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Analysis of Information Technology in Public Sector

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Chapter 1 Introduction

Countries and governments in the world try to develop and extend their business and economies throughout built relation and agreements among them for the exchange and transaction for different kind of trades through out what call e-government to facilitate communicating and transmitting the information between these countries, and to achieve these, they need to adopt the information technology as infrastructure for e-government purposes (Traunmiiller and Klaus Lenk, 2002).

So, information technology IT, digital and networking considered a crucial requirements for the companies to extend their operation scope in the global. So organizational spending on information technology (IT) and utilize the technology to support different strategic and operational objectives to give the strength for the competitive strategy (support the different aspects of business), (Venkatesh & Morris& Davis & Davis, 2003).

Therefore, Information technology can be defined in various ways Like information technology includes hardware, software and telecommunication equipment which is used to capture, process, and store and distribute information ( Global text -information system-Richard T. Watson -2007¬chapter 1). Also information technology refers to "office, computing machines, communications equipment, instruments, photocopiers and related equipment, and software and related services (Brynjolfsson, 1991). Even Information Technology (IT) refers to "Any equipment, or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment which is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission." (DODD 4630.5, January 11, 2002).

when the companies attempt to adopt the technology they face problems about the acceptance of the employees for the technology , some companies still can't predict the success from implementing new technology among the employees, some fail in adopting particular technology and some face resistance for accepting or adopting the technology, another companies didn't get the benefits that they expect from accepting or adopting the technology ,therefore, the companies turn to study the technology users conceptual about technology and the factors that could affect the acceptance for the technology (Alsohybe, 2007).

Since information technology is supporting our economy throughout the reductions in the cost of obtaining, processing, and transmitting information are changing the way we do business so no company can escape its effects. General Managers know the importance of information technology and how it effect in the work. As more and more they spend their investment capital and their time in information technology and its effects, an executive have a growing awareness that the technology can no longer be the exclusive area of IT departments or IS departments, Executives recognize the need to become directly involved in the management of the new technology since they see their competitors use information for competitive advantage, These In the face of rapid change, however, they don't know how (S Rivard, L Raymond, D Verreault, 2006).

In order to help managers respond to the challenges of the information developing and how will advances in information technology affect competition and the sources of competitive advantage and what are the opportunities for investing in information technology. For that managers must first understand the information technology (Yen & Subramanian & chino, 1997).

So this study is going to examine the factors that influence information technology acceptance in the public sector in the republic of YEMEN to enhance the accepting, adopting and the usage of information technology among the workers in the public sector. Beside facilitate the information transaction between the managements and between the government utilities with spotlight in the role of information technology strategies in these utilities to support the accepting, adoption for the technology. Even this study is going to examine the support of the government to adopt the information technology as government infrastructure toward E-government.

Republic of Yemen's Background

The Republic of Yemen is an Arab country located in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bounded on the north by Saudi Arabia and by the Arab Sea. Oman lies in the west of the Republic of Yemen and the Red Sea lies in the west of the Republic of Yemen.

The total area of the Republic of Yemen is about 555,000 square Kilometer, and the population of the Republic of Yemen is 18 million. The official language of the country is Arabic and Islam is the official religion of the country. The ethnic groups in the Republic of Yemen are predominantly Arab, but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans. The Yemeni Rial (YR) is the official currency unit, but visitors can exchange most of the international currencies in exchange establishments or banks all over towns. Currently, the Republic of Yemen is enjoying a stable political, economic, and social system based on respect and openness with the rest of the world. This stability provides an opportunity for the country to improve its economy and service provision to its citizen and move along with the rest of the world.

The Republic of Yemen has three national independence days: September 26, 1962 when the king of North the Republic of Yemen, at that time, was overthrown and making the country a republic instead of a kingdom, November 30, 1967 when South the Republic of Yemen, at that time, had become independent from United Kingdom. The Unification Day on May 22, 1990, when the Republic of Yemen was established by the merger of South the Republic of Yemen and North the Republic of Yemen. The legal system of the Republic of Yemen is based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local tribal customary law. The Republic of Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the Arab World. It has reported strong growth since 2000, and its economic fortunes depend mostly on oil. (CIA - The World Fact book - Yemen & profile about Yemen, 2005: Countries, L. D, 2009)

Since the unification of the Republic of Yemen in 1990, the president was determined to establish a new way of governance. The government represented by the president initiated a plan to develop the new country infrastructure and build a democratic administrative system, which is responsible for the provision of public services to all Yemenis whether in the country or abroad. Since 1990, the Republic of Yemen has been trying to pursue a clear social strategy for developing new sources of income for its people, find new ways of investment in the country, reform the government, and establish new private sector participation to enhance the economical growth of the country (Ministry of Development, Republic of Yemen, 2000). The main objective of the government now and then was to improve the efficiency of the governmental administrative capabilities for better and improved services.

The Republic of Yemen long-term's strategy aimed to develop a reliable and efficient administration and government by improving and reforming its ministries and institutions to deliver better public services for all its citizens and gain recognition around the world.

However, not all the goals were aimed at improving the governmental functions were achieved. There are still problems facing the government plan to reform like, inflated bureaucracy, lack of collaboration between ministries and agencies, illiteracy, and a lack of direct vision of the future of the country. In its attempt to overcome these problems, the government of the Republic of Yemen has launched a reform project using information technology to implement e-government in the next couple of Years. The implementation of information technology will lead into collaboration between governmental agencies and lead to integrated databases that can be accessed by any agency any time thus delivering rapid and efficient service to the public.

