Human resource development
Human resource development is one of the most important factors affecting organisational productivity and profitability because well-trained and developed personnel will ensure long-term organisational success. Thus, effective development of human capital should help organisations to maintain a competitive advantage. However, fulfilling competitive success through manpower requires that organisations are willing to adapt traditional behaviours and group dynamics. The pressures of global economic development and competition, innovative technology, and the diversity of the workforce demand that organisations re-evaluate existing paradigms and approaches used to conduct training and development in building future leaders.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the selection of training approaches, appropriateness of training delivery options, and appropriateness of training methods for the delivery of development programs within the pizza hut. This study was designed to provide the needed relevant information with regard to the particular dimensions of pizza hut personnel development programs either for training professionals who conduct training or managers and related persons who may attend training sessions.
For this study, a survey-questionnaire will be utilised as the primary method to obtain the research data. The questionnaire will be consists of closed-ended questions to obtained valid and complete data. The sample will consist of 10 personnel at managerial positions in Pizza hut. The sample of managers will be chosen randomly, however, the research will attempt to get a wide range of individuals. The researcher has chosen deductive approach to carry out primary research in conjunction with secondary research from the literature review. With quantitative research, the deductive approach seems to be appropriate for the research survey and will allow the author to investigate effectiveness of training and development process to create future leaders.
The findings of this research study would be able to assist managers of all level in Pizza hut, with practical ideas. The results of this study revealed that pizza hut is carrying out effective training programmes somehow to create future leaders. Although the results of this study presume effective training programmes and development process are not the only conclusive factor in creating managers, it can be assumed that managers cannot presently take full advantage of training programmes in Pizza hut However, it is more important to investigate from which training design source or item the personnel most likely perceive significant to their development. Moreover, other definitive requisites should always be performed simultaneously.Overview
The research on a company for my dissertation is Pizza hut a well well-known global fast food Brand. The reason for the dissertation is to find the problems faced by managers 'towards their training and development. In this chapter the main reason of the research is clarified and justified. The aims and objectives of the study are discussed, and the chapter end up with a tiny sight into the history of pizza hut UK.Background of study
Human resource development is one of the most important factors affecting organisational productivity and profitability because well-trained and developed personnel will ensure long-term organisational success. "Organisations of all sizes have recognised the value of training" (Banks, Bures, & Champion 1987, p19). Thus, effective development of human capital should help organisations to maintain a competitive advantage ( Pfeffer 1995). However, fulfilling competitive success through manpower requires that organisations are willing to adapt traditional behaviours and group dynamics. The pressures of global economic development and competition, innovative technology, and the diversity of the workforce demand that organisations reassess existing paradigms and approaches used to conduct training and development (Brown 1998).
Human Resource Management (HRM) may not understand the value associated with the training of personnel that includes operational issues such as the strategic plan, the roles and responsibilities, and the value attributed to each and every personnel. An organisation's most valuable assets are their personnel. As such, they can improve an personnel's self-value and supply their value to the organisation by providing knowledge, skills, and tools that will lead to a reduction in errors and thereby a reduction in costs. Costs associated with training are well worth the expenditures when the training leads to improved care and a reduction in errors.Problem of statement
Underlying the problems faced by managers of pizza hut with the training and development process to enhance their career in the organisation and adverse events is a significant disconnect between comprehensive, integrated training and the expectations and fundamental skills needed by pizza hut managers. Lack of continuous integrated training leads to increased variation and increased outlays; therefore, quality is diminished and effectiveness lacks in the training and development of an employee within the organisation.
Training is often split, superficial, and only emphasised as a reaction to internal or external stimuli such as a survey, adverse event, or litigation. Such training is generally not incremental or reinforced, nor does it provide a structure in which healthcare workers can contribute to an organisation's performance improvement and value adding by taking the initiative and promoting positive change. Both healthcare managers and personnel need to understand the long term, integrated commitment required to initiate lasting changes in the face of established organisational culture, complacency, and general resistance to change.
Facilities today are required to provide authorized orientation and training to new personnel. Once the new personnel orientation has taken place, the only other mandated training is for yearly orientation. The exceptions to this would be for skills competency and specialty training, which are generally focused on specific tasks and do not entail a comprehensive, intergraded approach that ensures sustained competency and improvement.
This pizza hut standard of training does not capture the ongoing identified needs of the workforce and can lead to untoward events. These events do not necessarily lead to consistent training, or monitoring and evaluation of sustained improvement in management training and development. Monitoring of incidences may occur, but the linkages to organised process related training and implementation are not clearly defined and coordinate throughout the organisations.Purpose of Project
When training proposal is supported by an appropriate development process and well integrated into the structure of an organisation, variation is reduced, cost is decreased, and consequently, the value is added to organisation. With the integration of comprehensive training comes a reduction in wasteful resource allocation as a result of reduced error, rework, and litigation. Comprehensive training and development are fundamental to improving processes and creating an environment in which personnel are motivated to improve their performance; they provide a foundation to build upon. Personnel, at all levels, also gain professional insight and strength through continued training and development.
This project is geared in the direction of growth of understanding of how comprehensive training and development will ultimately lead to value adding. Since there is a need for training initiative and resource allocation, managers must embrace this concept in order for the training to be effective and engrained in organisation's value creation. For those who sincerely wish to establish such positive change, awareness of the commitments in time, money, and human resources required for initiating and seeing through to completion lasting changes development will be stressed.
This project shall depict the importance and benefits of organisational training and development in such a manner that organisation will desire to impart this knowledge to healthcare managers and personnel. Training personnel at all levels how to understand and drive the changes required to securely grafting effective value adding to their organisation.
This is critical as the coalition of empowered personnel needed to develop, sell, guide, and drive the necessary changes, to be successful, must be recruited from throughout the workforce. "They will need to reduce complacency and increase urgency. They will need to create a change coalition, develop a guiding vision, sell that vision to others, etc. If they have sufficient autonomy, they can often do so regardless of what is happening in the rest of the organisation" (Kotter 1996, p 46).
Furthermore, it would be beneficial if leadership extended this philosophy of training to include suppliers and vendors so that the culture is all encompassing and reaches out to all those who interact with the organisation. Comprehensive training programs provide a foundation for pizza hut workers to support ingenuity, motivation and teamwork.Research question and objectives
In this dissertation process, I will emphasis on the effective training and development carried out by pizza hut. This will give me information, which I will use in respect to my topic and help me in bringing out the critical review and conclusion in accordance to my knowledge.
Base on the aims above the following objectives are set:
- To understand the role of Training and development in the working environment of an organisation.
- To get positive outcome through my research by identifying needs and necessities using various methods as proposed in my methodology.
Pizza hut is one the biggest food chain company in the world. This company has been running successfully for about 50 years and still mounting its name day by day. Pizza hut was established in USA and started its operation in a very small level. The first ever pizza hut was started in1958 in Wichita Kansas, USA by the collaboration of two brothers Frank and Dan. They opened a small restaurant and named it pizza hut. The growth was remarkable as 150 restaurants were opened in its first 10 years of operation in USA.
In 1968 its first international restaurant was opened in Canada. Sooner it became the biggest pizza restaurant chain across the world in total number of restaurants and in sales. In1971 Pizza hut was climbing up in terms of sales and number of restaurants globally which allowed it to grab a position in the New York Stock Exchange. At present pizza hut is running over 7,000 outlets worldwide.
In 1973 the first pizza hut was established in UK and proved to be a very good restaurant chain. Pizza hut is on the top when we compare all the fast food pizza outlets operating across the UK with more than 700 outlets.
Pizza hut is owned by Yum Brands a US based company. Yum brands also owns A&W All American Food, KFC, Long John Silver's Pizza Hut & Taco Bell.
If the handbook of Pizza Hut is viewed, the vision of Pizza Hut UK market is clearly mentioned to be the most loved and trusted brand in UK. Its passion is "Great Pizza, Great people, and Great times". Millions of customers are served everyday with millions of Pizzas. According to management the company wants to have the most loved and trusted out lets. Pizza Hut wants to be the most trusted and favourite brand not only among its customers' but among its employees as well.Structure of study
This study is organised as follows. The introduction is Chapter One. Chapter Two examines the current theoretical and empirical literature on training and development, in an attempt to understand the contributions which have been made to date, and to define potential gaps which could be filled by this dissertation.
In reviewing the relevant literature, not only is it important to clarify some of the terms which will be used in the study, it is also important to recognise that an understanding of these terms will evolve as the study progresses. In HRD, one of the most commonly recognised approaches to improving performance is training. Training includes instructional experiences which are designed to develop skills and knowledge, to achieve organisational objectives, to assist organisational change, and ultimately, to be applied in the workplace for the sake of organisational improvement (Bramley 1996).
Chapter Three describes the research design and methodology employed in the study. To truly understand the impact of a training program on an individual's productivity, morale, behaviour, and understanding within his or her organisation, training must be evaluated long after the session is completed. Through questionnaires, informal conversations and interviews, a greater understanding of the challenges and opportunities faced by the trainees once they complete the training can be reached. Because of limited resources and/or a lack of commitment to examining the ongoing impact of training, this continuous measurement and follow up is not often practiced.
The researcher's role in this study was that of a participant observer. Participants were aware of the researcher's presence and purpose for her involvement. Because the researcher was the instrument in the collection and analysis of the data, he maintained a closeness to the topic, and continually assessed and documented his values, assumptions, and conceptual framework. Detailed field notes and research notes were kept throughout the project, to keep track of emerging thoughts, patterns, and ideas, and to keep the conceptual framework of the project in focus. The researcher remained open to the evolving nature of the study, and understood that it was often necessary to collect additional types of data as the study progressed.
