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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND

Understanding human behavior in workplace has been one of the most prioritized tasks for any organization. This is due to major changes like globalization and technological advancement that change in the structure of the business done, the workforce behavior and management of employees. To keep up the business state of the art and become successful, the organizations should acclimatize with these changes (Vercueil, 2001). So, it has become important for employers to know what motivates their employees rather than emphasizing them to increase productivity. The environment, in which the employees work as a team, should be created and sustained so that they are themselves driven towards achieving the common goals. Hence, motivation is given more attention in the organization to know employees and their behavior. In any organization, every staff is unique and performs the task based on their mental abilities and the extent to which they are applied at work (Mullins, 2007). Some people tend to work really harder than others. If a staff is appreciated for his/her hard work, he/she is more likely to be motivated to high performance.

Herzberg et al 1999 explained that employees show different attitudes depending on the nature of jobs assigned to them at workplace. Furthermore, they argued these attitudes towards their jobs have a significant influence on the survival of the organization. there is a famous saying which is based on Herzberg's thought that if an organization wants its employees to do a good job, give them a good job to do (Giancola,2010). To illustrate this, during the hard times of the organization, the morality among the workforce determines its success or failure provided that they are made feel as the essential resources of the organization and are given appropriate chances to prove themselves. Thus, motivated employees are more likely to contribute for the success and survival of the organization.

In earlier days, motivation was considered as only a force that drives individuals to become committed in the job of their choice. The early approaches of motivation emphasizes on the needs of the individuals explaining their tendency to be motivated and the efforts exerted in order to satisfy those needs. There were some other approaches which highlighted on the employees' goal setting. Modern approaches of motivation draws attention towards the values and long term goals set by the employees. Simons and Enz (2006) says now the employees perform the task not only to fulfill the basic needs but also to increase their values, become successful and satisfied from their performance.

Motivation has been one of those areas which gained lots of interests from organizational psychologists and many scholars since 1930s. Yet, the in-depth understanding of motivation has been considered as a tough task (Locke and Latham, 2004). Thus, this research work is aimed to identify what motivates employees of Bank of Kathmandu by applying the concept of existing theories.

1.2 Background of the organization

The organization chosen for research work is Bank of Kathmandu BOK, one of the renowned commercial banks of Nepal. BOK commenced its operation in 1995 with an aim to contribute in the economic development of Nepal. BOK is in a position to become “Bank of Choice” through serving and supporting its customers financially. Considering this vision, the bank has a total of 39 branches, 6 extension counters and 50 ATMs across the country. It has helped not only in promoting economic development but also it reduces unemployment problem to some extent by providing opportunities to local people. The basic reason behind selecting this particular bank is due to its distinct uniqueness and growing success and secondly, the researcher had an easy access to this bank. The research is carried out based on the responses given by the staff working in two branches of the bank.

1.3 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Employee commitment has been a matter of focus for companies to be successful and the committed employees are considered as the most important factors of organizational effectiveness (Robertson, et al. 2007). However, retaining committed employees within organization is not an easy task. The employees of modern era work to satisfy the needs as well as achieve their individual goals (Drake and Kossen, 2002). Gubman (2003) pointed out the increasing trend of employees doing many jobs at a time in their career and have become more mobile. Employees are no more working in organisations for a long term basis. Thus, it needs a proper understanding of what motivates and satisfies them at work to generate such commitments.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Motivation needs vary on individuals based on their level of needs, backgrounds, expectations and personal traits. In simple words, two different employees working in the same environment may have different level of satisfaction. Furthermore, human needs are always dynamic and change over time becoming sometimes stronger or weaker. According to Simons and Enz (2006), while attempting to motivate the employees, the managers make mistakes assuming wrongly that they understand the employees and their needs and expectations they want from their work. This research work, therefore, focuses on the factors motivating employees and helping managers to understand their employees. In this context, the questions related to the research are:

  1. What are the critical factors that motivate and satisfy employees in BOK?
  2. How do the factors of motivation influence staff satisfaction in BOK?
  3. What are the motivation strategy adopted by BOK for better management and performance of the staff?

1.5 Research aim

The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors that motivate workers and their impact on organizational performances in Bank of Kathmandu (BOK), Nepal.

The study aims to analyse the factors that motivate employees to encourage them to give their best performances in order to increase the organizational effectiveness and achieve its goals. It also aims to know the extent to which BOK is successful in making its employees satisfied and committed.

1.6 Research objectives

The study is an explanation about the employee motivation in Bank of Kathmandu BOK, one of the leading banks in Nepal. Hence, the objectives of this research can be listed as:

  1. To investigate factors of motivation and their impact on the performance of BOK.
  2. To critically analyse the factors of motivation and its effect on staff satisfaction in BOK.
  3. To develop motivation strategy for better management and performance for the staff in BOK.

The research work would be significant to students, other researchers and the bank itself which can be taken as a source of reference.

1.7 Limitations of the research

Motivation is a concept with a broad area of research. It contains a wide range of theories on factors that motivate people (content theories) along with theories that describe how behaviours are initiated, directed and endured (process theories). The research work focuses only content theories which identify the particular needs that drive the human behaviour to perform better or worse.

The researcher has tried to present the impact of motivation and job satisfaction on employees' mental health, social life, and family life in order to show the significance and scope of the research topic. However, they are only considered in the theory but not clearly shown on the observed part of the research.

Apart from these limitations, there are some other limitations for the research as

  1. There was time constraint to complete this research work as the researcher has to complete the work within three months' period.
  2. The budget allocated was less due to the researcher is a student.
  3. The data analysis is done based on the employees randomly selected from only two branches.

1.8 Outline of the study

Chapter 1: introduction: The first chapter deals with the research topic, an overview of the company selected for research work followed by statement of problem, purpose of the study and limitations.

Chapter 2: Literature Review: this chapter contains reviews of various theories of motivation and job satisfaction. The researcher has showed the relationship between motivation and variables like rewards, job satisfaction, job performance, trainings, behaviour and conflict. It also explained how positive motivation lead to

Chapter 3: methodology: this chapter deals with the methods, different tools and techniques used in the research work for data collection, analysis and interpretation.

Chapter 4: data analysis: the chapter covers the ways the collected data were compiled and analysed. The analysis is based on the literature review and survey done via questionnaires in order to best serve the purpose of the study.

Chapter 5: conclusions and recommendations: this chapter contains three parts namely findings, recommendations and conclusion.

1.9 Conclusion

In this chapter, the researchers has discussed about the introduction of employee motivation and its importance in organisations. The main reason behind conducting this research work, the problem area, and the limitations are clarified. A brief introduction of organisation is given on the basis of which this study is done. The basic knowledge of the contents of the research work is also discussed.

