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Commercial Aspects of Golf Clubs

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Private Members' Golf Clubs: the Need to Compete in an Increasingly More Commercial Environment.

The world learns through experience, but living in an image-conscious world may prevent one from learning through his experiences. This is apparently a dilemma considering the fact that one lives in an age of post modernism; a stage during which signs mask reality, and one is often deceived through image-promoting strategies.

This is true to say because of the fact that signs, logos and big names are now common, and people are often lured into believing the authenticity of different products because of the promotions they have.

Consumer behaviour is considerably dependent on promotion of products; the manner in which products are promoted directly influences customer behaviour. Each medium used for promotion has its own impact, and the one that is believed to have a tremendous impact is the Internet.

It is believed to boost promotions and sales greatly, and it helps customers in their first step before actually checking a car out. It is through the advertisements on line that they may be attracted and then move towards checking a vehicle out physically at a show room. It is this behaviour that has helped boost the automotive industry significantly. In fact it must be asserted that prior to globalization, consumer behaviour was observed as having a major effect on the development of nations. This is because it helps boost the economy internally as well as having its impact externally.

Prior to the 1940s and 1950s, there was no such aim because of the fact that there were many problems that the country was faced with internally. Socially there were different levels on which the UK had to bring the people together. And perhaps during that time no one had come up with such an idea to divert the attention of the people, which occurred during the 1950s.

From this era began to the shift towards an improved way of life that would take the country into an entirely different era. This era today is called globalization, a phenomenon that brought many parts of the world together through faster communication systems.

Globalization has in fact resulted due to the fact that communication systems have been boosted in recent years. This is also the reason why the present age that people live in is called ‘the age of communication’.

The world in which one lives today is indeed a fast-paced one. This fast-paced environment has evolved because of various actions, each of them interacting and producing a variety of results, and creating effects that favour the current situations today. This may all sound complex, but in truth, it may be simply described as a vast number of actions causing a very situation that one witnesses today. This complex situation does not mean that there is total chaos because there is infect an organized system in place. This organized system is one that helps many countries stay in contact with each other.

However, the system is not one that favours friendship, but actually focuses on economic gains; countries are motivated in this system to work towards their own gain. They stay in touch with each other for the purpose of suiting their own needs. It is obvious that they would not do things one charitable basis for another country when they could actually invest time and money in bettering their own conditions. Due to the availability of the Internet, countries are able to remain in close touch and trade easily.

Online communications have facilitated countries well enough in order to raise their standards of living, and it is on the basis of this tat many people have turned their lives around.

Aside from the globalized environment within which one may operate with the help of the Internet, it must be asserted that there are also other means of keeping in touch with other countries. Transportation for one is an important means of remaining in touch and working with other people. In view of this, it must be asserted that the businesses and other operations can be enhanced this way. With speedy communication on their side, a business has better scope of advancing.

It must be realized that competition is facilitated well in the global system, and the globalized features aid countries in participating indifferent kinds of competition whether it is business, sports or admixture of the two. In view of sports and business in the form of admixture, it must be asserted that there is great focus on the business part of the mixture.

Without this greater emphasis, the sport will not survive at the international level. One may take any sport into consideration here. Soccer for example, as it has a great deal of finance involved in it. Players are highly paid these days, and their reputations are at high-stake because of these high fees they are paid. In addition to this there is the international attention drawn, which in a way causes more stress, but also helps the financial part of the (sports) business. Other sports also have similar features in their business environment. Cricket is another example, and this game is still believed to be in its infancy as far as the financial aspect is considered.

Having asserted that sports such as cricket and football are sports that have strong business sides to them, there are other sports that are believed to have similar scope. One example is golf; this is a prestigious and dignified game that has the potential of earning much more than others sports. In its current condition, it is doing well, and players at the professional level are paid well too. However, there is more scope, and considering expansion of this game, it must be asserted that more players can be encompassed globally; they may be paid well and therefore their talents may not go undiscovered or wasted. Considering this, it is important to consider the importance of including players from various levels.

Private clubs is a great place to begin. This is because there is so much undiscovered talent within these clubs. Often, there are players with immense experience who pass most of their lives without being given a chance to prove themselves at the professional level. It is thought that if these individuals are somehow exposed through better organizational arrangement, both golf from private clubs as well as the players, will benefit. The popularity of the game would increase and there would be more people participating in it. This in turn means that there would naturally be greater competition.

Abstract:

Competition is considered to be a great way of promoting a sport or anything that demands the participation of more than one person. Competition is believed to be the best means of earning in the financial world. Aside from the financial part of the arrangement, there is also the reputation of an activity that comes into play. It must be asserted that there is immense scope for both popularity and financial gain through competitive environments, and the same thing applies to golf at the private golf club level. In a competitive environment regarding sports today, it must be asserted that there is marketing and promotional strategies are important. Proper management is another important aspect that comes into play, and it is known that sports at the international level cannot survive without it.

There are various aspects that come into the managerial tactics as well, and these all have their levels of success depending on the conditions and the market targeted. Also, in view of marketing, promotion and management of sports at the International or professional level it must be asserted that the strategies are similar to handling other kinds of business. Making use of these strategies in sports promotion is believed to be beneficial for the game as well as players and the countries they come from. Therefore, competing in a more commercial environment is important for sports like golf too, and their private clubs may compete in such environments in order to popularize the game, pay the players well and earn greater revenue especially where the game is hosted.