Communication and Information Technology in the Republic of Yemen Comparing to other countries around the world, The Republic of Yemen is still lagging in term of using information technology. Tables 1 and 2 compare the Republic of Yemen to other countries around the world and show that the Republic of Yemen is still one of the lowest countries in term of using computers and Internet, telephone usage, and e government readiness. This study was prepared by the National Information Center of the Republic of Yemen, which was submitted to the Republic of Yemen's Presidential Office and to the Shura Council on June 2005 as part of a workshop title "E-government between reality and expected goals in the Republic of Yemen" (Alsohybe, 2007).

Table l : Computers for Every 100 People and Internet Usage per 100 People for the World and for Some Countries Including the Republic of Yemen

Country/Group

PC Percentage (%) per

100

people

Internet usage per 100

people

The World

7.74

15.47

Arab World

2.04

5.57

U.S.A

65.89

55.14

Canada

48.7

51.28

Malaysia

14.68

31.97

Egypt

1.66

2.82

Yemen

0.79

0.51

Note: "E-Government between Reality and Expected Goals in the Republic of Yemen," by (Yemen, National Information Center, 2005. Sana'a, Yemen, p.10).

Table 2: E-government Readiness for Some Countries Including the Republic of Yemen

Country

Web

Measurement

Communications

Human

Resources

General

Indicator

international

U.S.A

1.00

.0770

.0970

.0913

1

Canada

0.873

0.668

0.970

0.837

7

Malaysia

0.490

0.302

0.830

0.541

42

Egypt

0.100

0_066

0.630

0.265

136

Yemen

0.054

0.040

0.490

0.195

154

Note: "E-Government between Reality and Expected Goals in the Republic of Yemen," by (Yemen National Information Center, 2005, Sana'a, Yemen, p.

Background of the Problem

In the increasingly global today, information technology (IT) spread unpredictably that because IT considers substantial investment for organizations in all different aspects. Technology used to support the strategy and operational goals Countries and governments all over the world try to develop and extend their business and economies throughout built relation and agreements among them for the exchange and transaction for different trade aspects through out what call e=government to facilitate communicating and transmitting the information between these countries, and to achieve these, there is need to adopt the information technology as infrastructure for E-government purposes. (Traunmuller and Klaus Lenk, 2002) But unfortunately acquiring appropriate IT is not a sufficient condition for utilizing it effectively.

Information technology importance for adopt E-government and in order to avoid the failure in adopting E-government. Also because the change in the environment and technology the companies trying to keep going with these changes. The companies spend a lot in investing in the technology in order to empower its internal, external performance and the productivity (Alsohybe, 2007).

Some employees in the organizations not used the IT effectively or are not used, despite the extending in the investment in IT. This led the organization to inappropriate investment and west the opportunities even remain the company undeveloped. So the workers in IS and the management under pressure to locate the financial and organizational benefits from the IT investment. In order to help managers and IS practitioners to determine the factors or the motivators for IT usage and the acceptance of individuals for IT usage in order to reduce the cost and attain the maximum return of the investment in IT from the beginning (Lopez& Manson, 1997; Dadayan & Ferro, 2005).

Problem statement

The problem statements is that it is expected that all companies adopting, using effectively and having information technology, however, in the reality, not all the companies adopt, use effectively or use the information technology. However, in the reality, not all employees in those organizations accept, adopt, use effectively or use the information technology. That means there is a gap between the ideal or the maximum usage for the information technology among the Yemeni government employees and the reality or the actual usage for the information technology inside those organizations. This leads to investigate or examine the determinants and characteristics such as (individual characteristics, system characteristics, social characteristics, institutional characteristics) which are of effecting in using or adopting such technology.

Many researchers in information technology IT and information system IS support the necessity for study the factors affecting the IT acceptance and its relation with the employees performance:

  • The study was conducted by (Venkatesh & Morris& Davis & Davis, 2003) to compare eight models and validate the new theory named the unified model

The study recommended that:

  • Future research should identify the underlying influential mechanisms potential candidates here include computer literacy and social or cultural background, among others. Even The role of social influence and its change over time and may help explain some of the equivocal results helping to clarify the contingent nature of social influences.
  • Current theoretical perspectives on individual acceptance are notably weak in providing prescriptive guidance to designers. For example applying any of the models might inform a designer that some set of individuals might find a new system difficult to use.
  • Even the study recommended future study include system characteristics and self-efficacy And task technology fit.
  • The study said that further work should attempt to identify and test additional boundary conditions of the model UTAUT in an attempt to provide an even richer understanding of technology adoption and usage behavior. Even different user groups, individuals in different functional areas and other organizational contexts (public or government institutions)

Another study was conducted in SAUDIA ARABI (AL Gahtani, 2004) to examine the technology acceptance theory in their culture recommended more studies in the technology acceptance with focusing in the social and culture factors and using different methodologies.

Also the study which conducted by (Gorke, 2006) mention about the important of farther research for determining the factors influence the decision of using particular system and the acceptance for any new system.

Even the study (Yalcinkaya& B.A & M.S, 2007) which conducted in TURKISH in police office recommended for more studies considering other possible psychosocial or contextual variables that may affect behavioral intention of information technology usage.