Chapter 2

Literature review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter explains about the facts, theories and models of motivation. Theories of motivation e.g. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Pr. McGregor's Theory X and Y, McClelland's theory of needs, etc are discussed in depth to increase the understanding of the area under research. The introduction and importance of motivation, job satisfaction and opinions of various authors are elucidated by reviewing various academic books, magazines, journals and articles. The information presented below serves as foundation to the analysis of this research.

this new era, every organisation treats its workforce as an important source of its competitive advantage. Employees are no more seen as only loyal members of the company but they like to be treated with respect and they want their companies to give them opportunities to prove themselves. Hence, Lawler (2003) says that it has become necessity for any company to treat people in a right way in order to success and survive in the business world. An organisation can increase productivity and improve performance only when it invests in employees (Gitman and McDaniel, 2008).

For this reason, the company should be able to attract, retain and develop talented employees (Pittorino et al., 2005). Understanding the factors that motivate employees and maximize productivity has become a crucial job to be performed by managers.

2.2 Definitions of motivation

Motivation is one of the highly complex but misunderstood concept. Mills and Forshaw (2006) supported this statement as though there are an abundance of motivational theories; the organisations are unable to apply the best theory of motivation due to human beings complexity and various factors influencing their behaviours. Nevertheless, the main concern of the study of motivation is with why people behave as they do (Mullins, 2007).

Motivation is the drive to do something (Tileston, 2004); it can be defined as the direction and intensity of one's effort to satisfy his/her needs (Weinberg, et al, 2010). According to Jones and George, (2004), motivation is considered as the psychological force that shows a person's level of effort applied in order to persist with obstacles and achieve his/her target and the way he/she behaves in an organisation. Furthermore, Latham 2007) describes motivation as a process of cognitive resource allocation where a person allocates his/her efforts as per importance of motives or tasks. To support this statement, Robins (2005) says that individuals have various level of motivation varying times and situations.

2.2.1 Need and expectation at work

No individuals are same and they perceive the same thing in different ways. Individuals have different needs and expectation which they strive to fulfil in different ways. If these needs and expectations are not fulfilled, it will make them dissatisfied and the consequences are turnover, absenteeism, etc. so motivating employees has been a tough task for managers provided that employees react in different ways in the jobs assigned (Beardwell and Claydon, 2007). Since managers are solely responsible for motivating employees, they should be capable of giving employees reasons to believe in themselves as well as organisation where they are working (Baldoni, 2005). Employees become dissatisfied and less motivated when managers fail to make employees know their driving forces.

According to robins (2003), there are three relationships where employees are less motivated when their needs and expectations are not fulfilled. First relationship explains about the effort and performance of employees. Managers should make their employees believe that maximum effort exerted leads to the recognition in performance appraisals. This is not always correct as in some cases, employees do not believe that their effort will result in recognition and they are less motivated to perform.

The second relationship is about the employees' performance and organisational reward. The employees are made believe that they will be rewarded for their outstanding performance or performance appraisal. But there will be lack of motivation because employees know that they will not be rewarded by the organisation just for the performance.

The last one is the relationship between reward received and reward expected. They are motivated only when they get what they desire for. If opposite happens, they become dissatisfied with the job. So It is managers who should know if the reward given matches with the one employees expect for.

Hence, managers should keep these relationships as essential factors for employees to keep motivated and long lasting retention. Strengthening these relationships , the managers can motivate their employees and boost productivity. Sutherland and Canwell (2004) says it is the primary responsibility of managers to maintain motivation by creating such a work environment where employees will show positive attitude and become committed and loyal and where they believe that they are valued and the organisation gives crucial interest in them.

2.2.2 Sources of motivation

Motivation is the driving force that comes within an individual to satisfy his/her unsatisfied needs. Needs and expectations are drivers that motivate an individual to achieve those needs. These motivators are often considered in terms of being internal or external. According to Mac and Sockel (2001), the internal motivators are related with intrinsic needs that satisfies an individual while external motivators are environmental factors brought up to individual by organisation. intrinsic motivation makes a person to be productive as it comes within him/her while extrinsic motivation results once the unmet needs have been achieved(Marquis and Huston, 2008). A person is intrinsically motivated when he/she engages in the activity that gives pleasure and satisfaction (Deci and Ryan, 2004). On the contrary, Deci and Ryan (2004) explained extrinsic motivation as an external control over a person who gets engaged in the activity, not for pleasure or satisfaction but for attaining a positive outcome or avoiding a negative outcome.

Hence, a manager should strive to stimulate an employee's intrinsic motives to complete a task given. Intrinsic motives can be satisfied by the work itself. Since the task given to an individual provides interest, challenges and opportunities for personal growth and development, it has been considered as the main source of motivation (Molander, 1996).

2.5 classification of motivation theories

The main concern of all theories of motivation is the understanding of human behaviour. Drafke and kossen (2002:273) explains that “these theories provide the basis for both managers and employees to understand how to motivate others; how others are trying to motivate and how that person can engage more in his/her own motivation effort and others' efforts in trying to motivate him/her.”

In late 1930s, the Hawthorne study carried out by Frederick Taylor drew attention towards the study of motivation. (Locke and Latham, 2004). The purpose of this study was to examine how working conditions affect productivity (Hindle,2008). The study concluded working condition had no effect on the employee productivity and it was employees who were concerned with their work (Hindle, 2008). This result of this study made many managers and researchers focus on employees' needs and motivation.

According Robbins (2005), the development of the concepts of motivation was mostly seen in 1950s. during that time, several new models, referred as content theories, were emerged that mainly focused on identifying the factors related to motivation. (steers, et al. 2004). Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Model of Herzberg's two-factor theory and McClelland's achievement motivation theory are the content theories. The main focus of these theories is on the needs of people for which they direct their behaviour to satisfy them (smit,2007).

2.5.1 Needs:maslow's hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow developed a motivational theory named hierarchy of needs (Pride, et al, 2009). A need is required by every person. An individual fulfils his/her needs to get satisfaction and motivation is an effort to satisfy a need (Aldag and Kuzuhara, 2002).

Maslow postulated that humans always seek to fulfil a variety of needs which are in sequential order as per their importance (Pride, et al. 2009). when one need is satisfied, it drecreases in strength and the higher need then dominates behaviour. The underlying needs for all human motives can be organised on five general levels depicted as a pyramid (diagram) listed from the lowest to the highest level of needs.

Physiological and safety needs are on the lowest level of the pyramid as they are satisfied externally. The other three needs are internal and are therefore considered as higher-order needs. Di Cesare and Sadri (2003) state that the need must be met from the lowest and then move upward to satisfy the peak of the hierarchy.

While implying Maslow's Needs Hierarchy in management practice of BOK, it has various opportunitites to motivate its staff depending upon the needs. Some of them are listed below:

Physiological needs: provision of sufficient breaks for lunch and recovery and payment of salary for fulfilling the basic essentials of life.

