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Private Members' Golf Clubs: the Need to Compete in an Increasingly More Commercial Environment.

The world learns through experience, but living in an image-conscious world may prevent one from learning through his experiences. This is apparently a dilemma considering the fact that one lives in an age of post modernism; a stage during which signs mask reality, and one is often deceived through image-promoting strategies.

This is true to say because of the fact that signs, logos and big names are now common, and people are often lured into believing the authenticity of different products because of the promotions they have.

Consumer behaviour is considerably dependent on promotion of products; the manner in which products are promoted directly influences customer behaviour. Each medium used for promotion has its own impact, and the one that is believed to have a tremendous impact is the Internet.

It is believed to boost promotions and sales greatly, and it helps customers in their first step before actually checking a car out. It is through the advertisements on line that they may be attracted and then move towards checking a vehicle out physically at a show room. It is this behaviour that has helped boost the automotive industry significantly. In fact it must be asserted that prior to globalization, consumer behaviour was observed as having a major effect on the development of nations. This is because it helps boost the economy internally as well as having its impact externally.

Prior to the 1940s and 1950s, there was no such aim because of the fact that there were many problems that the country was faced with internally. Socially there were different levels on which the UK had to bring the people together. And perhaps during that time no one had come up with such an idea to divert the attention of the people, which occurred during the 1950s.

From this era began to the shift towards an improved way of life that would take the country into an entirely different era. This era today is called globalization, a phenomenon that brought many parts of the world together through faster communication systems.

Globalization has in fact resulted due to the fact that communication systems have been boosted in recent years. This is also the reason why the present age that people live in is called ‘the age of communication’.

The world in which one lives today is indeed a fast-paced one. This fast-paced environment has evolved because of various actions, each of them interacting and producing a variety of results, and creating effects that favour the current situations today. This may all sound complex, but in truth, it may be simply described as a vast number of actions causing a very situation that one witnesses today. This complex situation does not mean that there is total chaos because there is infect an organized system in place. This organized system is one that helps many countries stay in contact with each other.

However, the system is not one that favours friendship, but actually focuses on economic gains; countries are motivated in this system to work towards their own gain. They stay in touch with each other for the purpose of suiting their own needs. It is obvious that they would not do things one charitable basis for another country when they could actually invest time and money in bettering their own conditions. Due to the availability of the Internet, countries are able to remain in close touch and trade easily.

Online communications have facilitated countries well enough in order to raise their standards of living, and it is on the basis of this tat many people have turned their lives around.

Aside from the globalized environment within which one may operate with the help of the Internet, it must be asserted that there are also other means of keeping in touch with other countries. Transportation for one is an important means of remaining in touch and working with other people. In view of this, it must be asserted that the businesses and other operations can be enhanced this way. With speedy communication on their side, a business has better scope of advancing.

It must be realized that competition is facilitated well in the global system, and the globalized features aid countries in participating indifferent kinds of competition whether it is business, sports or admixture of the two. In view of sports and business in the form of admixture, it must be asserted that there is great focus on the business part of the mixture.

Without this greater emphasis, the sport will not survive at the international level. One may take any sport into consideration here. Soccer for example, as it has a great deal of finance involved in it. Players are highly paid these days, and their reputations are at high-stake because of these high fees they are paid. In addition to this there is the international attention drawn, which in a way causes more stress, but also helps the financial part of the (sports) business. Other sports also have similar features in their business environment. Cricket is another example, and this game is still believed to be in its infancy as far as the financial aspect is considered.

Having asserted that sports such as cricket and football are sports that have strong business sides to them, there are other sports that are believed to have similar scope. One example is golf; this is a prestigious and dignified game that has the potential of earning much more than others sports. In its current condition, it is doing well, and players at the professional level are paid well too. However, there is more scope, and considering expansion of this game, it must be asserted that more players can be encompassed globally; they may be paid well and therefore their talents may not go undiscovered or wasted. Considering this, it is important to consider the importance of including players from various levels.

Private clubs is a great place to begin. This is because there is so much undiscovered talent within these clubs. Often, there are players with immense experience who pass most of their lives without being given a chance to prove themselves at the professional level. It is thought that if these individuals are somehow exposed through better organizational arrangement, both golf from private clubs as well as the players, will benefit. The popularity of the game would increase and there would be more people participating in it. This in turn means that there would naturally be greater competition.

Abstract:

Competition is considered to be a great way of promoting a sport or anything that demands the participation of more than one person. Competition is believed to be the best means of earning in the financial world. Aside from the financial part of the arrangement, there is also the reputation of an activity that comes into play. It must be asserted that there is immense scope for both popularity and financial gain through competitive environments, and the same thing applies to golf at the private golf club level. In a competitive environment regarding sports today, it must be asserted that there is marketing and promotional strategies are important. Proper management is another important aspect that comes into play, and it is known that sports at the international level cannot survive without it.

There are various aspects that come into the managerial tactics as well, and these all have their levels of success depending on the conditions and the market targeted. Also, in view of marketing, promotion and management of sports at the International or professional level it must be asserted that the strategies are similar to handling other kinds of business. Making use of these strategies in sports promotion is believed to be beneficial for the game as well as players and the countries they come from. Therefore, competing in a more commercial environment is important for sports like golf too, and their private clubs may compete in such environments in order to popularize the game, pay the players well and earn greater revenue especially where the game is hosted.

Methodology:

In order to achieve as much information about sports and managing sports in a competitive environment, detailed research has to be conducted and analysed. In addition to researching information on sports and managing sports, there is need to understand the chances of succeeding in a commercial environment. When it comes to promoting sport that is not as popular as cricket or football, there is a great deal that needs to be reviewed and understood. There are many things that need to be taken into consideration including risks and chances of success. It is through reviewing pertinent literature and applying it to golf and its current position that would help to give one an idea of what future it could possibly have.

Also, studying typical managerial plans and theories reveal the extent to which sports promotion is influenced by them. Some of these theories and strategies could easily apply to promoting golf in a more commercial environment. Aside from these internal methods of studying the promotion of golf in a more commercial environment, there are also external ones.
In addition to reviewing pertinent literature, there is also a need to consider and understand the environmental factors. This refers to the external conditions that may influence the success or failure of promoting golf in a more commercial environment.

Analysing both the external and internal influences would help one to observe the chances of success along with the need to go ahead and dose. It is important to promote golf in a more commercial environment because of the fact that there is plenty of scope to do so. Like other international and popular sports golf may be promoted in a more commercial environment through proper management strategies. In asserting this, it must be emphasized that there is a great deal to gain from its promotion, as the sport, the participants and those that host the events gain tremendously.

Literature Review

Theory:

The manner in which a sport or any other kind of activity is promoted directly affects it. Hence there is a need for management to be aware of what it has in its plans for promotion. This strongly refers to the environments created as well as the tactics used. To begin with, leadership in this regard is most important, as it can determine the success or failure of promotion to a great extent.

The world has reached a stage at which everything is close-knit. There are several bodies and structures that interact with each other that appear to be systematic. Globalization for instance is something has many countries, organizations and institutions operating together. Each of the components in the globalization process exists for its self and is self-driven, yet the system functions. In this regard, one might assert that markets of different types and sizes function in a similar manner. The motive industry is an example with its visible effects. Consumers are actively participating in the industry activity, making it an increasingly viable one for people to invest in. The services and products are known to be quite reliable with an immense amount interesting them. In recent years this has been the case and in time to come it’s expected that there is going to be even more interest in particular industries.

Systems of control are ones that need to be in place so that processes remain in view and are understand completely. This is a necessary step in any commercial line because it helps management know what exactly is going on in a particular organization. Indeed, the management needs to know what is going on in order to manage their businesses more effectively. In simple terms, the more knowledge that one has of his other company, the more likely s/he is to take appropriate measures for future betterment. As opposed to this, when the management does not know what exactly is going on it becomes difficult for them to take decisions.

This is because they do not know whether the decisions they take will have adverse effects on their organization. In view of this, it is considered most important that the management knows and understands processes thoroughly. In order to make sure that they know what is going on they have to have some kind of system in place that would cater to their needs. When it comes to managing a company more effectively, it must be asserted that there is need to recognize particular activity. Developing such a system would be of immense use, and if implemented successfully, a company would be able to trace out organizational activity in every respect and measure the economic impact that each of these actions has. In view of this, management models may be implemented to determine cost values for particular activity within a company. There are several methods that might be employed to do this, and each has its own level of credibility.

Newer methods of handling anything are introduced in order to produce intended effects that are better than previous ones. People would not persist with newer systems if they believed that they were not effective and profitable. Older systems that are overshadowed cannot be brought back if newer systems are more effective. In this regard, if answer system takes time for people to adjust to, plans are developed in order to make sure that they are ameliorated in order to make use of them to their maximum potential. Indeed, there are several newer systems being employed in various fields. These fields need to overview and understand what these systems are in order to appreciate their benefits. In understanding thee benefits, the basic principles on which they function need to be assessed. To begin with, the environment(internal as well as external) is an important point to discuss.

A cordial environment is usually seen as the most appropriate one to ensure an organization maximum gain. In this way, participants(individuals who play as well as those that manage the game of golf in private clubs) learn to perform better without any feeling of being compelled. In this way, they learn to be committed when they see that the leaders of the organization are not pressurizing them. This is infect a learning process that takes time. According to Singe, human beings are born learners, and the environment that each human being is brought up in defines the formation of a personality. The process of socialization is the key to changing the natural generative learning abilities into adaptive learning skills. Applying this to golf promotion means that individuals also learn the value of socializing through golf and understand the processes involved.

The human being is portrayed as being one that is programmable, and then carries out duties as expected by the management. This is true as far as picking up the basics is concerned. If an individual has to learn the basics at the age of twenty it is indeed a momentous task. However, what Singe is talking about isn’t about basics, but refers tithe adaptation of an educated individual into an environment that enables him to grasp more. Hence promoting golf in a more commercial environment means that individuals learn to accept things here as their basics. As they rise to a higher professional level they would be used to all the processes and have less pressure. In view of this, Senge’s theory is one that may be consciously or subconsciously employed.

In places where changes are necessary and participants find it difficult to conform, it’s often seen that when there is a need for human beings to accept a new surrounding to work in, one way or another they manage to do so. This may be because of hegemonies attitude by the managers. However, Singe essentially refers to the conscious setting by managers who wish to obtain the maximum benefit in accordance with Senge’s theory.

Being aware of the way that human beings can learn more and be more productive as a result, managers try to set an environment that is cordial so that it may accommodate all its participants (Larsen, 1996).