Beside The study (Almutairi, 2007) which conducted in Kuwaiti ministries to examine the technology acceptance theory in their culture found that there is needed to test the TAM in other culture to insure is it globalization of the model and the possibility to use in different cultures.

More over The study was conducted in china (Kim& lee& law, 2007) This study makes an attempt to investigate the relationship between antecedents including information system quality, perceived value, and users' acceptance of hotel front office systems (HFOSs) and the Results show information system quality affects users' beliefs in HFOSs, it is important to realize that other factors may also play an important role in user beliefs. These factors include computer use experience and the study suggested Different studies can be performed on IT, targeting other technology systems .it is important to find factors other than perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived value that can affect the attitude towards technology acceptance. A few areas can be further examined in future studies in hotels as well as in other organizations.

Even the study was conducted by (Smith, 2008) recommended more study for the technology acceptance within the private and the public sectors.

According to (Agarwal, 2000) the importance of individual differences as a significant theoretical construct in technology acceptance is indisputable. Also, he recommends for farther studies in the training as individual difference variables. Even, the study supports that technology acceptance can be facilitated by utilizing other interventions that directly affect beliefs such as training and developing a learning culture.

Also, in YEMEN the usage of the information is 10% from the system capability and that was not expected. So, there is need for investigate the reasons which inhibited the organization from getting the ideal usage from the system (wards from the minister of information technology and the vice general manager of the PTC public telecommunication corporation in Yemen KAKAL AL JABRI& KAMAL HASAN, 2007).

Therefore, there is a concurrent need to develop and gain empirical support for models of technology acceptance within the public sector, and to examine technology acceptance and utilization issues among public employees to improve the success of IS implementation in this arena and to explore the government role to support the adoption for information technology within the public utilities employees even as strategy or as logistic support. Even examine the role of the information technology strategy in controlling the factors influence the acceptance for technology to develop and improve the employee's performance. This paper presents more comprehensive, by using model of technology acceptance and suggest testing it in public sector (Alsohybe, 2007).

Research Objectives

1. To examine the status of technology acceptance and utilization issues among public employees to improve the success of IS acceptance and implementation in the following theory:

  • To examine individual differences which are effecting on the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector.
  • To examine which of system feature that influences in acceptance the technology
  • To examine the social factors that influences the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector.
  • To examine institutional factors which are influencing the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector.

2 To evaluate the role of strategy in affecting on the factors that influence the acceptance for any new technology.

Research questions

To examine the status of technology acceptance and utilization issues among public employees to improve the success of IS acceptance and implementation in the following theory:

  • Is there effect for individual differences on the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector?
  • Are there effects for the system feature on the acceptance for any new technology?
  • What are the influences of the social factors on the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector?
  • Is there effect for the institutional factors on the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector?

What is the role of strategy in affecting the factors that influence the acceptance for any new technology?

Purpose of the study

The study plans to examine the status of technology acceptance and utilization issues among managers and employees in the public sector as individuals to~ improve the success of IS acceptance and implementation in this area. This study aims to explore the government role to support the adoption for information technology within the employees in the public sector.

Even, the study will evaluate the strategy role in controlling the variables that influences the acceptance for the information technology, and explore the information technology company characteristics that have been used in public companies in Yemen.

The government of the Republic of Yemen has an opportunity to improve the progresses and prepares its people to meet the challenges of accepting and implementing information technology in the work place to provide information and services for its citizens from any place at any time. By using IT, government of the Republic of Yemen will be able to overcome the communication problem, improve government efficiency, develop alternative sources of income, and improve the livelihood of all its citizens. The Yemeni government is committed to improve the way it is conducting its day-to-day work by adopting an information technology.

Scope of study

The study will conduct in the public sector in the republic of Yemen. The study target will be the managers and employees as individuals in the ministries and some utilities belong to the government. This will be achieved by survey

Significance of the Study

According to the study (Smith, 2008) which aimed to delineate IT differences between the public and private sectors. The study argued that private sector using the information technology more than the public sector that due to many reasons individual differences is one of these reasons, so this study was encouraged to study the acceptance and implementation of the information technology among the individuals in the public sector.

Even, this study is trying to add the culture as independent variable for the technology acceptance model TAM, TAM2 and TAM3 as empirical study and

contribution, this research will examine the acceptance and implementation of technologies in a very conservative and traditional society like The Republic of Yemen society where culture and religion dominate the way people live and perceive changes around them and can affect their acceptance or resentment of such innovation.

Also, the study combined TAM, TAM2 by setting the attitude as mediated in the relation between the believes perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and the intention to use which was deleted in the technology acceptance model TAM2 and TAM3.

Also, many studies were conducted to examine three variables affecting the technology acceptance such as individual differences, system feature and social influence and some studies examine individual differences, system feature and institutional factors, however, this study aims to examine the four factors because of the effect of each variable in the acceptance of the technology and its effect on the other variables. Also, this study uses mixed theories to give more explanatory power for the technology acceptance.

Also, this study aims to predicting the behavior of the managers and employees for accept the information technology is critical issue for the companies because the important of the information technology in the government utilities in order to enhance its internal and external performance in facilitating the work flaw and smooth transferring of the information among the individuals in the different department in one unit even between the units in the public sector.