Safety needs: provision of job security, conductive safety environment and threats freedom

Social needs: generating a feeling of acceptance, belonging and community by reinforcing team dynamics.

Esteem needs: recognition of achievement, assignment of projects and providing status to make employees feel valued and appreciated.

Self Actualisation: offering challenge and meaningful work assignment that enable innovation, creativity and progress.

2.5.2 Herzberg's two factor theory

Herzberg put forward the view that productivity of an employee is based not only the job satisfaction but also on work motivation Pattanayak(200). Robbins(2003) elucidates that according to herzberg, an individual's relation and attitude towards work can determine success or failure. People have two sets of needs that are related to job satisfaction and others to job dissatisfaction (Nelson and Quick,200). Elements of the job that led to job satisfaction are labelled as motivators and elements to dissatisfaction are labelled as hygiene factors. Intrinsic factors or motivators such as achievement, recognition, advancement, the work itself and responsibility are related to job satisfaction. Job dissatisfaction is the result of extrinsic factors or hygiene factors such as working conditions, job security, supervision, pay and organisation policies. Di Cesare and Sadri (2003) state that herzberg is interested in the extremes where employees either feel good or bad about the work, this leads to development of motivators and hygiene factors. Herzberg states that the opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction and therefore, job dissatisfaction is not the opposite of job satisfaction.

Herzberg(2003) suggests nine factors that motivate employees and they are reducing time spent at work, fringe benefit, sensitivity training, spiralling wages, two-way communication, job participation, human relation training, communication and employee counselling. He also compared motivation with that of internal self-charging battery suggesting that the energy or the positivity should come from within the employees to become motivated (Bassett-Jones and Lloyd, 2005). Herzberg argues that an employee is motivated to satisfy it growth needs; it is founded upon satisfaction innate of a sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility and personal growth. He further says that recognition is transformed into feedback, responsibility to self-regulation, authority to communicate, exercise control over resource and accountability and lastly, growth and advancement are transformed into the new expertise. Though hygiene theory is one of the popular theories of motivation, the findings done from past empirical studies show that pay, recognition and responsibility are classified as both a motivator and hygiene factors.

2.5.4 McClelland's theory of needs

(Richard L. Daft, Patricia G. Lane, 2007) put forward the theory stating that individual acquire certain type of needs during his/her lifetime. Individuals acquire these needs by learning and interacting with the environment (Montana and Charnov, 2000). theory focuses on three needs:

Need for achievement: it drives to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Individuals with this drive desire to do something more efficiently overcoming challenges to achieve the objectives.

Need of power: it is the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Individuals with this need are placed in competitive situations to be concerned with gaining influence over individual, group or organization.

Need for affiliation: it is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationship. Individuals with this desire tend to have a strong desire to be liked or accepted by others and thus maintain harmonious relationship with others.

Accoriding to smit (2007:340), these theories are based on needs of people and the factors that influence their behaviour.

Process theory

Process theory came into light in early 1960s. it was an approach that focused on how motivation actually occurs. (Smit 2007:347). These theories explained the way individual choose their behaviour to satisfy their needs (Lussier and Achua, 2009). it is more complex in compare to content theory.

2.5.3 Vroom's Expectation theory

The expectancy theory, aimed at work motivation, is founded on the idea that an individual's motivation is based on his/her desire for an outcome and the probability that his/her effort will lead to required performance. Robbins (2003) defines expectation theory as, “ the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outvome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual” (Robbins, 2003:173). Vroom's expectancy theory focuses on three relationships:

Effort performance outcome

Effort-performance relationships: the probability remarked by an individual that applying an extra effort will lead to performance.

Performance-reward relationship: the degree to which the individual believes that extra effort exerted performance will lead to the accomplishment of desired outcome.

Reward-personal goal relationship: the degree to which individual's goals are satisfied by organizational rewards and the degree to which individual is personally attracted to the rewards.

Equity Theory

J. Stacy Adam's equity theory proposed that individuals are motivated when their inputs equal outputs (Lussier and Achua, 2009). This theory enables an individual to perceive a relationship between the reward he/she received and his/her performance.(Smit, 2007). individuals tend to make comparison of the inputs such as status, experience, effort, etc and outputs such as recognition, benefits, pay, etc with that of others which co-worker, a group of employees from different organisations, etc (Lussier and Achua, 2009:87).

2.5.6 Goal setting theory

The goal setting theory proposed by Locke states that a person is likely to give a higher performance if the goals are specific and difficult. Besides these, there are also other factors along with feedbacks such as goal commitment, task complexity and national culture that influence the goal-performance relationship. Meyer,et al. (2004) elucidates that motivation comes from the goals an individual sets up based oh his/her needs, personal values and perception that shaped via experience at work. goals give people a sense of purpose to show the reason of working to achieve a task given (Lussier and Achua, 2009:90). Goals direct individual's attention to a specific target. If individuals have specific and difficult goals, then they optimise the performance (Huber,2006).

Reinforcement theory

Reinforcement theory is the relationship between the behaviour of individual and the consequences by modifying or changing it via use of rewards or punishments (Daft and Lane,2007). It consistently predicts job behaviour (Lusssier and Achua,2009). People learn behaviour through the experiences of positive and negative consequences. Behaviour is a function of its consequences (Griffin and Moorhead,2009). According to Daft and Lane (2007), managers use reinforcement to shape or modify employee behaviour in four ways:

Positive reinforcement: employees are encouraged to continue their behaviour by offering consequences for desirable performance. If an employee receives positive reinforcement for certain behaviour, that employee is tend to be motivated to maintain or increase the frequency of that behaviour (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009).

Avoidance reinforcement

It is also known as negative reinforcement. The employees are given the opportunity to avoid an unpleasant circumstance once behaviour is improved.

Extinction

Motivating individuals and groups at work

Theorists of motivation investigate the factors that direct and boost work related behaviour. They strive to understand activities that people enjoy and conditions that encourage them to apply efforts. As a result various motivation models were developed which main focus was on the needs and expectations of individuals.

This models were best used in organisatons where understanding of behaviour of employees has been important. Due to change in structure of organisations, today's employees work in teams supporting each other sharing common interest to accomplish the common goals rather focusing on the achievement of personal goals. Ellemers, et al. (2004) employee motivation refers to the goals, needs and rewards of one whole team or the organisation where they work. this concludes that research on motivating group has been important for any organisation.

The number of organisation, emphasising employees to work in teams, has steadily increased. Working in teams offers opportunities for job enrichment, decrease the workload of supervisors and enhance the performance. However, there may be some lazy members in team who exert less effort in performing the task.

