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Knowledge Management Processes

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional academic writers. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Published: Fri, 02 Mar 2018

Introduction

The Introduction section is reserved for the client to use to describe the background and purpose for this process.

Overview

A Process is a set of linked activities that transform specified inputs into specified outputs, aimed at accomplishing an agreed-upon goal in a measurable manner. The process definition laid out in this document further breaks down these Activities into Tasks, each of which have a complete set of attributes defined such as workflow, data and tool specifications and the role(s) responsible for executing the tasks.

The document also includes process goal and objectives, metrics, role definitions, policies and other process related attributes. A Visio file can be found in the Appendix of this document and in the eProcess tool under “Attachments & Links”. It contains Cross-Functional Flow Diagrams (CFFDs) for each of the activities of the process.

Process Description

This process strawmodel is compliant with the concepts depicted in the ITIL® V3 framework.

The Knowledge Management process provides the ability to deliver quality by providing the ability to store/capture, share, and re-use data and information; consistently and accurately. It provides a means of storing “head knowledge” for everyone to use.

However, while Knowledge Management provides the information and data that drives the management of knowledge, details related to asset and configuration management are excluded from this process.

Goal

The process goal describes a specific purpose or achievement toward which the efforts of the process are directed. Each ITSM process has a specific focus and when combined with the other ITSM processes, forms a comprehensive framework for delivering and managing services.

* Process Goal – The goal of the process is to manage data and information; ensuring that it is available, reliable, and secure. This will aid in improving management decision making.

Objectives

Process objectives describe material outcomes that are produced or achieved by the process. The following is a list of objectives for this process:

  • Portal – To provide a portal or channel for accessing the knowledge repository.
  • Manage Knowledge – To manage the knowledge based on information and data.
  • Continuous Improvement – To regularly review the goals and objectives of the process; compared to business requirements.
  • Timeliness – To provide knowledge (data and information) in a timely fashion, leading to improved efficiency.
  • Accuracy – To ensure the accuracy of the knowledge repository.
  • Improved Service Quality – To improve the quality of service by enabling service provider efficiency.
  • Increase Satisfaction – To increase satisfaction by improving the quality of service provision.

Inputs

Process inputs are used as triggers to initiate the process. They are also used by the process to produce the desired outputs. Inputs are provided by users, stakeholders or other processes. Inputs are measurable in terms of quantity and quality.

Name

Description

Supplier

Information Request

A request for information is made through contact with the Service Desk or through a self-service portal.

Requester

Policy Updates

Policy updates (e.g., content of the knowledge repository).

Process Owner

Knowledge Content

Data (including known errors, process maps, workarounds, etc.) is captured for analysis in the process.

Other processes (e.g. Problem Management, Capacity Management, etc.)

Submission Request

A request to submit content to the knowledge repository.

Requester

Status Update

An inquiry of the status of an existing request

Requester

Outputs

Each process produces tangible outputs. These outputs can take the form of products or data and can be delivered to a user or stakeholder, or, they can be used as inputs to other processes. Outputs are measurable in terms of quantity and quality.

Name

Description

Recipient

Electronic Notifications

Electronic notifications, both informational and actionable, provided to the Requester.

Requester

Management Reports

Management reports that aid in determining the effectiveness and efficiency of the process. This includes dashboards and measurements, where appropriate.

Process Owner, Business Unit, Requester

Knowledge Content

Requested knowledge (information and data) is provided, as required, or new content has been added to the knowledge repository.

Requester

Controls

Process controls represent the policies and guiding principles on how the process will operate. Controls provide direction over the operation of processes and define constraints or boundaries within which the process must operate.

Name

Description

AI4.1 Planning for Operational Solutions

Develop a plan to identify and document all technical, operational, and usage aspects such that all those who operate, use, and maintain the automated solutions can exercise their responsibility.

AI4.2 Knowledge Transfer to Business Management

Transfer knowledge to business management to allow those individuals to take ownership of the system and data, and exercise responsibility for service delivery and quality, internal control, and application administration.

AI4.3 Knowledge Transfer to End Users

Transfer knowledge and skills to allow end users to effectively and efficiently use the system in support of business processes.

