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GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES

CHAPTER III GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP)

3.1. Introduction

GMP the building blocks for HACCP. In several years, producer, retailer and industrialist use Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) as appropriate method in order to produce good quality of food. Food producers keep on developing GMP regulations. Now, it uses as prerequisite program on HACCP system or food safety system.

Good Manufacturing Practices should be selected and adopted before HACCP is implemented. Without the application of CGMP principles, an effective HACCP program cannot be conducted. Furthermore, GMP must be applied to the development of sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOP). Compliance with specific GMP should be included as part of HACCP. The areas that should be addressed through CGMPs are personal hygiene and other practices, buildings and facilities, equipment and utensils, and production and process controls. CGMPs should be broad in nature (Marriot, 2007).

There can hardly be HACCP without Good Manufacturing or Management Practices (GMP). Briefly, GMP is a description of all the steps (which should represent good practice) in a processing facility, while HACCP is a documentation that the steps important to consumer health are under control (Arvanitoyannis and Theodoros, 2009)

GMP application is also a basic part of Total Quality Management Program (TQMP). GMP application should be explain in briefly and clearly about problems and procedures on every stage on food processing.

3.2. Definition

GMP and SSOP are interrelated and an important part of process control. CGMP are the minimum sanitary and processing requirements necessary to ensure the production of wholesome meat. GMP is one of supporting program for implementation of HACCP system. GMP make food product have a good quality and safety; it is also make product widely acceptable for consumers in domestic and international market.

Based on Ministry of Marine Affair and Fisheries Regulation (2007), GMP is the guideline on good prerequisite and production procedures on fish processing unit.

GMP is a combination of the production and quality control, to ensure that food manufacturers or processing are following the right step of its production line consistenly and spesifically. GMP refers to the regulation that firstly declared by the US Food Drug Administration (FDA) after being revised in 1986.

GMP regulation is aimed to protect the consumer to avoid purchasing any dangerous or contaminated products. Its require a good quality approach of manufacturing and processing product to eliminate errors and failure. Nowadays, the function of GMP is getting more important as pre-requisite program of HACCP; therefore it has to be implemented prior the HACCP system together with the application of SSOP.

3.3. Scope

According to Darwanto and Murniyati (2003), on operational processing unit, company management should be check on processing activities for evaluating:

a. suitability, quality, and all input factor such as fish, food additives, ingredients, packaging, labeling etc;

b. control suitability and condition of manufacturing namely construction, maintenance, sanitation, operation, and equipments that are use on fish processing;

c. fulfillment of end products requirements are quality, safety, healthy, and also composition and grade of quality on product;

d. staff checking on their health, hygiene and qualification.

3.4. GMP components

3.4.1. Location and Building Requirement

3.4.1.1. Location

Seafood plant is consider of a suitable location. Some factors should be considered namely physical, geographical and infrastructure available. A plant must be adequate on a plot of adequate size, easy access on transportation by road, rail or water. An adequate of water should be available throughout the year. Seafood plants contain significant amounts of organic matter which must be removed before waste water is discharge into river or the sea. It also solid waste handling needs careful or appropriate planning, appropriate space, must be available. The immediate physical surroundings of a seafood factory should be landscape and present on attractive view to the visitor. Shrubbery should be at least 10 meter away from factory building and a grass free strip covered with a layer of gravel should follow the outer wall of buildings (Huss, 1994).

In addition, the factory location should be large enough for expansion and should be attractively landscaped with natural features such as tree retained wherever possible. Paved or asphalt area are needed in factory, car pack should be situated at a reasonable walking distance from the factories to reduce fumes and noise (Forsythe and Hayes, 1998).

3.4.1.2. Building

There are several requirements for fish factories buildings. The materials that used on building materials should be have the specific characteristics. There are specific characteristics such as non-porous, non-toxic, easily cleaned, rodent proof, smooth flat, etc.

According to Huss (1994), on food processing industries should have the particular characteristics on materials which are use on food industries. Food factories should be designed and built for particular purposes with materials capable of withstanding various physical conditions. The principal factors to consider are heat, cold, humidity, and vibration.

On fish processing, interior surfaces should be smooth, non-porous, easily cleaned and not vulnerable to chemical attack by modern detergents and disinfectants, or able to sustain biological/microbiological growth.

Good natural light and screened electric light must be provided. Paints and other surface coats should be non-toxic and not flake; those that contain mould inhibitors must not come into contact with foods.

Pipe work, drainage ducts, conduits for power supply and other channels should be tightly sealed where they pass through walls, floors and ceilings to prevent entry of vermin and insects (Huss, 1994). Overhead pipe work sometimes passes directly over process lines and water condensed on the pipes can drip on the underlying food and equipment (Forsythe and Hayes, 1998).

Ventilation on fish factory have to efficient and ceiling should be constructed of and finished with materials that obviate condensation, paint flatting, and mould growth. The panel construction being made of various PVC, reinforced resins, PVC-faced plasterboard, PVC-foil-faced foam board or plastic-coated steels (Forsythe and Hayes, 1998).

Walls should be constructed with durable materials and in certain situation. All wall angles, corners and junctions of walls and floors must be imperiously sealed and be rounded for ease of cleaning. Coving of the wall/floor junction of walls to a height of. C. 15 cm. Modern materials that are used on wall include polypropylene and different PVCs. Suitable polymers and glass-reinforced PVC can be layered on a thin metallic surface with a cladding of suitable insulating materials (Forsythe and Hayes, 1998).

Floor is that surface should be non-slip and easy to clean and disinfect. The quality of the floor surface can be improved by topping the concrete with appropriate materials. These include epoxy, polyester or acrylic resins, chlorinated and styrene butadiene rubbers and bituminous paints and mastics. The resins have a number of advantages such as durable, easy to clean, good non-slip surface, smooth but became saturated and absorb water under water condition. Tiles can provide a relatively long lasting and impervious surface. However, there are weaknesses since they crack, lift to be under run by water, and are difficult to replace satisfactory (Forsythe and Hayes, 1998).