In an attempt to produce the most credible, coherent, and potentially generalisable study, the data were collected by using a variety of methodological strategies, to cast a wide net to ensure that the highest quality data were collected. The use of multiple methods, often referred to as triangulation, includes such practices as interviewing, observing, and collecting relevant artefacts or documents, all of which were utilised in this study. Richness of the data, length of time spent in the setting, relationships developed, and the representation of the perspectives of the participants, all contribute to the coherence and comprehensiveness of a study (Erickson 1986).
Qualitative data analysis is the process of constructing meaning out of the data and constructing an account. Analysis is the point at which the researcher interacts with the data to construct, reduce, interpret, understand and eventually communicate them and make a connection between assertions and data. Assertions come from data as a whole, keeping in mind the concept of bounded rationality, which says that we cannot collect everything, but we must do as much as possible to insure a coherent and comprehensive study (Simon 1946).
To answer the research question for this dissertation, a thorough, constant analysis of the data was conducted, in an attempt to recognise observable themes and patterns, which arose with regard to training transfer. General assertions were made based on those themes and patterns, which emerged throughout the data as a whole. Once these connections were made within the data, the findings are represented to the reader.
The training and development will continue to evolve responsibly through a better understanding of the context in which they take place, and the individuals involved. This focus will become clearer through quality research and inquiry, which seeks to understand the contextual elements of Human Resource Development practices within organisations.
Chapter Four presents the research findings. Chapter Five focuses on the implications, limitations, significance, recommendations, and conclusions of the study, based on the findings. While the intentions of this project are to contribute empirical and theoretical knowledge to the field of Human Resource Development, it is important to consider the limitations inherent in its design. Openness of the participants, the length of time that must be spent to truly understand the perspectives of the participants, and the exploration of only one technique of one training organisation are limitations which must be taken into consideration in doing this study. It can be argued, however, that the very limitations of qualitative research are, in fact, its strengths.Overview
In this chapter, researches related to the impact of training on organisational performance and success. The first part provides a definition of training and development. The second part discusses the training process. Training needs assessment is discussed in detail in the third part. Training evaluation is discussed in the fourth portion. Finally, background information regarding pizza hut utilised in this research is presented.Training and development
Human Resource Development (HRD) can be universally recognised as a very effective approach to improve performance within training. Training consists of a variety of experiences that intend to enhance and develop skills and knowledge in order to accomplish organisational objectives, to improve and change organisational aspects within the work place (Bramley 1996; Broad & Newstorm 1992).
According to Manpower Services Commission (1981) training is a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge, skills, or behaviour through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose in work situation is to develop the abilities of the individuals and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organisation.
In the same way development is a type of progression in which persons may find it more effective when learning through experiences. It is a procedure that helps people make use of the skills and knowledge that their past teachings and training has given them, this helps not only in present jobs but also anything that may come up in the future. It personifies theories and ideas connected with psychological growth, greater immaturity and increased confidence.
According to Ivancevich (2004), training and development are processes that provide (or at least try to) a personnel with information and skills they need in order to understand the organisation and its goals. They are designed to help a person continue to make positive contributions in the form of good performance. Training helps personnel do their current work better while development prepares them for the future. Training is an important process to every personnel. It is a systematic process in which an individual is aided to alter his behaviour in a direction that will achieve the organisation's goals.
Ivancevich (2004) describes the goals of training as training validity, transfer validity, intra-organisational validity, and inter-organisational validity. Training validity determines if the trainees learn skills or acquire knowledge or abilities during training while transfer validity determines if these learned skills or acquired knowledge or abilities result to improvement on job performance. Intra-organisational validity determines if the job performance of a new group of trainees in the same organisation that developed the program comparable to that of the original training group's job performance. Finally, intra-organisational validity determines if the validated training program in one organisation can be applied with successful results in another organisation.
Noe (2003) defines training as "planned effort by a company to facilitate personnel' learning of job-related competencies" including knowledge, skills, or behaviours that are critical for successful job performance. Training helps personnel master knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviours emphasised in training programs and to apply them in their day-to-day activities (Noe 2003).
As argued by Noe (2003), training is a process which not only needs basic skills, which would be skills that are sufficient enough to perform ones job, but also needs skills at an advanced levels which enables a person to use high technological information and share it with other personnel. This would be perfect in order to gain competitive advantage. A good understanding of the customer and the system is also a key aspect within training. Al of these put together collectively defines intellectual capital.
A training initiative which requires generating intellectual capital is a training which goes by the name of high -leverage training. According to Carnevale (1990), high-leverage training, which is linked to strategic business goals and objectives, uses an instructional design process to ensure the effectiveness of training programs, and compares or benchmarks the company's training programs against other company's training programs( Noe2003).
According to Richard M. Hodgetts and Fred Luthans (1976), training is a procedure of changing behaviour and attitudes in a way that increases the success of reaching ones targets. According to both theorists culture, customs and work habits of the local people should also be taught in training process. And if all the above mentioned factors along with other factors are considered properly it would boost towards the success of any establishment.
According to Hall (2004). Formal training programs are not seen to be enough in accordance to today's fast moving world. A few other things the author believes is that in order to uphold certain standards that are commercial and cost effective, the people should be execution experts. A lot of senior executives believe that budget will stay tight, even after a full economic recovery, and that headcount, time. IT support, and other resources will continue to be in short supply.
The opportunity - and demand - for enterprise-wide initiatives to bring about wholesale change will only increase. If you are a leader of learning, your future and the future of your organisation depends on your ability to make significant initiatives happen despite the challenges of day-to-day work. To acquire this you need to become an execution expert. Today's best-in-class learning professionals operate differently than those who came before them. Their thoughts are focused on 3 areas: business strategy, resources, and execution. (Hall 2004, p65-6).
Two different training methods are identified by the authors (Ferris et al, 2006), the first set of training is described as the routine training which is given to all level of working staff. The other set of training however, is a type of training in which political skills is the main and important component of training and development process and is aimed mainly for senior executives. As the work force moves up the chain of command to higher jobs at wider scales, technical capability is less important and political skill takes its place.
When the centre for Creative Leadership studied why once-promising executives failed on the job, lack of social effectiveness emerged as a leading cause. The political skill which is mentioned quite a bit, is a type of skill that distinguishes successful and efficient managers from those managers who are inefficient. It is also an ability which merges together social intelligence which facilitates and adjusts to situations where differentiation and changes are of demand. In return this helps in developing and advancing the working conditions.Training and development at individual level
To identify each person's own knowledge, skills and abilities in order to assess each individual and progress them at the pace According themselves. Psychology theorists' e.g. Likert (1961), Mayo (1933) cited by Younglin (2001) entails that employee satisfaction and well being are related to performance, but in those theories they did not explicitly hypothesize about the appropriate level of analysis, for example individuals, groups or organizations.
Assessments and one to one meetings allow employees to reflect on their own learning needs in relation to their work aims. It also provides well controlled learning experiences linked to professional and administrative needs, goals and job requirements.
Individual levelled training and development is the base and the stepping stone of any needs assessment. All managers have different emphasis on specific needs collaborating with their job description, level of education and intelligence experience and personal choice. Focusing on employees individual needs appraisals makes it easier to compile personal development plans that suit each employee according to their own level of competency.Training and development at organisational level
It is vital for organisations to focus on people's capability to foresee, adapt and respond to sudden changes in the environment. Training and development will have to join together it with corporate goals. It must be accurate with what the business leaders are trying to achieve.
In order for training to seem more appropriate, its programme will revolve around business related matters for the future. In practice, its achievements will shoulder on developing apparent training objectives from the tactical issues of the business.
Effective managers are created in an environment where there is continuity in the learning manner. A high level of experience, expertise and mind power of the internal as well as external trainers is essential, along with their commitment and capability to maintain a healthy relationship committed to management maturity. The method of learning can often engage unlearning certain behaviours and attitudes. certainly, in relation to organisations (Hamel & Prahalad 1994, cited in Cole, 2000, p268) found that 'creating a " learning organisation" is only half the solution. Just as important is creating an " unlearning organisation"...to create the future, a company must unlearn at least some of its past.'
According to Cole (2000) training and development of workforce is a concern that is faced by more or less all the establishment. The quantity and excellence of training carried out varies a lot from organisation to organisation. Therefore most of the establishments are adapting systematic approach to the training and development of their employees. Organisations use systematic training cycle to perform a logical sequence of activities commencing within the organisations starting with the training policy, assessment of training needs, carrying out training and evaluations.
Cole (2000, p.278) summarises that this training cycle is quite beneficial within an organisation. The systematic approach to training and development arises from the amount of internal and external stress for alteration in the organisation. Firstly in a systematic approach is to develop a policy statement to act as a channel to the organisation's intentions regarding the weight and track to be given by to training and development. Secondly initialise a set of roles for those in charge for implementing the policy and thirdly to set up a appropriate structure of training posts and procedures, and to allocate adequate funds to the training establishment. As all the steps are followed with completeness then one can focus on the analysis of training needs, evaluation and review of training carried out.Training policy
Establishments mostly deal with a wide range of policies dealing with human resources. Policies are set by the establishments to develop their employees and to monitor their performance by certain training and development programs and courses, conducted internally or externally.
