sampling is based on identifying and questioning in relation to the individual position, roles and background to common groups. Probability sampling on other hand is based on identifying and questioning since they are members of common groups. This instant this research would employ non probability sampling since HR department managers (High level and Middle level) who had major experience in the recruitment process would be a proper samples rather than questioning members of any common groups.
The sampling technique adhered to in this research would be purposive sampling since it draws on selecting people relevant to the issue such as HR Managers. The research will contain 36 questionnaires and 5 semi structured interviews.
Reliability and Validity of the research
Research in any forms has to be proven valid at any circumstances. This dissertation would be valid through triangulate of various data collection method to evaluate primary and secondary research. According to Gray (2004) the validity would be based upon when the researcher would try to find the answer for research question. Reliability would be based upon the empirical results that are produced that would not yield in unbiased results, also valid data acquired from Software firms in India. Reliability according to Golafshani (2003) reflects to accurate results that are consistent over a period of time and accurate presentation of the total population.
Ethics of the Research
The researcher has interviewed to adhere to research ethics according to Cardiff City University (Formerly University of Wales Institute Cardiff) and has also made sure that it does not infringe any moral and social feelings of the respondents. The researcher has also kept the samples anonymous and assorted them confidentially.
This chapter presents the methodology by reviewing various research philosophies. This chapter sets out the various methodological constructions and techniques that are used in gathering primary data. The research adopts both qualitative and quantitative techniques through semi structured interviews and questionnaires methods. Finally we have looked at the number of sample and sampling technique used to scrutinize the population involved in the research. In the next chapter we shall present and analyze data that collected from the semi-structured interview and questionnaire.
Chapter 4 DATA ANALYSIS
This chapters deals with the research findings acquired through the Questionnaire and semi structured interview method. The data findings of Questionnaire is presented Graphically and the data findings of Semi structured method was presented thematically. This chapter seeks to answer the research question and forms the basis of any conclusion projected. The questionnaire and interview questions are framed in such a way that, it will cover the research objectives. The respondent for questionnaire analysis was 36, and includes employees working in Human Resource department in Software concern. The number of sample respondents for Semi structured interviews are 5. The respondent includes Human resource manager and Assistant Human resource managers working in Software firm. The data is acquired from 2 software firms in India.
Questionnaire and Analysis
The questionnaire sample contained 14 questions covering the research objectives that would be useful in arriving at answers for the research question. The questions are framed in terms of Likert scale and closed ended questions. The questionnaire sample is presented in APPENDIX 1, The topics covered in the Questionnaire would be,
- E-Recruitment in Software industry in India
- Various implications of E- Recruitment process
- Merits and Demerits of E-Recruitment process
The graphical presentation are analysed thematically by frequency analysis, taking average results of total samples in terms of percentages. The questionnaire will prove to be useful in measuring the attitude of the employees towards E-recruitment process.
Semi structured Interview and Analysis
The interview is conducted with Human resource managers and Assistant human resource manager working in the software firm in India. The interview protocol consists of 6 questions conducted with the manager. The questions are common and framed according to research aim and objectives. The recorded conversations are presented in APPENDIX 2 along with the questions. The interview is used to find the significance of E-Recruitment process in comparison with traditional recruitment process in the software organization in India. The interviewee's names are kept anonymous due to confidentiality. The interview and questionnaire findings are interpreted, discussed at the end of the chapter.
The interview was conducted with Human resource manager 1 that was lasted approximately 10 minutes. The HR manager felt that, E recruitment is strategic and helps candidates measure their own responsibility with the company he/she were work in the future. Candidates induct training helps in providing the development and also improve the talent engagement. E recruitment standardizes the overall recruitment process. Internet has overtaken the world and the current trend in recruitment is being outsourced in other countries such as India, Philippines and also internationally through consultants. Internet helps in getting quick response of any candidates internationally and fastens the recruitment process. The important ailment according to the interview is the quality of hiring a candidate. Apart from this Technical issue, management qualities of a recruiter are also most important.