Ideally, building have to impose no constraints on any process or plant layout. However, production line are sited in unsuitable buildings as an economic necessity. Construction of building can be based on reinforce concrete or steel frame. In the framed structure the external walls are essentially a skin design to protect personnel and equipment inside. It means that the external walls can be constructed of relatively light material namely aluminum (Forsythe and Hayes, 1998).

3.4.1.3. Plant layout

Layout of food industries be laid out with clear, preferably ‘straight through' lines of product flow. Final or intermediate processes must be separate to avoid cross-contamination by raw materials.

According to Kotschevar and Terrell (1977) in Forsythe and Hayes, (1998), there are eight principle in efficiency flow of work in food service area are:

1. function should proceed in proper sequence directly, with a minimum of criss-crossing and backtracking;

2. smooth and rapid production;

3. delay and storage of materials in processing should be eliminated;

4. worker and materials should cover minimum distances;

5. materials and tools should receive minimum handling, and equipment minimum worker handling;

6. maximum utilization of space and equipment should be achieved;

7. quality control must be sought at all critical points;

8. minimum cost production should be sought.

With eight principles, these layouts will minimize recontamination of fish process or raw materials.

The preparation areas for all raw materials and all product should be physically separated by appropriate walls. The movement of operators between the separate processing areas should be use of allocated colored clothing and control by management.

Facilities for washing hands with knee or foot operated hot water taps should be positioned at all pedestrian entrances in food factories as well as in the toilets. Suitable liquid unperfumed soaps, barrier creams and disposable towels must be provided at all times, with instruction given also their proper use.

Floors should be durable, smooth, easily cleaned and carefully insulated; in addition, because of the problem of ‘frost heave' where the subsoil becomes frozen to a depth of 1-2 cm causing weakening of the foundations, a heating walls and ceiling should also be durable, smooth and easily cleaned; material such as galvanized steel is particularly recommended.

Design layout of cold stores should aim at keeping the environment as constant a possible. Thus the entry of warm air should be minimized by providing properly insulated double doors with an air lock and, as with chill rooms, sitting should be some distance form warm processing areas.

3.3. The examples of processing layout A = administration, EA = employee amenities, FPS = final products storage, L = laboratory, P = production area, RMS = raw materials storage (Forsythe and Hayes, 1998 re-draw by the authors)

3.4.1.4. Equipments

There are seven basic principles for hygienic design agreed by the Working Party appointed by the Joint Technical Committee of the Food Manufacturers Federation (FMF) and the Food Machinery Association (FMA) in Forshyte and Hayes, (1998). The principle are:

1. all surface in contact with food must be inert to the food under the condition of use and must not migrate;

2. all surfaces in contact with food must be smooth and non-porous so that tiny particles are not caught in microscopic surface crevices and become difficult to dislodge;

3. all surfaces in contact with food must be visible for inspection;

4. all surfaces in contact with food must be readily accessible for manual cleaning;

5. all surfaces in contact with food must be arranged that the equipment is self-emptying or self-draining;

6. equipment must be design as to protect from external contamination;

7. the exterior or non-product contact surfaces should be arranged to prevent harboring of soils, bacteria, or pest in and on the equipment itself as well as in its contact with other equipment, floors, walls or hanging support.

With the above principle, materials are commonly used in food processing are Stainless steel, iron and mild steel, copper and its alloys, miscellaneous metal, plastics, rubber, glass and wood, and antimicrobial work surfaces (Forsythe and Hayes, 1998).

Manufacturing equipment should be designed to prevent the entry of foreign materials, and the development of ‘out-of-sight' dead spots, especially within the operation chamber and associated pipe work. Bolts and clips should be attached externally to maintain all internal product contact surfaces smooth and easily cleaned. For operator safety, all equipment should be made safe by electrical isolation during dismantling and cleaning.

Table 3.1. Applications of materials-handling equipments

Conveyors

Elevators

Cranes and hoists

Trucks

Pneumatic equipments

Water flumes

Direction

Vertical up

*

*

*

Vertical down

*

*

*

Incline up

*

*

*

Incline down

*

*

*

*

Horizontal

*

*

*

Frequency

Continuous

*

*

*

*

Intermittent

*

*

Location served

Point

*

*

*

*

Path

*

*

*

Limited area

Unlimited area

*

*

Height

Overhead

*

*

*

*

Working height

*

*

*

*

Floor level

*

*

*

*

Underfloor

*

*

*

Materials

Packed

*

*

*

*

Bulk

*

*

*

*

*

*

Solid

*

*

*

*

*

*

Liquid

*

*

Service

Permanent

*

*

*

*

*

Temporary

*

*

From Brenan et al (1976) in Fellow, P.J. (1990)

3.4.2. Operational Requirements

3.4.2.1. Receiving Raw Material

Receiving raw materials should be consider some requirements such as the origin of raw materials, species and size based on product, quality of raw material and end-product.

a. Indicators of Fish Freshness

On the receiving materials area, sensory analysis is the main method of evaluating fish freshness. It enables differences in texture, flavor, and taste to be determined, and subsequently the usefulness of the raw material. Sensory properties change during storage from the desired very high standard, through neutral or average, and finally to undesirable or disgusting. It is generally assumed that prior to disappearance of desirable features the fish is considered to be fresh, while the appearance of undesirable or disgusting features disqualifies the raw material. The most difficult step is to determine an intermediate state in which the fish is not entirely fresh. Sensory analysis is thus carried out on raw fish and cooked fish. Flavor, appearance and state of abdominal cavity (for not eviscerated fish) are the main indicators of quality in the case of raw fish. For cooked fish, smell is the most important indicator (Hall, 1997).