According to Cole (2000), training focuses on learning needs and are mainly associated to existing responsibilities and duties which are narrowly linked to short, medium and long term business plans and are seen as an key element of an establishment to prove to its consumers, training and development are the key to success of any organisational goals which indicates the overall plan of an organisation, execution of training and development programs provides a direct link to the organisational goals for those who are accountable for the best possible results. Most of the organisations have a extended tradition of raising their own managers and professionals and providing them with in-house courses according to organisational needs. Some of the organisations rely on external management trainings and courses.Training needs
Needs assessment is the process of determining if training is necessary (Noe 2003) and identifying the organisation's training needs (Ivancevich 2004) and answering the question of whether training addresses the organisation's needs, objectives and problems (Arthur et al. 2003). According to Noe (2003), if the needs assessment phase, the first phase in the instructional design process, is poorly conducted, training will not meet the desired outcome or financial benefit for the company, regardless of the training method and the learning environment.
According to Boydell (1985) there are three levels of training needs which are to be studied before putting the programs in to practice. This three-step process consists of organisational analysis, person analysis and task analysis.
There are a few factors linked with organisational analysis, such as when given the company resources is the relevant training appropriate, where is training needed in the organisation, which goals can be accomplished through personnel training, and if to determine as to wether or not training can be used to improve a company's success ( Noe 2003, Arthur et al. 2003, Ivancevich 2004). When assessed at an organisational level we must see the general weaknesses the organisation has perceived in its priorities and what would be the prescribed remedy that would be required in alteration of the organisational culture. According to Noe (2003), there are three factors to be considered before choosing training as a solution, these three factors being, the company's strategic direction, managers' and peers' support for training activities and the training resources available.(Noe 2003)
Training to some level should help a company achieve its business strategy. If one was to define a business strategy, it is said that this is an approach which refers to a plan that join's together the company's goal, policies and actions (Meister 2000). Noe (2003) also mentions that "the strategic role of training influences the frequency and type of training, and how the training function is organised in the company." (p 42) it is more likely the regularity of training will be higher in companies where training is expected to be a factor in the achievement of the company's business strategies and goals as a post to those companies where in training is done randomly or unplanned. Also it is said that the higher the strategic role of planning, it is more likely that the company will organise the training purpose using a virtual training organisation or corporate university models. (Noe 2003)
The managers' and peers' support for training activities is a critical factor in considering a training programme. To be successful, managers and peers should have a positive attitude in participating a training activity. Furthermore, managers and peers should be willing to provide trainees with information on how they can effectively use knowledge, skill or behaviours learned in the training activity (Bramley 1996).
To determine the initiation of a training activity it is essential for the company to have all necessary resources. For example if a company decides to hire a consultant for training purposes it is vital for that consultant to provide a high quality level of training. According to Noe (2003), it is advisable that a company use request for proposal (RFP) because it helps to identify the consultants or vendors who qualify for the criteria. RFP includes the type of service the company is seeking, the type and number of references needed, the number of personnel to be trained, the funding for the project, the follow-up process used to determine the level of satisfaction and service, expected date of completion, and the date when proposals must be received by the company (Noe 2003).
Person analysis is a procedure which helps the establishment to identify the personnel and how they need to be trained. The analysis verifies all the necessary personnel readiness for training and development, such as personnel abilities, attitudes, beliefs, and enthusiasm. All these factors are vital for the person to learn from the training activity and apply it to the job. Being ready and fully aware for training also means that the work atmosphere will aid with learning and will not hinder with any kind of performance (Noe 2003). The present abilities (skills, knowledge and attitudes) of each staff member concerned had to be assessed against the higher standards needed to carry out their work satisfactorily and any short falls remedied through training.
An indicator of the need for training is poor performance measured by customer complaints, low performance ratings, or on-the-job incidents such as accidents and unsafe behaviour. Job changes are also an indicator of the need for training. Job changes can be improvement of the current level of performances or the need for personnel to complete new tasks. (Noe 2003)
According to Rummler and Brache (1996), factors such as, person characteristics, input, output, knowledge, consequences and feedback control personnel performance. Person's qualities are what construct the knowledge, skills and abilities of the personnel. The above mentioned factor of input refers to the directives that enable the personnel to know when, what and how to perform but at the same time also, the resources such as equipment, time or budget contributes also to the performance. Output is the standard according to the personnel of how the job is performed. A consequence is an aspect that gives encouragement to the personnel when they perform well. Feedback is the information the personnel receive while they are performing (Noe 2003).
Ivancevich (2004) describes task analysis as the identification of the tasks, knowledge, skills and behaviours that should be covered in a training program. According to Schneier, Guthrie and Olian (1988), there are four steps involved in task analysis. First, select the job or jobs to be analysed. Then, build up a preliminary list of tasks performed on the job. This can be done by interviewing and observing expert personnel and their managers and talking with others who have performed a task analysis.
Third, confirm the preliminary list of tasks by asking several questions regarding the tasks a group of subject matter experts in a meeting or through a written survey. Through this, the management can determine which tasks must be included in the training program. Important tasks that are frequently performed and of moderate to high level of difficulty should be included in the training while tasks that are not important and infrequently performed should not be included. However, since there are tasks that are important but are less frequently performed, managers and trainers should determine whether these tasks should be trained for. (Noe 2003)
The last step is to identify the knowledge, skills or abilities needed to successfully perform the tasks identified. Similar in identifying the tasks to be trained for, knowledge, skills or abilities necessary can be learned through interviews and questionnaires. It is important to know the level of difficulty in learning knowledge, skills and abilities (Bramley 1996).
Ivancevich (2004) points out that these assessment categories are important. However, training assessment should focus on the personnel' needs because it is at the individual or group level that training is conducted (Ivancevich 2003, p114). According to Kirkpatrick, there are four ways to determine the personnel' needs for training. These are through observation of the personnel, listening to the personnel, asking the supervisors about their personnel' needs, and examining the problems the personnel have with regards to their job (Kirkpatrick 1996).
Michalak and Yager (1979) further stresses that by doing this, the manager is actually conducting a performance analysis. There are steps in performance analysis. First step is the evaluation of the personnel performance and determining if there is a behaviour discrepancy in the personnel' performance. Next, the cost and value of correcting the identified behaviour discrepancy should be determined. Then, determine if the personnel can do the expected job if he wanted to (Ivancevich 2004). Then, establish a standard and communicate this clearly to improve job performance. Then, remove obstacles that might cause behaviour discrepancy. Next, the manager should give the personnel time to practice the skills, knowledge and abilities needed in performing their job. Next, decide if the job should be redesigned.
If all else fails, the managers should take matters to the next level and decide whether to transfer the personnel to another department or to terminate his contract. However, performance analysis may result to a problem in the driving force. Corroborations such as reward, punishment, or discipline may be essential to create stimulus for the whole work force. Performance analysis may also lead to recognising a need for training and development.
However, some organisations avoid doing training needs assessment. According to Schneier, Guthrie and Olian (1988), the possible reasons for this are lack of information on conducting training needs assessment, management scepticism on the effectiveness of training needs assessment, poor planning and lack of time in doing training needs assessment. But Schneier, Guthrie and Olian (1988) stress that training needs assessment should be done because there are many benefits that result from doing this such as improving the training function, tying in with other personnel/human resource management (P/HRM) programs and improving their efficacy, and increasing legal defensibility.Training Process
Though typically the shortest phase in the training process, the training program itself encompasses a myriad of details which must be thought about carefully in order that a program will run smoothly, remain true to its defined objectives, and facilitate the transfer of knowledge. Coordinating the logistics of a training program is a detailed and essential step in planning a successful training program. As Van Wart, Cayer, and Cook (1993, p.235) point out, "careful planning results in substantially fewer problems, headaches, and even disasters." Countless items such as facilities, room set-up, scheduling, registration, snacks, name tags, audio-visual needs, correspondence with trainees, social events, and the compilation of training materials must be taken into account to insure a successful program. In addition, it is important to plan in advance how to open and close a training session, to avoid awkward transitions and a poor climate during the session (Nadler & Nadler 1994).
Another important consideration is the materials and kit which will be used to communicate information to the participants. Handouts, textbooks, manuals, and other visual aids (VanWart, Cayer, & Cook 1994) enhance the training environment and give participants tangible records of their training to take away and refer to when a refresher is necessary. There should be plenty of materials for all of the participants and extras for those who may register at the last minute. Equipment should be checked to make sure it is in good working condition prior to the program (Nadler & Nadler 1994). And finally, as with most things in life, it never hurts to have a contingency plan.
A training program may incorporate many different types of strategies for communicating information and fostering a learning environment. Lectures, group activities, discussions, videos, games, guest speakers, case studies, presentations, panel discussions, outdoor interventions, and hands-on skill training are but a few examples of the variety of methods which exist for use in training situations.
Beary (1994) suggests that trainers should use questions in training to serve as icebreakers, determine knowledge levels and attitudes, stimulate discussion, share knowledge, make transitions, and build teams. Harris (1994) puts forth his P.R.A.C.T.I.C.A.L. model for "better-than-average presentations" which calls for attention to be paid to: Partnerships, Rhetorical questions, the Ability to be spontaneous, Conversational style, Tone of voice, Involvement, Creativity, Acute relevance, and Lucidity. Harris also provides four verbal tools which can be used to vary presentations through language. Analogies, alliteration, plays on words, and rhymes can be useful ways to draw attention to material which may require 'spicing up'. A trainer would certainly want to consider his or her audience before using some of these tools. A group of firemen may not be impressed by rhyming skills, while a group of writers might find it very refreshing.
Kaeter (1994) suggests several ways to create a "training culture," which, she explains, will enhance the environment and may even help a trainer to deal with the ever-present resistant trainee. Her ideas include: researching the situation in advance, making knowledge relevant to those situations, facilitating rather than lecturing, making a clear link between the person, the job, and the goals of the organisation, not ignoring resistant participants, deflecting attacks by drawing in the group, and being available after training for questions and one-on-one discussions. Given that in almost every training situation, there will be one or two individuals who are resistant to the ideas being presented, (or to the very idea of being at a training program) it is important to create a culture which deals proactively with resisters and allows learning to occur for everyone.