Methodology:

In order to achieve as much information about sports and managing sports in a competitive environment, detailed research has to be conducted and analysed. In addition to researching information on sports and managing sports, there is need to understand the chances of succeeding in a commercial environment. When it comes to promoting sport that is not as popular as cricket or football, there is a great deal that needs to be reviewed and understood. There are many things that need to be taken into consideration including risks and chances of success. It is through reviewing pertinent literature and applying it to golf and its current position that would help to give one an idea of what future it could possibly have.

Also, studying typical managerial plans and theories reveal the extent to which sports promotion is influenced by them. Some of these theories and strategies could easily apply to promoting golf in a more commercial environment. Aside from these internal methods of studying the promotion of golf in a more commercial environment, there are also external ones.
In addition to reviewing pertinent literature, there is also a need to consider and understand the environmental factors. This refers to the external conditions that may influence the success or failure of promoting golf in a more commercial environment.

Analysing both the external and internal influences would help one to observe the chances of success along with the need to go ahead and dose. It is important to promote golf in a more commercial environment because of the fact that there is plenty of scope to do so. Like other international and popular sports golf may be promoted in a more commercial environment through proper management strategies. In asserting this, it must be emphasized that there is a great deal to gain from its promotion, as the sport, the participants and those that host the events gain tremendously.

Literature Review

Theory:

The manner in which a sport or any other kind of activity is promoted directly affects it. Hence there is a need for management to be aware of what it has in its plans for promotion. This strongly refers to the environments created as well as the tactics used. To begin with, leadership in this regard is most important, as it can determine the success or failure of promotion to a great extent.

The world has reached a stage at which everything is close-knit. There are several bodies and structures that interact with each other that appear to be systematic. Globalization for instance is something has many countries, organizations and institutions operating together. Each of the components in the globalization process exists for its self and is self-driven, yet the system functions. In this regard, one might assert that markets of different types and sizes function in a similar manner. The motive industry is an example with its visible effects. Consumers are actively participating in the industry activity, making it an increasingly viable one for people to invest in. The services and products are known to be quite reliable with an immense amount interesting them. In recent years this has been the case and in time to come it’s expected that there is going to be even more interest in particular industries.

Systems of control are ones that need to be in place so that processes remain in view and are understand completely. This is a necessary step in any commercial line because it helps management know what exactly is going on in a particular organization. Indeed, the management needs to know what is going on in order to manage their businesses more effectively. In simple terms, the more knowledge that one has of his other company, the more likely s/he is to take appropriate measures for future betterment. As opposed to this, when the management does not know what exactly is going on it becomes difficult for them to take decisions.

This is because they do not know whether the decisions they take will have adverse effects on their organization. In view of this, it is considered most important that the management knows and understands processes thoroughly. In order to make sure that they know what is going on they have to have some kind of system in place that would cater to their needs. When it comes to managing a company more effectively, it must be asserted that there is need to recognize particular activity. Developing such a system would be of immense use, and if implemented successfully, a company would be able to trace out organizational activity in every respect and measure the economic impact that each of these actions has. In view of this, management models may be implemented to determine cost values for particular activity within a company. There are several methods that might be employed to do this, and each has its own level of credibility.

Newer methods of handling anything are introduced in order to produce intended effects that are better than previous ones. People would not persist with newer systems if they believed that they were not effective and profitable. Older systems that are overshadowed cannot be brought back if newer systems are more effective. In this regard, if answer system takes time for people to adjust to, plans are developed in order to make sure that they are ameliorated in order to make use of them to their maximum potential. Indeed, there are several newer systems being employed in various fields. These fields need to overview and understand what these systems are in order to appreciate their benefits. In understanding thee benefits, the basic principles on which they function need to be assessed. To begin with, the environment(internal as well as external) is an important point to discuss.

A cordial environment is usually seen as the most appropriate one to ensure an organization maximum gain. In this way, participants(individuals who play as well as those that manage the game of golf in private clubs) learn to perform better without any feeling of being compelled. In this way, they learn to be committed when they see that the leaders of the organization are not pressurizing them. This is infect a learning process that takes time. According to Singe, human beings are born learners, and the environment that each human being is brought up in defines the formation of a personality. The process of socialization is the key to changing the natural generative learning abilities into adaptive learning skills. Applying this to golf promotion means that individuals also learn the value of socializing through golf and understand the processes involved.

The human being is portrayed as being one that is programmable, and then carries out duties as expected by the management. This is true as far as picking up the basics is concerned. If an individual has to learn the basics at the age of twenty it is indeed a momentous task. However, what Singe is talking about isn’t about basics, but refers tithe adaptation of an educated individual into an environment that enables him to grasp more. Hence promoting golf in a more commercial environment means that individuals learn to accept things here as their basics. As they rise to a higher professional level they would be used to all the processes and have less pressure. In view of this, Senge’s theory is one that may be consciously or subconsciously employed.

In places where changes are necessary and participants find it difficult to conform, it’s often seen that when there is a need for human beings to accept a new surrounding to work in, one way or another they manage to do so. This may be because of hegemonies attitude by the managers. However, Singe essentially refers to the conscious setting by managers who wish to obtain the maximum benefit in accordance with Senge’s theory.

Being aware of the way that human beings can learn more and be more productive as a result, managers try to set an environment that is cordial so that it may accommodate all its participants (Larsen, 1996).

The environment so created is one that gets the participants to do what the managers want, but with the feeling that the employees themselves are free to behave or work according to their own likes. By this, it does not mean that they can come and go as they please and do whatever they want. There are certainly corporate rules that they must follow, but at the same time they assume that they are well supported and well dealt with by their superiors. Part of the learning organization’s jobs to include team members into the various phases of the promotion or production process.