In addition, microbiological test on raw material is important parameter. In raw materials not only use sensory test but also use microbiological test. Particularly, on freshness test of tuna for sashimi, commonly use K value methods. K value is one of chemical methods based on ATP degradation. This method is commonly use on Japan to measure fish freshness.

According to Anonymous (2002), checking the following at receipt will confirm seafood safety and freshness:

· product temperature (chilled seafood should be below 5oC but ideally between -1.5o and 2oC; frozen seafood should be below -18oC),

· package condition and use-by-date of pre-packaged seafood,

· hygiene and cleanliness of the transport vehicle,

· a record of the species, harvest date and location, and supplier's name, and

· visual quality criteria.

Even if quickly frozen after catching, frozen seafood will not keep indefinitely. Bacterial activity ceases below about -10oC, but chemical and biochemical changes (enzymes, oil oxidation, and dehydration) will still occur. These changes may bring about slow irreversible changes in odor, flavor, and appearance. For long term freezer storage, it is recommended that a temperature of -30oC is maintained (this may only be achieved by commercial freezers). Seafood stored at -15oC (domestic freezers) will have a much-reduced shelf life.

3.4.2.2. Handling and Processing

Fish and shellfish are considered to be among the most perishable foodstuff. To keep fish cool, packing in ice is used; this methods is avoids the possibility of the temperature dropping to low with the concomitant freezing of the flesh of the fish. During fish handling and processing in fisheries processing, it will retard the fish deterioration. Keeping fish I the cool thus extends the high-quality life (HQL) of the fish. Good chilling practices on board the fishing vessels and on shore result in better quality fish which, on landing (Garthwaite, 1997).

Chilling delays and minimizes spoilage and the ideal chilling system cools fish rapidly to wet ice temperatures. It is essential to minimize bacterial contamination of the fish during all stages of handling. Dirt should be washed off the fish as landed and the surfaces with which the fish come in contact be maintained in a clean condition. Care must also be taken to wash the fish after gutting it, and to use clean ice. Fish properly iced will cool rapidly and will retain quality for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the species. Ease handling, reduction of weight loses, and elimination of bruising are advantages to be considered in short-term storage in refrigerated seawater (Shapton and Shapton, 1991).

Since shrimp live only a few minutes after removal from their natural habitat, microbial spoilage starts immediately through marine bacteria on the surface and in the digestive system, and through microorganisms which happen to contaminate the shrimp on the ship's deck, in handling, and from iced used during their storage. The prevention of deterioration in the quality of fresh and iced-stored shrimp involves not only maintaining low microbial count but also prevention of oxidation (Shapton and Shapton, 1991).

Temperature and time conditions at all steps from catching or harvesting to distribution is important to prevent growth of pathogenic bacteria, histamine producing bacteria and spoilage bacteria. Temperature and time also are important in preventing oxidation and chemical spoilage (Huss, 1994).

3.4.2.3. Additives and chemical materials

Additives and chemical material commonly use on fish processing. It usually used on fish value added product.

1. Additives

Additives can be divided into six major categories: preservatives, nutritional additives, flavoring agents, coloring agents, texturizing agents, and miscellaneous additives (Branen and Bragerty, 2002).

a. Preservatives

There are basically three types of preservatives used in foods: antimicrobials, antioxidants, and anti-browning agents. The antimicrobials are used to check or prevent the growth of microorganisms. The antioxidants are used to prevent lipid and/or vitamin oxidation in food products. They vary from natural substances such as vitamins C and E to synthetic chemicals such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The antioxidants are especially useful in preserving dry and frozen foods for an extended period (Branen and Bragerty, 2002).

Anti-browning agents are chemicals used to prevent both enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in food products, especially dried fruits or vegetables. Vitamin C (E300), citric acid (E330), and sodium sulfite (E221) are the most commonly used additives in this category (Branen and Bragerty, 2002).

b. Chemical preservatives

The action of maximum and minimum limit of chemical curing and preservative agents should be safe usage known (Betty and Diane, 1987).

Propionic acid, sorbic acid, benzoic acid and shulphur dioxide are effective as a preservative. Propionic acid and its salts are mould inhibitors. Sorbic acid is useful fungistatic agent for use in flour confectionery, marzipan and cheese. Benzoic acid occurs naturally in cranberries and is added to many other foods. It is more effective against moulds and yeast than bacteria. These compound are most effective at the lowest pH values of food and ineffective at neutral pH.

In addition, sulphur dioxide is being effective in inhibiting microbial growth, also helps to maintain the color of vegetable that are going to be processed (Betty and Diane, 1987).

Nitrates and nitrites are used as a curing for meats. Due to toxicological concerns there has been a tendency to reduce the concentrations used in recent years. This imparts a red coloration to the meat similar to fresh meat (Betty and Diane, 1987).

c. Nutritional Additives

Nutritional additives have increased in use in recent years as consumers have become more concerned about and interested in nutrition. Vitamins, which as indicated above are also used in some cases as preservatives, are commonly added to cereals and cereal products to restore nutrients lost in processing or to enhance the overall nutritive value of the food. The addition of vitamin D to milk and of B vitamins to bread has been associated with the prevention of major nutritional deficiencies. Vitamin A, from liver cod, is essential for normal vision, growth, cellular differentiation, reproduction, and integrity of the immune system (Branen and Bragerty, 2002).

In addition, Carotenoid on food can be functioned as function not only as color and nutrient compounds but also as antioxidants (Branen and Bragerty, 2002). Carotenoid can help to minimize oxidative damage and reduce the risk for age-related disorders by preventing the accumulation of free radicals (Rosalee and Michael, 2008). In addition carotenoid also found on brown algae (Miyashita and Masashi, 2008)

Minerals such as iron and iodine have also been of extreme value in preventing nutritional deficiencies. Proteins or proteinaceous materials such as soya protein also are sometimes used as nutritional additives, although they are most commonly used as texturizing agents.

