The project is discussed in four different chapters with conclusions and references

The project title is the study of the roles and the comparison of human resource management at two firms. Chapter one contains an introduction part covering what the human resource manager signifies and the various roles played by a human resource manage. Chapter two talks of the importance of the human resource manager in the company. Chapter three looks into whether the strategies involved in motivation and keeping a good attitude of the employees vary or are similar at the companies. Chapter four looks into how turnover affects the human resource department and the managers and also the flexible work and how it affects motivation .finally a conclusion of the aspects in the four chapters.



The human resource field takes a clear view of workers, supercilious that almost all wish to contribute to the enterprise productively, and that the main hindrance to their actions are lack of knowledge, insufficient training, and failures of process.

Human resource management is seen as a more inventive aspect of workplace management other than the traditional approach. It results to the managers of an enterprise expressing their goals with specificity in order to be understood and undertaken by the workforce, providing the resources needed for them to successfully accomplish their assignments. As such, human resource management techniques, when properly practiced, are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall. Its also seen by many to have a key role in risk reduction within organisations.

Words relating to the human resource management such as personnel management are often used in a more classified sense to describe activities that are necessary in the recruiting of a workforce, giving its members payroll and benefits, and administrating their work-life needs. Torrington and Hall (1987) define personnel management as being:

A succession of activities which: first facilitate working people and their employing organisations to come to terms about the objectives and nature of their working relationship and, secondly, ensuring that the agreement is fulfilled" (p. 49).

While Miller (1987) suggests that human resources management relates to: those decisions and actions which concern the management of employees at all levels in the business and which are related to the execution of strategies aimed at creating and sustaining competitive advantage" (p. 352).

The fundamental principle of the academic theory of human resource management is that humans are not machines; as a result an urge to have an interdisciplinary assessment of people in the workplace.

The occupation tackled by a human resource manager is often confidential in nature and requires the use of considerable judgment and compassion. This cataloging may also be responsible for supervising clerical, professional or volunteer staff. The human resource manager in this class must have a background in public sector human resource management.

Human resource manager

Definition: is an individual who handles personnel decisions, including those that entail hiring, benefits, position assignment, training, and compensation. Their decisions are subject to some oversight, but company executives recognize their experience and skill in assessing personnel and rely heavily on their recommendation.

He is also an individual responsible for managing and overseeing the personnel department within a company, organization or agency. This includes posting advertisements or approving advertisements for new employees, screening resumes and applications, setting interview appointments and being involved in the hiring process. Majority of the agencies have their human resource manger providing employee supervision and evaluations, retraining employees, offering mediation services for struggling employees as well as firing employees that are not meeting standards.

Roles and responsibilities of a human resource manager

Common work activities include:

  • Posting advertisements for new employees in newspapers, on the internet or in trade specific magazines. Contacting employment services or even executive recruiters for very specialized postings.
  • Ensuring all record keeping with regards to workman's compensation, health and medical insurance, and other state and government regulations is completed as required.
  • Overseeing the human resources department staff and handling all issues involving employee complaints or questions that cannot be answered by other staff.
  • Managing office or agency health, safety and mental health and well-being issues.
  • Working with employers and employees in training and in-service presentations as required.
  • Hiring, supervising, training, monitoring and firing of staff.


He or she ensures that a firm has the right number and mix of people at the right times and places varying from long-range planning for large, stable companies to short-range crisis planning for thousands of small companies employing low-skilled and low-paid workers. (Haksever p217). In this case human resource, managers have to consider all of the laws that protect against discrimination and all of the requirements that employees must meet for the company.

Effective planning by a human resource manager Cleary brings accurate results that a company wants .in a case of staffing, Understaffing result to the loses of the business economies of scale and specialization, orders, customers and profits, while Overstaffing is wasteful and expensive, if sustained, and it is costly to eliminate because of modern legislation in respect of redundancy payments, consultation, minimum periods of notice, etc. Very importantly, overstaffing reduces the competitive efficiency of the business.

An assessment of current and future needs of the organization has to be compared with present resources and future predicted resources when considering staffing. When proper steps are used in planning, it brings demand and supply into balance.

The future demands of a company is majorly influenced by the predictions of the personnel manager, whose main task may well be to scrutinize and modify the crude predictions of other managers.