By including team members in the various processes of a production process, they are more enlightened about the way that their role affects the outcome of production, and this is why they are termed fully awakened (Larsen, 1996).

This state of being fully awakened has been likened to the way that children are adaptive. Children, at a learning age are able to adapt themselves to different environments easily. It has been argued that the same adaptive nature persists virtually throughout ones whole life, even if they are uncomfortable with an environment at first. On being psychologically at ease with an environment, individuals learn to accept the situation. But this is only the first phase in moving toward learning organizations according to Singe (Singe, 1990).

Singe emphasizes that adapting isn’t the centre-most issue of attaining learning environment, the impulse to learn are more important and deeper. The impulse to learn is something that needs to be stimulated, and this is done through a provocative environment. Singe says that the impulse to learn is far more than desires to respond and adapt appropriately to change in environment. It is important first of all then to stimulate interest if effective adaptation is desired of the employees. This is the reason why it is first of all important that an organization attracts its employees with its changes so that they may automatically take interest, thereby making the process of adaptation easier.

In the same way, this process of employees taking more interesting their work has resulted in a more focus on generative learning, which is about creating, Creativity is perhaps one of the desired end results of an environmental change, along with adapting to changes in the environment. The concept is actually simple. What managers are actually doing by creating a stimulating environment is that they are diverting the attention of their employees away from the problems they may be undergoing.

When managers for instance try to show their employees their friendly side it does not necessarily mean that they are being nice to them personally, but are doing so in order to make them feel comfortable. By making them feel more comfortable the organization stands a far better chance of being able to gain more. This is because of the fact that when an employee feels comfortable s/he can be far more creative in contrast to when s/he is under pressure.

In recent years, the approach to promoting productivity has been one that makes use of a cordial environment. This is the reason for the numerous successes that organizations have had. In these organizations it has been seen that the reason for success is the greater involvement of employees in all kinds of routine work. In this way the employees do not get saturated. They avoid saturation due to being allowed to follow the processes that are carried out right up till a product is completed. Along with being involved in all the steps and are kept busying these, they also keep on learning more and more about the production of goods and the organization they work in. This stimulates creativity as they begin to devise more effective ways to ameliorate production. Two-way management welcomes these ideas, which further enhance the cordial environment thereby promoting more creativity (Learning Organization and Knowledge, 2002).

The task of promoting creativity is one that is acted upon and not carried out by an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship is the status that one earns through being able to see through tasks through conditions that’s/he recognizes as favourable. The job of such a person is indeed one of the highest responsibilities in the corporate world. An entrepreneur is one that has to weigh all the pros and cons of strategy so that the most appropriate decisions are taken. An entrepreneur is an individual that is supposed to carry out the same kind of duties but the essential difference is that s/he is associated with internet-related business. This means that these are the individuals that create business offers on the Internet. They have to make sure that the overall working of their business is smooth. This is because they are the direct winners or losers of their own actions, which are in turn a result of the strategies they adopt.

These strategies that are adopted by entrepreneurs or entrepreneurs are ones that are a result of thoughtful consideration. This is only possible for them when they go through various troubles and means to get where they wants to, along with ensuring that they do not make mistake along the way.

The characteristic that is so important to be an entrepreneur is to be cautious and painstaking. Without this kind of approach to business one can never be successful. There are several factors at the beginning of quest for an entrepreneur that s/he must consider carefully. The first one of these factors is the market situation.

An Entrepreneur must ask him or herself whether or not market conditions are favourable or not for investment in any business. If one plunges into a business blindly without thinking about what the market situations is then his or her efforts may result in total disaster. An entrepreneur may spend a lot of money trying to set up some kind of online e-mail business but yet it may not prove fruitful if there is no market for it. An important point that must be realized is that there can be no business if there is no market for it, and this is because of the fact that people make up the market. If there are no people willing to buy an entrepreneur’s product there can be no business. Here, it must be emphasized that there is certainly a market for golf, and it is because of this that it can be easily promoted in a more commercial environment.

There can be several factors affecting this kind of situation, which may range from the climatic to political conditions, and even to geographical location. Products that do well in one of the world may not always be in demand in other parts of the world, as market situations may differ significantly. Besides scanning the market situation in terms of whether a product will be successful there are other considerations too.

While checking the market situation an entrepreneur needs to be aware of what kind of competition is present and what his or her chances might be against them. It is vital to be able to calculate effectively what one’s chances are in a market where other established businesses running and selling the same product. If one fails to do this effectively and blindly invests a large amount in his or her product, assuming s/he is far ahead of the other products there could be a huge loss for the company. This also reinforces the need to be cautious when one is taking crucial decisions possibly involving a large amount of finance. By taking decisions cautiously, one may be helped with foresightedness, which is yet another important part of doing business.

Foresightedness is affected by various factors. Knowledge of economic history may also play a pivotal role in the future of one’s business. This is coupled by the individual experiences of other entrepreneurs too, whose consultancy is a must. Novices must gather as much of information as possible from the experienced individuals s/he comes into contact with. This lessens the chances of a business failing to great extent and serves as the greatest precautions for a new business.

In addition to all these precautions with the aid of market analysis there are other things that have to be watched over carefully by an entrepreneur, such as strategies market analysis, mission statement, long term goals, specific objectives, description of the product, product development plan, marketing strategies, operations plan and financial plan. Of course, it must also be realized that all these cannot be done on one’s own and it need a whole lot of employees to carry them out. In order to have employees one must be able to invest, which highlights the need for capital. But this capital must be handled sensibly too, and the most efficient way to do so is to hire people who are able to analyse the market situation first. Once this is done, and if the situation appears to be fruitful s/he may proceed with further investments.