Chapter 2

Summary for chapter 1

'From-the -previous chapter which presents the problem statement, accept, adopting, using effectively and using information technology, however, in the reality, not all employees in those organizations accept, adopting, using, effectively and using the information technology,' his means there is a gap between the ideal usage for the information technology among the employees of the Yemeni government and the reality of the usage for the technology inside those organizations. This leads to investigate and examine the determinants and characteristics (individual differences, system characteristic, social characteristics, institutional characteristic) which are effecting in accepting, adopting for such technology.

2.1 Introduction

2.1.1- The importance of Information Technology

Rapidly advanced scientific and technological innovations, economic turbulence and uncertainty are some factors that underlie the importance of information technology investment. IT enables organizations to have the capabilities to do some adaptations proactively, so IT becomes an integral part, even a pivotal part of business activities and processes undertaken by any organization (Chau& Hu, 2002), from that, question appears about the necessity to invest in IT in order to the organizations can get the benefits from adopting the information technology and to insure the success in the adoption, Agarwal and Karahanna (2000) see the success in this investment will be a valuable when IT utilized by the intended user in the way that contributes to the strategy and the operational goals of the organization, so the user acceptance of IT is the fundamental for the success of IT investment.

The importance of technology comes from that Technology has an important impact on innovation and the development of societies and economies. This impact can be observed in three steps, the first step is substitution, new technology substitutes for the old. For example, consumers start substituting their fixed telephone lines with mobile telephones. The second step is the diffusion, when adopting the new technology is widely across society because it is law cost or better or more effective than the previous technology. The final step is transformation when the new technology ways start working and emerging because the new technology is diffused so widely in society. For example, the widespread adoption of the networking has led to interesting innovations in the communication patterns of individuals such as executives conducting business while waiting in airport lounges or traveling in trains DUTTA & MIA, 2006)World Economic Forum.

ICT offers more opportunities for economic development and plays very important role in international competitiveness, rapid economic change, and productive capacity of improvements for developing countries. ICTs offer the developing countries many opportunities, as it has done in the developed world, when it created unprecedented possibilities for them. Studies have emphasized that there is evidence of a strong linkage between GDP growth and ICT investment showing the importance of ICT investment for development.

Acquiring IT to support business needs is clearly a crucial prerequisite to exploiting the potential of IT. Unfortunately acquiring appropriate IT is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for utilizing it effectively. Organizations (i.e., leaders and managers) make primary adoption decisions, yet it is individuals within the firm who are the ultimate users and consumers of IT. Thus, it is evident that true business value from any information technology would derive only through appropriate use by its target user group. In other words, systems that are not utilized will not deliver the returns anticipated by managers. Evidence suggests that individual users can exhibit a variety of different behaviors when confronted with a new information technology: They may completely reject it and engage in sabotage or active resistance they may only partially utilize its functionality, or they may wholeheartedly embrace the technology and the opportunities it offers. Obviously, each behavior has some consequential outcomes both negative and positive for managers (Agarwal, 2000).

Also, Organizations have increased their investment in information technology IT for planning in order to increase the efficiency of their business processes. Support management decision making and improve productivity. So IT become important tool to attaining competitive advantage for the organization and improves employees productivity and efficiency (Kim & Lee & Law, 2007), besides, -Many researches investigate the relation between IT investment and increase the productivity and the performance in the companies' one of studies (sircar et al, 2000) which found several organization success with the spending on the IT but others were failed. (Agarwal& karahanna, 2000) argue in this result that IT investment will be successful when IT utilized by the organization intended user in the way contribute to the strategy and the goals of the firms. Thus user acceptance is the key for the successes of the IT investment (Darsono, 2005), Even, for more than two decades information technology has been the focus for researcher in information system this is because IT considers as the key to lead the organization for the good performance so many researches focus in the initial usage for IT or continuous usage for IT.

2.2- The advantages and disadvantages from adopting informationtechnology

2.2.1 The advantages

  • Information technology uses to support the competitive strategy in helping the companies to reduce the costs of the company to give special offer for its products and services and give better care about customers and suppliers and to develop unions among the company and the company with the environment around the company and increase the virtue of its investment in IT resources.
  • By using the information technology the organization or the companies will be able to develop the value of its business throughout making the customer value the focus of its strategy which is to keep track of its customers preferences to supply its products and services anytime anywhere by using the internet or intranet and extranet(e-commerce websites).
  • A lot of organizations/companies use information technology and internet to reengineering its business process because information technology can make integration for the organization to work for the same goal of the organization and this improves the design of the work flows or the requirements of the job even the organization structures even improve the efficiency and the effectiveness.
  • Information technology provides the communication and the information required for the managers in order to manage the different activities within the organization and the resources from the partners to get the advantage from the changes in the market environment.
  • Information technology can support the organization competitive strategy by making the organization as the knowledge creating to make innovation by creating its process style or product and service for its work or learning organization by doing similar in what the another companies created by using the Internet to get the knowledge that it needs (Brien & maracas, 2008, management information system, edition 8, chapter 1, p55) the advantages (for strategy advantage).