The environment so created is one that gets the participants to do what the managers want, but with the feeling that the employees themselves are free to behave or work according to their own likes. By this, it does not mean that they can come and go as they please and do whatever they want. There are certainly corporate rules that they must follow, but at the same time they assume that they are well supported and well dealt with by their superiors. Part of the learning organization’s jobs to include team members into the various phases of the promotion or production process.

By including team members in the various processes of a production process, they are more enlightened about the way that their role affects the outcome of production, and this is why they are termed fully awakened (Larsen, 1996).

This state of being fully awakened has been likened to the way that children are adaptive. Children, at a learning age are able to adapt themselves to different environments easily. It has been argued that the same adaptive nature persists virtually throughout ones whole life, even if they are uncomfortable with an environment at first. On being psychologically at ease with an environment, individuals learn to accept the situation. But this is only the first phase in moving toward learning organizations according to Singe (Singe, 1990).

Singe emphasizes that adapting isn’t the centre-most issue of attaining learning environment, the impulse to learn are more important and deeper. The impulse to learn is something that needs to be stimulated, and this is done through a provocative environment. Singe says that the impulse to learn is far more than desires to respond and adapt appropriately to change in environment. It is important first of all then to stimulate interest if effective adaptation is desired of the employees. This is the reason why it is first of all important that an organization attracts its employees with its changes so that they may automatically take interest, thereby making the process of adaptation easier.

In the same way, this process of employees taking more interesting their work has resulted in a more focus on generative learning, which is about creating, Creativity is perhaps one of the desired end results of an environmental change, along with adapting to changes in the environment. The concept is actually simple. What managers are actually doing by creating a stimulating environment is that they are diverting the attention of their employees away from the problems they may be undergoing.

When managers for instance try to show their employees their friendly side it does not necessarily mean that they are being nice to them personally, but are doing so in order to make them feel comfortable. By making them feel more comfortable the organization stands a far better chance of being able to gain more. This is because of the fact that when an employee feels comfortable s/he can be far more creative in contrast to when s/he is under pressure.

In recent years, the approach to promoting productivity has been one that makes use of a cordial environment. This is the reason for the numerous successes that organizations have had. In these organizations it has been seen that the reason for success is the greater involvement of employees in all kinds of routine work. In this way the employees do not get saturated. They avoid saturation due to being allowed to follow the processes that are carried out right up till a product is completed. Along with being involved in all the steps and are kept busying these, they also keep on learning more and more about the production of goods and the organization they work in. This stimulates creativity as they begin to devise more effective ways to ameliorate production. Two-way management welcomes these ideas, which further enhance the cordial environment thereby promoting more creativity (Learning Organization and Knowledge, 2002).

The task of promoting creativity is one that is acted upon and not carried out by an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship is the status that one earns through being able to see through tasks through conditions that’s/he recognizes as favourable. The job of such a person is indeed one of the highest responsibilities in the corporate world. An entrepreneur is one that has to weigh all the pros and cons of strategy so that the most appropriate decisions are taken. An entrepreneur is an individual that is supposed to carry out the same kind of duties but the essential difference is that s/he is associated with internet-related business. This means that these are the individuals that create business offers on the Internet. They have to make sure that the overall working of their business is smooth. This is because they are the direct winners or losers of their own actions, which are in turn a result of the strategies they adopt.

These strategies that are adopted by entrepreneurs or entrepreneurs are ones that are a result of thoughtful consideration. This is only possible for them when they go through various troubles and means to get where they wants to, along with ensuring that they do not make mistake along the way.

The characteristic that is so important to be an entrepreneur is to be cautious and painstaking. Without this kind of approach to business one can never be successful. There are several factors at the beginning of quest for an entrepreneur that s/he must consider carefully. The first one of these factors is the market situation.

An Entrepreneur must ask him or herself whether or not market conditions are favourable or not for investment in any business. If one plunges into a business blindly without thinking about what the market situations is then his or her efforts may result in total disaster. An entrepreneur may spend a lot of money trying to set up some kind of online e-mail business but yet it may not prove fruitful if there is no market for it. An important point that must be realized is that there can be no business if there is no market for it, and this is because of the fact that people make up the market. If there are no people willing to buy an entrepreneur’s product there can be no business. Here, it must be emphasized that there is certainly a market for golf, and it is because of this that it can be easily promoted in a more commercial environment.

There can be several factors affecting this kind of situation, which may range from the climatic to political conditions, and even to geographical location. Products that do well in one of the world may not always be in demand in other parts of the world, as market situations may differ significantly. Besides scanning the market situation in terms of whether a product will be successful there are other considerations too.

While checking the market situation an entrepreneur needs to be aware of what kind of competition is present and what his or her chances might be against them. It is vital to be able to calculate effectively what one’s chances are in a market where other established businesses running and selling the same product. If one fails to do this effectively and blindly invests a large amount in his or her product, assuming s/he is far ahead of the other products there could be a huge loss for the company. This also reinforces the need to be cautious when one is taking crucial decisions possibly involving a large amount of finance. By taking decisions cautiously, one may be helped with foresightedness, which is yet another important part of doing business.

Foresightedness is affected by various factors. Knowledge of economic history may also play a pivotal role in the future of one’s business. This is coupled by the individual experiences of other entrepreneurs too, whose consultancy is a must. Novices must gather as much of information as possible from the experienced individuals s/he comes into contact with. This lessens the chances of a business failing to great extent and serves as the greatest precautions for a new business.

In addition to all these precautions with the aid of market analysis there are other things that have to be watched over carefully by an entrepreneur, such as strategies market analysis, mission statement, long term goals, specific objectives, description of the product, product development plan, marketing strategies, operations plan and financial plan. Of course, it must also be realized that all these cannot be done on one’s own and it need a whole lot of employees to carry them out. In order to have employees one must be able to invest, which highlights the need for capital. But this capital must be handled sensibly too, and the most efficient way to do so is to hire people who are able to analyse the market situation first. Once this is done, and if the situation appears to be fruitful s/he may proceed with further investments.

Investing in a business (such as golf that has an immense market to target) is a gradual process which should not be done overnight. By investing slowly, there will be stability provided to the controlling body. This is the first thing that participants need to be aware of (Do You Want to be an Entrepreneur, 1999).

Leaders are in charge of ensuring the smooth running of an organization, and so, for this they have to do their utmost to ensure it. Though most people might have the impression that being in the position of a manager might mean that it is a kind of position that demands dictatorship. This is because this position demands a person tube in charge of situation, but professionally speaking there is a way of obtaining maximum output while avoiding a dictatorial atmosphere. People also sometimes feel that managers are the people who should be feared in an organization. But this is not true because it comes nowhere near the borderline of sensibly running an organization.

However, the most prevalent though minor problem in managers or management is their dictatorial attitude towards subordinates.

Dictatorial management is actually a sign of unhealthy leadership because it is extremely discouraging to the employees, and eventually could affect the overall working of the organization, due to the constant pressure built up over a period of time. Though managers may even be aware this practice continues in many organizations, resulting in a pressured working environment. This pressure is unlike other forms of pressure that bursts open. Although few employees may decide to leave on the spot when pressurized, most of them will wait for other favourable opportunities to come their way so that there isn’t a break in their income. Gradually, with a pressured and dissatisfying environment employee turnover can result in an organization self-destructing. While employees keep on passing in and out of organization, the organization will lose its credibility and profits too, and in the end, it is the managers and not the employees who will suffer.

Management in this sense has to learn how to cope with increasing problems as globalization has taken place. The expansion that has been witnessed today in organizational structure is an effect of globalization too because they are spreading almost all over the world. As Organizations expand it is understood that they tend to face problems in efficiency. These problems need to be handled carefully in logical manner so that smooth running of the organization can be restored to the way it was when it was located in its originating country. For this to be handled effectively, communication also needs to be of the highest level.

Problems in efficiency may emerge due to the lack of communication or the lack of skills with newer personnel employed in the firm. This is because they are not aware of exactly what the cultural atmosphere was at the original location of the firm. Since they have been newly employed they are bound to face problems such as these.

Communication in managing any type of organization sis important, and when it comes to promoting sports people are normally not aware of the intense amount of communication that has to be included. This is because of the fact that many people think that sports are not something that is all that serious. However, the fact is that sports may not be a serious thing on its own, but when it comes to managing team or more than one team, and if there financial matters involved, the situation is quite different.

Financial matters make things more serious than they already are, and this is because of the fact that there are risk factors involved automatically. There tends to be a lot more pressure than there usually is and as a result the pressure finally comes down on the shoulders of the players who represent a particular club. The soccer and cricket players experience this to a great extent so much so that there is now need to cope with the psychological strains of the game. Sports in recent times, because of the competition and money involved, has been the result of great stress on players. Some end up under-forming well while others crumble under pressure.

However, strategies of dealing with these pressures are implemented successfully as well. It must be emphasized that dealing with stress is in fact a major part of the leadership process. If the leadership is not good enough it can be said that there will automatically be more stress. Much of the process of coping with stress comes from the leadership. If the leadership is weak then there would be more stress, and if the leadership is string and presents itself properly as a force to sub-ordinates stress will be handles more easily. Hence, it is important to lead a company properly. In handling one’s sub-ordinates well there will be better productivity. With the passage of time, a company can grow confident, and since it is the private golf clubs that are of central importance, it must be said that the confidence level of the players as well as the management would improve.

Strengthening the leadership of an organization automatically means that operations will be handled well, which in turn means that there will be financial gain at the end. In addition to this there won’t be a shortage of executives if organizations indulge in setting up proper training plans for their apt employees. These plans should be implemented both, at home and abroad too so that uniformity is maintained throughout the organization.

It is also essential that trainers do not get polarized in any one location geographically speaking. They should be allowed to exercise their skills and implement them wherever possible. This means that they will also gain maximum teaching experience which they can share with whoever the work with and teach. Three leadership techniques that have been found to increase the performance of an organization:

1) An efficient and lean organization;

2) A talent management plan that focuses on attracting and retaining high-performing individuals; and
3) A performance management program that “rewards employees who meet set goals” (Dorgan, & Dowdy, 2002)

From the above points one can see that the major problem that lies in organizations spreading into other cultures is the internal conflict, but aside from the internal conflicts the trend of marketing American products abroad is one that is patronized by the people of those cultures.

It is the people that make this possible, as human beings are almost always ready for a change especially if it isn’t going to harm them. Accepting new trends that are already in vogue in other neighboring countries is something that further motivates people into welcoming UK products. However, this is not only the case with receiving UK products in Asian countries.