Future staffing needs will derive from:

  • The predictions of Sales and production
  • Impact of technological change on job needs
  • Difference in the efficiency, productivity, flexibility of labor as a result of training, work study, organizational change and new motivations.
  • Renovation in employment performances by use of subcontractors or agency staffs, hiving-off tasks, buying in and substitution, etc
  • Deviation, countering new legislation, e.g. payroll taxes or their abolition, new health and safety requirements
  • Modification in Government policies (investment incentives, regional or trade grants, etc.)

logical staffing demand a plan for varying dates in the future which can then be compared with the crude supply schedules. The comparisons will then indicate what steps must be taken to achieve a balance which in turn, will involve the further planning of such recruitment, training, retraining, labor reductions or changes in workforce utilization as will bring supply and demand into balance, not just as a one-off but as a continuing workforce planning exercise the inputs to which will need constant varying to reflect 'actual' as against predicted experience on the supply side and changes in production actually achieved as against forecast on the demand side.


A human resource manager is involved in identifying people who could fill positions within the firm and then securing them as applicants. He has to plan a good job picture for the position and a specification of skills and abilities the candidate should have. A potential applicants list is developed from various sources, depending how the human resource manager decides to advertise the job opening. Managers obtain their recruits sources from internal and external sources.

Advantages of internal recruiting

The employee will not have to go through basic training learning all of the policies of the company.


“inbreeding.” Resulting to seldom new ideas brought into the company. (Jucius p109-110)

An external source for recruiting brings into account the opposite of internal recruiting from outside the company. There are many forms of external recruiting. Some include employment agencies, advertising, Internet recruiting, and word of mouth. He is also involved in the recruitment of employees depending on;

An analysis of the job to be done through carefully studying of the tasks to be performed to determine their essentialities written into a job description so that the selectors know what physical and mental characteristics applicants must acquire, what qualities and attitudes are desirable and what characteristics are a decided disadvantage. Where replacement is to take place, critical questioning of the need to recruit at all (replacement should rarely be an automatic process) should be taken into consideration.

Human resource managers have to search for recruitments in the following areas;

  • Internal promotion and internal introductions (at times desirable for morale purposes)
  • Careers officers (and careers masters at schools)
  • University appointment boards
  • Agencies for the unemployed
  • Advertising (often via agents for specialist posts) or the use of other local media (e.g. commercial radio).


After applications have been confirmed, the human resource manager then begins the selection process basing on undoubtedly established criterion for performance of the job. The application form should be designed to uncover the applicant's skills and abilities for the job performance.

The human resource manager's selection criterion could also be based on testing, interviews, references, and probationary periods of employment. (Haksever p219-220).

An effective selection is considered as 'buying' an employee (the price being the wage or salary multiplied by probable years of service) hence the human resource manager has to carefully select to minimise and avoid in competencies in the company firms may use external expert consultants for recruitment and selection of their competence staff. Some small organizations exist to attract staff with high reputations from existing employers to the recruiting employer. However, the 'cost' of poor selection is such that, even for the day-to-day jobs, those who are involved in recruiting and selecting of employees should be well trained to judge the suitability of applicants.

Training and Development

Training is an efficient method for altering an employee's behavior to prepare the employee for a job or upgrade the employee's performance on the job. Development involves the preparation of a person for broader responsibilities and higher-level positions within the company.

Training and development can vary from firm to firm, as well as by type or size of service organization. (Haksever p220-221.

Training in interviewing and in appraising candidates is clearly essential to good recruitment. Largely the former consists of teaching interviewers how to draw out the interviewee and the latter how to rate the candidates. For consistency (and as an aid to checking that) rating often consists of scoring candidates for experience, knowledge, physical/mental capabilities, intellectual levels, motivation, prospective potential, leadership abilities etc. (according to the needs of the post). Application of the normal curve of distribution to scoring eliminates freak judgments.


This involves arranging the employees work to make them both productive and motivated. The factors that determine the effectiveness of human resource utilization include:

The structure of the work that provide an opportunity for “stretch” performance

Participation in decisions that have a direct effect on the person's job

Open communications and equitable scheduling of assignments

Competent supervision and organizational flexibility

Economic and non-economic rewards that recognize achievement and equity

Opportunity for growth

A culture that encourages caring for both customer and worker needs

At small employee service firm's employees may be encouraged to take initiative and be given a variety of tasks and responsibilities. The “shop” operates like a family, with workers participating in decisions and communicating freely with a manager who provides experienced support. Non-economic rewards, such as flexibility in working hours, time off when needed, and an atmosphere of general caring about other people, are important. In the large service firms, the work may be organized so that small teams share responsibility for key tasks. Here, economic rewards and opportunity for growth are likely to be greater than in the small service firm. (Haksever p224)


The human resource manager is involved in rewarding since it helps them keep their employees, in turn keeping a small turnover and also making employees feel important and needed at the company. Zinaweza kuwapoints za chapter 3

1. Develop a public image of the company such that employees have pride in carrying out the firms obligations.

2. Provide flextime working conditions so that people may fit their work to their personal needs and lifestyle, including working at their jobs.