E recruitment is perceived to be a good time saver and cost reduces. It helps save's time by considering multiple applicants. E recruitment is useful for countries like India, by tracking the right candidates. E recruitment helps the candidates directly reach recruiter's. It reduces the efforts of going to the job agencies. This will be helpful for the recruiter in tracking future improvement. Recruitment process is challenging and should be monitored in handling data correctly. E recruitment fills up the traditional gaps of keeping safe all data.
This interview lasted approximately 12 minutes. The interviewee felt that, E recruitment is strategic since it directly reflects corporate culture and involving skills such as team management skills. Internet recruitment overtakes the traditional process since, the recruiters get resumes from multiple sources quickly such as job boards. The key elements in recruitment are decision making skills, staffing, and communication skills. Hiring candidates through agencies usually needs lot of money so it can be avoided through E recruitment process. E recruitment should work along with traditional process. The recruitment basics are needs to be understood from the traditional process. E recruitment fills traditional gaps by receiving lot of applications and response is selectively easy.
This interview lasted for around 12 minutes. The employee was a Human resource manager working in the software company in India. This Human resource manager works in a Top Multinational Company in Chennai. HR2 felt that, e recruitment is strategic and it involves lot of processes, it consists of predefined strategy based upon the candidate and his/her experience and his previous salary. This transformation comes in terms of corporate culture in defining strategy towards the recruitment process. Internet recruitment does not overtake the entire traditional process but acts as a helping hand in speeding up the recruitment process.
Today it is highly difficult to conduct a recruitment process without the internet support. However in some cases traditional recruitment is done to further analyze the candidates. The important elements in recruitment are sense of urgency determining how many people and time available to recruit. Apart from this human resource management and decision making skills plays a back hand role in the entire recruitment process. E recruitment in software organization can be perceived to be vital in hiring a recruiting talent skills in short time. Moreover it helps to consolidate all data in one portal. In comparison with traditional process it should go hand in hand since they cannot rely entirely on the automated systems. The difficulties in recruitment process would be recruitment time and the skills that candidates possess. E recruitment filled the gaps by adding many resources to the candidates base and reduces lead times. It can be used anywhere and gives access to the administrative area.
This interview was conducted with Human resource manager and the conversation lasted around 7 minutes. According to the respondent, e recruitment should go hand in hand with corporate culture and strategy and should be in the form of bringing changes towards organization such as cutting time and cost. E recruitment does not overtake the traditional process, the companies still follow the traditional process more and those were the basics to internet recruitment. The important elements in the recruitment process are HRM, coupled with good decision making skills and also organizational principles. Software firms feel that, it is easy to hire candidates through electronic means and also track applicants easily. But the recruitment database contains loads of applications irrelevant to the position sought. E recruitment helps candidates to post applications from any part of the world and the passive job seekers.
This interview was conducted with another HR manager working in the software firm and lasted approximately 4 minutes. The HR manager felt that, e recruitment is strategic since it shapes the candidates working on the corporate objectives. This is done by acquiring skills possessed by a candidate. It has over taken traditional process in some aspects but traditional recruitment is advantageous for the candidates who do not have common access to internet. Tracking applications, performance evaluation skills are important elements towards the recruitment process. E recruitment saves time and cost and will be a good tool to conduct interviews such as psychometric analysis. Candidates can reveal the real value in the E- Recruitment process. Resumes can be stored in the database and can be used for future recruitment in terms of skill shortage.
The Semi structured and the questionnaire was based on answering the research question and research objectives. We shall discuss these research findings and their position with the literature review in order to make the findings valid. The discussion base is based on the results obtained from review of literature and through semi structured questionnaire findings.
Question 1 is based on the employee satisfaction towards e recruitment. E recruitment is very important in today's organization and it works strategically.