Extending considerations for financial gain with regard to the golf profession there are many angles to take. Aside from simplistic theories that expose the need to enhance golf at private clubs in more commercial environments, there are project management practices that may be underscored. In considering these practices, Total Quality Management becomes an important point to discuss. Though it may not even be seen as fitting for promotion of golf from private clubs because of its detailed and technical approaches, it must be asserted that getting down to technicalities in project management helps reinforce the means and the need to promote golf in a more professional environment.

Total Quality Management

Developing a system that is reliable for the promotion of golf is important. Relying on organizations and setups elsewhere is also imperative, and in this understanding one can see why it might be well worth having a Total Quality Management in place for the promotion of golf. In order to ensure that standards are maintained at the level they should in the form of a true business and promotional venture, this is an important tool; it helps an organization make sure that it stays at the standard it establishes and helps organizations produce and maintain their margins of gain.

Using the ICC (International Cricket Council) as an example it must be asserted that they are unorganized group working together with many other professional cricket promoters around the world; their standards are monitored, and it is these standards of management that reflect the standard of the game. Hence, the ISO plays an important role in assuring consumers of the role that the organizations such as the ICC play in the cricketing world. It is because of these standards that more people are drawn towards the game.

Similarly, private golf can be promoted right up tithe standard and popularity that games like cricket and soccer has. The idea is to first get themselves organized and develop standards that they (the organizers of the game) see fit. After this, they may lay their claims and the ISO can assess them regularly to check for their credibility and standard maintenance through time.

Many companies are working very hard to achieve good quality goods and services and using them as competitive advantages in their business. In the 1990s, there are two main subjects on quality that capture the attention of most businesses in the world, namely the International Quality Management Standard ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management(Total Quality Management). Much publicity and promotions have been made on these two subjects. It is like a fire in the forest amongst the industrialised nations. The aim of this conference is to find out what is so special about ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management and why it is necessary for industries and businesses to acquire them. In order to facilitate the development of new ideas and sharing of experience, the conference is divided into a number of sub-themes. The Speakers (in brackets) will be trying to build a 'bridge' between ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management within their own expertise.

In recent years, the lines have been drawn up by fans of ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management. Total Quality Management is conceived to be deliberate approach to create an environment in which continual improvements in effectiveness and flexibility in all of a company’s operations are the norm. ISO 9000, on the other hand, is seen to be prescriptive set of 'requirements' with the emphasis on conformance to documented procedures and fitness for purpose of products/services .

The truth in forward-looking companies is very different. Here the methodologies and techniques of Total Quality Management are seen to provide the creative and proactive approaches to problem solving and process improvement, with ISO 9000 adding the formality, discipline, and procedures to ensure that all essential quality assurance systems are implemented effectively and that the Total Quality Management gains are consolidated .

Focusing on the strengths of Total Quality Management and ISO 9000 in this way creates a synergy in which Total Quality Management provides the drive, the innovation, and the toolkit; ISO 9000 delivers the formality, the consolidation and discipline. The synergy results in formal culture where everybody and everything interacts as though they were part of a well-laid plan for success.

The manufacture of on-conforming product becomes impossible, and if problems do occur they are identified, quantified, analysed and resolved as a matter of course. The mission of "Right first time, every time, on time, at cost “evolves into a culture throughout all areas of the business -- not just the manufacturing departments.

Introduction to Total Quality Management (TQM) Philosophy

The philosophy provides the overall concept that fosters continuous improvement in an organization. This philosophy stresses systematic, integrated, consistent, organization-wide perspective involving everyone and everything. It focuses primarily on total satisfaction for both the internal and external customers, within a management environment that seeks continuous improvement of all systems and processes. (Total Quality Management from the Perspective of Competitive Advantage by Edwin B. Dean) The Total Quality Management philosophy emphasizes use of all people, usually in multi-functional teams, to bring about improvement from within the organization. It stresses optimal life-cycle cost and uses measurement within disciplined methodology to target improvements. The key elements of the philosophy are the prevention of defects and an emphasis on quality InDesign.

Important aims include the elimination of losses and the reduction of variability. Further, it advocates the development of relationships -employee, supplier and customer. Finally, the philosophy is based on an intense desire to achieve victory.

The Basic Principles of Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management principles are the main factors which guarantee the successful implementation of Total Quality Management. Broadly speaking, they can be classified into ten major headings:

(1)_Leadership.
(2)_Commitment.
(3)_Total customer satisfaction.
(4)_Continuous improvement.
(5)_Total involvement.
(6)_Training and education.
(7)_Ownership.
(8)_Reward and recognition.
(9)_Error prevention.
(10)_Co-operation and teamwork.

Reasons for Implementing the Quality System Standard: some examples included

There are numerous reasons why many companies are now developing their quality systems to the requirements of the standard. Owen of Lankro Chemicals provides four reasons why his company implemented BS 5750.They are to:
(1)_reduce first time failure;
(2)_reduce the costs of customer claims;
(3)_get things right the first time;
(4)_improve service to the customer and to increase competitiveness.
Melville and Murphy of GEC Plessey Telecommunication Ltd, said their company chose ISO 9000 as part of the Total Quality Improvement Programme because they wanted to move away from the traditional role of chasing failure, towards an attitude of prevention and for every individual to be responsible for producing good quality products and services.
It is clear enough here that if golf clubs follow this pattern when they start off the promotions they would create an impact. However, the downside is that it is not always easy to put up a good performance especially when there is stiff competition. Certainly, there must be more than one club with skilful players. The positive side of this is that there is more scope for competition, and this means that there would be better performances. In turn this means that there would stronger push for practice and improvement of skills.

Practice would increase, and the players would develop themselves further. The result is that the game on the whole would be better to watch. In other words not only will there more competition but there would also be stronger competition and the standard of the game would be lifted higher. With financial incentives in the midst of all the motivation, there is no doubt that players would do their best to improve their skills and perform better.

Viewers would enjoy this more and the game would have a more dynamic outlook. As golf tends to be as lower game than most, a dynamic appearance with some glamour would do it a great deal of good. Coming back to the management part of process of promoting golf at the private club level, it must be asserted that these strategies do not end here.

The EC Council Resolution on a global approach to conformity assessment provides three reasons why companies should implement equality system based on ISO 9000. These are:
(1)_To improve awareness of quality and have the standard of UK-produced products.
(2)_To reduce the need for customer-supplier demonstrations of quality assurance procedures by introducing a third-party quality assurance certificate.
(3)_To open markets outside the UK or any other country by ensuring that ISO 9000 is compatible with EEC and US quality procedures.
Whittington, in his study assessing the interest of organizations in implementing ISO 9000 and the difficulties they faced, discovered four different reasons for implementing the standard. They are:
(1)_Pressure from large customers.
(2)_To maintain contracts with existing customers.
(3)_To use the constraints of the standard to prevent scrap.
(4)_To reduce auditing of the quality system by customers.
Failure to implement the standard for the right reasons may prevent companies from gaining potential benefits from the system. A couple of companies studied claimed that ISO 9000 costs much money to implement and maintain, and that their product quality is no better than before the system was implemented. He also found that there was no reduction in assessment and auditing, as claimed by much of the literature. It was found that among the incorrect reasons for implementing the standard are to:
*_make reference to the standard on company headed paper;
*_get the kite mark symbol on the company's product;
*_enforce discipline on employees;
*_retain existing customers.

Besides the right reasons, the degree of commitment by top management will determine the success of the system. Top management is required to generate a conducive environment to enhance the development of the system. This can be achieved by developing a company quality policy and objectives. This will enable all the employees to work towards the same quality goal. Total commitment is essential.

Without complete commitment from the Managing Director and the board, implementing a quality assurance scheme such as ISO 9000 simply has no chance to succeed. It is said that among the first steps to quality is that there must be an uncompromising commitment to maintain or improve the quality level, starting with the most senior management and floor downwards.

Benefits of Implementing the Quality System; examples of industries included
Since the inception of the quality system over a decade ago, many organizations have claimed benefits as direct results of implementing the system. Much literature claims that money is saved through reduced cost, satisfied customers (viewers and those interested in the game of golf), waste reduction and reduction in time consumed on reworking of designs and procedures. Private club golf could be promoted under the same strategies and hence save the organizations or their overall controller a great deal of finance.

It has also been claimed that the potential benefits or advantages of implementing a quality system based on ISO 9000 fall into two categories, which are:
(1)_the advantages of having the system;
(2)_additional advantages accruing from the result of having a quality system that has been independently assessed.

Though the Metal Finishing industry does not have anything to do with sports, it has had benefits from implementing the management plan. This does not mean that other types of organizations cannot benefit from it(Some points below may or may not apply or have anything to do with promoting golf in a more commercial environment. The example used intended to give one an idea of the financial gain any organization might have). Among the benefits reported are:
*_Better workflow through the factory and improved efficiency lead to better customer service.
*_There is a consistent standard of training for new operators.
*_Consistent reduction of reworking has resulted in savings of over £10,000.
*_The workforce is much more conscious of their contribution to the quality of work they produce and has become more involved in shop-floor improvements to quality.
*_Better document control leads to improved communication with the customers and internally in the factory.
*_The quantifiable saving on customer rejects, to only 40 per cent of the previous level, results in more repeated business and a steady increase of new business.
*_The in-house rejection rate has been halved, and savings in the consumption of chemicals such as electrolyte and electrode are well over £40,000 annually.
*_Higher quality work is noticeable as the customer return falls from 3per cent of sales revenue to less than 0.5 per cent. This results in savings of more than £30,000.
Similarly, the Automotive industry will find that the implementation of standards is necessary in any project oriented environment otherwise there will not be any implementation of goals.

ISO 9000 as a Route to Implementing Total Quality Management

It’s always debatable whether it is better to implement Total Quality Management or ISO 9000 first. However, if one sees ISO 9000 as a route to Total Quality Management, they are complementary to one other. Afar as promoting golf in a more organized manner from the club level, it would be better for them to have Total Quality Management in place first before ISO. This is because of the fact that ye already have a back ground against which their management and performance could be assessed.

For companies who are already on Total Quality Management, installing’s 9000 is relatively straightforward. On the other hand, if companies are planning towards Total Quality Management, they can use ISO 9000 as a vehicle. From the above discussion, it seems there are a number of important points which need to be followed in order to implement Total Quality Management and ISO 9000 successfully:

(1) Total Quality Management philosophy and ten basic principles - They are very important and form the foundations for success in implementation. In particular, the leadership and commitment from the top management are vital. Getting these right first time is far more important than anything else!

(2) Practice the ten "commandments" - It is no good just understanding Total Quality Management principles without putting them into practice.

(3) Use other people's experience as a guide to create your own Total Quality Management model - Every organization is different. It is best to understand yourself thoroughly and produce a Total Quality Management model that suits you best. Then you can use ISO 9000 as structural framework for the implementation of Total Quality Management. (Tata, Prasad, Thorn, 1999)

(4) Customer satisfaction and continuous improvement - Never try to look for a "quick fix" or consider profits as the priority and avoid fancy slogans such as "right first time" or "zero defects". Improvement over time is important.