In addition to those presented here, there are hundreds of other useful approaches to conducting effective training programs. The important thing to recognise is that each method and strategy has inherent strengths and weaknesses, and that there is not one method or strategy whose use will result consistently in a flawless training program. A combination of methods, strategies, and techniques makes for a rich, diverse, cooperative, and instructive training situation.
In any training situation, it is important to appreciate the variety of ways that people learn, and to use techniques, which will meet the needs of a diverse group of learners (Armstrong 1988). While some individuals may learn kinaesthetically, others may be more receptive to visual or auditory techniques. A trainer must design his or her program to incorporate elements which will be useful to all types of learners, also taking into consideration the "knowledge, skills, abilities, and motivation that trainees bring to the training situation." (VanWart, Cayer, & Cook 1994, p 139)
According to Bramley (1996), learning situations should be sequenced so that various styles of learning are integrated into the whole. A useful model, based on adult experiential learning, is the Kolb (1984) cycle of learning (see Figure 2). This model requires that activity in all four stages take place for effective learning to occur. Training which is designed with a variety of learning styles in mind will greatly encourage trainees to incorporate the knowledge into their own way of thinking, and transfer the training into the workplace.
After logistics and strategies are determined, the designer must decide the most appropriate method for gathering evaluations and feedback from the participants. This step can be used to identify opportunities for further training, to enhance learning, to identify problems and possible solutions, to assess the impact of the training, and to monitor changes in thinking related to the training (Brinkerhoff & Gill 1994).
Such information can be obtained through observation of reactions to training programs, through learning reviews provided by participants (Bramley, 1996), or through pre and post-testing of skills, attitudes, and behaviours. In addition, there are a variety of questionnaire types which can be utilised for evaluations. Regardless of the type of questionnaire, which is used, however, it is crucial to gather feedback from as many of the participants as possible, to give them a forum for providing the most honest and detailed feedback possible, and to take future action based on the responses (Kirkpatrick 1996).
Another valuable method of gaining feedback from participants is to speak with them individually, perhaps at some point during the program, or in a scheduled meeting or discussion group held shortly after the program takes place. It is vital to remember that changes in attitude do not necessarily equals change in behaviour. While information about attitudes may drop light on trainees' immediate reactions and learning, such information alone is not necessarily a good indicator of long term changes in behaviour or overall results of training. As demonstrated by this study, it is important to collect a variety of data at several differing intervals, in order to gain the best understanding of the training and the outcomes of it.Evaluation of Training
The final stage of the systematic training process is the evaluation of training. This can be done by comparing the results, especially the benefits, with the objectives of the training program set in the assessment phase (Ivancevich 2004). As mentioned in the introduction chapter, many companies are increasingly concerned if training adds value to organisations and training departments are continuously justifying the effectiveness of training (Phillips 1996; Holton 1995). Preskill (1997) asserts that the most appropriate method to determine the effectiveness of training is through training evaluation. As Jones (2006, p.42) said, "It is essential for HRD practitioners to use the training evaluation method in order to determine whether an organisation receives a significant return on investment in terms of human resources, time and money."
There are many reasons as to why training evaluation should be done. Evaluation can be a tool for informing the trainees of their progress, modifying and improving programs and instructor performance, and providing evidence to managers that problems and issues have been addressed and solved (Laird 1985). Training effectiveness is also a measure of the training department's credibility (Kirkpatrick 1996). Other benefits brought about by doing training evaluation are increased confidence in the trainers' claim, increased legitimacy of the training function in organisations, justification for continued support, valuable feedback for improving training methods (Phillips 1996, Jones 2006).
Noe (2003 p98-9) summarises these reasons in the following: to identify the program's strengths and weaknesses; to evaluate whether the content, organisation and administration of the program contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job; to identify which trainees benefited most or least from the program; to gather data to assist in marketing the program to determine the financial benefits and costs of the program; to compare the costs and benefits of training and non-training investments; to compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to know which training program is best to use.
As with any other evaluation process, criteria should be established for easier evaluation. Ivancevich (2004, p77) points out the three types of criteria - internal, external, and participant's reaction. However, participant's reaction can be included in the internal criterion. The internal criteria are concerned with the content of the training program. The external criteria are concerned with the ultimate goal of the program.
Many training evaluation models were developed. The most popular of which is Donald Kirkpatrick's (1994) four-level evaluation criterion. According to this model, evaluation should always begin with level one and move sequentially up to level four (Winfrey 1999). Information gathered from the previous level is used at the next level and hence, as Winfrey said, "…each successive level represents a more precise measure of the effectiveness of the training program, but at the same time requires a more rigorous and time-consuming analysis." The four levels of evaluation as described by Kirkpatrick (1994) are reaction criteria, learning criteria, behavioural criteria, and results criteria.
The first level, the reaction criteria, is concerned on the participant's reaction to the program, that is, whether they like or dislike it (Ivancevich 2004). Determining the participant's reaction to the training program can be done by distributing evaluation forms at the end or during the last day of a training session (Jones 2006). This level of evaluation is often called "smile sheet". Holton (1995) stresses out that this level is important because this can build interest and improve motivation to learn. Although positive reactions do not guarantee that participants will learn, negative reactions will certainly cause participants to not learn effectively (Jones 2006). This level of evaluation is the most widely used evaluation criteria (Arthur et al. 2003).
Despite its popularity, however, many researchers criticise its use. Evaluating the reactions of trainees doesn't indicate much about how they learned from the program, changes in their job-related behaviours or performance, or the utility of the program to the organisation (Arthur et al. 2003). Furthermore, measuring participant's reaction is based on opinion rather than fact because this can be easily influenced by the trainer's charm (Jones 2006).
Learning criteria is at the second level of evaluation according to Kirkpatrick. It concerns with the level of the participants' improvement on their knowledge, skills and abilities. Evaluating the learning outcomes of training can be done through performance tests (Arthur et al. 2003), verbal explanations, role play or return demonstrations (Jones 2006). It is advisable that trainees should take tests before and after the training to measure the amount of learning the trainees have achieved. One aspect of training is changed behaviour (Jones 2006) but it is not a sufficient prerequisite (Tannenbaum and Yukl 1992).
The third level in Kirkpatrick's model is the behavioural criteria. According to Jones (2006), the goal of this evaluation criterion is to determine whether the knowledge, skills and abilities taught in the training program are applied on the job. That is, it measures on-the-job performance. Evaluation of behaviours can be done through supervisor ratings or objective indicators of performance. By identifying the behavioural changes, overall impact of the training program can be determined (Jones 2006).
However, it is difficult to measure behavioural changes (Phillips 1996) because it is difficult to predict when the change will occur. Thus, it is necessary to use various methods to assess behavioural change (Jones 2006) and to determine when and how to evaluate. Kirkpatrick (1987) suggests that behavioural change should be assessed three or more months after the training program is completed.
The last level is the results criteria. This criterion is concerned with the overall impact of training on an organisation's functioning, performance or financial productivity (Jones 2006). Results can be evaluated using utility analysis estimates (Cascio 1998). Arthur et.al. (2003) defines utility analysis as "a methodology to assess the dollar value gained by engaging in specified personnel interventions including training". However, level four evaluations are not typically addressed since determining results in financial terms is difficult to measure (Winfrey 1999) and hence, is hard to link with training.
Kirkpatrick's model can be summed up by the concept of formative and summative evaluation (Van Wart 2005). Level one and two of Kirkpatrick's model can be summed up as formative evaluation. Moreover, formative evaluation helps in ensuring that the training program is well-organised and runs smoothly. This information can help in improving training program. Using formative evaluation, training content may be changed to be more accurate, easier to understand and more appealing (Noe 2003). Formative evaluation can be done by collecting qualitative information such as opinions, beliefs and feelings about the program through distributing questionnaires. Employers can also try the training program before it is offered to the participants to evaluate if the training materials are clear and easy to use and understand. This is method is known as pilot testing.
Summative evaluation, on the other hand, is a rundown of levels three and four of Kirkpatrick's model. It is concerned with the level of knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviour acquired from the training. It also includes measuring the return on investment the organisation gains from the program. While formative evaluation uses qualitative data to measure results, summative evaluation uses quantitative data using tests, ratings of behaviour, or objective measures such as percentage of sales, accidents or patents. (Noe 2003)
Another evaluation model was developed by Jack J. Phillips (1996a), which is an answer to Kirkpatrick's four-level evaluation. The development of this model, called the Return on Investment (ROI) model, is due to Phillips' argument that Kirkpatrick's model is too simplistic (Phillips 1996a). The problems identified by Phillips are: 1) the evaluation levels are narrowly defined; 2) the model does not indicate the cost of providing the training or place a value on the benefits derived; 3) levels three and four do not control for intervening variables to isolate the effects of training. (Phillips 1996a)
In the ROI model, only minor changes were made in levels one to two of Kirkpatrick's model. However, Phillips added a fifth level to account for the cost of training and value of its results. In his model, the first level is reaction and planned action criteria, which deal with the measurement of participant reaction to the program and outlining of specific plans for implementation. The second level is the learning criteria, which measure change in skill, knowledge and attitudes. The third is the job application criteria which measures behavioural changes concerning on-the-job performance and application of training on the job. The fourth is the business results criteria, which measure the business impact of the program. The fifth criterion is the return on investment criteria, which compare the financial value of the training results with the costs spent for the program. The fifth criterion is usually expressed as a percentage. (Phillips 1996a; Jones 2006)Reasons for training
In the past, training has been seen as needless expense rather than an integral part of achieving organisational efficiency. But as for now situation has changed dramatically. According to the Clarkson (1994) many organisations have increased their training budget and intensified their training programs; the efforts have mainly focused on quantitative aspects such as increasing the number of staff trained. The quality improvements in training process have often been limited to improving the subject-matter contents.