Investing in a business (such as golf that has an immense market to target) is a gradual process which should not be done overnight. By investing slowly, there will be stability provided to the controlling body. This is the first thing that participants need to be aware of (Do You Want to be an Entrepreneur, 1999).

Leaders are in charge of ensuring the smooth running of an organization, and so, for this they have to do their utmost to ensure it. Though most people might have the impression that being in the position of a manager might mean that it is a kind of position that demands dictatorship. This is because this position demands a person tube in charge of situation, but professionally speaking there is a way of obtaining maximum output while avoiding a dictatorial atmosphere. People also sometimes feel that managers are the people who should be feared in an organization. But this is not true because it comes nowhere near the borderline of sensibly running an organization.

However, the most prevalent though minor problem in managers or management is their dictatorial attitude towards subordinates.

Dictatorial management is actually a sign of unhealthy leadership because it is extremely discouraging to the employees, and eventually could affect the overall working of the organization, due to the constant pressure built up over a period of time. Though managers may even be aware this practice continues in many organizations, resulting in a pressured working environment. This pressure is unlike other forms of pressure that bursts open. Although few employees may decide to leave on the spot when pressurized, most of them will wait for other favourable opportunities to come their way so that there isn’t a break in their income. Gradually, with a pressured and dissatisfying environment employee turnover can result in an organization self-destructing. While employees keep on passing in and out of organization, the organization will lose its credibility and profits too, and in the end, it is the managers and not the employees who will suffer.

Management in this sense has to learn how to cope with increasing problems as globalization has taken place. The expansion that has been witnessed today in organizational structure is an effect of globalization too because they are spreading almost all over the world. As Organizations expand it is understood that they tend to face problems in efficiency. These problems need to be handled carefully in logical manner so that smooth running of the organization can be restored to the way it was when it was located in its originating country. For this to be handled effectively, communication also needs to be of the highest level.

Problems in efficiency may emerge due to the lack of communication or the lack of skills with newer personnel employed in the firm. This is because they are not aware of exactly what the cultural atmosphere was at the original location of the firm. Since they have been newly employed they are bound to face problems such as these.

Communication in managing any type of organization sis important, and when it comes to promoting sports people are normally not aware of the intense amount of communication that has to be included. This is because of the fact that many people think that sports are not something that is all that serious. However, the fact is that sports may not be a serious thing on its own, but when it comes to managing team or more than one team, and if there financial matters involved, the situation is quite different.

Financial matters make things more serious than they already are, and this is because of the fact that there are risk factors involved automatically. There tends to be a lot more pressure than there usually is and as a result the pressure finally comes down on the shoulders of the players who represent a particular club. The soccer and cricket players experience this to a great extent so much so that there is now need to cope with the psychological strains of the game. Sports in recent times, because of the competition and money involved, has been the result of great stress on players. Some end up under-forming well while others crumble under pressure.

However, strategies of dealing with these pressures are implemented successfully as well. It must be emphasized that dealing with stress is in fact a major part of the leadership process. If the leadership is not good enough it can be said that there will automatically be more stress. Much of the process of coping with stress comes from the leadership. If the leadership is weak then there would be more stress, and if the leadership is string and presents itself properly as a force to sub-ordinates stress will be handles more easily. Hence, it is important to lead a company properly. In handling one’s sub-ordinates well there will be better productivity. With the passage of time, a company can grow confident, and since it is the private golf clubs that are of central importance, it must be said that the confidence level of the players as well as the management would improve.

Strengthening the leadership of an organization automatically means that operations will be handled well, which in turn means that there will be financial gain at the end. In addition to this there won’t be a shortage of executives if organizations indulge in setting up proper training plans for their apt employees. These plans should be implemented both, at home and abroad too so that uniformity is maintained throughout the organization.

It is also essential that trainers do not get polarized in any one location geographically speaking. They should be allowed to exercise their skills and implement them wherever possible. This means that they will also gain maximum teaching experience which they can share with whoever the work with and teach. Three leadership techniques that have been found to increase the performance of an organization:

1) An efficient and lean organization;

2) A talent management plan that focuses on attracting and retaining high-performing individuals; and
3) A performance management program that “rewards employees who meet set goals” (Dorgan, & Dowdy, 2002)

From the above points one can see that the major problem that lies in organizations spreading into other cultures is the internal conflict, but aside from the internal conflicts the trend of marketing American products abroad is one that is patronized by the people of those cultures.

It is the people that make this possible, as human beings are almost always ready for a change especially if it isn’t going to harm them. Accepting new trends that are already in vogue in other neighboring countries is something that further motivates people into welcoming UK products. However, this is not only the case with receiving UK products in Asian countries.

Extending considerations for financial gain with regard to the golf profession there are many angles to take. Aside from simplistic theories that expose the need to enhance golf at private clubs in more commercial environments, there are project management practices that may be underscored. In considering these practices, Total Quality Management becomes an important point to discuss. Though it may not even be seen as fitting for promotion of golf from private clubs because of its detailed and technical approaches, it must be asserted that getting down to technicalities in project management helps reinforce the means and the need to promote golf in a more professional environment.

Total Quality Management

Developing a system that is reliable for the promotion of golf is important. Relying on organizations and setups elsewhere is also imperative, and in this understanding one can see why it might be well worth having a Total Quality Management in place for the promotion of golf. In order to ensure that standards are maintained at the level they should in the form of a true business and promotional venture, this is an important tool; it helps an organization make sure that it stays at the standard it establishes and helps organizations produce and maintain their margins of gain.