2.5.5 Douglas McGregor Theory X and Y

In this theory, Douglas McGregor assumes that the managers handle their employees based on their behaviours and nature. These assumptions are categorised as Theory X and Theory Y. theory X states that workers are lazy, incapable of taking responsibility , dislike work and need a constant supervision while theory Y assumes that people love work, complete task with less supervision and have responsibility ( Dzimbiri,2009).

2.6 Ways of motivating employee to ensure better performance

The employees' experiences at work show their feeling towards their jobs either positively or negatively. Employee motivation is taken into account by every organisation as one of the major challenging tasks. Motivation can be classified as positive or negative. The managers should encourage positive motivation to enhance performance. On the contrary, when the performance is demotivating, the approach adopted would be determined by persisting situation.

Communication

Communication is always an effective way to improve motivation and enhance productivity. There should be two-way communication between managers and staff that generate feedbacks on the performance.

Job participation scheme

Participation scheme enables staff to become a member of decision making team and express their views on organisational decisions. This leads staff to be responsible to increase their efficiency and productivity at work.

Fringe benefit

If an organization can retain the employees by providing them with the fringe benefit. This prevents turnover if effectively use and increase the productivity.

Research methodology

Introduction

This research work is carried out to examine the factors that motivate and influence employees of Bank of Kathmandu and strategies adopted by the bank to enhance productivity by providing employees with optimum satisfaction. It highlights the procedures applied to understand research problem area and evaluate the result.

The Research Process

Customised research procedures are used by the researcher determining the exceptions of research regarding how vast the topic is. It starts with problem formulation along with the process that the researcher undertakes to get the result as solution to that problem. The problem of identifying what factors motivate employees in a particular bank namely, Bank Of Kathmandu.

In this modern era, the way the employees behave at workplace has been changed. Job satisfaction has become more important than any other variables. For the success and survival of company in the competitive market, the most prioritised work of managers is to retain the skilled employees and motivate them to give their best performance. Nevertheless, employees are more interested in doing different jobs at the same time and are not willing to keep long term relationships with organisations. To add up, they are unlikely to be motivated as they use to be before.

Once the research problem is defined, the objectives are formulated to achieve the solutions to the targeted problem. The hypothese

Qualitative and quantitative research

Survey questionnaire

Questionnaires include open- ended questions, closed-ended or the combination of both. In open-ended questions, the respondents are allowed to give their own answers while the closed-ended questions provide the respondents with a set of alternatives and choose answer from that set (Saunders, et al. 2007). researchers use close-ended questions for they provide the greater control, make respondents easy to answer and short answers lead to quick results (Arthur,2006). The researcher, in this study, has used closed-ended questions using Lickert Rating Scale.

Components of questionnaire

The questionnaire comprises of two sections: A and B. section A consists of questions related to the demographic data of the respondents. This contains general information regarding gender, age group, marital status, salary after tax deduction per month, academic qualification, post held in the bank and working experience in the bank.

Section B consists of 14 statements which are developed based on the ten great ways to motivate employees by Nelson and Economy (2005:73). These statements examine if Nelson's ten points prove to be the source of motivation for the staff in BOK.

Pilot study

According to McBurney and White (2009:236), “pilot study is tentative, small-scale study done to pretest and modify study design and procedures.” It is done to improve the questionnaire and rectify the mistakes. For pilot study, the questionnaire was handed out to some employees of Nepal Finance Company which is in same area as BOK is. After processing and analysing the feedback, some changes were done in the layout along with replacing some of the words.

Population and sample

The researcher had chosen two branches of Bank of Kathmandu namely, Kathmandu(KTM) branch and Pokhara (PKR) branch to identify factors that motivate the employees of BOK who were the sample population for the research. There are 117 employees working in two branches. The majority of employees work in KTM branch and the rest in PKR branch. So, 25 employees from each branch, altogether 50 employees, were given questionnaires; 5 employees from each branch were interviewed. So, 60 employees were taken randomly selected sample out of 117 population.

If the population is small but the sampling ratio is large, it gives high degree of accuracy.(Vercueil, 2001). A sampling ratio of 30 percent is require for population smaller than thousands. The sample ratio in this research is 51.28 percent showing a relatively high degree of accuracy.

Data collection

Once the questionnaire has been refined from the pilot study, it is ready to actually place on practice. Since the researcher has chosen two branches of BOK namely, Kathmandu and Pokhara. The questionnaires should be distributed among the staff of those branches. Since the researcher is currently in United Kingdom, he/she has difficulty in direct access. So, he/she sent copies of questionnaire via email to his/her friends in Nepal instructing them to distribute questionnaires among the staff of BOK. The friends were requested to administer the target respondents and make them clear if any confusion occur.

The data is collected via video interviews as well. This was personally done by the researcher making best use of internet technology. He/she arranged appointments with the interviewees at their convenient time via emails. The respondents are requested to use Skype as a medium of interview. 10 respondents, 5 from each branch, were interviewed at different times and on different days. Though the researcher had detailed information about them, they are kept confident considering ethical behaviour.

Out of 50 questionnaires distributed between two branches, all of them were returned. the interviewees were also friendly and answered all the questions asked by the researcher.

Data processing and analysis

Once the data is collected, the next step that the researcher took is the processing and analysis of data. Data is processed via editing and coding (Zikmund and Babin, 2009). After the collection of questionnaires from the respondents, the acceptability of questions were examined and coded assigning numbers to each of the question.

The answers collected via video interview were simplified understandable by the researcher. the empirical analysis is done for interviews.

Ethical considerations

Involvement of human beings either directly or indirectly in almost all research give rise to ethical issues (Sim and Wright, 2000). Hence, the researcher should make individuals involved assured of confidentiality. Considering the ethical values, the participation of employees from BOK was confidential and voluntary. There were no hard and fast rules to participate in the research process. Questionnaire was distributed among employees who wished to fill them up. Since the questionnaire did not contain any questions regarding full names or any identification, the responses were confidential.

Summary

This chapter showed how the research process is carried on with the brief introduction of qualitative and quantitative methods. As the research topic is more subjective, the questionnaire is developed and its contents are discussed. A short overview of data collection, data processing and analysis is done. the detailed analysis and the test of reliability and validity of data are explained in the next chapter.

Data analysis involves investigation of the result acquired from the questionnaire, the evaluation of job situation and satisfaction with certain job variables based on motivation at workplace of staff in BOK. It provides a better understanding of the questionnaire finding which were collected and examined with reference to the hypothesis.