There has been less concentration towards the support, which is been given to enhance trainers' mastery on innovative and cost-effective learning process and methods. The prestigious and successful training programs will require well-trained trainers not only to master subject matter contents and also to develop well-planned training strategy and curriculum, implement a systematic learning process which is needs-based and learner-centred, and apply appropriate educational technologies and methods.
According to the recent research findings on individual and group learning behaviour and processes, especially among adults, combined with the wide availability of computer and communication technologies, have contributed to new and innovative training methods, such as peer learning, Internet/Web-based distance education, collaborative learning, case-teaching, on-line tutoring/coaching, virtual information networking, etc. (Ivancevich 2004)
The ISO 9000 which is a world class certification could not solve the issue of having training quality assurance and standards, unless training institutions and trainers are willing to improve their capabilities in critical areas such as market demand analysis and training needs assessment, curriculum development, instructional design, computer-assisted instructions, multi-media materials development, learning methods applications, training evaluation, etc. (Noe 2003)
The changing perception of the nature of managerial jobs has had profound implications for management trainers and developers. Some managers' role has evolved from task managers to people and role player. Trainers can no longer rely solely on provision of the task-related management training; rather they are expected to become familiar with people, self and career development skills and expertise. The need for positive transfer has placed yet another obligation on management trainers. Nowadays, they are expected to acquire relevant skills and expertise, which enable them to empower the trainees to transfer the acquired knowledge skills, values, attitudes and behaviour to the workplace. (Ivancevich 2004)
In addition to the rationale approach, which also applies to development process, there are other factors such as the nation failing economic performance is one major feature. There is an imbalance between the skills the qualifications required by employers and the ones available in the work force within the nation. The investment in personnel development is seen as in adequate in respect to quality and quantity. The role of personnel management has changed from one, which was primarily to ensure the welfare of personnel and to manage the relationships between personnel and employers. New technology has brought with it new aids to learning. The concept of self-study packages, which includes videos and audios, are added to the system. (Ivancevich 2004)Methods of Training
To choose the right training method is very important for the business as by this choice they can make sure that the employees have the right skills for the business and are familiar with best and new practices.
Training and development methods are as follow:Demonstration
Can be called as well "sitting next to Nellie" and it is a broadly used method as it is an low-cost method of training. A trainee is showed how to do the job by supervisor or a colleague and then does it himself. As trainee keenly take part in the training process, he may pick up the skills quicker and the learning process is more efficient. On the other hand, it may be time consuming and the person providing the training may not be competent enough or do not give enough attention to the trainee at it keeps him/her from doing his own job. Moreover, the trainee may pick up their bad habits and feedback from the colleague may not be very constructive. The demonstration is a good way of training as you can get a good feel for the job and in some cases it is the best way how to learn the job.Coaching
The trainee is directed by supervisor. Meetings are held to provide the trainee with assistance, support and help. The trainee has some tasks assigned and supervisor just advises him how to deal with them. However, sometimes the supervisor may not have enough time for the trainee and that may put a lot of pressure on him. This is an effective method of training, especially for an individual, who wants to develop as the trainees have problems.Mentoring
Mentoring has many things in common with coaching as coaching is one aspect of mentoring. Mentor is usually a senior manager, sometimes even from different department. Mentor is counselling the trainee and helps him improve his performance and encourages his career development. Although, senior managers are often very busy and they do not have to have enough time to pay attention to the trainee or they may not have required mentoring skills.Job rotation
Trainees go through range of placements within the organization. It is an inexpensive method of training and trainees have the opportunity to get different knowledge and skills as it provides exposure to different situation on the positions. The training may be ineffective if it is not designed properly. The goal of the training is to familiarize the trainees with the organization and the different work style.Internal courses
Internal courses are designed to meet specific objectives, i.e. train employees on new piece of machinery or familiarize them with new practises. Can be costly as employees are missing their work, so some organizations try to eliminate time spend on such training on minimum and that may have consequences.External courses
The range of knowledge and information is broader as the course is not design exactly for the organization. Trainees can acquire there useful skill, especially from specialized areas. The disadvantages would be that external courses may be very costly and time consuming.Workshop
It can also be known as active discussion. It is used mostly for manager trainees. Group of people, who have the knowledge and experience of the job, is brought together and they engage in active discussion and problem solving with the trainees. However, this requires a lot of preparation time and it may be difficult to manage.Open/distance learning
In open/distance learning trainees learn themselves in their free time. It is a very good technique for self motivated employees. However, the lack of contact with the lecturer or other trainees may discourage some employees from learning. The disadvantages are that it is usually very expensive and some employees may find hard to balance the work with the learning.E-learning
This method can be used as a complementary training. E-learning includes computer-based, technology-based and web-based learning and training. By this technique many trainees may be trained at once and the performance is still easily monitored. Trainees can work from home and there is more flexibility as it is more individual focused, but the trainees still have the support in form of discussion groups or on-line tutoring.
Chapter Three - Research Methodology
In the previous chapter, we looked at the existing literature of training and development processes in public organisations. Before any research is to be carried out, choosing an suitable research approach is the primary item to do. To be able to present correct method, findings and recommendation, the author must build a clear research framework. The research methodology adopted for this study is described in this chapter. This chapter describes also the research approach, strategy, sample and data collection. Data entry, and research questions that are needed to be checked before the performance of analysis in order to analyse the data are also discussed.Research Approach
There are two types of research, qualitative and quantitative. According to Nathan Dickman (2008) quantitative research is statistical oriented research technique which requires huge consideration to the dimension of market phenomena and continually involves numerical analysis. The fundamental concept with quantitative research is that each respondent is being questioned by similar set of questions and the information that is collected from those responses is then analysed on statistical grounds.
Qualitative investigation is best at answering questions regarding what is happening especially at particular times within a given setting, along with what those happenings mean to the individuals who interact within that setting. Qualitative inquiry is also useful for looking at how settings are organised and how they are like or unlike other settings in terms of interactions or structures (Erickson, 1986). Through these types of questions, researchers can look in closer detail at everyday life in a variety of social settings; perhaps in ways that they had never looked before. By examining a situation in careful detail, a researcher can illuminate the underlying actions, choices, behaviours, and meanings, obvious or trivial, which exist within the social contexts of daily life.
To present a social scientific framework for qualitative research on training, this section closes with a brief review of the literature on the use and application of findings from qualitative studies.
Good qualitative research often is marked by its context sensitivity, concern for personal meaning, rigor, verbal data, interest in rich detail, conduct in natural settings, and recognition of the important roles which participants, readers, and the researcher play in the study (Erickson 1986; Lofland & Lofland 1998). In qualitative research, a researcher begins with a minimum of assumptions about the case itself and attempts to "fill out" knowledge of the case through careful observation. The researcher is typically present over an extended period of time, uses a variety of data collection methods, uses care and rigor in deriving an understanding of the data, and confronts his or her own assumptions in an attempt to see the big picture (Erickson 1986; Schein 1987).
In order to successfully complete this research, the author has chosen inductive approach to carry out primary research in conjunction with secondary research from the literature review. A number of theories from the literature review chapter have been formulated into research questions. Finally, using suitable questionnaire survey will get answers. With quantitative research, the deductive approach seems to be appropriate for the research survey and will allow the author to investigate relationship between training programme and building future leaders.Research Strategy and Design
According to Hardy and Bryman (2003) a research design provides a framework for the collection and analysis of data. A choice of research design reflects decisions about the priority being set to a range of dimensions of the research process. These include the significance attached to: expressing causal connections between variables; generalising to larger groups of individuals than those actually forming part of the investigation; understanding behaviour and the meaning of that behaviour in its specific social context; having a temporal (i.e. over time) appreciation of social phenomena and their interconnections.
In order to establish the effectiveness of training programmes and development process in creating future leaders, survey method is being adopted. Survey questionnaires are necessary tools in the evaluation process. The reasons for adopting this method because it aims directly to relatively large group of people in order to determine their views, thinking, opinions or attitudes on certain aspects of training programme applied by healthcare providers. Survey method is the most convenient type of tool where you can get pertinent valuable information in just few minutes. Survey questionnaires could be administered one on one, or with a large group of people. (Zikmund, 2003)
Surveys can be a powerful and useful tool for collecting data on human characteristics, attitudes, thoughts, and behaviour. And, sometimes, conducting a survey is the only available option for acquiring the data necessary to answer an important research question. The survey method is economical when collecting data from a sizable group. Based most on the questionnaire, this data is standardised allowing easy comparison. In addition, the survey method is recognised as authoritative by people in general because it is easy to understand. (Zikmund, 2003)
Secondary research involves going through active resources from the media, journals or books to acquire the necessary information for the study. It gives better understanding of specific area and theory as well. Also, secondary research should be continued even after primary research to get more present data for the study. The researcher plans to conduct secondary research before doing primary research in order to discover what is known and what data are available on training initiatives. It is also important to know whether what is still to be carefully studied in a specific area for further improvement. For this paper, secondary research will be carried out by studying and analysing current academic knowledge and trends in area of training programmes and development process within Pizza Hut.
In the review of related literature (Chapter 2), the training program of Pizza Hut is brought into play. Through doing some researches (on the internet, in some advertisements, by doing some personal interviews, etc), information and other related texts and concepts are obtained. Through the gathered information on the training processes in Pizza Hut and how they conduct these programs is mentioned.
Other form of visuals also gave information since textual are not sufficient. In this study, this has importance on both parts of the training programs, researchers and for future managers.