Using the ICC (International Cricket Council) as an example it must be asserted that they are unorganized group working together with many other professional cricket promoters around the world; their standards are monitored, and it is these standards of management that reflect the standard of the game. Hence, the ISO plays an important role in assuring consumers of the role that the organizations such as the ICC play in the cricketing world. It is because of these standards that more people are drawn towards the game.

Similarly, private golf can be promoted right up tithe standard and popularity that games like cricket and soccer has. The idea is to first get themselves organized and develop standards that they (the organizers of the game) see fit. After this, they may lay their claims and the ISO can assess them regularly to check for their credibility and standard maintenance through time.

Many companies are working very hard to achieve good quality goods and services and using them as competitive advantages in their business. In the 1990s, there are two main subjects on quality that capture the attention of most businesses in the world, namely the International Quality Management Standard ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management(Total Quality Management). Much publicity and promotions have been made on these two subjects. It is like a fire in the forest amongst the industrialised nations. The aim of this conference is to find out what is so special about ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management and why it is necessary for industries and businesses to acquire them. In order to facilitate the development of new ideas and sharing of experience, the conference is divided into a number of sub-themes. The Speakers (in brackets) will be trying to build a 'bridge' between ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management within their own expertise.

In recent years, the lines have been drawn up by fans of ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management. Total Quality Management is conceived to be deliberate approach to create an environment in which continual improvements in effectiveness and flexibility in all of a company’s operations are the norm. ISO 9000, on the other hand, is seen to be prescriptive set of 'requirements' with the emphasis on conformance to documented procedures and fitness for purpose of products/services .

The truth in forward-looking companies is very different. Here the methodologies and techniques of Total Quality Management are seen to provide the creative and proactive approaches to problem solving and process improvement, with ISO 9000 adding the formality, discipline, and procedures to ensure that all essential quality assurance systems are implemented effectively and that the Total Quality Management gains are consolidated .

Focusing on the strengths of Total Quality Management and ISO 9000 in this way creates a synergy in which Total Quality Management provides the drive, the innovation, and the toolkit; ISO 9000 delivers the formality, the consolidation and discipline. The synergy results in formal culture where everybody and everything interacts as though they were part of a well-laid plan for success.

The manufacture of on-conforming product becomes impossible, and if problems do occur they are identified, quantified, analysed and resolved as a matter of course. The mission of "Right first time, every time, on time, at cost “evolves into a culture throughout all areas of the business -- not just the manufacturing departments.

Introduction to Total Quality Management (TQM) Philosophy

The philosophy provides the overall concept that fosters continuous improvement in an organization. This philosophy stresses systematic, integrated, consistent, organization-wide perspective involving everyone and everything. It focuses primarily on total satisfaction for both the internal and external customers, within a management environment that seeks continuous improvement of all systems and processes. (Total Quality Management from the Perspective of Competitive Advantage by Edwin B. Dean) The Total Quality Management philosophy emphasizes use of all people, usually in multi-functional teams, to bring about improvement from within the organization. It stresses optimal life-cycle cost and uses measurement within disciplined methodology to target improvements. The key elements of the philosophy are the prevention of defects and an emphasis on quality InDesign.

Important aims include the elimination of losses and the reduction of variability. Further, it advocates the development of relationships -employee, supplier and customer. Finally, the philosophy is based on an intense desire to achieve victory.

The Basic Principles of Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management principles are the main factors which guarantee the successful implementation of Total Quality Management. Broadly speaking, they can be classified into ten major headings:

(1)_Leadership.
(2)_Commitment.
(3)_Total customer satisfaction.
(4)_Continuous improvement.
(5)_Total involvement.
(6)_Training and education.
(7)_Ownership.
(8)_Reward and recognition.
(9)_Error prevention.
(10)_Co-operation and teamwork.

Reasons for Implementing the Quality System Standard: some examples included

There are numerous reasons why many companies are now developing their quality systems to the requirements of the standard. Owen of Lankro Chemicals provides four reasons why his company implemented BS 5750.They are to:
(1)_reduce first time failure;
(2)_reduce the costs of customer claims;
(3)_get things right the first time;
(4)_improve service to the customer and to increase competitiveness.
Melville and Murphy of GEC Plessey Telecommunication Ltd, said their company chose ISO 9000 as part of the Total Quality Improvement Programme because they wanted to move away from the traditional role of chasing failure, towards an attitude of prevention and for every individual to be responsible for producing good quality products and services.
It is clear enough here that if golf clubs follow this pattern when they start off the promotions they would create an impact. However, the downside is that it is not always easy to put up a good performance especially when there is stiff competition. Certainly, there must be more than one club with skilful players. The positive side of this is that there is more scope for competition, and this means that there would be better performances. In turn this means that there would stronger push for practice and improvement of skills.

Practice would increase, and the players would develop themselves further. The result is that the game on the whole would be better to watch. In other words not only will there more competition but there would also be stronger competition and the standard of the game would be lifted higher. With financial incentives in the midst of all the motivation, there is no doubt that players would do their best to improve their skills and perform better.

Viewers would enjoy this more and the game would have a more dynamic outlook. As golf tends to be as lower game than most, a dynamic appearance with some glamour would do it a great deal of good. Coming back to the management part of process of promoting golf at the private club level, it must be asserted that these strategies do not end here.