AI4.4 Knowledge Transfer to Operations and Support Staff

Transfer knowledge and skills to enable operations and technical support staff to effectively and efficiently deliver, support, and maintain the system and associated infrastructure.

PO2.1 Enterprise Information Architecture Model

Establish and maintain an enterprise information model to enable applications development and decision-supporting activities, consistent with IT plans as described in PO1. The model should facilitate the optimal creation, use, and sharing of information by the business in a way that maintains integrity and is flexible, functional, cost-effective, timely, secure, and resilient to failure.

PO2.2 Enterprise Data Dictionary and Data Syntax Rules

Maintain an enterprise data dictionary that incorporates the organization’s data syntax rules. This dictionary should enable the sharing of data elements amongst applications and systems, promote a common understanding of data amongst IT and business users, and prevent incompatible data elements from being created.

PO2.3 Data Classification Scheme

Establish a classification scheme that applies throughout the enterprise, based on the criticality and sensitivity (e.g., public, confidential, top secret) of enterprise data. This scheme should include details about data ownership; definition of appropriate security levels and protection controls; and a brief description of data retention and destruction requirements, criticality, and sensitivity. It should be used as the basis for applying controls such as access controls, archiving, and encryption.

PO2.4 Integrity Management

Define and implement procedures to ensure the integrity and consistency of all data stored in electronic form, such as databases, data warehouses, and data archives.

States

States are indicators of points of progress of an instance through a process. These are highly dependent on the Service Management tool employed, and as such, are best identified once the process design has been completed and the ITSM supporting tool has been selected.

The following states are samples that can be used as a starter set of states for this process:

Name

Description

Draft

A request that is being created, started or completed but that has not yet been submitted for review/approval.

Pending Fulfillment

A request that has been submitted but has not been fulfilled.

Pending Closure

A fulfilled/completed request that has not been closed.

Closed

A request that is fulfilled/completed and closed.

Pending Review

A request that has been fulfilled but the Requester is dissatisfied. A review is required to determine whether there is an issue with the content of the repository or there needs to have new content added as the result of the request.

Metrics

Metrics are used for the quantitative and periodic assessment of a process. They should be associated with targets which are set based on specific business objectives. Metrics provide information related to the goals and objectives of a process and are used to take corrective action when desired results are not being achieved and can be used to drive continual improvement of process effectiveness and efficiency.

Name:

% Business Owners Satisfied with Application Training and Support Materials

Description:

The % of business owners that indicated satisfaction (versus dissatisfaction) with the training provided to them or the supporting materials used.

Type:

Percent

Operational definition:

 

Opportunity For Defect:

 

Measurement Procedure:

[Survey results satisfied] / [Total survey results]

Supporting Details:

 

Category:

Effectiveness

Name:

# Incidents Caused by Deficient Documentation or Training

Description:

The # of Incidents created by the user that were directly attributed to deficient user and operational documentation and training.

Type:

Count

Operational definition:

 

Opportunity For Defect:

 

Measurement Procedure:

[#Incidents caused by Deficient Documentation or Training]

Supporting Details:

 

Category:

Effectiveness

Name:

# Training Calls to Service Desk

Description:

The # of training calls handled by the Service Desk.

Type:

Count

Operational definition:

 

Opportunity For Defect:

 

Measurement Procedure:

[# Training Calls to Service Desk]

Supporting Details:

 

Category:

Efficiency

Name:

% Redundant/Duplicate Data Elements

Description:

The % of redundant/duplicate data elements in the knowledge repository that have been identified.

Type:

Percent

Operational definition:

 

Opportunity For Defect:

 

Measurement Procedure:

[#Redundant/Duplicate Data Elements]/[Total #Data Elements]

Supporting Details:

 

Category:

Efficiency

Name:

% Reduction in Finding Information

Description:

The % reduction in finding information for diagnosis and fixing Incidents and Problems.

Type:

Percent

Operational definition:

 

Opportunity For Defect:

 

Measurement Procedure:

[Average time to find information last period] minus [Average time to find information this period] / [Average time to find information last period] times 100

Supporting Details:

 

Category:

Efficiency

Name:

# Information Requests

Description:

The total number of information requests that have been received. This can be further divided by service, department, user, company, or other desired groupings.