3. Reward employees for participating in suggestions that can make their work more productive. 4. Structure jobs so that employees have control over their work and responsibilities that challenge them.

5. Provide first-class facilities, such as private offices, lounges, cafeterias, and the like.

6. Reduce the cost of employment for the worker.

7. Compensate bye salary or commission.

8. Design the service so that the customer does more of the work.

9. Depending on the type of service organization, offer employee discounts and even possible employee family discounts. (Haksever p225-226)

Performance Appraisals

Though not being done by a human resource manager , they are kind of part of their job, because they need to make sure that the supervisors do one for each of their employees and then gets the finished form turned into them. The finished copy goes into the employee's file as part of their portfolio.

Employee motivation

To retain good staff and to encourage them to give of their best while at work requires attention to the financial and psychological and even physiological rewards offered by the organization as a continuous exercise.

Basic financial rewards and conditions of service (e.g. working hours per week) are determined externally (by national bargaining or government minimum wage legislation) in many occupations but as much as 50 per cent of the gross pay of manual workers is often the result of local negotiations and details (e.g. which particular hours shall be worked) of conditions of service are often more important than the basics. Hence there is scope for financial and other motivations to be used at local levels.

As staffing needs will vary with the productivity of the workforce (and the industrial peace achieved) so good personnel policies are desirable. The latter can depend upon other factors (like environment, welfare, employee benefits, etc.) but unless the wage packet is accepted as 'fair and just' there will be no motivation.

Hence while the technicalities of payment and other systems may be the concern of others, the outcome of them is a matter of great concern to human resource management.

Increasingly the influence of behavioral science discoveries are becoming important not merely because of the widely-acknowledged limitations of money as a motivator, but because of the changing mix and nature of tasks (e.g. more service and professional jobs and far fewer unskilled and repetitive production jobs).

The former demand better-educated, mobile and multi-skilled employees much more likely to be influenced by things like job satisfaction, involvement, participation, etc. than the economically dependent employees of yesteryear.

Hence human resource management must act as a source of information about and a source of inspiration for the application of the findings of behavioral science. It may be a matter of drawing the attention of senior managers to what is being achieved elsewhere and the gradual education of middle managers to new points of view on job design, work organization and worker autonomy.

Employee evaluation

An organization needs constantly to take stock of its workforce and to assess its performance in existing jobs for three reasons:

To improve organizational performance via improving the performance of individual contributors (should be an automatic process in the case of good managers, but (about annually) two key questions should be posed:

what has been done to improve the performance of a person last year?

what can be done to improve his or her performance in the year to come?).

To identify potential by recognising existing talent and to use that to fill vacancies higher in the organization or to transfer individuals into jobs where better use can be made of their abilities or developing skills.

To provide an equitable method of linking payment to performance where there are no numerical criteria (often this salary performance review takes place about three months later and is kept quite separate from 1. and 2. but is based on the same assessment).

On-the-spot managers and supervisors, not HR staffs, carry out evaluations. The personnel role is usually that of:

* Advising top management of the principles and objectives of an evaluation system and designing it for particular organizations and environments.

* Developing systems appropriately in consultation with managers, supervisors and staff representatives. Securing the involvement and cooperation of appraisers and those to be appraised.

* Assistance in the setting of objective standards of evaluation / assessment, for example:

o Defining targets for achievement;

o Explaining how to quantify and agree objectives;

o Introducing self-assessment;

o Eliminating complexity and duplication.

* Publicizing the purposes of the exercise and explaining to staff how the system will be used.

* Organizing and establishing the necessary training of managers and supervisors who will carry out the actual evaluations/ appraisals. Not only training in principles and procedures but also in the human relations skills necessary. (Lack of confidence in their own ability to handle situations of poor performance is the main weakness of assessors.)

* Monitoring the scheme - ensuring it does not fall into disuse, following up on training/job exchange etc. recommendations, reminding managers of their responsibilities.

Full-scale periodic reviews should be a standard feature of schemes since resistance to evaluation / appraisal schemes is common and the temptation to water down or render schemes ineffectual is ever present (managers resent the time taken if nothing else).

Basically an evaluation / appraisal scheme is a formalization of what is done in a more casual manner anyway (e.g. if there is a vacancy, discussion about internal moves and internal attempts to put square pegs into 'squarer holes' are both the results of casual evaluation). Most managers approve merit payment and that too calls for evaluation. Made a standard routine task, it aids the development of talent, warns the inefficient or uncaring and can be an effective form of motivation.