Question 2 and 3 is based on finding the advantages and disadvantages. According to Othman and Musa (2006) some demerits of e recruitment process would be, it effects on ethnic minorities, certain demographics groups, resume overload and inability to target top executive candidates. This was supported by the questionnaire respondents. This was further supported from the interview conversation with HR Manager 4, that internet recruitment do not benefit certain group who does not have regular access to the internet. In relation to advantages E recruitment is cost effective, according to iLogos research in 1998 from Othman and Musa (2006), it saves direct costs from posting advertisements through newspapers, reduces mail costs and reduces human resource workload. This was further supported by The University of Melbourne (2009) that communication is made easier can helps reduce additional costs. Apart from this it reduces manpower spending rather human workload. In the time saving aspects, according to Marr (2007) the application is processed quickly and shortens time in hiring a candidate. Barber (2006) supports these findings states that making online application is very fast and speeds up the front end process of an organization by updating information quickly. It opens all doors from local level to international candidates. It improves brand reputation by promoting the value. This was supported by HR Manager 1, it fastens the process with quick response. Assistant HR Manager supports that it reduces costs that incurred through recruitment consultancy. HR Manager 2, supports that it reduces lead time and is vital in recruiting talent skills in short time. HR Manager 3 supports that, it helps in tracking application easily and attracts passive job seekers. This was further supported by HR Manager 4, that it stores applications of candidates for future use. It is advantageous in conducting test such as psychometric analysis online. HR Manager 1 supports that it reduces time in going through job agencies.
Question 4 and 5 are based on the other development and websites of e recruitment through online communities. According to Schramm (2007) cited in White (2008) e recruitment has advanced towards online communities and social networks such as FaceBook and my space websites. According to an Intelligence report of iLogos Research of Global 500 Website recruiting of 2003 survey 94% of top global companies have corporate website that was supported by CIPD (2005), 75% of organization use corporate website to attract applicants. Assistant HR Manager supports the advantages of e recruitment through Job boards in getting good responses from the candidates such as Naukri and Monsterindia websites. HR Portal (2003) supports that 75% human resource professional use job boards in recruitment.
Question 8, is based on the employee attitude towards internet recruitment overtaking the traditional recruitment process. E recruitment does not overtake the traditional process but in some cases, it has added a lot of advantages to the recruitment process. From the interview respondents, Some Human resource managers are not entirely consumed that Internet recruitment overtakes the traditional process but in every aspects. Internet recruitment was lead from the traditional process and that would be the fundamental base of any recruitment. However Managers use traditional recruitment including Software industries for some positions and it acts as an advantage to the people who do not have the internet recruitment process. This was supported by HR Manager 2 and Assistant HR manager that, it acts as a helping hand in speeding up the recruitment process. Question 11 is based on the comparison of e recruitment effectiveness over traditional recruitment process, HR Manager 1 supports that it has brought candidates closely to the recruiter.
In this chapter we have reviewed various factors from the empirical results that are obtained through primary research. These findings are the factors or various implications towards E-recruitment. These findings pertain to the secondary literary articles documents chapter 2. The researcher has presented the research findings and analyzed it in detail. In addition an interpretation of the results from the literature findings has been posted. From the Interview and questionnaire findings we can see that how E-recruitment plays a vital role in the recruitment process. E-recruitment process fastens the recruitment process and also reduces extra costs. This reaches employees directly and opens candidate pool not only from local level but also international level. But we cannot entirely depend on the system processes are, traditional process is imperative and we cannot rule them out. From the research findings we have seen that, e recruitment apart from the strategic point of view has some demerits that have to be overcome before any recruitment can takes place. In the next chapter, we shall draw conclusions from the research findings that support the purpose of the study from both the secondary and primary research. We shall conclude by putting forward recommendations for future research.
Chapter 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter seeks to examine the findings and answer the research question. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the process of e recruitment in IT sector in India with a strategic view on Cost cutting and Time saving factor. The research findings shall help the researcher to review various implications of E recruitment process over the traditional processes. This chapter shall review the findings and arrive at logical conclusion's on E recruitment process in the time saving and in the cost saving measure. Finally it puts forward recommendations based on the research findings, and review the research objectives and research questions based on the results acquired. Finally it also raises possible avenues for future research and limitations of the research.
- Employees of Software Firms are satisfied with E recruitment Process
- Some demerits of E Recruitment in IT sectors are, it Impacts certain ethnic minorities, Resume overload. In addition HR Manager should be aware of E HRM concepts, as these are some security threats by providing all information online. E recruitment affects certain demographic groups who do not have access to internet.
- Employees feel that, E Recruitment merits h
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