(5) Use ISO 9000 as a route to Total Quality Management - Try to develop a Quality Manual for ISO 9000 that is suitable for your company and its customers. Fully implement it and then go for continuous improvement. This will lead your company towards Total Quality Management in a systematic way.

(6) ISO 9000 needs Total Quality Management - Even with ISO 9000certification in hand, it would not guarantee that the products and services are of high quality. In order to produce quality products and services, the system needs Total Quality Management to lift it up to expectations! (Kiosk, 1998)

(7) Total Quality Management is knowledge-based conscious - Total Quality Management philosophy is very conscious of using the knowledge-base as an asset in an organization. Everybody needs to be educated and trained to do a better job. The top management also needs to be educated and trained! (Campbell - 1997)

(8) Be optimistic and use tools, knowledge and skills - Even though some pitfalls and cautions have been voiced by some Total Quality Management experts and practitioners, if one implements Total Quality Management by acquiring all ten basic principles and treating them as a way of life, then there should not be any risks in going for Total Quality Management style of management. One would not spend much capital in implementing Total Quality Management, apart from the costs of education, training and retraining. Furthermore, "Quality is Free”. Finally, be optimistic about the results.
All around the world, in many developed and developing countries, ‘Total Quality Management’ and ISO 9000 are promoted by government bodies and many firms. Golf promotion at private clubs as well may be helped out through the government as well.

The UK's Department of Trade and Industry has published a full range of booklets and videos on Total Quality Management. The Single European Marketing Directive on Standards and Certification stipulates that ISO9000 should be encouraged among its 12 member countries.

In South-East Asian countries like Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore, the governments have set up special divisions to help industries to go for ISO 9000 accreditation. Many Japanese companies in these regions like Sony, Panasonic, etc., have followed suit. In mid-1992, the Chinese Government required that all foreign manufacturers investing in China and exporting their goods should seek ISO 9000 registration. All this evidence has supported one theme: ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management are the passports to success. (Huey 1991)

It can be observed here that the literature about Total Quality Management and ISO 9000, their relationships, and how they are being practiced by successful companies serve as an example of how golf could be promoted practically in a more commercial environment. Of course the improvisations would have to be made, but it is achievable. The management form is such that it is possible to run the golf organizations as a business with a strategy. However, the plan mentioned above is not the only one, as there are other ways of establishing and running a set-up.

It has been proved by many that these systems are the golden routes to satisfying the demanding needs of consumers in the 1990s. Finally, a framework for implementation of either scheme has been suggested which can be used as a valuable guideline for firms going for ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management.

The example provided below is that of an automotive organization (Ford) in order to give one an idea of what company’s standard is and how it may live up to its name promises under strategy. Living up to a strategy in a commercial environment means that it will have profits significant enough to take it forward. The same kind of concept could be applied to golf promotion in private clubs.

The Automotive Standards as an example

A description of an automotive company or any other organization might not sound feasible in describing the need to lead a golf club or organization. It must be asserted that since the focus is on commercial environment, business organizations such as Ford may be used as an example to give one an idea of what commercial golf can be like and why the external environment is so important to consider.

At Ford Motor Company, they have single focus – the customer. They are driven by their customers to achieve higher quality standards and the customer drives them to develop better ideas that help them build the best performing, safest, and most environmentally friendly cars and trucks in the world. This philosophy extends beyond vehicles, however, into areas that impact their customer in every aspect of his life.(Stajkovic, Lufthansa, 1998)

As one of the largest companies in the world, Ford Motor Company makes news nearly every day. Their weekly digest of Ford news briefs provides quick overview of the latest happenings inside Ford and all of their divisions. Ford Motor Company is dedicated to providing ingenious environmental solutions that will position them as a leader in the automotive industry of the 21st century. Their actions demonstrate that they care about preserving the environment for future generations.(Tetenbaum 1998)

Ford scientists, engineers and designers are constantly pushing the limits of technology, performance, safety, and style, shaping the next generation of automotive transportation. Their concept vehicles are glimpse into the future through the eyes of these visionaries.

Corporate citizenship is a social responsibility that Ford Motor Company takes very seriously. Through active support, Ford Motor Company is committed to supporting many local and national programs to effect change, provide for those in need and improve the quality of life in all communities (Cohen-1998).

At Ford Motor Company, their dedication to safety and security reaches people of all ages, on every highway and main street. It is Ford’s long-standing policy to design and build vehicles with continuous advancements that help drivers avoid accidents, and helps protect occupants in the event of an accident. (QS-9000 Pioneers, SubirChowdury and Ken Zimmer, McGraw Hill International Editions) This solid commitment is one reason Ford has earned more of the highest possible marks in the federal government frontal crash test ratings than any full-line manufacturer.

Thus, any projects that they undertake, they always do so with their greatest focus on the maintenance of quality standards throughout.

QS-9000 is the shorthand name for "Quality System RequirementsQS-9000." It is the common supplier quality standard for Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation.QS-9000 is based on the 1994 edition of ISO 9001, but it contains additional requirements that are particular to the automotive industry. These additions are considered automotive "interpretations" by the ISOcommunity of accreditation bodies and registrars. QS-9000 applies to suppliers of production materials, production and service parts, heat-treating, painting and plating and other finishing services. It does not, therefore, apply to all suppliers of the Big Three (Seridan,Patton,1997).

The QOS Process Developed by Ford

Ford’s slogan, “Quality is Job 1,” has caught on with increasing segments of the car-buying public. Ford was the man who introduced the concept of getting it right the first time. It was at Ford thatmanagement and quality standards were brought together in an operational system known as the Quality Operating System. (Terrill Bujones 1999) The same type of thing could be applied to golf promotion. With the name that it does already have on the international level it could be promoted further along with developments taking place commercially at the private club level. The benefits would automatically be in the form of greater consumption and patronization of club events. However, it has to be carefully marketed, and this could be done through the processes suggested below.

The Quality Operating System (QOS) process is a structured, disciplined team approach to managing a business based on facts, not emotions, and promoting continuous improvement activities. Initially developed in 1988 by the Ford Motor Company's Power train Division, the system was used to monitor and improve the quality of products. Successful implementation led to increased quality, higher reliability, and greater durability, while preventing the loss of valuable resources.

QOS is more than just a manufacturing quality tool; it is a powerful information management system. The system is applicable to all areas of an organization and to all types of businesses regardless of size or product.
Typically, organizations have some form of quality management system in place, however, this system may not be formalized or well-structured.

Companies normally do a good job with collecting data, but sometimes the data may not always be accurate or presented in a useful format or easily interpreted. QOS facilitates the data collection process, standardizes the formats, promotes a management overview, and allows intelligent fact- based decision making, while generating positive and verifiable corrective action. QOS also drives employee involvement and cross-functional problem solving at all levels which evolves to prevention-oriented system rather than a reactionary system. Its continued use will eventually eliminate the "fire-fighting" mentality with effective problem resolution and prevention techniques.

The catalyst that drives the process lies in the understanding of customer expectations and compliance to requirements necessary for total customer satisfaction. Success depends directly on senior management’s ability to realize the true contribution of quality and its impact on an organization.

The QOS is like a Dynamic Closed-Loop Development Process and applies to the development of management information systems and quality assurance practices and procedures. It is important to note that the development process does not end at Phase 7; it is a continuous, repetitive process that will need to be modified and refocused on finer details as process variability is reduced and quality is improved.

Phase 1

In Phase 1 of the process, a Quality Steering Committee (QSC) is formulated which is comprised of senior management and officers of the company. The QSC is responsible for the leadership of quality and clarification of specific goals and objectives for the organization. These goals should be documented in an Executive Business Plan and Strategic Quality Plan for Deployment.

In addition, the QSC selects members for focused Quality Improvement Process (QIP) Teams dedicated to continuous improvements of key measurable and operating efficiencies. The QSC establishes the roles, responsibilities, and disciplines of the QIP teams for effective meeting skills, communications and feedback reporting.

Phase 2

This is the most critical phase of the process due to the required paradigm shift and the need to generate a high level of enthusiasm necessary for achieving world class status. The QIP teams are educated in the QOS methodology and system requirements with a focus unawareness throughout the organization. In this phase, the education process builds on the existing strengths and is designed to motivate the teams toward accomplishing the company's goals and mission objective.

Training programs are to be tailored to the immediate needs of the individuals participating in the process and have proven most effective in a workshop format. Organizations should develop skills based on curriculum with the emphasis on creating team synergy, a harmonious work environment and enthusiasm for improvement. A sound training program may include Team Consensus Decision Making, Effective Meeting Skills and Disciplines, Goal Setting, Brainstorming, QOS and Team-Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS) .

Phase 3

After training, the QIP teams are able to create their own mission statement, select key processes, collect performance measurable, and set goals for improvement. In Phase 3, teams begin an evolutionary process brought about by brainstorming the system, procedures, and balance of responsibilities for the Closed-Loop QOS Process.

Phase 4

At this phase, the QOS Action Plan for continuous improvement is presented to the organization. This step begins the formal review and feedback process at the heart of the QOS system. Once the plans have been presented and approved by the internal organization, the QSC needs to establish a QOS Communication Board to post the various documents for company-wide acknowledgment, and to begin the deployment process.
Typically, these documents would include:

• the Executive Summary of the Company's Business Plan
• the Strategic Quality Plan which contains the QOS team structure, roles, and responsibilities of individuals
• the QOS meeting calendar
• the QOS summary chart and trend charts
• the mission statements for each QIP team
• the team goals and objectives
• the QOS Action Plan
Once this has been accomplished, the QSC must include key customers in the review process and schedule their attendance at key QSC-QOSmeetings.

Phase 5

In Phase 5, the QIP teams begin tracking and responding to the measurable. The focus of these now highly-skilled and dedicated QIP teams is to identify the variables or causes for poor performance and remove them entirely, or reduce their impact by process re-engineering(materials, machines, tools, or sequence of events). From this point on, the QIP teams begin implementing breakthrough improvements in abnormal operating mode.

Phase 6

In Phase 6, the QIP teams develop an internal/external audit system to ensure the annual review of the QOS standards, customer expectations, and the unspoken requirements. Incidentally, the most logical time to start an internal audit program is after a good quality operating system is in place.

Phase 7: Revision of The QOS

After the system is in place, the process is started over again and may be restructured using the feedback information collected in Phase6. With each new phase of the QOS Development Process, the measurable should be revaluated and adjusted to ensure they accurately reflect customer expectations.