The EC Council Resolution on a global approach to conformity assessment provides three reasons why companies should implement equality system based on ISO 9000. These are:
(1)_To improve awareness of quality and have the standard of UK-produced products.
(2)_To reduce the need for customer-supplier demonstrations of quality assurance procedures by introducing a third-party quality assurance certificate.
(3)_To open markets outside the UK or any other country by ensuring that ISO 9000 is compatible with EEC and US quality procedures.
Whittington, in his study assessing the interest of organizations in implementing ISO 9000 and the difficulties they faced, discovered four different reasons for implementing the standard. They are:
(1)_Pressure from large customers.
(2)_To maintain contracts with existing customers.
(3)_To use the constraints of the standard to prevent scrap.
(4)_To reduce auditing of the quality system by customers.
Failure to implement the standard for the right reasons may prevent companies from gaining potential benefits from the system. A couple of companies studied claimed that ISO 9000 costs much money to implement and maintain, and that their product quality is no better than before the system was implemented. He also found that there was no reduction in assessment and auditing, as claimed by much of the literature. It was found that among the incorrect reasons for implementing the standard are to:
*_make reference to the standard on company headed paper;
*_get the kite mark symbol on the company's product;
*_enforce discipline on employees;
*_retain existing customers.

Besides the right reasons, the degree of commitment by top management will determine the success of the system. Top management is required to generate a conducive environment to enhance the development of the system. This can be achieved by developing a company quality policy and objectives. This will enable all the employees to work towards the same quality goal. Total commitment is essential.

Without complete commitment from the Managing Director and the board, implementing a quality assurance scheme such as ISO 9000 simply has no chance to succeed. It is said that among the first steps to quality is that there must be an uncompromising commitment to maintain or improve the quality level, starting with the most senior management and floor downwards.

Benefits of Implementing the Quality System; examples of industries included
Since the inception of the quality system over a decade ago, many organizations have claimed benefits as direct results of implementing the system. Much literature claims that money is saved through reduced cost, satisfied customers (viewers and those interested in the game of golf), waste reduction and reduction in time consumed on reworking of designs and procedures. Private club golf could be promoted under the same strategies and hence save the organizations or their overall controller a great deal of finance.

It has also been claimed that the potential benefits or advantages of implementing a quality system based on ISO 9000 fall into two categories, which are:
(1)_the advantages of having the system;
(2)_additional advantages accruing from the result of having a quality system that has been independently assessed.

Though the Metal Finishing industry does not have anything to do with sports, it has had benefits from implementing the management plan. This does not mean that other types of organizations cannot benefit from it(Some points below may or may not apply or have anything to do with promoting golf in a more commercial environment. The example used intended to give one an idea of the financial gain any organization might have). Among the benefits reported are:
*_Better workflow through the factory and improved efficiency lead to better customer service.
*_There is a consistent standard of training for new operators.
*_Consistent reduction of reworking has resulted in savings of over £10,000.
*_The workforce is much more conscious of their contribution to the quality of work they produce and has become more involved in shop-floor improvements to quality.
*_Better document control leads to improved communication with the customers and internally in the factory.
*_The quantifiable saving on customer rejects, to only 40 per cent of the previous level, results in more repeated business and a steady increase of new business.
*_The in-house rejection rate has been halved, and savings in the consumption of chemicals such as electrolyte and electrode are well over £40,000 annually.
*_Higher quality work is noticeable as the customer return falls from 3per cent of sales revenue to less than 0.5 per cent. This results in savings of more than £30,000.
Similarly, the Automotive industry will find that the implementation of standards is necessary in any project oriented environment otherwise there will not be any implementation of goals.

ISO 9000 as a Route to Implementing Total Quality Management

It’s always debatable whether it is better to implement Total Quality Management or ISO 9000 first. However, if one sees ISO 9000 as a route to Total Quality Management, they are complementary to one other. Afar as promoting golf in a more organized manner from the club level, it would be better for them to have Total Quality Management in place first before ISO. This is because of the fact that ye already have a back ground against which their management and performance could be assessed.

For companies who are already on Total Quality Management, installing’s 9000 is relatively straightforward. On the other hand, if companies are planning towards Total Quality Management, they can use ISO 9000 as a vehicle. From the above discussion, it seems there are a number of important points which need to be followed in order to implement Total Quality Management and ISO 9000 successfully:

(1) Total Quality Management philosophy and ten basic principles - They are very important and form the foundations for success in implementation. In particular, the leadership and commitment from the top management are vital. Getting these right first time is far more important than anything else!

(2) Practice the ten "commandments" - It is no good just understanding Total Quality Management principles without putting them into practice.

(3) Use other people's experience as a guide to create your own Total Quality Management model - Every organization is different. It is best to understand yourself thoroughly and produce a Total Quality Management model that suits you best. Then you can use ISO 9000 as structural framework for the implementation of Total Quality Management. (Tata, Prasad, Thorn, 1999)

(4) Customer satisfaction and continuous improvement - Never try to look for a "quick fix" or consider profits as the priority and avoid fancy slogans such as "right first time" or "zero defects". Improvement over time is important.

(5) Use ISO 9000 as a route to Total Quality Management - Try to develop a Quality Manual for ISO 9000 that is suitable for your company and its customers. Fully implement it and then go for continuous improvement. This will lead your company towards Total Quality Management in a systematic way.

(6) ISO 9000 needs Total Quality Management - Even with ISO 9000certification in hand, it would not guarantee that the products and services are of high quality. In order to produce quality products and services, the system needs Total Quality Management to lift it up to expectations! (Kiosk, 1998)

(7) Total Quality Management is knowledge-based conscious - Total Quality Management philosophy is very conscious of using the knowledge-base as an asset in an organization. Everybody needs to be educated and trained to do a better job. The top management also needs to be educated and trained! (Campbell - 1997)

(8) Be optimistic and use tools, knowledge and skills - Even though some pitfalls and cautions have been voiced by some Total Quality Management experts and practitioners, if one implements Total Quality Management by acquiring all ten basic principles and treating them as a way of life, then there should not be any risks in going for Total Quality Management style of management. One would not spend much capital in implementing Total Quality Management, apart from the costs of education, training and retraining. Furthermore, "Quality is Free”. Finally, be optimistic about the results.
All around the world, in many developed and developing countries, ‘Total Quality Management’ and ISO 9000 are promoted by government bodies and many firms. Golf promotion at private clubs as well may be helped out through the government as well.

