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Chapter 1 Introduction

Countries and governments in the world try to develop and extend their business and economies throughout built relation and agreements among them for the exchange and transaction for different kind of trades through out what call e-government to facilitate communicating and transmitting the information between these countries, and to achieve these, they need to adopt the information technology as infrastructure for e-government purposes (Traunmiiller and Klaus Lenk, 2002).

So, information technology IT, digital and networking considered a crucial requirements for the companies to extend their operation scope in the global. So organizational spending on information technology (IT) and utilize the technology to support different strategic and operational objectives to give the strength for the competitive strategy (support the different aspects of business), (Venkatesh & Morris& Davis & Davis, 2003).

Therefore, Information technology can be defined in various ways Like information technology includes hardware, software and telecommunication equipment which is used to capture, process, and store and distribute information ( Global text -information system-Richard T. Watson -2007¬chapter 1). Also information technology refers to "office, computing machines, communications equipment, instruments, photocopiers and related equipment, and software and related services (Brynjolfsson, 1991). Even Information Technology (IT) refers to "Any equipment, or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment which is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission." (DODD 4630.5, January 11, 2002).

when the companies attempt to adopt the technology they face problems about the acceptance of the employees for the technology , some companies still can't predict the success from implementing new technology among the employees, some fail in adopting particular technology and some face resistance for accepting or adopting the technology, another companies didn't get the benefits that they expect from accepting or adopting the technology ,therefore, the companies turn to study the technology users conceptual about technology and the factors that could affect the acceptance for the technology (Alsohybe, 2007).

Since information technology is supporting our economy throughout the reductions in the cost of obtaining, processing, and transmitting information are changing the way we do business so no company can escape its effects. General Managers know the importance of information technology and how it effect in the work. As more and more they spend their investment capital and their time in information technology and its effects, an executive have a growing awareness that the technology can no longer be the exclusive area of IT departments or IS departments, Executives recognize the need to become directly involved in the management of the new technology since they see their competitors use information for competitive advantage, These In the face of rapid change, however, they don't know how (S Rivard, L Raymond, D Verreault, 2006).

In order to help managers respond to the challenges of the information developing and how will advances in information technology affect competition and the sources of competitive advantage and what are the opportunities for investing in information technology. For that managers must first understand the information technology (Yen & Subramanian & chino, 1997).

So this study is going to examine the factors that influence information technology acceptance in the public sector in the republic of YEMEN to enhance the accepting, adopting and the usage of information technology among the workers in the public sector. Beside facilitate the information transaction between the managements and between the government utilities with spotlight in the role of information technology strategies in these utilities to support the accepting, adoption for the technology. Even this study is going to examine the support of the government to adopt the information technology as government infrastructure toward E-government.

Republic of Yemen's Background

The Republic of Yemen is an Arab country located in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bounded on the north by Saudi Arabia and by the Arab Sea. Oman lies in the west of the Republic of Yemen and the Red Sea lies in the west of the Republic of Yemen.

The total area of the Republic of Yemen is about 555,000 square Kilometer, and the population of the Republic of Yemen is 18 million. The official language of the country is Arabic and Islam is the official religion of the country. The ethnic groups in the Republic of Yemen are predominantly Arab, but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans. The Yemeni Rial (YR) is the official currency unit, but visitors can exchange most of the international currencies in exchange establishments or banks all over towns. Currently, the Republic of Yemen is enjoying a stable political, economic, and social system based on respect and openness with the rest of the world. This stability provides an opportunity for the country to improve its economy and service provision to its citizen and move along with the rest of the world.

The Republic of Yemen has three national independence days: September 26, 1962 when the king of North the Republic of Yemen, at that time, was overthrown and making the country a republic instead of a kingdom, November 30, 1967 when South the Republic of Yemen, at that time, had become independent from United Kingdom. The Unification Day on May 22, 1990, when the Republic of Yemen was established by the merger of South the Republic of Yemen and North the Republic of Yemen. The legal system of the Republic of Yemen is based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local tribal customary law. The Republic of Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the Arab World. It has reported strong growth since 2000, and its economic fortunes depend mostly on oil. (CIA - The World Fact book - Yemen & profile about Yemen, 2005: Countries, L. D, 2009)

Since the unification of the Republic of Yemen in 1990, the president was determined to establish a new way of governance. The government represented by the president initiated a plan to develop the new country infrastructure and build a democratic administrative system, which is responsible for the provision of public services to all Yemenis whether in the country or abroad. Since 1990, the Republic of Yemen has been trying to pursue a clear social strategy for developing new sources of income for its people, find new ways of investment in the country, reform the government, and establish new private sector participation to enhance the economical growth of the country (Ministry of Development, Republic of Yemen, 2000). The main objective of the government now and then was to improve the efficiency of the governmental administrative capabilities for better and improved services.

The Republic of Yemen long-term's strategy aimed to develop a reliable and efficient administration and government by improving and reforming its ministries and institutions to deliver better public services for all its citizens and gain recognition around the world.