The data are shown in a tabulated form for effective analysis and the calculation of percentage was done on the basis of frequency of response to the question. the total number of employees working in two branches of BOK namely, Kathmandu (KTM) and Pokhara (PKR) is 117. From KTM branch, 25 out of 60 employees were distributed questionnaires. In PKR branch, questionnaires were distributed to 25 out of 57 employees. The researcher personally interviewed 10 employees, 5 from each branch via internet. So the total employees selected for research were 60 which gave 51.28 percent of feedback.

gender

Ktm

Pkr

Gender

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

Male

8

32

32

15

60

60

Female

17

68

100

10

40

100

Total

25

25

The table shows the percentage of male and female employees, working in two branches, who responded questionnaires. In Kathmandu branch, the male respondents are 32 percent of sample (n=8) and 68 percent of respondents are female (n=17). In contrast to this, the percent of male respondents in Pokhara branch is 60 (n=15) and remaining 40 percent are female respondents(n=10). The number of male employees in PKR branch is significantly higher than that of working in KTM branch of the bank. However, there majority of female employees working when combining both branches of BOK.

1. age group

according to the table, the age of 52 percent of respondents from KTM branch are in between under 25 and 35 while only 32 percent of PKR respondents is in this category. This shows that the employees in KTM are quite younger than the employees in PKR. 40 percent of respondents are between 35-45 of age resulting the employees of PKR branch are quite mature.

KTM

PKR

Age group

Frequency

Percentage

Cumulative percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Cumulative percentage

Under 25

3

12

12

2

8

8

25-35

10

40

52

6

24

32

35-45

7

28

80

10

40

72

Over 45

5

20

100

7

28

100

Total

25

25

2. marital status

KTM

PKR

marital status

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

Frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

Single

9

36

36

6

24

24

Married

14

56

92

19

76

100

Divorced

2

8

100

0

0

100

Total

25

25

In table, 36 percent of respondents from KTM and 24 percent from PKR are unmarried. there are significant number of married respondents in both branches with 56 percent in KTM branch and 76 percent in PKR. This indicates that majority of respondents have a family to be supported. There is negligibly low percent of divorced respondents indicating only 8 percent from KTM branch only.

4.

KTM

PKR

qualification

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

GCE "A" level

4

16

16

6

24

24

bachelors

6

24

40

11

44

68

Masters

15

60

100

8

32

100

Total

25

25

From the table, the majority (60 percent) of the respondents from KTM branch have completed Masters Degree Level in comparison to the respondents of PKR with only 32 percent. However, it indicates PKR branch has 44 percent of the respondents with bachelors degree.

KTM

PKR

years worked

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

0-1 year

2

8

8

3

12

12

1-5 years

17

68

76

15

60

72

5-10 years

2

8

84

3

12

84

over 10 years

4

16

100

4

16

100

Total

25

25

According to the table, both branches have the majority of respondents who have been working in the bank for five years showing 68 percent of the sample taken from KTM branch and 60 percent from PKR branch. This indicates the bank has the higher employee turnover. 8 percent of KTM branch and 12 percent of PKR branch are the respondents who ticked the first option of 0-1 year. This indicates that these percent of the respondents are newly appointed with 6 months experience in the bank.

6.

KTM

PKR

Position

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

managers

3

12

12

3

12

12

line leaders

2

8

20

4

16

28

Others

20

80

100

18

72

100

Total

25

25

According to the table, both branches have the same percent(12%) of the respondents ticking “manager” as their answers. 8 percent and 16 percent of the respondents from KTM and PKR branches respectively are in line leaders position. Other 80 percents of KTM respondents and 72 percents of PKR respondents hold different positions like department supervisors, immediate supervisors, cash officers, remittance and other junior level staff.

7.

KTM

PKR

salary per month

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

below Rs 10000

3

12

12

5

20

20

Rs 10000-Rs 15000

11

44

56

7

28

48

Rs 15000-Rs

25000

5

20

76

7

28

76

above Rs 25000

6

24

100

6

24

100

Total

25

25

According to the table, in KTM branch, 64 percent of the respondents receive the salary between Rs 10000 and Rs 25000. In PKR branch, 56 percent of the respondents receive salary between Rs 10000 and Rs 25000. This is the salary that staff are paid in one month after deducting tax and other allowances.

1. Money is the only motivator at work.

KTM

PKR

Responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

strongly agree

0

0

0

1

4

4

Agree

2

8

8

1

4

8

Neutral

2

8

16

3

12

20

Disagree

5

20

36

5

20

40

strongly disagree

16

64

100

15

60

100

25

25

The table shows that 16 (64%) respondents from KTM branch and 15 (60%) respondents from PKR branch strongly disagree with the statement. 5(20%) respondents from each branch simply disagree that money is only motivator. There are some respondents who neither agree nor disagree with same and are categorised as neutral. KTM branch has 2(8%) respondents who agree that money is the motivator while PKR branch has only one in number. One respondent from PKR branch strongly believes money is the only thing that motivates employees.

2. Feedback given by my managers improves my performance.

KTM

PKR

Responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

strongly agree

18

72

72

12

48

48

Agree

4

16

88

8

32

80

Neutral

0

0

88

1

4

84

Disagree

3

12

100

4

16

100

strongly disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

Total

25

25

The table indicates that the statement received positive response by the majority of respondents. KTM branch has 18(72%) respondents who strongly agree feedback improves their performance with 4(16%) of them simply agree with the statement. On the other hand, 12(48%) and 8(32%) respondents from PKR branch strongly agreed and simply agreed with the statement. However, 7(28%) respondents from both branches gave the negative response.

3. The provision of adequate training enhances staff productivity in my bank

KTM

PKR

responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage4

strongly agree

16

64

64

14

56

56

Agree

8

32

96

6

24

80

Neutral

0

0

96

3

12

92

Disagree

1

4

100

2

8

100

strongly disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

Total

25

25

According to the table, both branches have significant number of respondents(30 in total) who strongly agree that trainings enhance productivity. 3 of the respondents from PKR branch are in neutral. One of the respondents from KTM branch and 2 from PKR branch do not agree with the statement.

4. My bank provides me with the supplies required to perform my task efficiently.

KTM

PKR

Responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

strongly agree

15

60

60

19

76

76

Agree

6

24

84

6

24

100

Neutral

4

16

100

0

0

100

Disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

strongly disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

Total

25

The number of respondents from each branch are 15(60%) and 19(76%) respectively who are strongly in favour of the statement. 4 respondents from KTM did not show any response in favour or against of the statement.

5. I am satisfied with the recognition received for my achievement.

KTM

PKR

Responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

strongly agree

8

32

32

11

44

44

Agree

12

48

80

8

32

76

Neutral

4

16

96

2

8

84

Disagree

1

4

100

4

16

100

strongly disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

Total

25

25

In the table 8(32%) respondents from KTM and 11(44%) from PKR strongly agree that they are satisfied with the recognition received. There are respondents who are satisfied indicating 12(48%) from KTM and 8(32%) from PKR. In KTM branch, one respondent disagreed with the statement while there are 4(16%) respondents in PKR branch who are not in favour of this statement.