2.2.2- The disadvantages

Some disadvantages of information technology include:

  • Unemployment - While information technology may have streamlined the business process it has also created job redundancies, downsizing and outsourcing. This means that a lot of lower and middle level jobs have been done away with causing more people to become unemployed.
  • Privacy - Though information technology may have made communication quicker, easier and more convenient, it has also bought along privacy issues. From cell phone signal interceptions to email hacking, people are now worried about their once private information becoming public knowledge.
  • Lack of job security - Industry experts believe that the Internet has made job security a big issue as since technology keeps on changing with each day. This means that one has to be in a constant learning mode, if he or she wishes for their job to be secure.
  • Dominant culture - While information technology may have made the world a global village, it has also contributed to one culture dominating mother weaker one. For example it is now argued_ that US influences how most young teenagers all over the world now act, dress and behave. Languages too have become overshadowed, with English becoming the primary mode of communication for business and everything else (http://wwwsmallbusinessbible.org/advan_disadvan information technology.html# 3/4/2009 5:10am).

2.3 Lecture review

2.3- Dependant variable

2.3.1 Actual usage

There are many definitions for the information technology from different prospective depending on the focus of each study, his study prefers the common definition that the different tools of the information technology, so the use for information technology which refers to the actual usage can be defined as:

  • Information technology can be defined in various ways. Like information technology includes hardware, software and telecommunication equipment which is used to capture such as process, store and distribute information (Watson, 2007).
  • information technology refers to "office, computing machines, communications equipment, instruments, photocopiers and related equipment, and software and related services (Brynjolfsson, 1991).
  • Information Technology (IT) refers to "Any equipment, or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission." (DODD 4630.5, January 11, 2002).
  • Information technology" can be defined in various ways. Among the most common is the BEA's (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis) category "Office, Computing and Accounting Machinery (OCAM) which consists primarily of Computers. Some researchers look specifically at computer capital, while others consider the BEA's broader category, "Information Processing Equipment (IPE)." IPE includes communications equipment, scientific and engineering instruments, photocopiers and related equipment. Besides, software and related services are sometimes included in the IT capital. Recent studies often examine the productivity of information systems staff, or of workers who use computers at work (Brynjolfsson & Yang, 1996).

So, from the previous definitions this study defines the information technology as it refers to the office, computing machines, hardware, software, instruments, photocopiers, telecommunication equipment, related services and workers who use computers at work which is used to capture such as process store and distribute information.

According to the study conducted by (Kiraz & Ozemir, 2006) which stated that technology acceptance model (TAM) created by (Davis & Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1989) and (Davis, 1989), studied some important factors affecting on the information technology usage, the TAM explained how the actual use for the new system effected by one basic factor the behavior intention to use to cause the usage for the technology. In another wards, the behavior intention to use the technology is the merely or only determined related to actual use for the system usage, beside that the latest studies confirmed that the behavior intention to use the technology is the merely a mediated factor.

Moreover, another studies found that there are many factors affecting the actual use for the technology not only one as mentioned in the previous study from these studies the study was conducted by (Jones & Hubona, 2005) which aimed to determine the effect of staff seniority, age, and education level on usage behavior. The study supported all TAM construction. Even Education level would directly affect actual usage behavior besides effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness.

Besides that, the study conducted by (Kishore & Lee & McLean, 2001) which used social cognitive theory (SCT), computer self-efficacy (CSE), technology acceptance model (TAM), the risk management, personal& general innovativeness and specific computer self-efficacy to extend TAM. The study mentioned that perceived usefulness and ease of use were granted as the main factors affecting in the actual usage for information technology.

Also, the study was conducted by (goeke, 2006) which aimed to examine the effects of experience and expertise on the actual use for the data warehouse by using TAM. The study found that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use had significant affect on the usage for the technology and the usefulness stronger in the effect then ease of use. Even there is direct effect for the usefulness in the actual usage for the system.

However, some studies didn't found relation between these factors with the actual use for the technology from these studies, the study was conducted by (Al Mutairi, 2007) w i to examine TAM applicability in Kuwait ministries. The study finding did not support the relationship between the variables as were in TAM. In another word, the study didn't find relation between ease of use and usefulness this in one hand and in the other hand, there is no relation between ease of use and usefulness with actual usage, that maybe because the differences in the national cultural, public organization context, dependent variables nature.

This study agreed with the pervious study (Jones & Hubona, 2005) which confirms all the relations in the technology acceptance model TAM. But support partially the study which conducted by (Kishore & Lee & McLean, 2001) in that perceived usefulness has direct affect on the actual use for the technology. Al sagree with the study conducted by (Al Mutairi, 2007) which found there isn't relation between perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness with actual use.

Therefore, there is need for investigate the factors that affecting the actual use for the technology and testing the relations in the technology acceptant model TAM.

2.4 Mediated

2.4.1 Behavior intention to use

Behavioral intention refers to the-intention end-user to make use of the new technology (Seymour & Bakanya &Berrnge, 2007), also behavior intention to use the information technology refers to the degree to which a person has formulated conscious plans to perform or not perform some specified future behave (Davis, F. D, Bagozzi, R.P, War Shaw, 1989).

According to (Davis, 1989: Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006: Hwang & Y. Yi, 2002: Phau & Gan, 2000) the technology acceptance model TAM consists of four main factors as major determinants of technology acceptance. These factors are perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness, the attitudes toward the usage, and behavioral intention to use the frequency of use of technology. Also, these studies considered behavioral intention to use is the only factor affecting the dependent variable the actual usage.

Also, this idea was supported in the study conducted by (Chang, 2004) it explored the validity of the extension of Technology acceptance Model (TAM) based on social and facilitating as main factors to predict intranet/portal usage because those factors are most dominant in the educational environment,. The study found that there were strong positive relations among Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and user's attitudes towards the intranet to use the technology. Also the Attitude has strong relation with the user intention to use. Even, the intention to ad strong relation with the actual usage, this conform the positive significant relation in TAM and its constructs are to predicting the user acceptance of the intranet/portal.