An interview is also done to gather some personal information regarding what the managers of Pizza Hut has to say. It was used in the results and discussion part of the study. With their answers, the data are collected and then are also used in the comparison.
A survey-questionnaire will be utilised as the primary method of acquiring the research data. The questionnaire will be comprised of closed-ended questions to get an accurate and complete data. The sample will consist of 10 personnel all in management positions. The sample of managers will be chosen randomly, however, the research will attempt to get a wide range of managers at every level.
Questionnaire is one of the most command threads for almost all data collection methods. There are two basic types of survey questions from which to choose: Open-ended and close-ended. The questionnaire design of this research is to be close-ended question type because the close-ended questions go beyond that of the open-ended questions by providing steering information, as well as format of answers and system for recording answer to each of the questions; in such a way that respondent can express their intention straightforward, without further prompting the researcher. The aim of the questionnaire was to collect quantitative data through the design of close-ended questions.
Mc Daniel & Gates (2001) clarify that the primary advantage of close-ended question is the avoidance of many of the problems of open-ended questions. Reading the response alternatives may stimulate a person's real memory and provide a realistic response. Also close-ended questions are often easy to answer even for those who are busy. On the other hand, the benefit of close-ended questions is that they are easy to standardise and data collected from close-ended questions lend themselves to statistical analysis.
A questionnaire was made in advance before going to the respondents. The question covers the perception of the personnel concerning their works and job satisfaction and with regards to the organisations training programs. Ten respondents answered the questionnaire, wherein the questions are about the personnel' perception on the company's training programs and his perception on what he can do and what he had experienced.
Questionnaire is composed of 12 questions and the perceptions of the respondents are on a standard basis (prepared in advance), of five choices; strongly-disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, and strongly agree). The respondents' answers are then collected and compiled, resulting to every 1 question having 10 answers. (Ensure that no one can change each and every answer).
The research questions were grouped in four categories and the following are 12 questionnaire statements grouped within these categories:
The research questions were grouped in four categories & questionnaire statements grouped within the following categories:
- Personnel Information and Satisfaction
- Training and Development Purpose
- Job Description
- Criteria for the Effectiveness of the Training and Development Program
Sampling is the process of selecting element from a population of interest. There are two main sampling methods, which are probability and non-probability. According to Cunningham (2003), probability consists of simple random, systematic, stratified random, cluster and multi stage and non-probability includes convenience, self-selection, snowball, purposive and quota sampling methods.
As Cunningham (2003) mentioned that we cannot be assumed census survey providing more useful result than a well-planned sample survey. Time, resources and budget limitation has to be considered while choosing sampling size. As author chose quantitative research method, 10 respondents questionnaire will allows author to analysis more efficient and accurate data in order to achieve objectives. The survey was conducted in West London's Full Service Pizza Hut Restaurants. This includes managers from Pizza hut's branch in Hayes, Uxbridge, Feltham and Park Royal. The time scale of this survey was almost 3 weeks from start of October till the mid of October because of a certain time limit the sample of 5-10 was reduced to 5. The interview was conducted according to the easiness of interviewee.Data analysis
Focus of the research was on gathering data through different means and sources in rising strong evidence from Pizza Hut. The most important aim of any research to close significantly suitable analysis and coding of the collected data and literature reviewed which will be explained in the following chapter.Quality of Evidence
The method of data collection and measurement is significant feature in terms of quality of evidence. To achieve quality of data the following has to be concerned.
Validity could be the most complicated issue to resolve in this report. To determine people's attitude or behaviour towards a certain training programme could be fairly complicated and the honest responses may be difficult to achieve. In order to overcome this problem, the researcher will prepare a well-structured questionnaire and use an onsite research method. If the questionnaire is just given to the participant to fill-out all by him/herself, there is a possibility that some of the questions might be misinterpreted and that responses could be inaccurate. The researcher, therefore, will instead conduct a short interview-type of survey wherein the questions will be read aloud to the participant and the answers will be written down as the interview progresses. This method may allow the researcher to ask additional questions not included in the prepared questionnaire depending on the participants' answers.
Reliability. According to Gitanjali (2006), any research findings should relate only to the subjects involved, at the time and place the research was carried out. However, this researcher will conduct the questionnaire in two different types of organisations in order to get more effective data from the personnel perspective. People's attitudes and behaviour could differ due to social status so the researcher has decided to conduct an onsite research in both high and low budget healthcare organisations. Also the research will differentiate the personnel according to their training process satisfaction. The reason is that the needs and demands of personnel may be different from one another.
Sufficiency. From the questionnaire analysis, books previous research and journals will be combined to conclude effectively.Summary
The research approach, data collection method and analysing method have been identified in this chapter. The justification of why the author has chosen these approaches was made. By using close-ended questionnaire survey with quantitative analysis will analyse questionnaires data and achieve research objectives. The following chapter will present the research findings and data analysis.Chapter Four Research findings and data analysis
This chapter will analyse primary research data based on secondary research data. It presents the result of the questionnaire analysis. It starts with the general background of the respondents from the questionnaire research. The study was designed to survey managers of Pizza Hut on their training and training evaluation practices.
The researcher distributed questionnaires to be answered by Upper, middle and lower level managers of Pizza Hut. In the questionnaires, respondents specify their level of agreement to a statement.
There were similarities and differences to their answers to the questions. Their answers were limited to an affirmation to a given statement, and their affirmation was measured by a level of agreement or disagreement. These answers ranged from strongly disagree, disagree, undecided, agree, and last is strongly agree. Their similarities and differences could be explained by their organisational background, personal interest and the length of time when the training was established and different training programs in the organisation respectively.Personnel Information and Satisfaction
The following articles represents the questions found in the questionnaire for the managers of Pizza Hut explaining what could be the reason behind the results for each of the questions asked .Perception on the job satisfaction
Responses show that the highest number of respondents says they are satisfied with their job and they having a healthy working relationship with other personnel. This shows the organisation provides a healthy work environment with a healthy bond between employee and employer.Perception on the company's improvement of the work place
It was at first an issue regarding personnel was satisfied with his work or not. The result of being satisfied or not, has something to do with the personnel's performance in an organisation. Someone whether satisfied or not is in the perception of the personnel or it's a state-of-mind that he possesses. In the nature of work, job satisfaction is simple "one's feeling" in relation to his work. Job satisfaction is dependent on the person's point of view or basis. But there are factors that influence this in general. To give some examples of the factors affecting the personnel's satisfaction is the relationship he had with the manager or other co-personnel, quality of the workplace, their basis of fulfilment in their jobs, the job description given to them, and many more.
There had been researches that causes personnel not be satisfied with his current job. The reasons that might be the cause of job unsatisfactory is whether they have conflicts with other personnel or other person in the workplace, conflict with the supervisor, the payment for the job done are lesser not appropriate for the weight of the work, the company does not have provided enough equipments and resources or the personnel does not have enough skills to do the assigned tasks, having problems with promotions knowing that promotions is one the motivators for the personnel to be more productive and effective, having the feeling of invisibility and mute being not heard in the decision making of the organisation that has an effect on the personnel's condition, or maybe because of the feeling of losing the job.
There are ways to further reach job satisfaction. Such ways are to create new challenge for oneself, improving one's job skills and many more. Organisations training program has something big to do with improving their personnel's skills.
Edelman stated in an article found on the Rage Diaries website, on the article entitled "The 'nice' workplace?", that the word "nice" and "kind" are now on the play as functioning philosophies in some companies. A nice work place would be an effective tool for the personnel to do better in their works. An example of such a place is a friendly, welcoming and warm place to work. In addition to this, the organisation makes an assurance that the personnel will work effectively and that they are accountable for the success achievement (Edelman, 2006).
Increasing probability is sometimes brought by the pleasant workplace. Studies shows that when the people around you, the co-personnel or the supervisor, are being good, then the threat of failing due to self approbation that the ideas someone think is not good, will be omitted. Since in a nice workplace, where personnel are friendly, a creative mind can show the ideas without even thinking of having criticised. In addition, many of those who are in top position getting promoted not just because they were intellectual, but in the sense of being nice to others in the work place. The impact of being friendly makes other personnel to follow you and mobilising them is an easy work now.
The likeability of a person in an organisation can come up with communicating with the others easily for the better understanding of a project for example. There are people that are emotional. In this way, even when they were great at their job, treating them badly will not motivate them but just hate you. So for the mutual give-and-take relationship, for them to do a good job, you have to treat them nicely. Since personnel in an organisation works in the same work place, they are supposed to be team, being nice to others in this situation will make the team more compact thus leaving space for those ideas that are not told due to threat of criticism. How would we know that one of the best personnel in our organisation is a silent type and his ideas are just wasted? It's a loss of money and so the brilliant ideas.Perception on the different trainings conducted by company
The response shows that it is usual for the company to conduct such training programs. As 7 managers agree, it is evident to say that there are some basic program of the company. They carry out different training programs.
Training and development of personnel is essential for an organisation. This method usually was applied for new personnel. But everyone in the organisation needs training due to their changing job descriptions that was brought by promotion, job rotation and others. Training and development improves the quality of personnel. This is a determinant of success for long-term of a company. Increase in productivity can be achieved by developing the skills of the personnel and training them for future roles and for them to be effective.Training and Development Purpose
It is vital for the company have training and development programs for personnel. That is to prepare them for the future job. There are several reasons why organisation should conduct these training and development programs. To further give the reasons, the first would be that there are instances that personnel will leave their current position; promotions, leaving the company are examples of it. By training and development program for personnel will accommodate the positions leave empty, and for them to be ready for the replacement.