Focus

The key to success is the total quality awareness, commitment, and the daily and meaningful involvement of all employees in the QOS Development Process. It is very important that the entire organization be involved in QOS. Its use is empowering and drives the organization to realize that quality is everyone's job.

Project Management (typically suited to promoting golf at the club level):

The basic purpose for initiating a project is to accomplish some goals. The reason for organizing the task as a project is to focus the responsibility and authority for the attainment of the goals on an individual or small group.
In the broadest sense, a project is a specific, finite task to be accomplished. Whether large or small-scale, long or short-run, it doesn’t matter. What is relevant however, is that the project is seen as a unit. Some attributes that characterize projects are:

Purpose:

A project is usually a one-time activity with a well-defined set of desired end results. It can be divided into subtasks that must be accomplished in order to achieve the project goals. The project must be controlled and coordinated with other projects being carried out by the same parent organization.

Life Cycle:

Like organic entities, projects have life cycles. They all have a beginning, a peak and a decline.

Interdependencies:

Projects often interact with other projects being carried out by the parent organization. Projects always interact with the parent’s standard, on-going operations.

Uniqueness:

Every project has some elements that are unique. No two projects are precisely alike.

Conflict:

The project manager lives in a world ruled by conflict. There is competition for resources and personnel, etc. all the time between different projects.

Project managers generally create a project plan composed of all the interrelated activities of the project, one that ascribes responsibilities and estimates resource requirements. That project plan involves a work-breakdown structure that defines individual tasks and then aggregates them into a large plan. The plan is arranged so that items on the critical path can be completed in time to meet milestones. But managers typically make the plan in conjunction with their budget, and they design it to validate some core assumptions related to the project' s fiscal requirements.

In most organizations, the significance of the plan itself diminishes from that point forward. Project managers know that the plan is only advisory and suggestive of the project' strew structure and requirements. They expect to manage the actual project in real time, relying on only a core group of team members and set of resources for which they will constantly need to negotiate throughout the project's life. As a consequence, plans are almost always "wrong" in the sense that the resources used and the time actually taken to complete tasks rarely correspond to those projected in the original project plan.

Actual experience with project management indicates that the majority of organizations using it experience better control, and better customer relations. A significant number of users also report shorter development times, lower costs, higher quality and reliability, and higher profit margins. Other reported advantages include a sharper orientation toward results, better interdepartmental orientation and higher worker morale .

On the negative side, most organizations report that project management results in greater organizational complexity. Many also report that project organization increases the likelihood that organizational policy will be violated, which is not a surprising outcome, considering the degree of autonomy required for the project manager. A few firms reported higher costs, more management difficulties and low personnel utilization.

The tremendous diversity of uses to which project management can be puts a lot. There are certain limitations on project management. As noted, project management often lacks the authority that is consistent with the assigned level of responsibility. Project management is difficult even when everything goes well.

Throughout the project, there is the ever-present goal of meeting the performance standards, and the quality standards set by the management. These standards and their subsequent satisfaction is an integral part of the project management process. Without performance control and quality control through every stage in the project management process, the project is doomed to failure.

These standards are met through the constant monitoring of the systems that the project never falls below the standard. For many different sorts of manufacturing there are set of uniform standards that apply. The ISO 9000 and its subsequent branches of ISO rules have provided the international manufacturing arena around the globe that these are standards that the world must adhere to. These functions can also be performed by the computerized versions of project controllers.
Controlling the project has been primarily associated with the problem of having information available.

Quality Management is a very important issue in project management. Product quality is a very high priority. Quality is designed and built into the product, not measured or inspected into it. There are chronic product quality problems. Shipment of products is often delayed because of quality problems and extensive problems in testing. Incidents of recall are too frequent . It could very easily be pointed out here that the design spoken of here would apply to the golf club as well. However, it would not apply in the same context. Design would rather refer to the type of game plan for the sport or any other kind of sport.

Design could also easily play to game formats and durations. In this sense, a club or an organization of clubs could be innovative and transform designs. Perhaps newer designs might be more attractive and more dynamic. In view of this it might also be asserted that competing in a more commercial environment might mean that there is a chance to do something different for the game of golf. As in the cricket format, there are newer versions of the game coming up now and again; changes are made frequently, and now there is even a 20-over game called the‘20-20 game’. This is one of the shortest versions of the game and has helped boost popularity of the sport.

In view of this, it might be said that the private golf clubs could also do something to boost the popularity of the game at the club level. However, at the same time, it is the traditional aspect of this dignified game that many are afraid to tamper with. It is thus more likely that the format won’t change for years to come. In view of this, it might be asserted that private clubs and other organizations might want to reconsider this traditional aspect and bring some more colorant the game. At the club level particularly there could be more and more younger members pushed up to the competitive level.

In considering these kinds of changes too, there is the economic factor along with the external conditions; these two play an important role in making traditional golf remain relatively stable. Managing projects, such as golf club planning in itself, then is a task that one has to be careful about, as it is an off-shoot of Project management (PM).

The PM profession is directly affected by the state of the local economy. In a booming economy, in which there are more projects and more project management-related jobs, membership in professional societies and participation in PM activities increase. This has generally been the case in the USA in recent years. When the local economy crashes or goes down, then the local PM professional community also contracts as in the case of Indonesia during 1997 and 1998.

Uneconomic conditions such as those experienced in Asia this year, however, there is another affect which might come into play, in delayed manner . The initial contraction in the local PM profession might be followed by increased demand for project management education, training and certification, if these activities are perceived to increase the efficiency, competitiveness or attractiveness of local companies and professionals.

That delayed effect seemed to occur in Russia and Eastern Europe in the mid-1990s, and may already be happening in Japan and other countries which are seeing increased local competition from international firms. If the local PM professional societies can offer "global standards" and "internationally-recognized “training, they will be more readily accepted. In these cases, however, PM training and other activities will generally need to be offered at locally-acceptable prices and in local currencies .

Since economic conditions have spread globally in 1998 with a sort of “economic contagion", it might be possible to extrapolate certain reactions and effects on regional PM associations and the global project management profession. The above suggests the need to incorporate economic issues into strategic and policy models used by the PM profession, both on a local and global basis. (Simmons 1999)

Project Management and Global Politics

Is the Project Management Profession affected by global politics? Again, the answer would seem to be an obvious yes. However, the relationship between the PM profession and governments is itself multi-dimensional. There are the regulatory issues, including the recognition of "standards" within government organizations, industry and the laws themselves . Both local and international laws and regulations are applied to most industries, therefore directly affecting projects and the management of those projects. Those regulations usually affect government-funded projects in various and broad ways, including contracting and reporting requirements. Private-sector projects are affected less directly, but still subject to the impact of changing laws and regulations. (Global Tides of Change David Palls)

Another aspect of the relationship between the PM profession and politics is related to organizational relations. This can also built-dimensional, especially in large countries such as the USA. For example, PMI has relations with various branches of the US government, including Department of Defence, NASA, US Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Energy, etc. Each of these governmental bodies’ sponsors and funds many projects, employs project management professionals and contractors, and exerts enormous influence on the industrial sectors associated with their projects.

Changes in policies within any of these agencies can affect PMI membership, the involvement of employees of those agencies in PMI activities, and PMI’s relationship with the agency itself. Entire changes in government, or events that affect the entire government, can have dramatic impacts on PMI membership, relations with government agencies, and PMI activities in Washington, DC. Other project management societies, or PMI chapters, in other countries must address similar issues related to the government agencies and policies with which they interact in those countries.(Elijah 1997)

Globally, a relationship between the collective PM profession and various governments can be envisioned. This suggests the need for both an organizational model and policy model for use in understanding or managing the relationship of the PM profession to governments and political conditions.

There are many other examples of mega-mergers occurring around the world in various industries, including petrochemicals, automobiles, oil and gas, publishing and others (This shows one the scope of mega-mergers, and golf clubs could merge and form leagues that would help that to work together jointly on projects.

What are some of the repercussions? How might these mergers, and the trend toward larger global corporations, affect the project management profession? Here are just a few possible issues:
Hundreds of projects will be undertaken within single large organizations The corporations will benefit internally from better project management, requiring commitment from top management. The support and influence of top managers become more critical.
Single organizations can impact more projects, project managers and other organizations. The project management systems, methods or training embraced by a single organization worldwide will have enormous influence. (Reed, Leak, Montgomery, 1996)

These large organizations can wield bigger influence and leverage on Profession. We have already seen this within PMI by NCR, IBM, AT&T,EDS and others. The influence of global corporations will become bigger issue, as more global companies get involved with such issues as global project management standards, certifications, etc. .

Larger organizations can sponsor or participate on larger projects. Large international projects will more frequently involve one or more of these global corporations, which have the multi-cultural and multi-lingual resources internally to take on large projects. Again, their importance to global PM will grow. (Bill Creech 1995)

Larger organizations demand more respect and attention. This issue can affect the financing, risks, structures, politics and management of individual projects. How does this factor influence our models, our professional activities and interactions, and our globalization strategies?

Larger potential impact on markets and industries. Certain of these global corporations will have the ability to effect entire local markets, industries and economies. For example, a global telecoms corporation winning a national license or acquiring a local telecoms company, or a major global industrial company deciding on a billion dollar investment in a plant in some global location. The influence of global energy, oil and gas companies is already apparent.

What are the secondary benefits and risks associated with project teams. The participation of such organizations also changes the dynamics of project teams. This is an issue for further research and discussion.

What are some of the possible repercussions of new or merging technologies on the project management profession around the world. The following are a few possibilities that come to mind, related to the technologies discussed above: Communication tools and formats will almost all be multi-media and digitally-based, expanding project communication capabilities and processes around the world.

Data volume may no longer be a constraint to information processing or problem solving. Communication capabilities and capacity should enable us to say whatever we want, however we want. For example, PMI should be able to publish everything on its web page soon. It is already close to doing so. (Clark 2000)

Virtual projects and project teams will become more and more common, and even required in some industries and on many global projects;

There should be fewer and fewer geographic limits to performing projects, project teams, or relationships within organizations, or the project management profession. Already we see evidence of that within MI, and IPMA. Project teams will include machines. How will that affect the PMBOK, our tools and methodologies, or our team-oriented processes and communication skills? When we plan and form project teams, do we include machines?

When will machines evolve from being "tools" to being "team members"? Should our project teams include "machine trainers", "machine interface coordinators" or even "machine leaders"?