Moreover, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which created by (Davis& Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1989; Davis et al., 1989) Studied some important factors affecting on the usage of the information technology. the TAM explained how the actual usage effected by one basic factor (the behavior intention to use the technology) to cause the actual use for the new system, therefore the behavior intention to use the technology is the merely or only determined related to actual use for the system, beside that the latest study (Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006) confirmed that the behavior intention to use the technology is the merely mediated factor affecting on the actual usage.

It is observed that the attitude not the only factor affecting on the is ,vi or intention to use, but there are another factors can affect the intention to use. Also, that was found in the study was conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004) which aimed to identify additional determinants factors for the technology acceptance in the education sector. The study found that there are direct and indirect significant effect for perceived usefulness on the behavior intention to use the system, his affect is strong on the behavior intention to use the technology more than the effect on the attitudes, and the attitude was formed by perceived usefulness.

Another study co armed that the attitude not the only factor which is affecting on the behavior intention to use like the study was conducted by (Aversano, 2005) which purposed to explore why some people refuse to use the mobile telephone in USA. The study confirmed that behavior intention to use the technology is a determinant for the actual behavior, the study used the theory of Ajzen to give exploration of human behavior to understanding a person's actions in behavior like social attitude and personality trait it considered as important to explain human behavior. Even, the study used TPB to confirm that intention to use is determined the actual behavior. Also, there are three factors predicting the Intention to use are attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control as same as TRA with focus in the important of the intention to behavior with the adoption for the technology.

Moreover, the study was conducted by (Hwang & Yi, 2002) in the intrinsic motivation and computer self-efficacy research to Technology Acceptance Model in order to predict the use of web-based information systems. The study found that behavioral intention and self-efficacy have a significant effect on actual use. Even the studies (Klloppiing & McKiinneyy, 2004: Jones & S. Hubona, 2005) support that relation too.

Also, the study was conducted by (Chismar & Patton, 2002) which made among the physicians to examines their intention to adopt Internet-based health applications by using the applicability of the (TAM2). The study found that the strong determinant for intention to use was perceived usefulness. Even, intention to use by physicians was explained by the effects of usefulness and output quality. Also, the relation between perceived usefulness and intention to use was significant, whereas image, subjective norm and perceived ease of use were not significant, that due to physicians have high level of adaptability, cognitive capacity and intellectual, they comprehend faster than the normal people for new technologies. Even, they are willing to adopt information that has beneficial applications even if it not easy to use.

Although, the study was conducted by (Jones & Hubona, 2005) which aimed to determine the effect of staff seniority, age, and education level on usage behavior. The study supported all TAM construction relations. Even Education level would directly affect actual usage behavior besides effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness.

However, the study was conducted by (Al Mutairi, 2007) which aimed to examine TAM applicability in Kuwait ministries. The study finding did not support the relationship between the variables as were in TAM. In another ward, the study didn't find relation between ease of use and usefulness this in one hand and in the other hand there is no relation between ease of use and usefulness with actual usage. Also the study mention that maybe because the differences in the national cultural, public organization context, dependent variables nature.

So, this study will support the previous studies in that there are affect for the attitude, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness on the intention to use the technology, but the study disagrees with the studies that considered the attitude the only factor which is affecting on the behavior intention to use but there are another factors could affect on the behavior intention to use.

Also, this study will disagrees with the study was conducted by (Almutairi, 2007) which didn't find relation between the attitude, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness with the intention to use the technology which refer that to the differences m the national cultural, public organization context, dependent variables nature.

Therefore, there are needs for investigating the relations between the attitude, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness with the intention to use the technology in different national cultural, public organization context, dependent variables nature; these will be cover in this study.

2.4.2 Attitudes and Believes

The attitude refers to the end user attitudinal beliefs even positive or negative about using the information technology (Venkatesh & mortis & B.Davis& D.Davis, 2003; Hu et al. 2005; Huang & Chuang, 2007).

argumentation was appeared in the relations structure of the technology acceptance model TAM about conclude or exclude the attitude as mediated in the relation between the beliefs perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness with the intention to use the technology toward the actual usage for the technology, some studies argued that the attitude should exclude from the structure of the relations in the technology acceptance model TAM to take the form as in the structure of the relations in the technology acceptance models TAM2 and TAM3, but these studies didn't give explanation for this excluding or maybe because there isn't usage for the attitude in their models. From these studies which excluded the attitude in the following:

According to the study was conducted by (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000) which found that perceived usefulness is strongly related to the system usage. Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness have direct affect in the intention to use the information technology with ignoring the attitude as mediating in this relation.

Also, the study conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004) which aimed to identify additional determinants for the technology acceptance in the education sector. The study found that there is direct and indirect significant effect for perceived usefulness on the intention to behavior to use the system. Even, this effect is strong on the intention to use more than the effect on the attitudes and the attitude was formed by perceived usefulness. Also, perceived ease of use has effect on perceived usefulness and the attitudes of the users but the effect on the attitudes was not significant this due to the combination of the factors like organization, subjects and the technology or due to the users have one month experience and they need to use the system easier and free of effort. Also, self¬efficacy has strong direct effect on intention to use and perceived ease of use but on ease of use more effect than intention to behavior.