Industrial relations

Good industrial relations, while a recognizable and legitimate objective for an organization, are difficult to define since a good system of industrial relations involves complex relationships between:

(a) Workers (and their informal and formal groups, i. e. trade union, organizations and their representatives);

(b) Employers (and their managers and formal organizations like trade and professional associations);

(c) The government and legislation and government agencies l and 'independent' agencies like the Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service.

Oversimplified, work is a matter of managers giving instructions and workers following them - but (and even under slavery we recognize that different 'managing' produces very different results) the variety of 'forms' which have evolved to regulate the conduct of parties (i.e. laws, custom and practice, observances, agreements) makes the giving and receipt of instructions far from simple. Two types of 'rule' have evolved:

* 'Substantive', determining basic pay and conditions of service (what rewards workers should receive);

* 'Procedural,' determining how workers should be treated and methods and procedures.

Determining these rules are many common sense matters like:

* Financial, policy and market constraints on the parties (e.g. some unions do not have the finance to support industrial action, some have policies not to strike, some employers are more vulnerable than others to industrial action, some will not make changes unless worker agreement is made first, and rewards always ultimately reflect what the market will bear);

* The technology of production (the effect of a strike in newspaper production is immediate -it may be months before becoming effective in shipbuilding);

* The distribution of power within the community - that tends to vary over time and with economic conditions workers (or unions) dominating in times of full employment and employers in times of recession.

Broadly in the Western style economies the parties (workers and employers) are free to make their own agreements and rules. This is called 'voluntarism'. But it does not mean there is total noninterference by the government. That is necessary to:

* Protect the weak (hence minimum wage);

* Outlaw discrimination (race or sex);

* Determine minimum standards of safety, health, hygiene and even important conditions of service;

* To try to prevent the abuse of power by either party.

HR managers responsibilities

The personnel manager's involvement in the system of industrial relations varies from organization to organization, but normally he or she is required to provide seven identifiable functions, thus:

1. To keep abreast of industrial law (legislation and precedents) and to advise managers about their responsibilities e.g. to observe requirements in respect of employing disabled persons, not to discriminate, not to disclose 'spent' convictions of employees, to observe codes of practice etc. in relation to discipline and redundancy, and similarly to determine organizational policies (in conjunction with other managers) relevant to legal and moral requirements (see also 4.).

2. To conduct (or assist in the conduct) of either local negotiations (within the plant) or similarly to act as the employer's representative in national negotiations. This could be as a critic or advisor in respect of trade etc. association policies or as a member of a trade association negotiating team. Agreements could be in respect of substantive or procedural matters. Even if not directly involved the personnel manager will advise other managers and administrators of the outcome of negotiations.

3. To ensure that agreements reached are interpreted so as to make sense to those who must operate them at the appropriate level within the organization (this can involve a lot of new learning at supervisory level and new pay procedures and new recording requirements in administration and even the teaching of new employment concepts - like stagger systems of work - at management level).

4. To monitor the observance of agreements and to produce policies that ensure that agreements are followed within the organization. An example would be the policy to be followed on the appointment of a new but experienced recruit in relation to the offered salary where there is a choice of increments to be given for experience, ability or qualification.

5. To correct the situations which go wrong. 'Face' is of some importance in most organizations and operating at a 'remote' staff level personnel managers can correct industrial relations errors made at local level without occasioning any loss of dignity (face) at the working level. 'Human resource management' and the obscurity of its reasoning can be blamed for matters which go wrong at plant level and for unwelcome changes, variations of comfortable 'arrangements' and practices and unpopular interpretation of agreements.

6. To provide the impetus (and often devise the machinery) for the introduction of joint consultation and worker participation in decision-making in the organization. Formal agreement in respect of working conditions and behavior could never cover every situation likely to arise. Moreover the more demanding the task (in terms of the mental contribution by the worker to its completion) the more highly-educated the workers need to be and the more they will want to be consulted about and involved in the details of work life. Matters like the rules for a flexitime system or for determining the correction of absenteeism and the contents of jobs are three examples of the sort of matters that may be solely decided by management in some organizations but a matter for joint consultation (not negotiation) in others with a more twenty-first-century outlook and philosophy. Human resource management is very involved in promoting and originating ideas in this field.

7. To provide statistics and information about workforce numbers, costs, skills etc. as relevant to negotiations (i.e. the cost of pay rises or compromise proposals, effect on differentials and possible recruitment/retention consequences of this or whether agreement needs to be known instantly); to maintain personnel records of training, experience, achievements, qualifications, awards and possibly pension and other records; to produce data of interest to management in respect of personnel matters like absentee figures and costs, statistics of sickness absence, costs of welfare and other employee services, statements about development in policies by other organizations, ideas for innovations; to advise upon or operate directly, grievance, redundancy, disciplinary and other procedures.