The UK's Department of Trade and Industry has published a full range of booklets and videos on Total Quality Management. The Single European Marketing Directive on Standards and Certification stipulates that ISO9000 should be encouraged among its 12 member countries.

In South-East Asian countries like Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore, the governments have set up special divisions to help industries to go for ISO 9000 accreditation. Many Japanese companies in these regions like Sony, Panasonic, etc., have followed suit. In mid-1992, the Chinese Government required that all foreign manufacturers investing in China and exporting their goods should seek ISO 9000 registration. All this evidence has supported one theme: ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management are the passports to success. (Huey 1991)

It can be observed here that the literature about Total Quality Management and ISO 9000, their relationships, and how they are being practiced by successful companies serve as an example of how golf could be promoted practically in a more commercial environment. Of course the improvisations would have to be made, but it is achievable. The management form is such that it is possible to run the golf organizations as a business with a strategy. However, the plan mentioned above is not the only one, as there are other ways of establishing and running a set-up.

It has been proved by many that these systems are the golden routes to satisfying the demanding needs of consumers in the 1990s. Finally, a framework for implementation of either scheme has been suggested which can be used as a valuable guideline for firms going for ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management.

The example provided below is that of an automotive organization (Ford) in order to give one an idea of what company’s standard is and how it may live up to its name promises under strategy. Living up to a strategy in a commercial environment means that it will have profits significant enough to take it forward. The same kind of concept could be applied to golf promotion in private clubs.

The Automotive Standards as an example

A description of an automotive company or any other organization might not sound feasible in describing the need to lead a golf club or organization. It must be asserted that since the focus is on commercial environment, business organizations such as Ford may be used as an example to give one an idea of what commercial golf can be like and why the external environment is so important to consider.

At Ford Motor Company, they have single focus – the customer. They are driven by their customers to achieve higher quality standards and the customer drives them to develop better ideas that help them build the best performing, safest, and most environmentally friendly cars and trucks in the world. This philosophy extends beyond vehicles, however, into areas that impact their customer in every aspect of his life.(Stajkovic, Lufthansa, 1998)

As one of the largest companies in the world, Ford Motor Company makes news nearly every day. Their weekly digest of Ford news briefs provides quick overview of the latest happenings inside Ford and all of their divisions. Ford Motor Company is dedicated to providing ingenious environmental solutions that will position them as a leader in the automotive industry of the 21st century. Their actions demonstrate that they care about preserving the environment for future generations.(Tetenbaum 1998)

Ford scientists, engineers and designers are constantly pushing the limits of technology, performance, safety, and style, shaping the next generation of automotive transportation. Their concept vehicles are glimpse into the future through the eyes of these visionaries.

Corporate citizenship is a social responsibility that Ford Motor Company takes very seriously. Through active support, Ford Motor Company is committed to supporting many local and national programs to effect change, provide for those in need and improve the quality of life in all communities (Cohen-1998).

At Ford Motor Company, their dedication to safety and security reaches people of all ages, on every highway and main street. It is Ford’s long-standing policy to design and build vehicles with continuous advancements that help drivers avoid accidents, and helps protect occupants in the event of an accident. (QS-9000 Pioneers, SubirChowdury and Ken Zimmer, McGraw Hill International Editions) This solid commitment is one reason Ford has earned more of the highest possible marks in the federal government frontal crash test ratings than any full-line manufacturer.

Thus, any projects that they undertake, they always do so with their greatest focus on the maintenance of quality standards throughout.

QS-9000 is the shorthand name for "Quality System RequirementsQS-9000." It is the common supplier quality standard for Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation.QS-9000 is based on the 1994 edition of ISO 9001, but it contains additional requirements that are particular to the automotive industry. These additions are considered automotive "interpretations" by the ISOcommunity of accreditation bodies and registrars. QS-9000 applies to suppliers of production materials, production and service parts, heat-treating, painting and plating and other finishing services. It does not, therefore, apply to all suppliers of the Big Three (Seridan,Patton,1997).

The QOS Process Developed by Ford

Ford’s slogan, “Quality is Job 1,” has caught on with increasing segments of the car-buying public. Ford was the man who introduced the concept of getting it right the first time. It was at Ford thatmanagement and quality standards were brought together in an operational system known as the Quality Operating System. (Terrill Bujones 1999) The same type of thing could be applied to golf promotion. With the name that it does already have on the international level it could be promoted further along with developments taking place commercially at the private club level. The benefits would automatically be in the form of greater consumption and patronization of club events. However, it has to be carefully marketed, and this could be done through the processes suggested below.

The Quality Operating System (QOS) process is a structured, disciplined team approach to managing a business based on facts, not emotions, and promoting continuous improvement activities. Initially developed in 1988 by the Ford Motor Company's Power train Division, the system was used to monitor and improve the quality of products. Successful implementation led to increased quality, higher reliability, and greater durability, while preventing the loss of valuable resources.

QOS is more than just a manufacturing quality tool; it is a powerful information management system. The system is applicable to all areas of an organization and to all types of businesses regardless of size or product.
Typically, organizations have some form of quality management system in place, however, this system may not be formalized or well-structured.