Fiber additives have seen increased popularity in recent years with the increase in consumer interest in dietary fiber. Various cellulose, pectin, and starch derivatives have been used for this purpose.

d. Coloring Agents

Most coloring agents are used to improve the overall attractiveness of the food. A number of natural and synthetic additives are used to color foods. In addition, sodium nitrite is used not only as an antimicrobial, but also to fix the color of meat by interaction with meat pigments (Branen and Bragerty, 2002).

There are two kinds of coloring agents natural coloring and synthetic coloring. Natural coloring made from plants and animals (Table 3.4.). Synthetic coloring made from chemical substances (Table 3.5.).

e. Flavoring Agents

Flavoring agents comprise the greatest number of additives used in foods. There are three major types of flavoring additives: sweeteners, natural and synthetic flavors, and flavor enhancers (Branen and Bragerty, 2002).

Table 3.2. Chemical preservatives and their dose that are allowed for using in food processing (Indonesian Ministry of Health Regulation No. 722/Menkes/Per/IX/88)

No

Chemical Preservatives

Kinds of Food

Maximum dose

1

Sulphur dioxide

Marmalade

Tomato paste

Sugar Powder

Powder dextrose

Sugar

Vinegar

Syrup

Wine

Grape

Sausage

Dried coffee extract

Gelatin

100 mg/kg

350 mg/kg

20 mg/kg

70 mg/kg

70 mg/kg

70 mg/kg

70 mg/kg

200 mg/kg

450 mg/kg

150 mg/kg

1 g/kg

500 mg/kg

2

Potassium Bisulphate

French fries

Frozen shrimp

Pineapple essence extract

50 mg/kg

10 mg/kg (raw); 30 mg/kg (cooked)

50 mg/kg

3

Potassium Metabisulphate

French fries

Frozen shrimp

50 mg/kg

100 mg/kg

4

Potassium nitrate

Meat

Cheese

500 mg/kg

50 mg/kg

5

Potassium nitrite

Meat

Corned

125 mg/kg

50 mg/kg

6

Potassium sulphate

French fries

Frozen shrimp

Pineapple essence extract

50 mg/kg

100 mg/kg

500 mg/kg

7

Natrium Bisulphate

French fries

Frozen shrimp

Pineapple essence extract

50 mg/kg

100 mg/kg

500 mg/kg

8

Na-metabisulphate

French fries

Frozen shrimp

50 mg/kg

100 mg/kg

9

Natrium nitrate

Meat

Cheese

500 mg/kg

50 mg/kg

10

Natrium nitrite

Meat

Corned

125 mg/kg

50 mg/kg

11

Natrium sulphate

French fries

Frozen shrimp

Pineapple essence extract

50 mg/kg

100 mg/kg

500 mg/kg

(Cahyadi, 2006)

The most commonly used sweeteners are sucrose, glucose, fructose, and lactose, with sucrose being the most popular. The most common additives used as sweeteners are low-calorie or non-caloric sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame. In most cases, flavoring agents are the same chemical mixtures that would naturally provide the flavor (Branen and Bragerty, 2002).

f. Texturizing Agents

These agents are used to add to or modify the overall texture or mouth feel of food products. Phosphates and dough conditioners are other chemicals that play a major role in modifying food texture. Lecithin and mono- and diglycerides as well as several synthetic derivatives. The primary role of these agents is to allow flavors and oils to be dispersed throughout a food product (Branen and Bragerty, 2002).

Stabilizers include several natural gums such as carrageenan as well as natural and modified starches. These additives have been used for several years to provide the desired texture in products such as ice cream and are now also finding use in both dry and liquid products. Carrageenan found in red algae (Yuan, 2008).

Phosphates are often used to modify the texture of foods containing protein or starch. These chemicals are especially useful in stabilizing various dairy and meat products. The phosphates apparently react with protein and/or starch and modify the water-holding capacity of these natural food components (Branen and Bragerty, 2002).

Benefits of Additives

There are obviously many recognized benefits to be derived from additives. Some of the major benefits are a safer and more nutritious food supply, a greater choice of food products, and a lower-priced food supply (Branen and Bragerty, 2002).

Risks of Additives

The indirect risks that have been described for additives are the converse of some of the benefits attributed to their use. Additives have also resulted in the increased availability of food products with a low density of nutrients.

Of greater concern than the indirect risks are the potential direct toxicological effects of additives. Cancer and reproductive problems are of primary concern, although there is no direct evidence linking additive consumption with their occurrence in humans.

2. Chemical Substances

Some chemical substances use in fish/food processing. They used on processing area and products. These substance have used based on government regulation. If they not used based on it the product will be danger to consumers. Several chemical substances are used on fish processing:

Table 3.3. Organic preservatives and their dose that are allowed for using by Indonesian Government (Indonesian Ministry of Health Regulation No. 722/Menkes/Per/IX/88)