However, another studies (Agarwal, 2000) argued that the mediated of the attitude in the relation between the beliefs perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness with the intention to u the technology is essential in the relation because attitude considered a the formatter for the intention to use the technology.

another wards, If people want to accept or reject any specific technology they should set up their attitudes by increase user's believes that this technology will help them do their work better and this refer to perceived usefulness and extend their believes in that the system is ease of use and the benefit is more than the effort from the use for this technology. In another wards, if the users perceived ease of use from using that technology and perceived usefulness from using the technology for their work purposes. That means there is a positive attitude toward the usage of the technology and there is a positive relation between the attitudes with the behavior intention to use the technology.

According to the studies (Davis, 1989: Hwang & Y. Yi, 2002: Phau & Gan,

2000) the technology acceptance model TAM consists of four main factors as major determinants of technology acceptance these factors are perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness, the attitudes toward the usage and the frequency of use of technology behavior intention to use. This supported the existing of the attitude as mediated in the relations in the technology acceptance model TAM.

Also, the study was conducted by (Chang, 2004) which purposed to explore the validity of the extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) based on social and facilitating as main factors to predict intranetlportal usage because those factors are most dominant in the educational environment. The study found that there was strong positive relation among Perceived usefulness, perceived case of use and user's attitudes towards the intranet, also, the Attitude has strong relation with the user intention to use and the intention to use had a strong relation with the actual usage this confirm the positive significant; in TAM and its constructs are to predicting the user acceptance of the intranet/portal.

Moreover, the study was conducted by (Al Gahtani, 2004) which aimed to get more understanding of the acceptance for the technology in different cultures. The study findings strongly supported that the attitude affected on the intention behavior to use the computer and satisfaction. Also, The same result was supported by the study was conducted in Malaysia by (Mohd& Syed¬Mohamad& Zaini, 2005) to identify the relation between information quality and the acceptance of doctors for Electronic Medical Record System (EMR) in one of Malaysian hospital, The study found that the information quality has significant relationship with perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, even the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have significant relationship with attitude of using EMR system, even the factor Information Quality has significant relationship with attitude of using EMR system throughout ease of use and usefulness.

Besides that, the study was conducted by (Yang, 2007) which Focus on the time in the affect of perceived usefulness and ease of use on the attitudes and aimed to study the usage of the technology acceptance model for doing another examination of the relationships between students' attitude toward the use of WebCT and the determinants of the actual usage in light of social presence and sociability, The study found that the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use was supported by self-efficacy, but more strong to the ease of use and both perceived usefulness and ease of use support the attitude toward the actual usage this was in the first test for the relation. But, in the second test was found that the subjective norms was negative value to the social presence and the actual use but lower support for the actual use, the study focuses on the time which makes the effects of the variable in the attitude. Also, the study supported the important for mediating the attitude between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use with the intention to use.

Even, the study was conducted by (Yalcinkaya & B.A & M.S, 2007) to investigate the acceptance for the police officer for the POLNET system in Turkish. The study found that Perceived ease of use has a positive effect on attitude and intentions to use the system. Also, the study considered that the variable ease of use is the main factor effecting in the attitude toward the behavior attention to use then toward the actual usage. Regardless which one is stronger in its affect, both perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use affecting on the attitude toward the intention to use the technology. That adds support for the important of setting the attitude as mediated in the relation.

Also, the study conducted by(Ahn & Ryu & Han, 2007)which its goal to investigated the playfulness effects on user acceptance of online retailing , tested factors of Web quality and the relationship between those factors with user acceptance behavior. The study found that there are significant between playfulness and attitude and behavior intention to use, even that Playfulness considered an important factor affecting the attitude and intention to use online retailing users.

Moreover, the study was conducted by (Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006) which target the utilization of technology integration in the classroom focused on educational ideology, a factor not related to technology that also affects decisions in terms of educational applications, the study found that there is a direct effect of perceived usefulness on the actual use. Even, there is a direct affect of perceived ease of use on attitudes. Besides that, the study showed that attitudes towards the usage effected by perceived usefulness. Also, there is no significant effect of attitude towards the actual use and this contrast the result in (TAM). Also, the study shows that there is no significant relationship between perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. In another wards, there is a strong positive relationship between pre-service teachers' perceived ease of use of educational technology and their attitudes toward use. The study mentioned that all of the ideologies mentioned have affects on attitudes toward use. Moreover, educational anarchism, educational libertinism, and educational intellectualism had affect on the perceived usefulness of technology.

Besides that, some of the previous studies show that there is affect for perceived ease of use and usefulness on the attitude towards the behavior intention to use toward the actual use for the technology. But, some studies ignored the attitude mediated in this relation. However, this study supports the setting of the attitude as mediated between perceived ease of use and usefulness with the intention to use the technology. Also this study is going to test the factors affecting on the attitude and the effect of the attitude on the intention to use.

Therefore, there is a need for additional research examining the precise role of the attitude construct in technology acceptance_ This issue of full versus partial mediation has important practical implications because attitude plays a more critical role in the former case, provided other methods of directly influencing attitude can be devised. As recommended consistently in the literature of (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980: Agarwal, 2000).

2.4.3 Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness

Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness consider as beliefs factors mediating the relation between actual usage for the information technology and the external variables that affecting the acceptance for the technology, also, the employees accept to use new software after they perceived it as useful and founded it easy for use (Davis, 1989).