Next | HR Function 6 Employee se

Provision of employee services

Attention to the mental and physical well-being of employees is normal in many organizations as a means of keeping good staff and attracting others.

The forms this welfare can take are many and varied, from loans to the needy to counseling in respect of personal problems.

Among the activities regarded as normal are:

* Schemes for occupational sick pay, extended sick leave and access to the firm's medical adviser;

* Schemes for bereavement or other special leave;

* The rehabilitation of injured/unfit/ disabled employees and temporary or permanent move to lighter work;

* The maintenance of disablement statistics and registers (there are complicated legal requirements in respect of quotas of disabled workers and a need for 'certificates' where quota are not fulfilled and recruitment must take place);

* Provision of financial and other support for sports, social, hobbies, activities of many kinds which are work related;

* Provision of canteens and other catering facilities;

* Possibly assistance with financial and other aid to employees in difficulty (supervision, maybe, of an employee managed benevolent fund or scheme);

* Provision of information handbooks,

* Running of pre-retirement courses and similar fringe activities;

* Care for the welfare aspects of health and safety legislation and provision of first-aid training.

The location of the health and safety function within the organization varies. Commonly a split of responsibilities exists under which 'production' or 'engineering' management cares for the provision of safe systems of work and safe places and machines etc., but HRM is responsible for administration, training and education in awareness and understanding of the law, and for the alerting of all levels to new requirements.

Next | HR Function 7 Emplo

Employee education, training and development

In general, education is 'mind preparation' and is carried out remote from the actual work area, training is the systematic development of the attitude, knowledge, skill pattern required by a person to perform a given task or job adequately and development is 'the growth of the individual in terms of ability, understanding and awareness'.

Within an organization all three are necessary in order to:

* Develop workers to undertake higher-grade tasks;

* Provide the conventional training of new and young workers (e.g. as apprentices, clerks, etc.);

* Raise efficiency and standards of performance;

* Meet legislative requirements (e.g. health and safety);

* Inform people (induction training, pre-retirement courses, etc.);

From time to time meet special needs arising from technical, legislative, and knowledge need changes. Meeting these needs is achieved via the 'training loop'. (Schematic available in PDF version.)

The diagnosis of other than conventional needs is complex and often depends upon the intuition or personal experience of managers and needs revealed by deficiencies. Sources of inspiration include:

* Common sense - it is often obvious that new machines, work systems, task requirements and changes in job content will require workers to be prepared;

* Shortcomings revealed by statistics of output per head, performance indices, unit costs, etc. and behavioral failures revealed by absentee figures, lateness, sickness etc. records;

* Recommendations of government and industry training organizations;

* Inspiration and innovations of individual managers and supervisors;

* Forecasts and predictions about staffing needs;

* Inspirations prompted by the technical press, training journals, reports of the experience of others;

* The suggestions made by specialist (e.g. education and training officers, safety engineers, work-study staff and management services personnel).

Designing training is far more than devising courses; it can include activities such as:

* Learning from observation of trained workers;

* Receiving coaching from seniors;

* Discovery as the result of working party, project team membership or attendance at meetings;

* Job swaps within and without the organization;

* Undertaking planned reading, or follow from the use of self-teaching texts and video tapes;

* Learning via involvement in research, report writing and visiting other works or organizations.

So far as group training is concerned in addition to formal courses there are:

* Lectures and talks by senior or specialist managers;

* Discussion group (conference and meeting) activities;

* Briefing by senior staffs;

* Role-playing exercises and simulation of actual conditions;

* Video and computer teaching activities;

* Case studies (and discussion) tests, quizzes, panel 'games', group forums, observation exercises and inspection and reporting techniques.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of training is done to ensure that it is cost effective, to identify needs to modify or extend what is being provided, to reveal new needs and redefine priorities and most of all to ensure that the objectives of the training are being met.

The latter may not be easy to ascertain where results cannot be measured mathematically. In the case of attitude and behavioral changes sought, leadership abilities, drive and ambition fostered, etc., achievement is a matter of the judgment of senior staffs. Exact validation might be impossible but unless on the whole the judgments are favorable the cooperation of managers in identifying needs, releasing personnel and assisting in training ventures will cease.

In making their judgments senior managers will question whether the efforts expended have produced:

* More effective, efficient, flexible employees;

* Faster results in making newcomers knowledgeable and effective than would follow from experience;

* More effective or efficient use of machinery, equipment and work procedures;

* Fewer requirements to implement redundancy (by retraining);

* Fewer accidents both personal and to property;

* Improvements in the qualifications of staff and their ability to take on tougher roles;

* Better employee loyalty to the organization with more willingness to innovate and accept change.