No

Organic Preservatives

Kinds of Food

Maximum dose

1

Benzoic acid

Soy sauce

Soft drink

Cucumber pickle

Margarine

Pineapple essence extract

Other foods

600 mg/kg

600 mg/kg

1 g/kg

1 g/kg

1 g/kg

1 g/kg

2

Propionic acid

Cheese

Bread

3 g/kg

2 g/kg

3

Sorbic acid

Cheese

3 g/kg

4

Benzoic Potassium

Margarine

Pineapple essence extract

Dried apricot

Jam and jelly

Syrup, tomato sauce

Grape

Other food except meat, fish, fowl

1 g/kg

1 g/kg

500 mg/kg

1 g/kg

1 g/kg

200 mg/kg

1 g/kg

5

Propionic potassium

Cheese

3 g/kg

6

Sorbic potassium

Cheese

Raw cheese

Margarine

Dried apricot

Cucumber pickle

Jam and jelly

Marmalade

Pineapple essence extract

3 g/kg

1 g/kg

1 g/kg

500 mg/kg

1 g/kg

1 g/kg

500 mg/kg

1 g/kg

7

Benzoate Potassium

Pineapple essence extract

1 g/kg

8

Methyl-p-hydroxyl benzoic

Cucumber pickle

Liquid coffee extract

Tomato paste, essence

Other food except meat, fish, fowl

250 mg/kg

450 mg/kg

1 g/kg

1 g/kg

9

Natrium benzoate

Jam and jelly

Soy sauce

Soft drink

Other foods

1 g/kg

600 mg/kg

600 mg/kg

1 g/kg

10

Natrium propionic

Look at on propionic acid

Look at on propionic acid

11

Nisin

Cheese

12.5 mg/kg

12

Propil-p-hydroxyl benzoic

Look metal-p-hydroxyl benzoic

Look metal-p-hydroxyl benzoic

Source: Cahyadi, (2006)

Table 3. 4. Natural coloring agents characteristic

Group

Color

Sources

Solubility

Stability

Caramel

Brown

Cooked sugar

Water

Stable

Anthosianine

Orange, Red

Blue

Plants

Water

Sensitive to heat and pH

Flavonoid

Without yellow

Plants

Water

Stable to heat

Leucoanthocianine

Colorless

Plants

Water

Stable to heat

Tannin

Colorless

Plants

Water

Stable to heat

Bataline

Yellow, red

Plants

Water

Sensitive to heat

Quinon

Yellow-black

Lichen

Water

Stable to heat

Xanthon

Yellow

Plants

Water

Stable to heat

Carotenoid

Without yellow and red

Plants

Water

Stable to heat

Chlorophyll

Green, brown

Plants

Lipid and Water

Sensitive to heat

Heme

Red, brown

Animals

Water

Sensitive to heat

Source: Cahyadi (2006)

Table 3.5. Synthetic coloring agent that allowed by Indonesia Government

Coloring agent

Color Index number

Maximum dose

Amaranth

Amaranth: Cl Food re 9

16185

Sufficient

Brilliant blue

Brilliant blue FCF:Cl

42090

Sufficient

Erythrosine

Food red 2 Erithrosine: Cl

45430

Sufficient

Green FCF

Food red 14 fast green FCF:Cl

42053

Sufficient

Green S.

Food green 3 green S : Cl. Food

44090

Sufficient

Indigotin

Green 4 Indigotin : Cl. Food

73015

Sufficient

Ponceau 4R

Blue I Ponceau 4R : Cl

16255

Sufficient

Yellow

Food red 7

74005

Sufficient

Quineline

Quineline yellow Cl. Food Yellow 13

15980

Sufficient

FCF Yellow

Sunset yellow FCF Cl. Food yellow 3

-

Sufficient

Riboflavina

Tartrazine

Riboflavina

Tartrazine

19140

Sufficient

Source: Cahyadi (2006)

A. Alkyl Polyglycosides

According to Schmid and Holger (2002), Alkyl polyglycosides with an alkyl chain length of C12/14 is preferred for manual dishwashing detergents (MDD). For the product developer, alkyl polyglycosides have some properties:

· Synergistic performance interactions with anionic surfactants

· Good foaming behavior

· Low skin irritation potential

· Excellent ecological and toxicological properties

· Completely derived from renewable resources

Alkyl polyglycoside-containing products are found both in all-purpose cleaners and in special cleaners, such as bathroom cleaners, toilet cleaners, window cleaners, kitchen cleaners, and floor care products:

* Good cleaning efficiency

* Low environmental stress cracking potential (ESC) for plastics

* Transparent residues

* Good solubility

* Good solubilization

* Stability against acids and alkalis

* Improvement of low temperature properties of surfactant combinations

* Low skin irritation

* Excellent ecological and toxicological properties

B. Ethoxylated Amines

According to (Arif and Floyd, 2002), Fatty amine ethoxylates have some advantages namely:

* Cold-water detergency

* Stain removal

* Provision of alkalinity

* Antiredeposition of soil

* Corrosion inhibition

* No gelling

* Low freeze point

C. Ethoxylated Amides

The two most common types of alkanolamides, diethanolamides and monoethanolamides, are made by reacting a fatty acid or ester with diethanolamine (DEA) or monoethanolamine (MEA), respectively ( 6) [11]. They are used in shampoos, dishwashing and laundry liquids, car wash, and other detergents as viscosity builders, foam boosters, and foam stabilizers (Arif and Floyd, 2002).

D. Amphoterics and Betaines

Amphoteric/betaine surfactants have been used in a wide variety of products including household, I&I, and personal-care detergen. In addition, can also be used in dishwash formulas for their mildness and detergent properties (Arif and Floyd, 2002).

3.4.2.4. Packaging
The role of packaging

Packaging should protect the product from contamination and prevent it from spoilage, and at the same time, it should:

- extends shelf life of a product

- facilitates distribution and display

- gives the product greater consumer appeal

- facilitates the display of information on the product

Packaging materials

According to Coles et al. (2003), there are several packaging materials namely:

a. Metal cans

Metal packages for food products must perform the following basic functions if the contents are to be delivered to the ultimate consumer in a safe and wholesome manner:

· preserve and protect the product

· resist chemical actions of product

· withstand the handling and processing conditions

· withstand the external environment conditions

· have the correct dimensions and the ability to be practically interchange-

· able with similar products from other supply sources (when necessary)

· have the required shelf display properties at the point of sale

· give easy opening and simple/safe product removal

· be constructed from recyclable raw materials.