These factors can define as: Perceived usefulness Refers to the degree of which the user believed that the use for particular system will support his work. Also, Perceived ease of use Refers to the degree of the user believes that the usage for particular system will be out of efforts (Davis, 1989).

Also, most of the studies were conducted about the technology acceptance confirmed the important of these factors in explaining the acceptance for the usage of the technology. Despite that, some of these studies found both perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use have the same affect on the TAM relations, some found that perceived ease of use has more affect than perceived usefulness in the TAM relations and another studies found perceived usefulness has more affect than perceived ease of use.

Also, from these studies which found there is the same affect for both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness; The study was conducted by (Park& Brien& Caine& Rogers& Fisk& Ittersum& Capar& Parsons, 2006) which aimed to identify variables that can provide more understanding for technology acceptance. The study mentioned that it is important to understand that the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of the technology are not formed solely by the usefulness and ease of use of the technology. Even, there are many variables affecting the technology acceptance like technology characteristics, organization characteristics, subjective norm, User characteristics all interacted with the acceptance throughout a positive effect on perceived usefulness.

Also, the study was conducted by (Kishore & Lee & McLean, 2001) which used social cognitive theory (SCT), computer self-efficacy (CSE), technology acceptance model (TAM), the risk management, personal& general innovativeness and specific computer self-efficacy to extend TAM. The study was mentioned that perceived usefulness and ease of use were granted as the main factors effecting in the actual usage for information technology.

Even, that was conducted by (Almutairi, 2007) which aim to test the applicability of the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Kuwaiti ministries in order to understand the information technology in the government utilities, There is significant in the relation between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use for accepting the technology. Also, that was supported in the study conducted by (Singktarv& Akbulut & Houston, 2002) which purposed to identify factors that affect the acceptance of high school students for software application when the initial use of the application is mandatory. The finding was that there are positive relationships between perceived usefulness, ease of use and innovative usage behavior and there is a positive relationship between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

Also, the study was conducted by (Venkatesh & Morris, 2000) which aimed to investigated gender differences in the context of individual adoption and the study conformed technology usage in the workplace by using technology acceptance model. The study found that There is a difference between women and men in that men perceived usefulness to a greater longitudinal than women in using a new technology. Also, perceived ease of use was more important to women compared with men after basic training and by the time with more experience in using the system that make not significant and not affect on the intention to use the system. But for women ease of use consider the important to affect the intention to use the system.

Besides that, there are some studies found perceived ease of use has more affect than perceived usefulness in the TAM relations. From these studies, the study was conducted by (Brown, 2002) which aimed to examine perceived ease of use for the technology web-based in learning environment in developing country not developed country. The study confirms TAM relations that ease of use predicts the usefulness and the actual usage but usefulness doesn't predict the actual usage. Besides, there are significant influences for self-efficacy, ease of finding and ease of understanding on perceived ease of use and ease of understanding more influences than ease of finding on perceived ease of use. Also, the self-efficacy is the strongest influences on the ease of use but computer anxiety was the fewer influences.

Also, the study which contacted by (Hasan &Ali, 2006) to distinguished between general, system-specific CSE and examines the effects of both levels of CSE on two key training outcomes: reactions and learning performance. Reactions were examined with respect to perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. The findings were that general CSE had significant effects on perceived ease of use and far-transfer learning. Even the study found that GCSE had demonstrated a non-significant positive affected on perceived usefulness. On the other hand, SCSE exhibited a non-significant negative effect on perceived usefulness this because the study were measured two weeks after training.

Even, the study was conducted by (Yi &Hwang, 2003) in the intrinsic motivation and computer self-efficacy research to Technology Acceptance Model in order to predict the use of web-based information systems. It found that behavioral intention and self-efficacy have a significant effect on actual use. Even perceived enjoyment and self-efficacy were significant determinants of ease of use. Even the study found that self-efficacy was a strong determinant for ease of use and actual use. Even, the study supported all the relations were purposed in the technology acceptance model. Also, the studies (Klloppiing & McKiinneyy, 2004: Jones & S. Hubona, 2005) support that too.

Besides that, there are some studies found that perceived usefulness has more affect than perceived ease of use in the TAM relations. From these studies, the study was conducted by (goeke, 2006) which aimed to examine the effects of experience and expertise on the actual use for the data warehouse by using TAM. The study found that perceived usefulness and ease of use had significant affect on the usage for the technology and the usefulness stronger in the effect then ease of use. Even there is direct effect for the usefulness in the actual usage for the system. Also, the study found there is direct effect for ease of use on perceived usefulness. Even, there is positive effect for the external variable on both perceived usefulness and ease of use.

Also, The Study was conducted by (Saeed &Helm, 2008) which proposes that perceived usefulness affected by information quality and system integration which will drive post adoption usage of the IS. The study findings support that system integration and information quality are significant predictors for usefulness. Even, usefulness positively and significantly relates to extended usage and exploratory usage. Also, the Study mentioned that perceived usefulness affects the initial acceptance of IS. That means, there is a stronger relation between exploratory usage and usefulness.

Even, the study was conducted by (Gyampah & Salam, 2003) which aimed to examine ERP training and ERP project communication, even that will affect the TAM variables only through the psychological variable-shared beliefs in the perceived benefits of the ERP system. The study found that perceived usefulness is the important factor affecting in the beliefs to make positive attitudes towards the system. Even, the study supported that perceived ease of use not affect attitude towards


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