Human Resource Management

Developing a HRM strategy

Faced with rapid change organizations need to develop a more focused and coherent approach to managing people. In just the same way a business requires a marketing or information technology strategy it also requires a human resource or people strategy.

In developing such a strategy two critical questions must be addressed.

* What kinds of people do you need to manage and run your business to meet your strategic business objectives?

* What people programs and initiatives must be designed and implemented to attract, develop and retain staff to compete effectively?

In order to answer these questions four key dimensions of an organization must be addressed. These are:

* Culture: the beliefs, values, norms and management style of the organization

* Organization: the structure, job roles and reporting lines of the organization

* People: the skill levels, staff potential and management capability

* Human resources systems: the people focused mechanisms which deliver the strategy - employee selection, communications, training, rewards, career development, etc.

Frequently in managing the people element of their business senior managers will only focus on one or two dimensions and neglect to deal with the others. Typically, companies reorganize their structures to free managers from bureaucracy and drive for more entrepreneurial flair but then fail to adjust their training or reward systems.

When the desired entrepreneurial behavior does not emerge managers frequently look confused at the apparent failure of the changes to deliver results. The fact is that seldom can you focus on only one area. What is required is a strategic perspective aimed at identifying the relationship between all four dimensions.

If you require an organization which really values quality and service you not only have to retrain staff, you must also review the organization, reward, appraisal and communications systems.

The pay and reward system is a classic problem in this area. Frequently organizations have payment systems which are designed around the volume of output produced. If you then seek to develop a company which emphasizes the product's quality you must change the pay systems. Otherwise you have a contradiction between what the chief executive is saying about quality and what your payment system is encouraging staff to do.

There are seven steps to developing a human resource strategy and the active involvement of senior line managers should be sought throughout the approach.

Human Resource Management

Steps in developing HRM strategy

Step 1: Get the 'big picture'

Understand your business strategy.

* Highlight the key driving forces of your business. What are they? e.g. technology, distribution, competition, the markets.

* What are the implications of the driving forces for the people side of your business?

* What is the fundamental people contribution to bottom line business performance?

Step 2: Develop a Mission Statement or Statement of Intent

That relates to the people side of the business.

Do not be put off by negative reactions to the words or references to idealistic statements - it is the actual process of thinking through the issues in a formal and explicit manner that is important.

* What do your people contribute?

Step 3: Conduct a SWOT analysis of the organization

Focus on the internal strengths and weaknesses of the people side of the business.

* Consider the current skill and capability issues.

Vigorously research the external business and market environment. High light the opportunities and threats relating to the people side of the business.

* What impact will/ might they have on business performance?

* Consider skill shortages?

* The impact of new technology on staffing levels?

From this analysis you then need to review the capability of your personnel department. Complete a SWOT analysis of the department - consider in detail the department's current areas of operation, the service levels and competences of your personnel staff.

Step 4: Conduct a detailed human resources analysis

Concentrate on the organization's COPS (culture, organization, people, HR systems)

* Consider: Where you are now? Where do you want to be?

* What gaps exists between the reality of where you are now and where you want to be?

Exhaust your analysis of the four dimensions.

Step 5: Determine critical people issues

Go back to the business strategy and examine it against your SWOT and COPS Analysis

* Identify the critical people issues namely those people issues that you must address. Those which have a key impact on the delivery of your business strategy.

* Prioritize the critical people issues. What will happen if you fail to address them?

Remember you are trying to identify where you should be focusing your efforts and resources.

Step 6: Develop consequences and solutions

For each critical issue highlight the options for managerial action generate, elaborate and create - don't go for the obvious. This is an important step as frequently people jump for the known rather than challenge existing assumptions about the way things have been done in the past. Think about the consequences of taking various courses of action.

Consider the mix of HR systems needed to address the issues. Do you need to improve communications, training or pay?

What are the implications for the business and the personnel function?

Once you have worked through the process it should then be possible to translate the action plan into broad objectives. These will need to be broken down into the specialist HR Systems areas of:

* employee training and development

* management development

* organization development

* performance appraisal

* employee reward

* employee selection and recruitment

* manpower planning

* communication

Develop your action plan around the critical issues. Set targets and dates for the accomplishment of the key objectives.

Step 7: Implementation and evaluation of the action plans

The ultimate purpose of developing a human resource strategy is to ensure that the objectives set are mutually supportive so that the reward and payment systems are integrated with employee training and career development plans.

There is very little value or benefit in training people only to then frustrate them through a failure to provide ample career and development opportunities.

Next | HRM diagnostic checklist

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Human Resource Management

HRM systems diagnostic checklists

The following check-lists present some questions which may prove helpful for you to think about when planning your development programs for human resources (your people) in your organization.