Companies normally do a good job with collecting data, but sometimes the data may not always be accurate or presented in a useful format or easily interpreted. QOS facilitates the data collection process, standardizes the formats, promotes a management overview, and allows intelligent fact- based decision making, while generating positive and verifiable corrective action. QOS also drives employee involvement and cross-functional problem solving at all levels which evolves to prevention-oriented system rather than a reactionary system. Its continued use will eventually eliminate the "fire-fighting" mentality with effective problem resolution and prevention techniques.

The catalyst that drives the process lies in the understanding of customer expectations and compliance to requirements necessary for total customer satisfaction. Success depends directly on senior management’s ability to realize the true contribution of quality and its impact on an organization.

The QOS is like a Dynamic Closed-Loop Development Process and applies to the development of management information systems and quality assurance practices and procedures. It is important to note that the development process does not end at Phase 7; it is a continuous, repetitive process that will need to be modified and refocused on finer details as process variability is reduced and quality is improved.

Phase 1

In Phase 1 of the process, a Quality Steering Committee (QSC) is formulated which is comprised of senior management and officers of the company. The QSC is responsible for the leadership of quality and clarification of specific goals and objectives for the organization. These goals should be documented in an Executive Business Plan and Strategic Quality Plan for Deployment.

In addition, the QSC selects members for focused Quality Improvement Process (QIP) Teams dedicated to continuous improvements of key measurable and operating efficiencies. The QSC establishes the roles, responsibilities, and disciplines of the QIP teams for effective meeting skills, communications and feedback reporting.

Phase 2

This is the most critical phase of the process due to the required paradigm shift and the need to generate a high level of enthusiasm necessary for achieving world class status. The QIP teams are educated in the QOS methodology and system requirements with a focus unawareness throughout the organization. In this phase, the education process builds on the existing strengths and is designed to motivate the teams toward accomplishing the company's goals and mission objective.

Training programs are to be tailored to the immediate needs of the individuals participating in the process and have proven most effective in a workshop format. Organizations should develop skills based on curriculum with the emphasis on creating team synergy, a harmonious work environment and enthusiasm for improvement. A sound training program may include Team Consensus Decision Making, Effective Meeting Skills and Disciplines, Goal Setting, Brainstorming, QOS and Team-Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS) .

Phase 3

After training, the QIP teams are able to create their own mission statement, select key processes, collect performance measurable, and set goals for improvement. In Phase 3, teams begin an evolutionary process brought about by brainstorming the system, procedures, and balance of responsibilities for the Closed-Loop QOS Process.

Phase 4

At this phase, the QOS Action Plan for continuous improvement is presented to the organization. This step begins the formal review and feedback process at the heart of the QOS system. Once the plans have been presented and approved by the internal organization, the QSC needs to establish a QOS Communication Board to post the various documents for company-wide acknowledgment, and to begin the deployment process.
Typically, these documents would include:

• the Executive Summary of the Company's Business Plan
• the Strategic Quality Plan which contains the QOS team structure, roles, and responsibilities of individuals
• the QOS meeting calendar
• the QOS summary chart and trend charts
• the mission statements for each QIP team
• the team goals and objectives
• the QOS Action Plan
Once this has been accomplished, the QSC must include key customers in the review process and schedule their attendance at key QSC-QOSmeetings.

Phase 5

In Phase 5, the QIP teams begin tracking and responding to the measurable. The focus of these now highly-skilled and dedicated QIP teams is to identify the variables or causes for poor performance and remove them entirely, or reduce their impact by process re-engineering(materials, machines, tools, or sequence of events). From this point on, the QIP teams begin implementing breakthrough improvements in abnormal operating mode.

Phase 6

In Phase 6, the QIP teams develop an internal/external audit system to ensure the annual review of the QOS standards, customer expectations, and the unspoken requirements. Incidentally, the most logical time to start an internal audit program is after a good quality operating system is in place.

Phase 7: Revision of The QOS

After the system is in place, the process is started over again and may be restructured using the feedback information collected in Phase6. With each new phase of the QOS Development Process, the measurable should be revaluated and adjusted to ensure they accurately reflect customer expectations.

Focus

The key to success is the total quality awareness, commitment, and the daily and meaningful involvement of all employees in the QOS Development Process. It is very important that the entire organization be involved in QOS. Its use is empowering and drives the organization to realize that quality is everyone's job.

Project Management (typically suited to promoting golf at the club level):

The basic purpose for initiating a project is to accomplish some goals. The reason for organizing the task as a project is to focus the responsibility and authority for the attainment of the goals on an individual or small group.
In the broadest sense, a project is a specific, finite task to be accomplished. Whether large or small-scale, long or short-run, it doesn’t matter. What is relevant however, is that the project is seen as a unit. Some attributes that characterize projects are:

Purpose:

A project is usually a one-time activity with a well-defined set of desired end results. It can be divided into subtasks that must be accomplished in order to achieve the project goals. The project must be controlled and coordinated with other projects being carried out by the same parent organization.

Life Cycle:

Like organic entities, projects have life cycles. They all have a beginning, a peak and a decline.

Interdependencies:

Projects often interact with other projects being carried out by the parent organization. Projects always interact with the parent’s standard, on-going operations.

Uniqueness:

Every project has some elements that are unique. No two projects are precisely alike.

Conflict:

The project manager lives in a world ruled by conflict. There is competition for resources and personnel, etc. all the time between different projects.

Project managers generally create a project plan composed of all the interrelated activities of the project, one that ascribes responsibilities and estimates resource requirements. That project plan involves a work-breakdo


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