Type:

Count

Operational definition:

 

Opportunity For Defect:

 

Measurement Procedure:

A count of the number of requests.

Supporting Details:

 

Category:

Value

Name:

% Applications Not Complying

Description:

The % of applications that do not comply with the information architecture used by the enterprise.

Type:

Percent

Operational definition:

 

Opportunity For Defect:

 

Measurement Procedure:

[#applications not complying]/[Total #applications in the architecture]

Supporting Details:

 

Category:

Compliance

Roles

Each process defines at least one role. Each role is assigned to perform specific tasks within the process. The responsibilities of a role are confined to the specific process. They do not imply any functional standing within the hierarchy of an organization. For example, the process manager role does not imply the role is associated with or fulfilled by someone with functional management responsibilities within the organization. Within a specific process, there can be more than one individual associated with a specific role. Additionally, a single individual can assume more than one role within the process although typically not at the same time.

Name

Description

   

Knowledge Process Owner

A Senior Manager with the ability and authority to ensure the process is rolled out and used by all departments within the IT organization. Specific responsibilities include: defining the overall mission of the process; establishing and communicating the process mission, goals and objectives to all stakeholders; resolving any cross-functional (departmental) issues; ensuring consistent execution of the process across departments; reporting on the effectiveness of the process to senior management; initiating process reviews; and initiating any process improvement initiatives.

Knowledge Process Manager

Defines the standards for the process and is responsible for the day-to-day management and coordination of all Knowledge Management process activities. Conducts periodic process reviews. Produces process management reports. Acts as the “point person” for the process. Takes direction and vision from the Knowledge Process Owner.

Service Desk

The Service Desk is responsible for: creating Information Requests (unless they are created directly by a Requester through a portal), monitoring the progress of Information Requests against ultimate and interim time targets, determining Recipient satisfaction, and closing Information Requests (escalations are usually automated). The Service Desk also provides consultation throughout the process on the effectiveness and efficiency of the knowledge of the Business Customer; for purposes of identifying gaps in knowledge.

Requester

The source of the request. This could be a person or a system. Requesters may be anyone in the organization to the extent allowed by the applicable SLA and responsible for providing requested information. Requesters may submit information requests on behalf of others (Recipients) to the extent allowed by the applicable SLA. Requesters may submit content for inclusion in the knowledge repository.

Trainer

The Trainer is the role responsible for the production and delivery of materials required for knowledge transfer. This role may require the creation of materials based on learning styles, knowledge visualization, driving behavior, and the use of methods such as seminars, webinars, advertising, journals, and newsletters.

End Users

End Users are recipients of the knowledge transfer activities.

Operations and Support Staff

Operations and Support Staff are recipients of the knowledge transfer activities.

Information Architect

The Information Architect is the role responsible for defining/establishing the data and information requirements, the Service Management Information Architecture Model, the enterprise data dictionary, the data classification scheme, and integrity management for the data and information.

Business Customer

Functional business management who buys or receives the Services. The Customer of a Service Provider is accountable for defining, and agreeing to, the contents of Knowledge Management. They are also recipients of the knowledge transfer activities.

Approver

The Approver, typically the Knowledge Process Manager unless deferred to someone else, will review the Submission Request to determine the value that the content will bring to the business, the potential risk associated with implementing (and not implementing) the content, the scope and benefits that are expected to be realized. An Approver can approve, reject or return the request.

Policies

Policies outline a set of plans or courses of action that are intended to influence and determine decisions or actions of a process. Policies provide an element of governance over the process that provides alignment to business vision, mission and goals.

Policy:

Knowledge Management Policies Established

Rationale:

A set of high level directives that set the direction for and establish the scope of the process.

Statement:

A set of policies should be established before starting the development of the process.

Value:

 

Exceptions:

 

Related Governance:

 

Policy:

Policy Review

Rationale:

Policies must be kept current to ensure alignment with changing business needs.

Statement:

Knowledge Management policies will be reviewed and updated if needed on an annual basis.

Value:

 

Exceptions:

 

Related Governance:

 

Policy:

Article Review

Rationale:

Articles must be kept current to ensure alignment with changing business needs.