Use them to provoke thought and to stimulate discussion. Consult with others in your organization. They will help you to identify the critical human resource issues facing your organization.

The aim is to begin to explore how a considered and planned approach to people management can improve business performance, to the benefit of all.

Use this checklist in conjunction with our team building diagnostic instrument. It will, via your team members responses identify critical issues they perceive as important. These issues may be at odds with your own perceptions and analysis and therefore any such discrepancy will need to be addressed.

Warning Indicators

Your organization is more than likely in trouble if any of the following holds true:

* chronic industrial relations problems

* no means of resolving employee grievances

* increasing / erratic employee turnover

* increasing number of customer complaints

* no pride in the organization

* inter-group conflicts

* no career paths for ambitious talented employees

* dissatisfaction with pay and conditions

* unclear job roles

* no clear performance measures

* quality is unimportant

* bad product service / delivery records

* poor recruitment standards / practices

* no management development programs

* no induction training for new employees

* critical skill shortages

* inter-departmental conflict

* you do not know if any of the above are applicable

* you ignore any of the above

Culture, organization, people, systems (COPS), checklist


* Do your staff identify with the organization and 'the success of the organization' as being of direct benefit to themselves?

* Do your staff see themselves as having common interests with their work colleagues and group? Is there a strong team spirit?

* Is work allocated on the basis of individual expertise rather than position in the organization?

* Are there sufficient skills / power bases in the organization?

* Are there appropriate leadership skills within the organization?

* Are your staff encouraged to say what they think about the organization?

* Does your organization encourage innovation and creativity amongst staff?

* Do your staff feel a sense of personal responsibility for their work?

* Is quality emphasized in all aspects of the organization?


* Does the structure of your organization encourage effective performance?

* Is the organization structure flexible in the face of changing demands?

* Is the structure too complex? If so in what areas?

* Do your staff have clear roles and responsibilities?

* Does your organization structure tend to push problems up rather than resolve them at the point where they occur?

* Do your procedures and management practices facilitate the accomplishment of tasks?

* Do you constantly seek to challenge your organization structure?


* Do your staff have the necessary skills and knowledge to perform their jobs in the most effective manner?

* Do your staff understand their jobs and how they contribute to overall business performance i.e. have clear goals and objectives?

* Do your staff have a customer service orientation?

* Are people with potential spotted and developed for the future?

* Are your staff encouraged to perform well through the giving of recognition, feedback, etc.?

* Do your people know what their expected performance standards are?


* Do your organization's systems (e.g. employee selection and recruitment, promotion, planning, management, information and control) encourage effective performance among your staff?

* Are these systems consistent across the organization?

* Are there clear rewards for effective performance within your work group?

* Does the organization review its systems frequently and ensure they mutually support each other?

You may now wish to consider and write down:

* What are the three critical people issues facing your business?

* What plans /actions can you take to address these issues?

To help you further, click on this team building link and have your people tell you the issues confronting them in the workplace.

Next | Importance and application of Ergonomics

Administers human resources activities and programs, including: recruitment, testing and selection, employee benefits, training and development, classification, compensation, employee and labor relations, performance evaluation and management, workers' compensation claims, personnel and administrative policies and procedures.

Manages employee benefit programs, including: medical, dental, retirement, deferred compensation, life insurance, short and long-term disability, flexible benefit plan and employee assistance program.

Conducts personnel related studies and surveys; performs research and analysis; prepares various reports, memos and correspondence and makes recommendations to management, staff, City Council and other groups regarding human resource related issues.

Conducts or supervises job analyses and evaluations.

Develops job descriptions, classification and compensation reports, personnel policies and procedures and training and development materials.

Prepares job announcements, advertisements and other recruitment materials.

Represents the City or assigned department in various meetings and public hearings.

Participates in the development, implementation, and maintenance of management and administrative improvements and organizational changes.

Maintains personnel records and files; prepares and processes personnel action forms.

Manages and processes workers' comp claims with the City's third party administrator.

Develops and administers program budgets; monitors expenditures.

Analyzes factors that determine levels of job complexity and responsibility for the purposes of either classification, compensation, and/or selection and job specification development.

Develops compensation plans and systems, including appropriate step and range intervals.

Supervises clerical, technical, professional or volunteer staff; plans, organizes and monitors their work assignments.

Chapter two

importances of the human resource manager in the company.