The second reason is that the environment is on a rapid change as technologies are. By training and development, staffs can use advantages of technology and its advances when the personnel are knowledgeable enough enhancing the company's ability to use those technologies. The third reason is that companies will be more competent and personnel's morale are enhanced thus building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team. Another reason is that because as an organisation grows, it eventually expand, thus training personnel will constitute the effective and efficient human resources.Benefits from training and developing personnel
Conducting training may costs the company a little money. But there are benefits that give back profit in the long term. The benefits that an organisation can get from training and developing the personnel will yield to an increase in their productivity and efficiency and become more effective personnel. Another benefit is that personnel's turnover will be reduced. Financial gains and profits can be achieved through the increased efficiency brought by training and developing of personnel. And because the personnel are trained, they have enough knowledge on their work thus needs only little supervision and maintenance.
Additional effects on the personnel' personal aspect; that it develops their self-worth, dignity because they can feel that they are important to the company. They will also have good dividends through their hard works. Thus, thru the motivation of the personnel towards productivity and efficiently and effectively, then the personal goals and company goals' gap is lessened.Perception on the training evaluations
The response shows that there is a relative importance in the evaluation practices of the studied organisation. This shows that the respondents response varies on their perception or from what they had experienced in the organisations they had work for, some agree while other disagreed.
This shows that they might not have a proper procedure on the training analysis of the personnel. This maybe because they had lesser experience on what the evaluation and training process can offer.
The evaluation is sufficient for the training to be determined if effective or not. The results would deliver if they will have the potential to be an effective and efficient personnel. This is crucial for the company since there are lots of benefits that the company could get if they produced quality personnel.
To evaluate the training program, a criterion was made as a basis if the cost is worth to be conducted. The main concern of the criteria in evaluating the training and development program is concerned on the answers from the following questions; does the training program achieve it objectives and goals? To what extent the trainees learned from training? What did the trainees learn from the program? What the trainees should consider from what they have learned in implementing this to their works? Does the program make some cost reduction (e.g. in production, manufacturing) due to what they have learned? Does the training and development program reduce risks? Does it helped the company in its recruitment and retain their personnel? Does the company have succession planning? Does the training and development program bring the company into the new market?Perception on the job description
This shows that more of the responses agreed on the issue. organisations have given their personnel what they are intended to do in their job position; their job description. This includes the things that the job position covers. The important facts about the job, the information about the task involved, the methods that will be used for the tasks completion, the purpose and the responsibilities that the job holds, its relationship with the other jobs, and the qualification to be on this job (Kautz, 2007).Job Description
Due to the personnel's personal growth or the company's changing in position of personnel's in a way of promotion and job rotation, and also with the external environments factors (e.g. technological advances making rapid changes in the environment), a flexible job description must be made.
In making a job description, the following must be included and are the main components of the job description. Job Title the name of the job is on the first page. Job Objective or the overall purpose of the job; this includes the summary of the scope of the job and the function of the job, that serves as the orientation of the personnel to the company regarding the purpose and objective of the job. Tasks Lists/ Duties List; this includes the "what to be done" on the job, a lists of the responsibilities and the accountability of the personnel for the position; the lists must contain the each job duty and responsibility in order from the most important/functional being the first consideration, and down in the order of the significance of the duty.
Roles and Relationships; here includes the supervisory roles, subordinating roles and other relationship roles in the work; it was the person in the position's roles and relationship information about the job. Standards and Requirements and the Job Specification; it includes the educational background of the occupant, job experience, knowledge and skills for the position. Location of the Job; this is about where to perform the job. Equipments needed for the Job Performance; this includes the equipments that are to be used in the job position; for example, a telephone for a call centre agent, the kind of machine for the machine operator, etc.
Agreements are the terms and agreements regarding the job. Non-Essential Functions; for the job to be flexible, the job description must include the non-essential functions that the personnel may face in the certain position; for the occupant to be ready for some marginal tasks. Range of Salary; in the position; the amount range to be paid for the position.Perception on the necessary technology
Since they are in the Hospitality & food industry, the advances in the technology in this field are very important for these will improve the quality of their services. Relating this to the study, there would be a need for training and development program for the use of the new technology. For the company to be more productive, effective and efficient and for the costs of the technology be worthwhile and will gain back more profit.Perception on the changes in the workplace
Since the external environment has a great impact on the organisation, resistance to change will cause trouble. Thus, this gives the edge for the company on doing such training programs for the personnel. For the change to happen, the company/organisation is already ready and so the personnel to be put in the position (e.g. promotion). The same with the resistant to change that was due to the company's promotion in the market and the change in position requires more needs.
The learning of the personnel can be a fruit of the training and developing programs. But usually, the learning process of a certain personnel might be different from others. A good approach to each and every occupant/personnel/trainee/learner must be considered. In order to do that, the company should look at some of the learning styles and how to comply to the factors affecting learning styles. If the company succeeds in determining and overcoming these needs, then the payoff is worth the expense.Perception on the effectiveness and satisfaction on the company's training program
This means that the organisations and the training program it conducts are not much effective. Depending on the organisations whether to agree or disagree. This programme can bring many benefits for the company if they approach systematic training cycle. But how can we say that the training programs are effective? What are the criteria that will evaluate the training program and determine if the program was to be considered as effective?
The following are the criterion on determining the effectiveness of the training and development program. This provides the validity of the systematic training cycle. The Upper management should make the training policy and qualification program and the content of it for being effective. The upper management has the overall responsibility and authority for the company so thus to create a competent personnel. Another thing that must be considered before conducting a training program is the availability of resources; is it enough for the training to occur? The management should also check the trainee's attendance during the training sessions. There must be policies and procedure to be followed for the facilitating of the training program. This procedure must have organised approach for the training process ("MANAGEMENT?.." 2002).
The organisation is responsible for implementing the training program; the organisation must choose a personnel that would be assigned to do the responsibility; in implementing training, the responsibility and the authority can be given to these personnel for the implementation of the training program. Before the implementation of the training and development program, the goals, objectives and plans must be set first. It is the measuring tool to determine if the training and development program was effective or not. Maintenance of the Training Records; these records gives the information and information needs and how does each trainee responds to the training program (e.g. the trainee's performance, participation and qualification).
This is also a determinant of the training program whether it has succeeded achieving its goals and objectives or not. Requirements are set for the training program and are monitored; this documentation will determine the needs for the company and the trainee. The training facilities, equipment, materials, technology must support the training activities; the concern of this is to support the training activities for better hands-on or experience of the job. The following criteria must be checked and then a training program can be considered an effective program if it has reached the needed criteria.Perception on the limitations and rights of a worker
The organisations have almost a good result. Having a slanting to the right trend, the personnel might have the knowledge which they obtained from training on their limitations and rights that they might have got from the training procedures. The organisations are the ones responsible for the briefing and orientation of the workers' rights, limitations and others. But also the individual has his own perception of his limitations. Determining these factors may benefit both the individual personnel and the organisation.
By doing training programs, the company and the individual can determine the ones limitations to such matters and also the rights they hold. The companies then have the records and the qualification for a certain position this personnel is suitable and where his capacities can be suited. These will lessen the trouble in the future works. As stated before, there must be marginal tasks for the future non-essential jobs, and by determining these, the company can set the appropriate margins for these personnel by giving them the opportunity to develop their skills.Perception on the development of a worker
The trend shows that there is a non-involvement of the preferences of the respondents on the issue, but the agreement is highly significant. This is due to training activities and their participants. The number of respondents that agrees in the organisations seems to be relatively high. But for the sake of the training process, this was a relatively low for the equivalence in the costs a single training program would cost them.
Workers development can be achieved from the work itself or the training the company gave them. This is to make them to become more productive on the company's concept, while it was a self conception of development on the individual's side. The principal reasons why organisations conduct training programs are for the sake of better productivity, affectivity, efficiency of the workers. But in the other side, the personal growths are also developing in silence. This can become a motivator for the personnel, seeking for self-development, not as a better worker, but also as a better man.Perception on the training initiatives
The response shows that a great number of respondents fall on the strongly disagree side. This may be because many of the personnel know and also the organisations do know that training initiatives and development are really in need for both of them.
The need for the training is almost a must for some of the companies. The only drawback for this is the expenses or costs of the training program. But the benefits are more that it can cover the costs. The training program is not only for the benefit of the organisation on the first place, it is also for the personnel for their future job. They were trained to be qualified and to have the skills needed for the job. And self-development follows and so on. Thus, it has been a mutual give-and-take relationship for the organisation and the trainee.Perception on the training as a waste of time and money
This is another response from the managers that shows disagreement. This shows a disagreement of the respondents on the issue that training would not work and it's just a waste of time and money. This means that the personnel of an organisation believes that a training would do work and at the cost of time and money are the benefits to the organisation and for the individual (e.g. trainee/personnel/ learner).
As stated before, on the #11 argument, the training and development programs of an organisation is a mutual give-and-take relationship, both are beneficiaries. And so, who would not love to get benefits from others in the extent of doing your job that will make your self-worth higher? That would summarise it all.Interviews with the the Upper level Manager
Interviews were conducted with the managers of Pizza hut to get the information on how pizza hut conducts training programs the effectiveness of training programs in building future leaders and how pizza hut executes a development of personnel. Area Manager and 4 different Store Manager from West London Pizza hut were selected for interviews. Due to a busy working schedule the HR Manager of Pizza hut was unable to respond to any of the queries.Q1. Does pizza hut conducts internal or external management training programs?