6. My managers discusses about problems and shares the success of the bank with me.

KTM

PKR

responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

strongly agree

18

72

72

11

44

44

Agree

5

20

92

9

36

80

Neutral

2

8

100

5

20

100

Disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

strongly disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

Total

25

25

The table shows both branches have significant number of respondents (18 from KTM and 11 from PKR) who strongly agreed that their managers discuss and share problems and success with them. In KTM branch, 5(20%) of them answer agree and other remaining respondents(2 ie. 8%) put tick in neutral. On the other hand, there were 9(36%) respondents who simply agreed with the statement and 5(20%) respondents answered neutral.

7. The provision of health facilities in my bank reduces rate of absenteeism.

KTM

PKR

responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

strongly agree

6

24

24

13

52

52

Agree

10

40

64

7

28

80

Neutral

6

24

88

5

20

100

Disagree

3

12

100

0

0

100

strongly disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

Total

25

25

In the table, there are majority of respondents (10 i.e. 40%) in KTM branch that simply agreed with the statement while the majority of respondents (13 ie. 52%) from PKR branch favoured the statement answering strongly agree. 3(12%) respondents of KTM branch even disagreed whereas there was not any respondents who gave negative response.

8. My managers give emphasis on working on teams rather individually.

KTM

PKR

responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

strongly agree

19

76

76

13

52

52

Agree

6

24

100

12

48

100

Neutral

0

0

100

0

0

100

Disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

strongly disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

Total

25

25

As the table indicates, the statement is agreed by almost all the respondents. The total respondents from both branches who strongly agree with the statement are 32 (19 from KTM and 13 from PKR). Other remaining respondents simply agreed with it.

KTM

PKR

Responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

strongly agree

20

80

80

6

24

24

Agree

5

20

100

16

64

88

Neutral

0

0

100

3

12

100

Disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

strongly disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

Total

25

25

9. I feel committed when my managers involve me in decision making.

The respondents of KTM branch(20 i.e. 80%) strongly agree that they feel committed when they involve in decision making whereas there is relatively few respondents of PKR branch (6 i.e. 24%) who strongly agreed. Contrast to this, few respondents of KTM branch simply agreed while there are 16 respondents of PKR who simply agreed with the statement. Other 3 respondents from PKR gave answer as neutral.

KTM

PKR

responses

Frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

strongly agree

9

36

36

16

64

64

Agree

12

48

84

3

12

76

Neutral

3

12

96

5

20

96

Disagree

1

4

100

1

4

100

strongly disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

Total

25

25

10. The provision of non-monetary rewards motivates me to perform the task efficiently.

According to the table, in KTM branch, the majority of respondents (12 out of 25) are seen in the second option i.e. agree and only one respondent disagreed with the statement. On the contrary, in PKR branch, the majority (16 out of 25) answered strongly agree with one respondent with disagree answer.

11. Prior to statement 10, the reward that I receive lately is:

KTM

PKR

Responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

cash prize

0

0

0

0

0

0

professional development

17

68

68

14

56

56

value award

7

28

96

10

40

96

all of them

0

0

96

0

0

96

none of them

1

4

100

1

4

100

Total

25

Majority of respondents i.e. 17(68%) from KTM and 14(56%) from PKR receive the professional development as reward. Moreover, value award are received by 7(28%) of the respondents from KTM branch and 10(40%) from PKR branch. There is one respondent from each branch who did not get any of the rewards.

12. The salary I receive is equivalent to the contribution I make to enhance the work productivity.

KTM

PKR

Responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

strongly agree

18

72

72

13

52

52

Agree

3

12

84

7

28

80

Neutral

2

8

92

1

4

84

Disagree

2

8

100

4

16

100

strongly disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

Total

25

25

In KTM branch, 72 percent of the respondents strongly agree that they are paid as per their contribution and in PKR branch, 52 percents of them strongly agree with the statement. 3 (12%)respondents of KTM branch and 7(28%) of PKR simply agree. On the contrary, 2(8%) respondents of KTM branch are dissatisfied with the salary they receive for their work while there are more number of respondents i.e. 4(16%) in PKR branch who do not agree they are paid well.

13. I am penalised for my mistakes

KTM

PKR

responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

strongly agree

0

0

0

0

0

0

Agree

0

0

0

0

0

0

Neutral

0

0

0

1

4

4

Disagree

7

28

28

8

32

36

strongly disagree

18

72

100

16

64

100

Total

25

25

Out of 25 samples from each branch, the majority of respondents from each branch (18 from KTM and 16 from PKR) strongly disagree that they are punished for mistakes they do. Other 28 percent(KTM) and 32percent (PKR) of respondents are significant. One of the respondent from Pokhara branch was neutral.

14. I am satisfied with the working condition offered by my bank.

KTM

PKR

responses

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

frequency

percentage

cumulative percentage

strongly agree

17

68

68

15

60

60

Agree

5

20

88

8

32

92

Neutral

0

0

88

2

8

100

Disagree

3

12

100

0

0

100

strongly disagree

0

0

100

0

0

100

Total

25

25

The table shows 17 (68%) respondents of KTM and 15(60%) respondents of PKR strongly agree that they are satisfied with the working conditions. While 2(8%) respondents from PKR are neutral and 3(12%) from KTM give negative response to the statement.

Testing of hypotheses

Hypothesis refers to ideas or assumptions put forward by the researcher in arriving a reasonable conclusion. Testing of hypothesis is a statistical process used by researcher to draw conclusion about the population from sample data (Gravetter and wallnau, 2008).

Motivation is important in organisation to improve peroformance.

The potentials of the employees are realised when they satisfactorily motivated.

Recognition for achievement highly motivates employees.

Involving in decision making improves employees' performance.

The employees tend to be motivated with good working condition

These are the hypotheses that will be tested using chi-square test.

Steps

Formulation of null hypotheses and alternative hypotheses

Hypothesis 1

Motivation is important in organisation to improve better performance.

Ho : motivation is important in organisation to improve better performance.

Hi: motivation is not important in organisation to achieve better performance.

Where,

Hi = alternative hypothesis

Ho = null hypothesis

Testing for significance

Computation of text statistic does this

X2 that is x = (0i - ei) 2

ei

Where N - 1= degree of freedom.