However, not all the goals were aimed at improving the governmental functions were achieved. There are still problems facing the government plan to reform like, inflated bureaucracy, lack of collaboration between ministries and agencies, illiteracy, and a lack of direct vision of the future of the country. In its attempt to overcome these problems, the government of the Republic of Yemen has launched a reform project using information technology to implement e-government in the next couple of Years. The implementation of information technology will lead into collaboration between governmental agencies and lead to integrated databases that can be accessed by any agency any time thus delivering rapid and efficient service to the public.

Communication and Information Technology in the Republic of Yemen Comparing to other countries around the world, The Republic of Yemen is still lagging in term of using information technology. Tables 1 and 2 compare the Republic of Yemen to other countries around the world and show that the Republic of Yemen is still one of the lowest countries in term of using computers and Internet, telephone usage, and e government readiness. This study was prepared by the National Information Center of the Republic of Yemen, which was submitted to the Republic of Yemen's Presidential Office and to the Shura Council on June 2005 as part of a workshop title "E-government between reality and expected goals in the Republic of Yemen" (Alsohybe, 2007).

Table l : Computers for Every 100 People and Internet Usage per 100 People for the World and for Some Countries Including the Republic of Yemen

Country/Group

PC Percentage (%) per

100

people

Internet usage per 100

people

The World

7.74

15.47

Arab World

2.04

5.57

U.S.A

65.89

55.14

Canada

48.7

51.28

Malaysia

14.68

31.97

Egypt

1.66

2.82

Yemen

0.79

0.51

Note: "E-Government between Reality and Expected Goals in the Republic of Yemen," by (Yemen, National Information Center, 2005. Sana'a, Yemen, p.10).

Table 2: E-government Readiness for Some Countries Including the Republic of Yemen

Country

Web

Measurement

Communications

Human

Resources

General

Indicator

international

U.S.A

1.00

.0770

.0970

.0913

1

Canada

0.873

0.668

0.970

0.837

7

Malaysia

0.490

0.302

0.830

0.541

42

Egypt

0.100

0_066

0.630

0.265

136

Yemen

0.054

0.040

0.490

0.195

154

Note: "E-Government between Reality and Expected Goals in the Republic of Yemen," by (Yemen National Information Center, 2005, Sana'a, Yemen, p.

Background of the Problem

In the increasingly global today, information technology (IT) spread unpredictably that because IT considers substantial investment for organizations in all different aspects. Technology used to support the strategy and operational goals Countries and governments all over the world try to develop and extend their business and economies throughout built relation and agreements among them for the exchange and transaction for different trade aspects through out what call e=government to facilitate communicating and transmitting the information between these countries, and to achieve these, there is need to adopt the information technology as infrastructure for E-government purposes. (Traunmuller and Klaus Lenk, 2002) But unfortunately acquiring appropriate IT is not a sufficient condition for utilizing it effectively.

Information technology importance for adopt E-government and in order to avoid the failure in adopting E-government. Also because the change in the environment and technology the companies trying to keep going with these changes. The companies spend a lot in investing in the technology in order to empower its internal, external performance and the productivity (Alsohybe, 2007).

Some employees in the organizations not used the IT effectively or are not used, despite the extending in the investment in IT. This led the organization to inappropriate investment and west the opportunities even remain the company undeveloped. So the workers in IS and the management under pressure to locate the financial and organizational benefits from the IT investment. In order to help managers and IS practitioners to determine the factors or the motivators for IT usage and the acceptance of individuals for IT usage in order to reduce the cost and attain the maximum return of the investment in IT from the beginning (Lopez& Manson, 1997; Dadayan & Ferro, 2005).

Problem statement

The problem statements is that it is expected that all companies adopting, using effectively and having information technology, however, in the reality, not all the companies adopt, use effectively or use the information technology. However, in the reality, not all employees in those organizations accept, adopt, use effectively or use the information technology. That means there is a gap between the ideal or the maximum usage for the information technology among the Yemeni government employees and the reality or the actual usage for the information technology inside those organizations. This leads to investigate or examine the determinants and characteristics such as (individual characteristics, system characteristics, social characteristics, institutional characteristics) which are of effecting in using or adopting such technology.

Many researchers in information technology IT and information system IS support the necessity for study the factors affecting the IT acceptance and its relation with the employees performance:

  • The study was conducted by (Venkatesh & Morris& Davis & Davis, 2003) to compare eight models and validate the new theory named the unified model

The study recommended that:

  • Future research should identify the underlying influential mechanisms potential candidates here include computer literacy and social or cultural background, among others. Even The role of social influence and its change over time and may help explain some of the equivocal results helping to clarify the contingent nature of social influences.
  • Current theoretical perspectives on individual acceptance are notably weak in providing prescriptive guidance to designers. For example applying any of the models might inform a designer that some set of individuals might find a new system difficult to use.
  • Even the study recommended future study include system characteristics and self-efficacy And task technology fit.
  • The study said that further work should attempt to identify and test additional boundary conditions of the model UTAUT in an attempt to provide an even richer understanding of technology adoption and usage behavior. Even different user groups, individuals in different functional areas and other organizational contexts (public or government institutions)

Another study was conducted in SAUDIA ARABI (AL Gahtani, 2004) to examine the technology acceptance theory in their culture recommended more studies in the technology acceptance with focusing in the social and culture factors and using different methodologies.