All the interviewees said that in house or internal training programs are conducted by pizza hut for store level management the candidates take part in a three day course which is supported by the company on a selected venue oxford street or Croydon. This includes a session of first aid training as well and all the candidates obtain a certificate at the end of the session. These programs are for Shift Managers, Deputy Managers and General Managers each programs normally consists of a 12 week programme apart from the fast track ones which consist of 6 weeks and is normally used for externally hired managers. The above mentioned managements programs consist of on the job and off the job trainings. A hands on approach and completing written modules followed by a final sign off in which a candidate is required to answer set of questions numerical and theoretical and the passing percentage for that test is 85%. This gives a good understanding of what the job role is and what is required in that position. On completion the certificate is awarded.Q2. How effective are the training and development process to build future leaders?
According to the Area Manager of West London Collin Bell the current process is very effective as most of the 90% of Area Managers and General managers are grown from with in the organisation. This needs a good understanding of business and managerial skills with a lot of experience. Whereas the Restaurant General Manager shared a different idea on this question that the training programme is effective but it's a very long wait to become a future leader as a lot of factors restrict a managers development for example in this era of recession vacancies does not arise too often and when it does most of Managers are hired externally which are then placed on a fast track management programme. This restricts the potential in house candidates to enhance their skills and to go on to the next stage of training & development.Q3 how does pizza hut executes the development of an employee?
Area Manager replied that pizza hut focuses on performance based development, with the help of Personal development plans and performance appraisal. this statement was also supported by General Managers one to one meetings are held the strengths and weaknesses are discussed regular meetings are organised and also allocating some extra tasks to check ability of person to handle extra pressure where as one manager mentioned that sometime a promotion is offered on the bases of seniority as well. This indicates that managers can get promotions because they have been working long in the company which again puts a potential candidate of same designation with better skills and knowledge to a side.
Chapter five Conclusion
Major findings of this study are summarised in this chapter. The chapter includes discussion and implications made from the data analysis and results and provides possible explanations of the findings. In addition, implications for HRM are discussed. Finally, recommendations for future research are also provided along with the limitations of this study.Conclusion of the study
Training and development activities are complex and involve a great deal of time and energy. Determining strategies, soliciting feedback from participants, enlisting the support of managers and supervisors, and evaluating the transfer and implementation of training knowledge are detailed and important elements of the training process. It is impractical to assume that there is one best way for working through the training processes, or to think that there is a linear, predictable progression to be followed each time.
As per this particular study and what is important is to do what is best for each program within the context of the situation. What is realistic, however, is to outline general areas which must be considered in every training situation: needs, logistics, learning styles, strategies, evaluation, support, follow up contact, and transfer. Without each of these elements, a training program would likely not have a positive impact on the individuals and organisations that should benefit from it.
The phases and features of the training process each contain important considerations, which must be made to maximise training effectiveness to add value to organisation. However, each phase should not be considered in and of itself. Training is an ongoing process; part of an integrated and complex system which enhances individual and organisational learning, growth, and change.
In recent years, training has become more common, necessary, complex, extensive, and organisationally supported. A growing awareness of the linkages between organisational value adding and personnel development, combined with a more systems-oriented focus on organisational development, have highlighted the importance of training and development. Because of changing demographics, technological advances, and shifts in organisational structures and functions, the need to maintain current and applicable personnel skill levels through training is critical.
Employers have increasingly high expectations that training efforts will contribute to organisational productivity, effectiveness, adaptability, and improved skills and knowledge of personnel. In addition, employers want to know if training efforts are meeting these expectations. This study is important because it takes a closer look at training and attempts to answer such questions.
The findings of this research study would be able to assist HR managers, in particular hospitality managers, with practical ideas. The results of this study revealed that effectiveness of training programmes somehow have influence on creating future leaders/ managers. . Although the results of this study presume that the effectiveness of training programmes and development process are not the only conclusive factor in creating leaders, it can be assumed that managers cannot presently take full advantage of training programmes, in pizza hut. However, it is more important to investigate from which training and development source or item the personnel most likely observe significant to their development. Moreover, other definitive requisites should always be performed simultaneously.
This study allows the high level management to identify the effectiveness of a proper training programme. By focusing on those attributes on specific personnel' response, a HR manager can develop practical strategies related to training programmes that offer professional and organisational development benefits to their workforce. For instance, financial and temporal value creation items turned out to be more significant for repeat purchase intentions. Building good managers were more significant for preference of the training program approach. Financial and experiential value creation items revealed to be significant for positive word-of-mouth. Therefore, training programme responsible can build up strategies for different purposes by providing personnel with development possibilities upon specific aspects.
Pizza hut managers including upper and lower management can strengthen financial value creation items to increase the quality of customer service. Managers can offer more creation items within training programmes to make personnel enjoy the training programmes. Since the results of this study indicate that for the effectiveness of training programme is to build future leaders, probably personnel will like a certain training initiative which offers superior functional related benefits. However, it is impossible for upper level managers to conclude that organisational value that has added by a single feature of all the various factors that organisational and personnel development. The importance of each training feature varies among different personnel so it is necessary for the managers to pay attention to all of the factors depending on personnel development and its particular needs.
An attractive package with good benefits will certainly attract personnel's to develop interest in training and development and to gain the knowledge and skills to perform well as a future leader. A good bonus structure which is at the moment is only for the high level managers is a key obstacle in developing interests in lower level managers along with a standard pay rate. This is too low for shift managers while staff working Front of house earns more money with their tips and hourly rate. Managers with a lot of passion and enthusiasm which would definitely help to bring fresh ideas and passion for their work should be on higher pay band with all the incentives and benefits to enjoy with.
Since the results of the study imply that effectiveness of training programme is only one constituent in increasing personnel development, managers should be alerted to the fact that just by having sound and effective training programmes is not what their personnel are really expecting for. Some management training personnel try to develop managers by just adding more features to these training programmes. It is not the number of features that attract the personnel. While it is necessary for trainers to continue being engaged in human resource development, they should choose the right training programme with the right approach and direction.Limitations
Food chain brands are very complex, as are the solutions to reduce variation and costs. All elements are important, but many will not be within the focus of this project. Training leading to development and building skilled and effective manager is fundamental and therefore has been considered to be the primary focus of this project. Leadership supporting and creating a value in which learning is emphasised is an integral part of this project. This project will focus on training leading to learning, which ultimately will reduce errors and costs and add value to organisation helps enhancing the knowledge of a pizza hut manager.
There are constraints that limit the researcher. Such limitations are time, resources and the availability of respondents (that takes the researcher more time finding respondents). This can be explained from looking at the personality of the personnel of the HR managers or trainers. The reason maybe is because they are too busy (got lots to do). Also the respondents are lesser than expected.
There are limitations in the methodology for this study. First of all since the data was collected only in certain Pizza hut's in an area, it might not be suitable to generalise the findings. The fact that the data originate from only few managers also makes it obvious that the findings are not universal. In addition, the data were collected on middle level managers, so the results of the study would not fit to other different organisations such as other competitors.
The following limitations were acknowledged when conducting the study:
- The answers by the respondents were limited by their sincerity and objectivity.
- The perceptions of the respondents about executive development programs were limited by the companies with which they had been invited to work.
- The study was limited to the extent to which the instrument used was valid and reliable.
- The number of completed data sets available for analysis was limited.
As a final point, there are strengths and weaknesses of surveys. Surveys are a tool, which asks a series of similar questions to a sample of dispersed individuals for researching a particular idea. One huge advantage of survey is that they allow researchers to access the macro. Other strengths of surveys are that they are able to study a wide range of issues, it is relatively quick, inexpensive, and can obtain lots of information from many people. It also maximises standardisation.
Although surveys have such strengths they have weaknesses as well. Designing issues and execution issues are some factors that have to be considered deeply in surveys. Furthermore, there are some biases such as non-response error, response bias, or extremity bias that could occur in conducting surveys (Zikmund 2003). All in all, the results of this study were constructive to these particular organisations, and it is hoped that future work in this area will help determine the external validity of these findings.Importance of study
In recent years, training has become more common, necessary, extensive, and organisationally supported. Because of changing demographics, technological advances and shifts in organisational structures and functions, the need to maintain current and applicable personnel skill levels through training is critical. Employers have increasingly high expectations that training efforts will contribute to organisational productivity, effectiveness, adaptability, and improved skills and knowledge of personnel. In addition, employers want to know if training efforts are meeting these expectations. This study is important because it takes a closer look at training, and attempts to answer such questions.
In addition, this is an important study because one of the most crucial elements of learning is the ability to apply acquired knowledge to real settings. Therefore, it is important to look at those characteristics of specific training practices, the systematic training cycle which impede or enhance that process. Particularly in public organisations - where tax dollars are spent to train and educate personnel, training costs should be allocated wisely, and adding value is often expected - it is important to gain a better understanding of the process. As the composition of the workforce changes and organisational reinvention and effectiveness are stressed, training efforts and their outcomes become more important than ever.Recommendations for Future Research
As this is likely to be the first experiential study that has attempted to find out the effectiveness of training programmes impact on organisational and personnel development and in building future leaders, replication of this study would be essential to the research stream. Repeating this study with a bigger sample size would assist in establishing the external generalisability or applicability of the results. The response rate of this study was rather high. But more efforts should be made to perform a representative sampling to include other private and public sector segments.
Furthermore, there are more indicators that can evaluate training programmes. In this research, only dozen of relational factors of training were examined. Future research could incorporate additional variables. There are more items that can be considered in creating future leadership. Conducting a survey with additional indicators and items as variables would reveal more meaningful results.
One useful and important extension of this research would be to investigate the actual training needs of personnel. The questionnaire can directly ask the personnel what specific benefits they want from their training programme. That way, trainers and high level managers will be able to select the right training programme and add more organisational value by creating future opportunities to lead. Another interesting and valuable extension of this research is to develop an incentive model for healthcare service providers to choose the right training programme for success.