Statement:

All knowledge repository articles must be reviewed on a regular basis and revised or retired as appropriate.

Value:

 

Exceptions:

 

Related Governance:

 

Governance

Process governance defines the authority and oversight that is required to assure that the process is fulfilling its goals and objectives. Governance consists of the set of guidelines and resources that an organization uses to facilitate collaboration, communication and conformance. Process governance covers process ownership and management, process communication, process tool development and feedback (reporting) mechanisms. Governance ensures that everyone is complying with the policies and procedures of the process.

Process Responsibilities (RACI):

The RACI-method is based on the principle that people act in one of four ways when executing a task. It accounts for the fact that more than one role may be active in performing a specific task while clearly defining specific responsibilities for that role. While many roles may be involved in a task only one is ‘Accountable’ for the results. The actions are:

R Responsible for the action (may do the task)

A Accountable for the action (including approval)

C Required to be Consulted on the action

I Required to be Informed of the action

If a task does not have an ‘Accountable’ role indicated then the ‘Responsible’ role is assumed to be accountable for the task.

Name:

Governance Points

Rationale:

Governance points establish the means of ensuring that Policy is observed.

Statement:

Governance points should be established for each policy statement.

Role:

Knowledge Process Owner

MetricName:

 

Frequency:

As required

Method:

 

Name:

Accuracy and Completeness

Rationale:

Complete and accurate information is required to support measurements and metrics used to monitor and improve processes and procedures.

Statement:

Information Request records must be spot checked for accuracy, completeness and compliance to policies.

Role:

Knowledge Process Manager

MetricName:

 

Frequency:

Ongoing

Method:

 

Name:

Process Assessment

Rationale:

Processes are living entities and as such must be assessed periodically for their effectiveness. This can also be an opportunity to demonstrate the value that the process has brought to the organization.

Statement:

Conduct periodic assessment of the process to confirm that the process is working and to determine if the expected benefits are being realized.

Role:

Knowledge Process Owner

MetricName:

 

Frequency:

Monthly

Method:

 

General Tool Requirements

This section describes the general requirements that the supporting tools must meet in order to fully support the needs of the process. To achieve optimum benefits, a process must be “imbedded” into the tool. This linkage between process and tool is the most effective way of ensuring process conformance and efficiency.

Name

Description

Knowledge Management Repository

A repository tool that is used to capture, maintain, and retrieve knowledge (information and data) in a centralized data base.

Activity Log

A log of all actions/activities taken during the course of executing Knowledge Management tasks, should be captured in the related KM record. The log should also be categorized to allow filtering, sorting and reporting.

Audit Trail

Changes to certain information within the Knowledge Management process should be audited. The specific information will be based on requirements of the process. The user making the change, the time the change was made and the before and after values must be captured. Changes in Status as well as assignments (group or assignee) must be captured. Enumerated values must be presented in human readable format where those values exist – e.g., High Priority as opposed to Priority 1.

Notifications

Notifications must occur throughout the lifecycle of Knowledge Management. The tool must support common notifications such as when a record has been assigned to a group or individual.

Status Changes

Directly modifying the Status field should be discouraged. Rather, actions taken should drive a change in status. For example, acknowledging the assignment of a task should preferably be done through an action button, like “Accept Assignment”. Similarly actions such as changing the assigned group should result in a status change to Assigned. In other words, Status should be a read-only field, the value of which is automatically determined by the system.

Pending Values

Occasionally it will be necessary to place the request in a Pending state while we wait for some action or information. A field should be made available (that augments the Status field) and that provides an indication of why the request is not proceeding. Suggested values: Pending User Information, Pending Receipt from Vendor, and Pending User Verification.

Timestamps

The date/time and userid of the person logged in should be captured for all key events such as assignments, notifications, alerts, approvals obtained and so on. The specifics of this requirement will need to be explored in further detail during technical design. The objective of this requirement is to enable various reporting capabilities.

Customer Portal

The tool ought to provide a Customer Portal to allow customers to submit requests and monitor status. Customers should be able to select from a catalogue of request choices. The list of choices ought to be tailored based on the customer’s job function and authority.

Activities

Code

Name

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