Trends With Impact

There are many trends that we might discuss, related to economic, political and industrial events that have occurred in recent months or years.
Here are a few worth considering, with respect to potential impact on projects and the project management profession:
• Market consolidation
• Market liberalization and privatization
• Merging technologies
• Free trade and globalization of economies
• Free press and globalization of communications
• Market Consolidations Promote Mergers and Change Project Organizations

Based on market deregulation and liberalization worldwide, market consolidation is occurring in many industries. This is especially true in the United States and Europe, and is leading to acquisitions and mergers in many markets and industries. Examples include telecommunications, media, power, and health services, among others. Combined with privatization and emerging free market economies, market consolidation is occurring in Asia and Latin America, often with the involvement of foreign companies or as the result of mergers. As pointed out earlier, these trends affect the dynamics of projects and project teams .

Privatization Promotes Globalization and Global Project Management

In countries and industries worldwide, privatization continues to grow, as governments move to raise capital, liberalize markets, or open industries to market-based competition and efficiencies. Privatization increases the number of projects, promotes the use of market-tested professional project management practices and tools, and generally allows the involvement of more commercial organizations in more projects. Since a majority of project management professionals are employed by private-sector organizations, the PM profession should growing those locations and industries where privatization occurs. This is true in North America and other regions worldwide.

Analysis:

The Project Management process is irrevocably linked to the standards of quality being employed in today’s business environment. Thus the entire process is governed by the basic rules of Total Quality Management. Total Quality Management has become extremely important as an aspect of all projects being conducted in any industry. It is extremely important to make sure that quality is maintained at all levels of the production process of any project, otherwise it could result in many costs for redoing the work that could have been right in the first place through proper monitoring of performance and quality.

The entire project management process takes place on the continuously throughout the process of production. The standards of quality likewise, TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT, Fords QOS, etc., are live examples of successful integration of quality standards with the project management requirements. (Harrington 1998)
How is the Project Management Profession affected by Industrial trends and events? Here the relationship is both direct and critical to the survival of most professional PM associations, since a majority of professional members are employed by private sector industrial corporations. For sake of discussion, I include the banking sector, consulting enterprises and small businesses in with large industrial organizations.

Large mergers, or new policies initiated by large global corporations can directly affect the activities and membership of local societies. In every case, local PM associations must establish positive relations with local industry leaders and executives. In many cases, the activities and services of the project management profession are developed to address the needs of these industrial leaders, who are the employers of project managers and PM professionals. (Global Tides of Change: Significant Recent Events and Trends Affecting Globalization of the Project Management Profession, David Palls, PMP) This suggests that personal and organizational relations should be established and nurtured between the PM profession and industrial organizations. In addition, these relationships can affect long term strategies and policies established by the association. These relationships might be highlighted in the context of both a structural model and a strategic model.

Total Quality Management, Project Management and Technology

How is Total Quality Management and the Project Management Profession affected by technology? Rather than affecting organizational or policy issues, the effect of changing technologies would seem to be on Total Quality Management and project management methodology, processes and tools. In that case, there is an impact on the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK).

For example, how will communication and teambuilding processes be affected by machines being considered key members of the project team? How are project management processes and procedures evolving to address the needs of "virtual project teams”? What tools are emerging for the reporting of project costs in multiple currencies, or to show the effect of different inflation rates of those currencies, and progress reports in multiple languages, or sensitive to different cultural concerns? How are emerging and merging technologies incorporated into projects and project management in various industries and societies? How are better quality standards developed through the use of technology? How can the processes in the course of Project Management be monitored in a better way through the use of technology? These questions point to a strategic model for incorporating technological change into both, Total Quality Management, project management itself and the PM profession.

There is a great role and great many opportunities. The relationship in certain industries is clear, for example, the role of project management professionals on projects in health, education, science,etc. Often the impact is measured by the success or impact of the individual projects. Collectively, then, the impact of Total Quality Management and the PM profession on various social sectors can be considerable, based on contributions to the successful completion of projects, and might even be measured in terms of saving lives or changing communities.

The impact on society via academic and educational relations, however, could be more profound. Total Quality Management and Project management curricula at leading universities is increasing worldwide, in the North America, Europe, Latin America, India, Israel, South Africa and elsewhere. Like "teaching the people to fish, rather than giving them fish", project management education distributes the impact of the project management profession throughout industry, government and society. This suggests that a long term strategic model might be used to define relations between the Profession and social institutions, including academia.

Furthermore, the integration of Total Quality Management in all aspects of professional services will give rise to a new standard of quality in the industries where quality makes a difference. If globally the professional world accepts Total Quality Management as the best system under which to undertake their projects, conduct their businesses and produce their products, the various costs of wastage and defective merchandise related to the various production activities will be reduced to a bare minimum and therefore, there will be a lot of capital savings which can then be utilised elsewhere to benefit humanity.

According to Deming there are 14 Points for Management (Out of the Crisis, the W. Edwards Deming Institute.)
The following is excerpted from Chapter 2 of Out of the Crisis by W. Edwards Deming.
• Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs.
• Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. Western management must awaken to the challenge, must learn their responsibilities, and take on leadership for change.
• Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place.
• End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier for any one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.
• Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs.
• Institute training on the job.
• Institute leadership The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of management is in need of overhaul as well as supervision of production workers.
• Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company
• Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team, to foresee problems of production and in use that may be encountered with the product or service.
• Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships, as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie beyond the power of the work force.
• Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute leadership.
• Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate management by numbers, numerical goals. Substitute leadership.
• Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality.
• Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to pride of workmanship. This means, inter alia, abolishment of the annual merit rating and of management by objective
• Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement.
• Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everybody's job.

Deming’s quality management is related to the use of quality standards in the project management process. This is mainly due to the fact that project management cannot take place without quality management. For example, It is after an automotive plant knows that it is adhering tithe standards of quality, can it manufacture a product that will satisfy its customers and its own standards of production. The universal standards that are now being implemented all across the world help give a certain shape to the quality control taking place in the industry. It is important that there be uniformity of standards all across the globe so that people all across the world are able to obtain goods that are uniform in their high quality.

Finally it must be asserted here that the above literature and analysis focuses on various organizations and their plans in order to encompass the widest range of management theory and strategy possible for commercial benefit of private golf clubs. There is also immense emphasis on the importance and the irrevocable relationship between Total Quality Management, Project Management and various Standards of quality being used at present. It has thoroughly examined the various systems of quality standards that are prevalent in the global management at present. It has examined its principles and regulations, as well the different impacts of project management with respect to the changing environment. Through a thorough analysis it is evident that the present day standards of quality are essential for any organization.

Ethical Approaches:

To begin with, the following are some of the important points that Private golf clubs or organizers need of these clubs would need to adhere to when promoting the game in a commercial environment. These points are important as they help organizations act in ethical ways that are expected of them in the corporate world. If one has to compete and participate in a more financial environment, there is need to adhere to ethics of the corporate world.

Corporate Codes of Conduct

Corporate codes of conduct are defined here as standards of behaviour that the company must adopt without being compelled to by law, but which must then become binding on all employees, in order to minimize potential conflicts arising from undesirable effects of normal business activity on society and environment. Private golf clubs operating in commercial environment are no exceptions. These goals make it clear that the management of the company is not indifferent to how business goals are achieved.
1. The privacy of an employee is of utmost importance. It should not be compromised at any cost until the employee has been found guilty of misconduct. In which case the company has a right to sort through his emails or other belongings to find evidence.
2. Illegal access to the company’s records is prohibited.
3. Providing false knowledge to customers without reason is prohibited.
4. Discussing the operation and security procedures of the company are prohibited.

Dealing with Exceptions

Every mature ethics and compliance program needs a method whereby employees and others can identify and report exceptions to the established standards. The Code of Conduct may specifically articulate an expectation to those individuals who become aware of possible violations of law, regulation, or the Code of Conduct will inform someone in a position of responsibility so that these matters can be addressed. Anyone found violating the Code of Conduct is liable for notice from the management or otherwise strict action against him.

Implementation

A private golf club or for that matter any company should establish communication program that must ensure that all persons affected by the code of conduct actually know and understand it. It is not enough merely to distribute it, the content should be explained and someone made available to answer questions.

Moreover there should be at least one person who may be approached in confidence. Violations of the code of conduct must be investigated and resolved. The message should be clear and leave all participants in no doubt: violation of the code leads to penalties, including dismissal, and that irrespective of whether the violation had positive or detrimental consequences for the company.

From this perspective, much of what is called "unethical conduct" is primarily unintelligent; occasionally even unacceptable behaviour focuses on supposed short-term advantages without considering mid- and long-term consequences. The impotence of ethics is shown in the fact that most people choose to maximize their own benefits when economic and political decisions have to be made, and are only prevented from acting against the common interest by governments branching out into many walks of life.

A reflection on corporate ethics must always bear this in mind, and precisely because of it must always aim higher and dig deeper than merely avoid unintelligent behaviour. Thus the code of conduct should be such as to keep in view the religious beliefs, virtues, and potentials of the employees working internally and externally. The participants or employees have prejudices about their colleagues. Surveys have found again and again that individuals believe they are far more ethical in their behaviour than their colleagues. (Tyson, 1990) This should be avoided through the Code of Conduct.

Ethical strategy to make extra profit

Corporate ethics can be one of the most important and valuable exports to the rest of the business world. It is essential that corporations, as well as the rest of us, creatively and vigorously sell the idea that business ethics benefits all and should be employed ball. Both a free-market economy and a political democracy depend absolutely upon free communication and true ethical behaviour.

A free society that is safe, secure, and productive for all its citizens takes some doing to produce, but the key is ethical behaviour on the part of all. This becomes particularly important as we move forward into a true global economy.
Representing ourselves as trustworthy will become vital, but others will not assume that we are ethical. A company or a private golf club or their overall organizers must develop corporate ethics programs, make sure they work, and then make very visible because people will have questions in mind and want to be reassured. If the consumers have the confidence in the corporation they will be loyal and in the end the profitability will be long term. It must be noted here that the consumers referred to here are all those that take interest in competitions, whether the competitions are televised or simply attended at stadiums.

Considering the increasing awareness of ethics in the corporate world, there are more and more people taking an interest in how companies treat their employees, and not just that, but the whole field of ethics, so that they can put their money where their values are. Here, one can see that values are corresponding with financial gain. It is important to realize that private golf clubs too would stand to gain more financially if the focus on their values and adhere to ethics of the corporate world.

In today’s demanding world of global expansion, corporate downsizings, increased government regulations and new technologies, people at all levels of an organization must make decisions quickly and perform with high levels of accuracy, efficiency and success. If their company ‘score business processes are not grounded in sound values, such as integrity, respect, trust and fairness, these individuals are exposed to ethical vulnerabilities that lead to fraudulent, discriminatory, even illegal activities.