For food cans, this will normally provide a shelf life of up to 2-3 years or more. The heat process cycles used to achieve this are particularly severe and the containers must be specifically designed to withstand these conditions of temperature and pressure cycles in a steam/water atmosphere (Page et al., 2003).

Steel

Steel is used in the form of a low-carbon steel which is initially produced as black-plate. This is then converted into tinplate or tin-free steel (TFS) for container and closure manufacture. Tin is suitable for direct contact with many products including specific foodstuffs such as white fruits (e.g. peaches, apricots, pineapple and pears) and certain tomato-based products (e.g. tomatoes in brine and beans in tomato sauce) (Page et al., 2003).

Aluminum

Aluminum for light metal packaging is used in a relatively pure form. The internal surfaces of aluminum containers are always coated with an organic lacquer because of the products normally packed (Page et al., 2003).

Interactions between the can and its contents

All foods interact with the internal surface of the can in which they are packed. The most common form of this interaction is corrosion. In plain tinplate containers, this takes the form of etching or pitting corrosion, and staining of the surface may also occur. This also allows the use of other forms of metal container (e.g. tin-free steel or aluminum) which would otherwise be corroded very quickly (Page et al., 2003).

Only tinplate has any corrosion resistance to the acids found in foods; all the other metals must be lacquered. Even tinplate must be lacquered where particularly aggressive products are packed, such as tomato purée, or where there is a danger of pitting corrosion or surface staining (for example, in meat products) (Page et al., 2003).

Tin toxicity

High concentrations of tin in food irritate the gastrointestinal tract and may cause stomach upsets in some individuals, with symptoms which include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, abdominal bloating, fever and headache. These effects may occur in some individuals at tin concentrations above 200 mg kg−1 (the legal limit) with an increased risk of effects at concentrations above 250 mg kg−1 (Page et al., 2003).

b. glass

Glass as ‘an inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid state without crystallizing' (ASTM, 1965 in Girling, 2003).

Attributes of food packaged in glass containers

The glass package has a modern profile with distinct advantages, including:

· Quality image - consumer research by brand owners has consistently indicated that consumers attach a high quality perception to glass packaged products and they are prepared to pay a premium for them.

· Transparency - it is a distinct advantage for the purchaser to be able to see the product in many cases, e.g. processed fruit and vegetables.

· Surface texture -most glass is produced with a smooth surface, other possibilities also exist, for example, for an overall roughened ice-like effect or specific surface designs on the surface, such as text or coats of arms.

· Color - as indicated, a range of colors are possible based on choice of raw materials. Facilities exist for producing smaller quantities of non-mainstream colors, e.g. Stolzle's feeder color system (Ayshford, 2002 in Girling, 2003).

· Decorative possibilities, including ceramic printing, powder coating, colored and plain printed plastic sleeving and a range of labelling.

· Impermeability - for all practical purposes in connection with the packaging of food, glass is impermeable.

· Chemical integrity - glass is chemically resistant to all food products, both liquid and solid. It is odorless.

· Design potential - distinctive shapes are often used to enhance product and brand recognition.

· Heat processable - glass is thermally stable, which makes it suitable for the hot-filling and the in-container heat sterilization and pasteurization of food products.

· Microwaveable - glass is open to microwave penetration and food can be reheated in the container.

· Tamper evident - glass is resistant to penetration by syringes. Glass can quite readily accept preformed metal and roll-on metal closures, which also provide enhanced tamper evidence.

· Ease of opening - the rigidity of the container offers improved ease of opening and reduces the risk of closure misalignment compared with plastic containers.

· UV protection - amber glass offers UV protection to the product and, in some cases, green glass can offer partial UV protection.

· Strength - although glass is a brittle material glass containers have high top load strength making them easy to handle during filling and distribution.

· Hygiene - glass surfaces are easily wetted and dried during washing and cleaning prior to filling.

· Environmental benefits - glass containers are returnable, reusable and recyclable.

Environmental profile

Reuse

Glass containers can be reused for food use. In the licensed trade, and in most places where drinks are served to customers, the drinks manufacturers operate returnable systems (Girling, 2003).

Recycling

Glass is one of the easiest materials to be recycled because it can be crushed, melted and reformed an infinite number of times with no deterioration of structure. Using recycled glass (cullet), in place of virgin raw materials (Girling, 2003).

3.8. Packaging material made from (a) glass; (b) plastic; (c) paper bag; (d) MAP packaging that is used on fish product ( www. ninecooks.typepad.com; www.seafoodfromvietnam.com; www.foodmag.com.au).

c. Plastics

Plastics are used in the packaging of food because they offer a wide range of appearance and performance properties which are derived from the inherent features of the individual plastic material and how it is processed and used (Kirwan and John, 2003).

Use of plastics in food packaging

Plastics are used as containers, container components and flexible packaging. In usage, by weight, they are the second most widely used type of packaging and first in terms of value (Kirwan and John, 2003). Examples are as follows:

* rigid plastic containers such as bottles, jars, pots, tubs and trays;

* flexible plastic films in the form of bags, sachets, pouches and heat-sealable flexible lidding materials;

* plastics combined with paperboard in liquid packaging cartons;

* expanded or foamed plastic for uses where some form of insulation, rigidity and the ability to withstand compression is required;

* plastic lids and caps and the wadding used in such closures;

* diaphragms on plastic and glass jars to provide product protection and tamper evidence;

* plastic bands to provide external tamper evidence;

* pouring and dispensing devices;

* to collate and group individual packs in multipacks, e.g. Hi-cone rings for cans of beer, trays for jars of sugar preserves etc.;

* plastic films used in cling, stretch and shrink wrapping;

* films used as labels for bottles and jars, as flat glued labels or heat-shrinkable sleeves; and

* Components of coatings, adhesives, and inks.