They ensure that appropriate matches are made between support staff and producers, between assistants and managers, and between coworkers to enhance productivity, support the company's business strategy and long-term goals, and provide a satisfying work experience for employees. A human resources professional in a smaller firm is a jack-of-all-trades who is involved in hiring, resource allocation, compensation, benefits, and compliance with laws and regulations affecting employees and the workplace and safety and health issues. This multiplicity of tasks requires individuals with strong organizational skills who can quickly shift from project to project and topic to topic without becoming overwhelmed. At larger firms, human resources managers often specialize in one area, such as compensation, hiring, or resources allocation. Compensation analysts work with department managers to determine pay scales and bonus structures. Hiring specialists (also known as recruiters) place ads in appropriate publications, review resumes, and interview candidates for employment. Allocation managers match assistants, support staff, and other employees with departments that have specific needs. Sensitivity to both personality issues and corporate efficiency are a plus for allocation managers. The most difficult feature of the human resources professional's job is handling the dirty work involved in the staffing of a company: dealing with understaffing, refereeing disputes between two mismatched personalities, firing employees, informing employees of small (or nonexistent) bonuses, maintaining an ethical culture, a

Performs other duties as assigned or required.


Ability to

Understand, interpret and apply local, state and federal laws, codes and regulations.

Develop, evaluate and apply administrative and personnel policies and procedures.

  • Assess and develop organizational and staffing systems.
  • Prepare and analyze technical and general reports.
  • Organize and direct a function, program, service or project.
  • Establish and maintain effective working relationships, using tact and diplomacy in discussing sensitive personnel matters. Maintain confidentiality in personnel matters.
  • Work independently with minimal supervision or effectively as part of a team.
  • Carry out simultaneous assignments with close attention to detail and deadlines.
  • Use practical judgment, creativity and resourcefulness in planning and developing salary, benefit and classification plans.
  • Collect, organize and analyze statistical and survey data; perform research and analysis; conduct studies and surveys on human resource related issues.
  • Communicate clearly, concisely and persuasively, both orally and in writing.
  • Exercise sound judgment and decision-making.
  • Prepare and administer program budgets.

Chapter three

This chapter will entail whether the strategies involved in motivation and keeping a good attitude of the employees vary or are similar at the companies. All companies do their performance evaluations differently.

Because not all companies do the same things within the company, they

have to be done differently. Employees are evaluated on different things based on what they do within the company.

Chapter four

This chapter looks into how turnover affects the human resource department and the managers and also the flexible work and how it affects motivation.


Definition : Turnover is also termed as the ratio of the number of employees hired by an organization to restore those who have gone in a given phase of time to the number of working workers

for decades, organizations have been required to hold on to employees on the basis that longer tenure results to better return on talent. While formal retention programs never attained widespread popularity, nearly every human resource professional will tell you that there is an economic benefit in retaining employees over replacing them. It's a rational principle. Longer-term employees have:

devote time building a skill set unique to the organization.

Learned the ins and outs of how to get work done within the organization.

Proved their ability to be productive.

the speed at which rival organizations render obsolete each other's products and product-development approaches has increased exponentially. This phenomenon also affects how organizations consume talent.

Skill obsolescence: With enough resources, including time, an organization can develop a highly skilled workforce..

When technology, knowledge and business practices change so fast, it makes sense that employees' skill sets related to these outdated technologies and business practices would quickly become obsolete.

Institutional-knowledge obsolescence: When firms and industries remained unchanged for decades, it was smart to build a workforce with long-term institutional knowledge. Stagnation, however, is a thing of the past. It takes no time for companies to disappear as a result of being displaced in the market or by being absorbed into other organizations through mergers and acquisitions. long-term institutional knowledge is becoming less critical. In fact, when firms transform themselves every four to eight years, longer-term institutional knowledge and corporate cultural elements might actually hurt a firm that needs to become more agile.

Innovation supplants productivity: Productive employees have always been retained because productivity was the No. 1 success factor in most industries. However, productivity is no longer enough in a flat world where everything is constantly changing or being ruthlessly copied, and where products like mobile phones can become obsolete in six months or less. A constant demand for product and service innovation from customers has made the ability to innovate the new key success factor.

Employee loyalty is history: While loyalty to a profession is not uncommon, loyalty to an employer is quickly becoming extinct. It's not news that Generations X and Y do not attach a stigma to frequently changing employers. For HR, this shift is important. If the resources in the labor market no longer value longer-term tenure, then all systems and programs that are based upon it as a motivating factor must also shift to reflect the new market priorities.

Action steps: In a world of rapid employee obsolescence, firms need to be able to release employees who are no longer needed while simultaneously hiring those with emerging skill sets. That approach will put new demands on organizational leadership. Recruiting will change as more and more organizations hire based not on experience but on a candidate's ability to innovate and learn rapidly. Appraisals will shift emphasis away from perceived performance toward measuring relevance and true return on talent. Organizations that invested in formal retention functions and succession plans will abandon them. There are many signs that this constant employee churn is already happening. Like it or not, get ready for it.