The business ethics process:

This is a management process comprised of programs, practices and systems designed to motivate, measure and monitor an organization’s ethical performance. Elements include, but are not limited to, codes of conduct, mission statements, training and awareness programs, upward communications systems such as town meetings, and an ethics office network.
An effective business ethics process is one of the first and most important lines of defines against unethical or illegal activities. The first step in establishing a good business ethics process is to access and diagnose four key factors: ethical climate, performance incentives, communications, and compliance.

Ethical climate is an organization’s culture, environment, motives, and pressures. It is the role of senior executives to establish and reinforce ethical climate throughout an organization. (Frantz 1997)

Performance incentives are methods employed by the organization to motivate and direct employee behaviour in order to meet the company’s goals.

Communications are the messages employees receive about acceptable and unacceptable behaviour and the priority of these messages.

Compliance refers to the organization’s business practices, corporate policies and procedure, laws, rules, and regulations.
Making business more transparent is the bottom-line behind the new catch-phrase: ethical investment, which awards bucks to those companies which have sound environmental policies and avoid black-listed activities, and shuns those that pass the buck . Considering private golf clubs directly, this applies adequately, as the business process has an immense relationship with financial gain.

Most of us know in our bones what constitutes good and bad behaviour. We’ve agreed, if only by default, on a set of moral or ethical principles. We call benevolent actions ethical because they accord with these rules.
While ethics is essential for financial gain in an organization, it Isa popular belief that a business organization has one duty and that is to make a profit and that is where its sole concentration lies. It also should be noted that while ethics is taught in the business schools onset of principals exist. The first priority is the shareholders ‘long-term interests, but, within that constraint, they seek to meet whatever social or environmental goals the public expects of them. Yet, today the organizations feel there is more need for ethics than ever before.

Technological change and globalization is bringing companies into contact with other countries that do business by different rules. Pressures from internal and external forces are forcing the firms to treat their staff in ways that are different from traditional practices. With the communications revolution ethical issues has become part of every manager' s job (Defamation 1984).

There are two reasons why ethics are vital for the businesses. One is when bad behaviour stirs up public debate legislation will arise that companies will find more irksome than self-restraint. The other distrust. A company that is not trusted by its employees, partners and customers will suffer. In an electronic world, where businesses are geographically far from their customers, a reputation for trust may become even more important.

Ultimately, though, companies may have to accept that virtue is sometimes its own reward. One of the eternal truths of morality has-been that the bad do not always do badly and the good do not always dowel (Solow, 1997).
Globalization is providing more opportunities to firms to break into foreign markets. The exploration of the global market and successfully entering the global market and sustaining profitability requires careful planning and strategy. The position of the business firm within the industry and the attractiveness of the industry itself to consumers and customers are the main factors to consider. “Only a deep knowledge of the structural characteristics of the industry in which we operate, along with a sound awareness of the competitors’ actions can generate the high-quality strategic thinking required for the healthy long term development of a firm.” (Hax, Arnoldo C. & Maljuf, Nicholas S.,1996)

Global Strategic management

The Strategic management process involves four steps: Environmentalscan for the external opportunities and threats to the corporation’s business, and the internal evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the firm,. On the basis of this evaluation, the appropriateness of the corporate mission is developed and this in turn leads to the determination of the corporate objectives, strategies and policy. Corporations implement these strategies and policies through programs and procedures. Finally performance evaluation and feedback completes the process.

M.E. Porter has proposed that multinationals operate in world industries that vary on a continuum form multidomestic to global. Industries like retailing or insurance/banking are specific to each country and the industries in an MNC’s subsidiaries and affiliates indifferent countries are essentially independent of one another. The global industries, on the other hand, operate worldwide with minor adjustments for individual countries’ markets but the operations in one country impact on operations on other countries. Industries like TVs, automobiles, tyros and electronic goods of various sort, are global industries. (Hunger & Wheelmen, 1996, p. 310) Thus the organization and operation of a particular industry will also depend on the location of its operations on this continuum.

One industry that has worldwide, global potential is the service industry consisting of service providers of various sort in the field of management and public relations and other types of consulting services.
• Market Opportunities
• International management consultants and other service providers

Good market opportunities exist for firms that sell services. Service industry is now one of the most flourishing export industry. International management consultants offer reengineering, design and human resources services. They are called upon to restructure organizations, retrain personnel, increase productivity, secure financing, evaluate investment risks and control pollution, a highly diversified field. Contracts are short term, specific and job oriented. However, even the short term contracts are highly paying for expert consultants.

The US Department of Commerce has broken down the management and public relation services industries into five main categories:
• management, which includes business and construction management
• management consulting (marketing, personnel and administrative consulting)
• public relations (including lobbyists)
• facilities support (base maintenance, jail and prison management) -
• other niche and/or specialized consulting services

Domestic Market Overview

The US management and public relations services industries have greatly expanded during the past two decades, attributed mainly to industry market trends originating in the mid 1980s. In order to stay competitive, many firms created satellite entities to specialize on particular areas of expertise. Many individuals broke out of the corporate structure, and put their expertise for sale on the market.

Receipts for management and public relations establishments reached an estimated $72 billion in 1993, -- an increase of nearly 6% from the previous year. Receipts are expected to reach close to $100 billion by the end of this decade. In 1993, US management and public relations companies had nearly 700,000 consultants on their payrolls. Now it is estimated to be over 1,000,000 personnel in the US alone composed of accountants, economists, engineers, designers, and public relations specialists.

An example of what a company needs to look at in an International Market Overview

Fierce competition among management and public relations firms in the US has forced many firms to seek international markets for business in order to stay in business. US Department of Commerce reported in 1992 that trade surplus for management and public relations services reached $491million in that year alone. Receipts for the provision of management and public relations services to foreign individuals or organizations were $170 million that same year.

The top 10 management and public relation service providers in the US recorded gross revenues of $10.6billion in 1992. The top consulting firms operating worldwide included Andersen Consulting, McKinsey & Co., Coopers & Lybrand, PriceWaterhouse and Deloitte & Touche. These firms are multi-taskcompanies.

Towers Perrin, for example, provides an array of services to firms ranging from insurance companies to telecommunications worldwide Some of its clients include AT&T and British Telecommunications; Caterpillar, Inc., Ford Motor Company and Hewlett Packard Company. It has office around the globe, from Denver, Colo., to Caracas, Venezuela.

The accounting firm Arthur Andersen, through its affiliate Andersen Consulting, dominates as an international management and public relations consulting firm, having grabbed a large portion of global market share by managing to operate adeptly in specialized areas.

Arthur Andersen is a leader in information consulting technology. International Business Machines (IBM), although not among the world ‘stop ten management consulting firms, has also carved a niche for itself in the global marketplace by the diversifying into information technology consulting.

Outsourcing is now more popular than before and companies can choose to focus on their main business while outsourcing some specialized secondary services to outside consultants and external specialists to perform ancillary business activities. Outsourcing can include information technology, telecommunications and accounting services.
Sometimes, assets and staff tare also transferred to the service company, for a consulting fee.

Competition

US public relations and management consultants face stiff competition from indigenous companies and individuals well established in foreign markets. For example, in Taiwan, there are hundreds of domestic organizations providing a large array of business training programs. These providers include university extension centres, semi-official organizations and private training companies. Government-backed cooperative educational centres and university training centres dominate the market in China.

Strategy formulation would include scanning the environment, for the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Based on these factors, strategy should be formulated that includes the development of long range plans for the management of opportunities and threats in the light of corporate strengths and weaknesses.

The multi national corporate Organization has three hierarchical, inter-acting levels of strategy, -- the corporate, the business and the functional levels, and the three have to be integrated for optimum performance. An example of an integrated hierarchy of strategy is provided by F. A. Milers of Unilever:

“ If a global company is to function successfully, strategies at different levels need to inter relate. The strategy at corporate level must build upon the strategies at lower levels in the hierarchy (the bottom-up element of strategy). However, at the same time, all parts of the business have to work to accommodate the over-riding corporate goals (the top-down approach)” (Milers, F.A., 1990, p. 63)

• How To Enter A Market
There are a number of ways that a firm can pursue to enter a foreign market.
• For firms exporting services, one of the fastest growing export industry, one of the best routes is to use their past or present clients. The relationship with a client can be the strongest selling point for any consulting firm.
• Formation of joint ventures with local partners: An international Jihads traditionally been one between a foreign and a local firm. Nontraditional forms are also increasingly being utilized. Makino and Beamish identified four distinct types of JV ownership structure. Senior executives of two large Japanese firms with JV’s in Asia suggested three distinct strategies corresponding to the choice of Ownership structure. These involve exploiting the competitive advantage specific to a parent firm, or to a pre-existing relationship, and complementing local partners’ competitive advantage. (Makino, Shige,& Beamish, Paul W., 1999)
The joint venture has become an increasingly popular form of foreign investment.
• Specialize in particular areas. US consulting firms should examine their existing domestic client base to determine what markets and regions are best suited for their services. This method has flourished especially throughout the accounting industry in recent years.. Foreign firms will pay consultants both big and small a good deal of money for their expertise and reputation.
• Use trade shows. Trade shows are an excellent source of exposure for both consultants and their clients. Conventions and trade fairs provide consultants with the personal contact needed to make a good and lasting impression on a potential foreign client. Attending a trade show is taken to mean that it has achieved adequate financial soundness and success.
• Use the media. Publications such as trade magazines, major metropolitan newspapers and business magazines to advertise services are a good way to elicit clients. The Internet also provides invaluable, international exposure source for management consultants. These globally-minded entrepreneurs must be able to sell themselves to their domestic clients before they can take on accounts in foreign markets. The international marketplace remains an uncharted frontier for most companies in the US and abroad. Consultants can advertise their services on the Internet to advantage.
• Know the language and the culture of a target foreign market. This Isa great advantage and at times ignorance of local culture and language can spell failure for any type of international consultant or consulting firm. Language and culture barriers not only stand in the way of good business, but also serve as huge roadblocks toward earning registration or certification to operate in a foreign market.
Manufacturing companies who want to break into foreign market can utilize their existing clients who are already operating in those markets. In some cases, they may not like to use their existing clients right away. They can in such case hire consultants to do the job for them. The consultant hired is in line with the company’s budget and its target market and target market share.

Hiring consultants

The consultants are hired on contract basis to achieve specific objectives.
For example, a US-based construction equipment manufacturer Company Intends to market more of its products abroad., and suppose it has already targeted Philippines for the purpose. The Company X executives know that the total market demand for earth-moving equipment increased by close to 65% from 1991 to 1996.