Types of plastics used in food packaging

According to Kirwan and John (2003), there are a number of plastics types that used in food-packaging:

· polyethylene (PE);

· polypropylene (PP);

· polyesters (PET, PEN, PC) (note: PET is referred to as PETE in some markets) ionomers;

· ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA);

· polyamides (PA);

· polyvinyl chloride (PVC);

· polyvinylidene chloride (PVdC);

· polystyrene (PS);

· styrene butadiene (SB);

· acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS);

· ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH);

· polymethyl pentene (TPX);

· high nitrile polymers (HNP);

· fluoropolymers (PCTFE/PTFE);

· cellulose-based materials; and

· polyvinyl acetate (PVA).

How to choose

The key to successful food packaging is to identify the packaging needs of the product. The choice should take account of environmental and waste management issues. Ensuring food safety with respect to biological risks and needs relating to flavor, color, and texture is essential.

The following tables 3.6. to 3.8. give some guidance in terms of ranking for moisture vapor permeability,

d. Paper and paperboard packaging

Paper and paperboard are printable and have physical properties which enable them to be made into flexible and rigid packaging by cutting, creasing, folding, forming, gluing etc (Kirwan, 2003). There are many different types of paper and paperboard.

Table 3.6. Ranking of various films with respect to specified properties

Polymer

Water vapour transmission

rate (WVTR)

Gas

permeability

Optics

Machine

performance

Sealing

LDE

3

4

4

4

1

Cast PP

3

4

2

4

2

OPP

2

2

2

2

2

OPP coated

1

1

1

2

1

PET

2

2

1

1

4

PVC

3

2

2

4

2

1 Excellent, 2 Very Good, 3 Good, 4 Poor.

Source: Girling (2003)

Papers and paperboards used for packaging range from thin tissues to thick boards. The main examples of paper and paperboard based packaging are:

· paper bags, wrapping, packaging papers and infusible tissues, e.g. tea and

· coffee bags, sachets, pouches, overwrapping paper, sugar and flour bags,

· carrier bags

· multiwall paper sacks

· folding cartons and rigid boxes

· corrugated and solid fiberboard boxes (shipping cases)

· paper based tubes, tubs and composite containers

· fiber drums

· liquid packaging

· molded pulp containers

· labels

· sealing tapes

· cushioning materials

· cap liners (sealing wads) and diaphragms (membranes).

Table 3.7.General gas and moisture barrier properties

Film (25 m thickness)

Water vapor transmission

rate (WVTR)

Oxygen transmission rate

LDPE

10 - 20

6500 - 8500

LDPE 7 - 10

7 - 10

1600 - 2000

OPP

5 - 7

2000 - 2500

CastPP

10 - 12

3500 - 4500

EVOH

1000

0.5

PVdC

0.5 - 1.0

2 - 4

PA

300 - 400

50 - 75

PS

70 - 150

4500 - 6000

PET

15 - 20

100 - 150

Aluminum

0

0

Units: WVTR in g m−2/24 h at tropical conditions of 90% RH at 380C and gas permeability in cm3m−2/24 hrs.

Source: Girling (2003)

Table 3.8. Examples of suitability of various films for packing the products named

Product

LDPE

OPP

OPP

(metallised)

OPP (coated)

Laminated (no Al)

Laminated (+ Al)

Package types

Fresh bread

***

***

0

0

0

0

HFF

Long life bread

0

0

*0

*(MAP)

**(MAP)

**(MAP)

HFF

Snacks/crisps

(chips)

0

*

**

***

**

***

VFF

Biscuits

0

0

**

***

**

***

HFF

Nuts

0

0

** (MAP)

*(MAP)

**(MAP)

***(MAP)

VFF

Cooked meat

0

0

*

**

**(MAP)

***(MAP)

Pouch

Frozen food

**

*

*

0

***

***

Various

0 Not suitable, * short life, ** medium life, *** long life, MAP modified atmosphere pack.

Source: Girling (2003)

e. Active packaging

Active packaging refers to the incorporation of certain additives into packaging film or within packaging containers with the aim of maintaining and extending product shelf life (Day, 1989 in Day, 2003). Active packaging includes additives or freshness enhancers that are capable of scavenging oxygen; adsorbing carbon dioxide, moisture, ethylene and/or flavor/odor taints; releasing ethanol, sorbates, antioxidants and/or other preservatives; and/or maintaining temperature control.

Active packaging has been used with many food products and is being tested with numerous others.

f. Modified atmosphere packaging

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is defined as ‘the packaging of a perishable product in an atmosphere which has been modified so that its composition is other than that of air' (Hintlian & Hotchkiss, 1986 in Mullan and Derek, 2003).

Packing foods in a modified atmosphere can offer extended shelf life and improved product presentation in a convenient container, making the product more attractive to the retail customer. However, MAP cannot improve the quality of a poor quality food product (Mullan and Derek, 2003).

Gases used in MAP

According to Mullan and Derek (2003), the three main gases used in MAP are O2, CO2 and N2. The choice of gas is totally dependent upon the food product being packed. Used singly or in combination, these gases are commonly used to balance safe shelf life extension with optimal organoleptic properties of the food. Experimental use of carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) has also been reported.

Effect of the gaseous environment on the activity of bacteria, yeasts and moulds

Foods can contain a wide range of microorganisms including bacteria and their spores, yeasts, moulds, protozoa and viruses. While the packaging technologist will generally be concerned with preventing the growth of bacteria, yeasts and moulds in foods, one should be aware that certain pathogenic microorganisms, while not growing in the food, may survive during the shelf life period and cause food poisoning or disease in consumers.