OI = observed frequency of the responses

ei = expected frequency of the responses

x2e represents test statistics

x2t represents table value

hypothesis 1 is tested on statement 2

KTM

PKR

Responses

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

percentage

Strongly agree

18

72

12

48

Agree

4

16

8

32

Neutral

0

0

1

4

Disagree

3

12

4

16

Strongly disagree

0

0

0

0

Total

25

100

25

100

KTM

PKR

Alternate responses

Oi

ei

Oi-ei

(Oi - ei) 2

ei

Oi

ei

Oi-ei

(Oi - ei) 2

ei

Strongly agree

18

5

13

33.8

12

5

7

9.8

Agree

4

5

-1

0.2

8

5

3

1.8

Neutral

0

5

-5

5

1

5

-4

3.2

Disagree

3

5

-2

0.8

4

5

-1

0.2

Strongly disagree

0

5

-5

5

0

5

-5

5

Total

25

25

25

25

KTM

PKR

X2 = (0i - ei) 2

ei

x2 = 44.8

Degree of freedom = N - 1

Where N = 5

N - 1 = 5-1

=4

X2t at 0.05(4) d.f = 9.49

The decision rule will be:

If x2e >x2t ; accept HO hence 44.8 > 9.49

If x2t < x2e reject HO hence reject 9.49 < 44.8

X2 = (0i - ei) 2

ei

x2 = 20

Degree of freedom = N - 1

Where N = 5

N - 1 = 5-1

=4

X2t at 0.05(4) d.f = 9.49

The decision rule will be:

If x2e >x2t ; accept HO hence 20> 9.49

If x2t < x2e reject HO hence reject 9.49 < 20

Conclusion

The test hypotheses statistic is are 44.8(KTM) and 20(PKR) which are greater than the critical value of 9.49, therefore the null hypotheses is accepted and the alternative hypotheses is rejected. The null hypotheses states that motivation is important in organisation to improve the performance.

Interpretation:

This hypothesis tests the motivation has been crucial factor in organisation to improve better performance. According to the questionnaire result, the researcher found out 68 percent of KTM respondents and 48 percent PKR respondents agreed with this. This indicates that motivation is important in an organisation.

Hyptothesis 2

Ho: The potentials of the employees are realised when they are satisfactorily motivated.

Hi: the potentials of the employees are not realised when they are satisfactorily motivated.

Hypothesis 2 is tested using statement 3

The potentials of the employees are realised when they satisfactorily motivated.

KTM

PKR

Responses

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

percentage

Strongly agree

16

64

14

56

Agree

8

32

6

24

Neutral

0

0

3

12

Disagree

1

4

2

8

Strongly disagree

0

0

0

0

Total

25

100

25

100

KTM

PKR

X2 = (0i - ei) 2

ei

x2 = 39.2

Degree of freedom = N - 1

Where N = 5

N - 1 = 5-1

=4

X2t at 0.05(4) d.f = 9.49

The decision rule will be:

If x2e >x2t ; accept HO hence 39.2> 9.49

If x2t < x2e reject HO hence reject 9.49 < 39.2

X2 = (0i - ei) 2

ei

x2 = 24

Degree of freedom = N - 1

Where N = 5

N - 1 = 5-1

=4

X2t at 0.05(4) d.f = 9.49

The decision rule will be:

If x2e >x2t ; accept HO hence 24> 9.49

If x2t < x2e reject HO hence reject 9.49 < 24

KTM

PKR

Alternate responses

Oi

ei

Oi-ei

(Oi - ei) 2

ei

Oi

ei

Oi-ei

(Oi - ei) 2

ei

Strongly agree

16

5

11

24.2

14

5

9

16.2

Agree

8

5

3

1.8

6

5

1

0.2

Neutral

0

5

-5

5

3

5

-2

0.8

Disagree

1

5

-4

3.2

2

5

-3

1.8

Strongly disagree

0

5

-5

5

0

5

-5

5

Total

25

25

25

25

Conclusion

The test hypotheses statistic is are 39.2(KTM) and 24(PKR) which are greater than the critical value of 9.49, therefore the null hypotheses is accepted and the alternative hypotheses is rejected. The null hypotheses states that the potentials of the employees are realised when they are satisfactorily motivated.

Hypothesis 3

Ho: Recognition for achievement highly motivates employees.

Hi: recognition for achievement do not highly motivate employees. -

Hypothesis 3 is tested on statement 5

15. I am satisfied with the recognition received for my achievement.

KTM

PKR

Responses

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

percentage

Strongly agree

8

32

11

4

Agree

12

48

8

32

Neutral

4

2

2

8

Disagree

1

4

4

16

Strongly disagree

0

0

0

0

Total

25

100

25

100

KTM

PKR

Alternate responses

Oi

ei

Oi-ei

(Oi - ei) 2

ei

Oi

ei

Oi-ei

(Oi - ei) 2

ei

Strongly agree

8

5

3

1.8

11

5

6

7.2

Agree

12

5

7

9.8

8

5

3

1.8

Neutral

4

5

-1

0.2

2

5

-3

1.8

Disagree

1

5

-4

3.2

4

5

-1

0.2

Strongly disagree

0

5

-5

5

0

5

-5

5

Total

25

25

25

25

KTM

PKR

X2 = (0i - ei) 2

ei

x2 = 20

Degree of freedom = N - 1

Where N = 5

N - 1 = 5-1

=4

X2t at 0.05(4) d.f = 9.49

The decision rule will be:

If x2e >x2t ; accept HO hence 20> 9.49

If x2t < x2e reject HO hence reject 9.49 < 20

X2 = (0i - ei) 2

ei

x2 = 16

Degree of freedom = N - 1

Where N = 5

N - 1 = 5-1

=4

X2t at 0.05(4) d.f = 9.49

The decision rule will be:

If x2e >x2t ; accept HO hence 16> 9.49

If x2t < x2e reject HO hence reject 9.49 < 16

Conclusion

The test hypotheses statistic are 20(KTM) and 16(PKR) which are greater than the critical value of 9.49, therefore the null hypotheses is accepted and the alternative hypotheses is rejected. The null hypotheses states that recognition for achievement highly motivates employees.

Hyptothesis 4

Ho: Involvement of employees in decision making improves performance.

Hi: involovement of employees in decision making does not improve performance.

This hypothesis is tested on statement 9

16. I feel committed when my managers involve me in decision making.

KTM

PKR

Responses

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

percentage

Strongly agree

20

80

6

24

Agree

5

20

16

64

Neutral

0

0

3

12

Disagree

0

0

0

0

Strongly disagree

0

0

0

0

Total

25

100

25

100

KTM

PKR

Alternate responses

Oi

ei

Oi-ei

(Oi - ei) 2

ei

Oi

ei

Oi-ei

(Oi - ei) 2

ei

Strongly agree

20

5

15

45

6

5

1

0.2

Agree

5

5

0

0

16

5

11

24.2

Neutral

0

5

-5

5

3

5

-2

0.8

Disagree

0

5

-5

5

0

5

-5

5

Strongly disagree

0

5

-5

5

0

5

-5

5

Total

25

25

25

25

KTM

PKR

X2 = (0i - ei) 2

ei

x2 = 60

Degree of freedom = N - 1

Where N = 5

N - 1 = 5-1

=4

X2t at 0.05(4) d.f = 9.49

The decision rule will be:

If x2e >x2t ; accept HO hence 60> 9.49

If x2t < x2e reject HO hence reject 9.49 < 60

X2 = (0i - ei) 2

ei

x2 = 35.2

Degree of freedom = N - 1

Where N = 5

N - 1 = 5-1

=4

X2t at 0.05(4) d.f = 9.49

The decision rule will be:

If x2e >x2t ; accept HO hence 35.2> 9.49

If x2t < x2e reject HO hence reject 9.49 < 35.2

Conclusion

The test hypotheses statistic are 60(KTM) and 35.2(PKR) which are greater than the critical value of 9.49, therefore the null hypotheses is accepted and the alternative hypotheses is rejected. The null hypotheses states that recognition for achievement highly motivates employees.