The manufacturer has already sold its equipment to various US construction companies working in the Philippines, but it does not have any market share with other local and foreign firms operation there. How should it go about increasing its sales if it does not want to hire a costly advertising agency? It hires a US based individual consultant with construction machinery experience specializing in exposing the Philippines market to various products made by US manufacturers. This is a cost effective solution.(Management and Public Relations, 06-30-1997)

Sources of US-Based Assistance

There are a number of Organizations that can be approached to give information regarding foreign markets. These are, American Management Association International Department New York; American Marketing Association, Chicago, IL, Council of Consulting Organizations (Includes ACME, Inc., and the Institute of Management Consultants), New York, NY, Institutional of Management Consultants, New York, NY, and so on.
• Sources of Products, Raw Material, and Financing, and Personnel
• Formation of Joint Ventures with local or multi national partners

Establishment of a JV helps greatly in these areas. Although a Becomes necessary usually because it is not possible to establish a100-percent subsidiary because of local regulations, but even in other situations, there are advantages to be gained from local partners. For example, when there is no existing local market for the product, the Helps to develop the market. The local partner plays a critical role in accessing local distribution networks, negotiating with local government, and hiring, educating and managing local labour forces. This type of capability cannot be obtained merely by spending years in the country in question.

One Japanese company executive said “though we have long international experience in Asia, we still feel we have limited ability in negotiating with the local government and developing the local distribution network. In that sense, a JV with a local company has big advantage in terms of complementarity.” (Makino, Shige, &Beamish, Paul W., 1999)

Establishing Subsidiaries

Some companies go for establishing subsidiaries rather than Joint Ventures.

Hideaki Yasukawa CEO, Seiko Epson Corporation which has 59 overseas affiliates says they have 44,000 employees in all, of whom 30,000 work outside Japan. Successful global management is therefore a critical issue for Epson. They conduct an annual survey of their senior managers in foreign affiliates to get their personal assessment of the effectiveness of their local operations in terms of product development, customer satisfaction, training, information sharing, communication, environmental protection, and risk analysis.

This information is the basis for their understanding the strengths and weaknesses of their current global management, as well as for setting future goals. As a corporate policy, they do not form JV’s; but establish a wholly-owned subsidiary when entering a new international market, mainly to avoid the potential pitfalls of JV management, such as slow decision making and lack of coherence in corporate strategies among affiliates. JV operations are a viable option when the foreign affiliates operate independently of each other in different geographical regions. Increasing globalization in the industry, however, means that they can no longer limit their scope of business in particular geographical segments of the world market. We are impelled to develop systems that provide the same quality of services to customers across regional boundaries. They believe that wholly-owned subsidiaries makes it easier to achieve this global strategy than using’s.
Establishing effective communication mechanisms among affiliates is the key to successful global management, he says. Moreover, the issues that they discuss at their meetings are issues that transcend divisional territories. Many critical corporate issues--such as improvement of customer satisfaction--cannot be attained without good communication across different divisions, such as manufacturing and marketing.(Takehiko Isobe, tr. by Makino, Shige,1999)

Personnel: Globalization and flexible forms of work

Globalization has contributed to flexible forms of work, through the international network enterprise created by globalization. The network enterprise is made up of different companies or segments of companies, as well as of consultants and temporary workers attached to specific projects. Large companies rely on vast networks of suppliers, whose quality and responsibility are critical for the success of the larger company.

This is a complex system and in different countries, the networks have different characteristics. Large companies, particularly multinational companies, constantly set up "strategic alliances" - that is, agreements with other companies, sometimes competitors, in specific processes or product lines. These strategic alliances may be limited tone country, or be for short periods only or for one product line or technology.

Rising unemployment in both developed and developing countries is quite commonly attributed to globalization. The main arguments given for this negative impact on employment are that Multinationals have carried out foreign investments in developing countries to exploit cheap labour and that through trade liberalization, governments have encouraged the replacement of domestically produced goods with goods produced abroad. The increased application of technology, especially in globally operating companies, can reduce the use of and dependence on labour.

An opposing view, set forth by the IMF and the OECD, is that globalization (e.g. through foreign investment, trade, new technology and liberalization) contributes to growth, which is the key to employment. They attribute unemployment to governments’ failure to adopt sound macroeconomic and labour market policies. (IMF, The Impact of Globalization on Workers and Their Trade Unions and OECD, Implementing the OECD Job Strategy)

Another trend that has set in due to globalization is that while the overall migration of workers to the developed world has decreased, there is an increase in migration of highly skilled and educated people from the developing to the developed world.

The Importance of Human Resource Management

Considering the mention of labour, law, etc. it is important to understand the importance of human resource management. This is vital in managing sports at a highly competitive level because all participants and the management too need to understand what is expected of each person and how much margin for error there should be. This approach makes working easier for all concerned and reduces stress for everyone.

Therefore, the implementation of a human resource department is a very positive step an organization such as a private golf club. It is department such as this that can actually serve as one that holds the institution together. This is because human resource management is responsible for understanding, coordinating and solving problems as and when they come up. Particularly at the initial stage of ones professional experience, as described by Fessler (1995), a human resource department may make things easier for the teachers while also helping them to become thorough professionals.

The Function of a Human Resource Department

The work of the human resource department is to ensure the proper running of the organization with the consultation of the top managers. This they have to do by making a keen note of the satisfaction of the customers and participants too. This they can do formally or informally by asking the customers questions at random when they come to view an event.
The customers might not even be aware of the purpose behind the questioning, but it is this feedback that is taken seriously. In addition to this, some customers might even come up with things like the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of a particular players or members in the golf organization.

This does not mean that a particular player/member can be fired because a few people may simply have negative opinions of him or her. What the human resource department might do is monitor a player or official of the game and then take appropriate action. They will not want to jeopardize the career of one, which they are actually supposed to ameliorate along with the game.

A human resource department will help organize an organization and the game better for coming seasons.
Also, in particular situations, the human resource department also seeks to inform the participants of the actions that they can take or are taking to rectify certain faults in their system. This is so that the participants feel assured that their word and presence does count. After all, this is also a kind of business in which the viewers, and the game and how it is played is a product being sold to them. It is the duty of the human resource department to look after the interests of their customers. If the viewers are displeased over any issue it is the job of this department to look into the matter and work up absolution (Gilley, 1992).

The human resource department is also in the position of suggesting and implementing techniques with which one (a teacher) can upgrade him or herself professionally along with the school. The reason why an organization encourages its employees to improve themselves professionally is because this helps to improve the overall standard of organization.

Conclusion:

Managing entertainment and leisure is a task that is very similar to handling or managing other businesses. The similarity is because of the fact that there are particular matters that are common. For instance, the major matter that is common among businesses and managing entertainment is the financial aspect. Financial gains appear to be the primary objective in any business. No matter what other objectives there may be, it must be asserted that financial gain and profits are the main concern.

Without the incentive of financial gains, there would be very businesses in action today; since money is important to everyone, entertainment and the like are of secondary importance. However, for some people this is not the case; there are particular elements that run parallel. Sports [promotion along with financial gain seem to be on one platform, and this is the reason why there are greater chances such ventures doing well over a period of time. It must be asserted that bodies like the ICC (International Cricket Council)are ones that are doing significantly well, and through their gains they are able to promote the sport in places where it has never been played.

In promoting a sport in this way after having significant financial gains, the sport automatically gets off to a good start wherever it is introduced. This is the reason why golf promotion at the Private Club level is said to have tremendous scope for expansion. Just like there are private clubs for baseball, soccer rugby, etc. golf can expands its horizons. This is not to say that golf is suffering in any way; it isn’t, and it doing pretty well at the professional level. It must be asserted that the sport could be so easily promoted at the private club level in order to produce better competition, pay club players more, and as a result popularize the sport.

Considering globalization as well, it must be asserted that there are even greater chances of this sport being promoted. This is because particular club or group of clubs may popularize themselves and the sport too through advertising and touring outside their city or country. This self-promotion may be done on the basis of attaining sponsors and other funds that could help a club out. However, the tasks not as easy as it appears to be. This is because of the fact that there is much planning that has to go into doing this. Handling and aiming at expanding club golf is a momentous task that would require the best possible communication and management skills.

It is actually form of business that has to be managed thoroughly. If there are lapses in the management, the club will not be able to perform well financially, and the result is that popularity will not go as planned. In addition to this, it also must be asserted that there are fewer chances of players being paid better; this is true because of the fact that players cannot be paid more if the club is not earning well. IView of this there needs to be means of curtailing losses and increasing gains so that there is every chance of gaining the maximum in a promotion.

In order to manage golf promotion at the private club level there needs to be appropriate plans implemented at the management level. These plans need to cater to the promotion of the sport, management of participants at low and high levels. Management theories, such as, Total Quality Management is a prime example. This is because of the fact that it the type of program or strategy that can encompass a wide array of activities related to the company externally as ell as internally. It also has the capacity to work along with other organizations in order to improve the scope of an organization.

Communication of course, if of prime importance in this theory and other theories that can so easily help a private club develop into financial body. The main point to remember here while promoting a golf club is that there is the media to be involved as well. It is the media that handles a significant portion of the promotional strategy, but it’s not the only activity to influence the success or failure of sports promotion. There are several factors involved that may even be political. In-depth management tactics and strategies reveal the underlying principles and expose the manner in which an organization may benefit. It is for this reason that the theories discussed are complex. However, they are all tools that are vital to pushing business body to doing its best in a competitive market.

It is true to say that the potential for financial gain is momentous, and this is the very reason why private golf clubs should compete in a more commercial environment. Managing all this is rather difficult when one sits back and gives it all intensive thought. There are many things that come to mind, and these are only manageable under a proper strategy. This would depend on what a club or clubs see fit for their goals. Also, it is the goals that the organization has to keep in mind. Depending on what their goals are they can take appropriate steps and implement a strategy. This is because not all strategies will suit the goals that an organization has in mind.

Hence, from the above strategies discussed, a company may choose one that it thinks and believes will fit its needs. In view of the strategies that are available for an organization to choose from, it must be asserted that the Total Quality management might the most appropriate strategy for private golf clubs to compete in a more commercial environment. This is because of the fact that it has a wide grip over practices that accompany may be involved in. It also has the capability of enhancing communications especially when working and competing with organizations far away. In addition to this the Total Quality Management strategy is one that helps a company stay focused and remain in control of processes, and it is believed to focus on quality output of all processes. It is thus no wonder why it has been adopted by many organizations worldwide in the past 10 years or so.

Finally it must be asserted that no matter which strategy one takes up for improving private club golf in a more commercial environment, it is likely to be successful because of the favourable factors. The promotion of private club golf in more commercial environments would benefit the game of golf and its players tremendously, financially as well as popularity wise. In addition to these benefits there might be others as well, as the popularity of the game would most probably encourage more innovations with added benefits.

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