Packaging materials

According to Mullan, M. and Derek McDowell (2003), the commonly used plastics for MAP applications such as:

* Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH)

* Polyethylenes (PE)

* Polyamides (PA)

* Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

* Polypropylene (PP)

* Polystyrene (PS)

* Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

* Polyvinylidene chloride (PVdC)

3.4.2.5. Storage

During storage, the pleasant flavors of seafood are progressively lost as spoilage occurs, and stale unpleasant flavors develop. As these spoilage flavors increase, the seafood becomes less acceptable to the consumer.

Table 3.9. Selected examples of active packaging systems

Active packaging system

Mechanisms

Food applications

Oxygen scavengers

1. iron based

2. metal/acid

3. metal (e.g. platinum) catalyst

4. ascorbate/metallic salts

5. enzyme based

bread, cakes, cooked rice,

biscuits, pizza, pasta, cheese, cured meats and fish, coffee, snack foods, dried foods and beverages

Carbon dioxide scavengers/emitters

1. iron oxide/calcium hydroxide

2. ferrous carbonate/metal halide

3. calcium oxide/activated charcoal

4. ascorbate/sodium bicarbonate

coffee, fresh meats and fish, nuts and other snack food products and sponge cakes

Ethylene scavengers

1. potassium permanganate

2. activated carbon

3. activated clays/zeolites

fruit, vegetables and other

horticultural products

Preservative releasers

1. organic acids

2. silver zeolite

3. spice and herb extracts

4. BHA/BHT antioxidants

5. vitamin E antioxidant

6. volatile chlorine dioxide/sulphur dioxide

cereals, meats, fish, bread,

cheese, snack foods, fruit and vegetables

Ethanol emitters

1. alcohol spray

2. encapsulated ethanol

pizza crusts, cakes, bread,

biscuits, fish and bakery

products

Moisture absorbers

1. PVA blanket

2. activated clays and minerals

3. silica gel

fish, meats, poultry, snack

foods, cereals, dried foods,

sandwiches, fruit and

vegetables

Flavor/odor absorbers

1. cellulose triacetate

2. acetylated paper

3. citric acid

4. ferrous salt/ascorbate

5. activated carbon/clays/zeolites

fruit juices, fried snack

foods, fish, cereals, poultry,

dairy products and fruit

Temperature control packaging

1. non-woven plastics

2. double walled containers

3. hydrofluorocarbon gas

4. Lime/water

5. ammonium nitrate/water

ready meals, meats, fish,

poultry and beverages

Source: Mullan, M. and Derek McDowell (2003)

To prevent seafood spoilage, three important factors must be controlled during storage:

· Product temperature,

· Storage time (stock rotation), and

· Protection from contamination.

Fresh seafood must be stored between -1.5o and 5oC. Frozen seafood must be stored at -18oC or lower. Seafood should never be at room temperature. Storage temperatures closer to 0oC (between -1.5oC and 2oC) or lower than -18oC, will give a longer shelf life as they minimize the activity of enzymes and the growth of bacteria (Anonymous, 2002).

Stock rotation during storage is important to maintain seafood safety and freshness. Never mix two deliveries and identify them by using different shelves and date codes. Rotate stock and prevent left over seafood coming in contact with fresh seafood. A stock rotation system should operate on the ‘first in - first out' principle (Anonymous, 2002).

Storage buildings for incoming raw materials should be sited so that an efficient flow of material to the processing areas is maintained. Storage space should be of a size that is sufficient to accommodate all raw materials even at peak periods; all too often inadequate storage space leads to an undesirable overflow of raw materials into production and other areas.

The storage requirement for different categories of foods obviously vary but all storage areas should provide protection form dust, insect, rodents, and other pats.

Food materials should not be placed directly on the floor but should be stored on pallets or racks. Stacks should be so arranged that inspection of the upper layers is facilitated. Storage zones should be clearly marked with traffic lanes of an adequate width interspacing them at regular intervals. Goods must not be stacked against walls and in larger storage areas there should be a gap between the wall and the stack that is sufficient for walking down for inspection purpose. Where shelving or racking is used for storage, ground, and will clearance should be at least 30 cm to promote air circulation and assist cleaning: where possible it is better for shelves to be accessible from both sides.

Cold stores should be cuboids in shape to give the minimum surface area: volume ratio as by this mean maximum storage space is obtained for the minimum of insulation; a similar principle can be applied to chill rooms although here it is less critical. Insulating cold stores is expensive but is necessary to obtain a storage temperature which is as constant as possible. Fluctuating temperature reduce the shelf life of foods in terms of both quality and weight loss. To control weight losses high relative humilities are required although in this respect it should not be forgotten that air can only absorb low levels of moisture at these low storage temperatures.

Finished product storage

Thus the need for a clean and constant environment is of paramount interface. Sufficient space is also necessary so that inspection and cleaning can be facilitated; again, adequate traffic lanes must be provided. The cold store illustrated in 3.9 is an example of what can be achieved with finished product storage.

3.4.2.6. Distribution

Seafood purchased by a retail store for on-selling to the consumer, must be safe and of sufficient quality to ensure it will not spoil during expected storage times.

To minimize the potential risk to consumers, seafood retail outlets should be able to trace seafood back to the supplier. This information is necessary to allow for rapid notification and effective recall if seafood contamination is suspected.

Transportation of seafood requires all the same controls to maintain safety and quality. Transport vehicles should be maintained in a clean and hygienic state, and transport methods (refrigerated or use of ice) should be capable of maintaining seafood at between 0 and 50C.

3.5. Summary

Good Manufacturing Practices should be selected and adopted before HACCP is implemented. Without the application of CGMP principles, an effective HACCP program cannot be conducted. GMP are one of the HACCP prerequisite programs. GMP relate to all aspects food processing operations that prevent product contamination from direct or indirect sources. The strict implementation of quality assurance systems through GMP application by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) engaged in processing of traditional fish and fishery products is a vital component in the production of quality products that are safe for human consumption.

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