Hypothesis 5

Ho: The employees tend to be motivated with good working condition.

Hi: the employees do not tend to be motivated with good working condition.

Testing of this hypothesis is done prior to statement 14

17. I am satisfied with the working condition offered by my bank.

KTM

PKR

Responses

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

percentage

Strongly agree

17

68

15

60

Agree

5

20

8

32

Neutral

0

0

2

8

Disagree

3

12

0

0

Strongly disagree

0

0

0

0

Total

25

100

25

100

KTM

PKR

Alternate responses

Oi

ei

Oi-ei

(Oi - ei) 2

ei

Oi

ei

Oi-ei

(Oi - ei) 2

ei

Strongly agree

17

5

12

28.8

15

5

10

20

Agree

5

5

0

0

8

5

3

1.8

Neutral

0

5

-5

5

2

5

-3

1.8

Disagree

3

5

-2

0.8

0

5

-5

5

Strongly disagree

0

5

-5

5

0

5

-5

5

Total

25

25

25

25

KTM

PKR

X2 = (0i - ei) 2

ei

x2 = 39.6

Degree of freedom = N - 1

Where N = 5

N - 1 = 5-1

=4

X2t at 0.05(4) d.f = 9.49

The decision rule will be:

If x2e >x2t ; accept HO hence 39.6> 9.49

If x2t < x2e reject HO hence reject 9.49 < 39.6

X2 = (0i - ei) 2

ei

x2 = 33.6

Degree of freedom = N - 1

Where N = 5

N - 1 = 5-1

=4

X2t at 0.05(4) d.f = 9.49

The decision rule will be:

If x2e >x2t ; accept HO hence 33.6> 9.49

If x2t < x2e reject HO hence reject 9.49 < 33.6

Conclusion

The test hypotheses statistic are 39.6(KTM) and 33.6(PKR) which are greater than the critical value of 9.49, therefore the null hypotheses is accepted and the alternative hypotheses is rejected. The null hypotheses states that the employees tend to be motivated with good working conditions.

CHAPTER 5: Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

Management of workforce has become a fundamental for companies in this modern business world. There is always scarcity of skilled talents in the labour market as there are many opportunities available in the global market. An organisation should retain talented employees in order to gain competitive advantages. Beside this, an organisation can also saves the cost of recruiting new employees and develop them to be experts. an organisation should help its existing workforce to achieve their individual goals along with the organisational objectives. An organisation should motivate its employees to produce better results. the researcher reviewed many literature related to motivation in order to show the practical implication of theories and models of motivation

The outcome produced by questionnaires and interviews helps the researcher to know how motivation techniques are applied by BOK to enhance employee performance. Moreover, testing of hypotheses reveals the source of factors that motivate employees and improve their performances. The researcher reveal the following after the analysis of done in chapter 4:

  • Motivation is a crucial factory that enhances employees' performance. Hence, it should be considered and given priority in an organisation growths and development.
  • The research found out that the organization has a good communication system and all employees are well informed about the status of the organization.
  • The researcher found that some employees do not receive salary as their efforts. This can lead to dissatisfaction and lose of interest in job.
  • It is found that some of employees are not rewarded for their effective performance. The employees benefit should not be delayed and it is business policy.
  • The research points out employees enjoy working in team .
  • The research indicated that employees tend to feel committed when they are involved in decision making roles.

5.2 Conclusion

This research is an analysis on employee motivation at workplace. Bank of Kathmandu is chosen for the research and sample is taken from randomly selected employees of the bank. Collection of data is done via distribution of closed questionnaire and video interviews. The researcher analysed data via testing of Hypotheses to support the motivational theories investigated by previous researchers. A review of different literature in the area of motivation and job satisfaction is done by the researcher and carried out a survey with a set of questions related to the literature. After studying the literature, the researcher identified some of the crcucial factors such as salary, training and development, job security, recognition, autonomy and compensation motivate and satisfy employees at workplace.

These factors of motivation are the foundation for questionnaire and interview. The analysis of information collected via questionnaire and interview and testing of hypotheses, the researcher highlights the following conclusions:

Individuals have unlimited needs and can range from basic needs and go upto self actualisation needs. Thus, the performance of individual employee depends upon the ability of the organisation to meet these needs.

  • The highly satisfied employees tend to be highly productive and can help the organisation to be success.
  • An organisation should ensure that all employees are equally prioritised.
  • Better performance is the outcome of benefits, reward and incentives received by employees.
  • Employees are tend to be motivated by appropriate salary and raise in pay as this make them more dedicated.
  • An organisation success in terms of profitability and long term sustainability depend highly on motivated employees.

5.3 Recommendation

Considering all the data collected and analysed, the researcher finds the bank should improve on non-monetary rewards. Furthermore, the management should apply the westerns motivational theories to motivate their employee. Two way communications plays a vital role in generating the feedback on performance. Hence, the management of the bank should establish an effective and proper channel of communication in both horizontal and vertical level in the organisation. Training and development should always be created for staff as they act as a motivational tool and enhances the workers knowledge and capability on the job. Finally, the bank should circulate regular and continuous survey on various motivational levels so that they could find the staff opinion on the firm's motivational policy which could be updated with latest system of motivating employees in place of weaknesses to get the best of them.

5.4 Suggestion for future researchers

The finding of this research is correct from the researcher point of view and on the basis of this future research on the topic ‘motivation' is suggested. Motivation is a continual process. Therefore, it needs to be continued and developed as individual and organizational factors change over time. It may be of interest to have a constant view of what motivates the employees and provides them with satisfaction. Also, it may be attractive to compare the received results with similar surveys done in the similar banks or other organization. An evaluation of the surveys may provide the bank with useful information about the success/failure of changes regarding the work and the development in the job satisfaction of the employees.

Future researcher may want to investigate whether the findings of this study of employee motivation at workplace, Maslow's hierarchy of need theory can be useful to other organizations like Standard Chartered bank.

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