Also the study which conducted by (Gorke, 2006) mention about the important of farther research for determining the factors influence the decision of using particular system and the acceptance for any new system.

Even the study (Yalcinkaya& B.A & M.S, 2007) which conducted in TURKISH in police office recommended for more studies considering other possible psychosocial or contextual variables that may affect behavioral intention of information technology usage.

Beside The study (Almutairi, 2007) which conducted in Kuwaiti ministries to examine the technology acceptance theory in their culture found that there is needed to test the TAM in other culture to insure is it globalization of the model and the possibility to use in different cultures.

More over The study was conducted in china (Kim& lee& law, 2007) This study makes an attempt to investigate the relationship between antecedents including information system quality, perceived value, and users' acceptance of hotel front office systems (HFOSs) and the Results show information system quality affects users' beliefs in HFOSs, it is important to realize that other factors may also play an important role in user beliefs. These factors include computer use experience and the study suggested Different studies can be performed on IT, targeting other technology systems .it is important to find factors other than perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived value that can affect the attitude towards technology acceptance. A few areas can be further examined in future studies in hotels as well as in other organizations.

Even the study was conducted by (Smith, 2008) recommended more study for the technology acceptance within the private and the public sectors.

According to (Agarwal, 2000) the importance of individual differences as a significant theoretical construct in technology acceptance is indisputable. Also, he recommends for farther studies in the training as individual difference variables. Even, the study supports that technology acceptance can be facilitated by utilizing other interventions that directly affect beliefs such as training and developing a learning culture.

Also, in YEMEN the usage of the information is 10% from the system capability and that was not expected. So, there is need for investigate the reasons which inhibited the organization from getting the ideal usage from the system (wards from the minister of information technology and the vice general manager of the PTC public telecommunication corporation in Yemen KAKAL AL JABRI& KAMAL HASAN, 2007).

Therefore, there is a concurrent need to develop and gain empirical support for models of technology acceptance within the public sector, and to examine technology acceptance and utilization issues among public employees to improve the success of IS implementation in this arena and to explore the government role to support the adoption for information technology within the public utilities employees even as strategy or as logistic support. Even examine the role of the information technology strategy in controlling the factors influence the acceptance for technology to develop and improve the employee's performance. This paper presents more comprehensive, by using model of technology acceptance and suggest testing it in public sector (Alsohybe, 2007).

Research Objectives

1. To examine the status of technology acceptance and utilization issues among public employees to improve the success of IS acceptance and implementation in the following theory:

- To examine individual differences which are effecting on the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector.

- To examine which of system feature that influences in acceptance the technology

- To examine the social factors that influences the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector.

- To examine institutional factors which are influencing the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector.

2 To evaluate the role of strategy in affecting on the factors that influence the acceptance for any new technology.

Research questions

To examine the status of technology acceptance and utilization issues among public employees to improve the success of IS acceptance and implementation in the following theory:

- Is there effect for individual differences on the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector?

- Are there effects for the system feature on the acceptance for any new technology?

- What are the influences of the social factors on the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector?

- Is there effect for the institutional factors on the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector?

What is the role of strategy in affecting the factors that influence the acceptance for any new technology?

Purpose of the study

The study plans to examine the status of technology acceptance and utilization issues among managers and employees in the public sector as individuals to~ improve the success of IS acceptance and implementation in this area. This study aims to explore the government role to support the adoption for information technology within the employees in the public sector.

Even, the study will evaluate the strategy role in controlling the variables that influences the acceptance for the information technology, and explore the information technology company characteristics that have been used in public companies in Yemen.

The government of the Republic of Yemen has an opportunity to improve the progresses and prepares its people to meet the challenges of accepting and implementing information technology in the work place to provide information and services for its citizens from any place at any time. By using IT, government of the Republic of Yemen will be able to overcome the communication problem, improve government efficiency, develop alternative sources of income, and improve the livelihood of all its citizens. The Yemeni government is committed to improve the way it is conducting its day-to-day work by adopting an information technology.

Scope of study

The study will conduct in the public sector in the republic of Yemen. The study target will be the managers and employees as individuals in the ministries and some utilities belong to the government. This will be achieved by survey

Significance of the Study

According to the study (Smith, 2008) which aimed to delineate IT differences between the public and private sectors. The study argued that private sector using the information technology more than the public sector that due to many reasons individual differences is one of these reasons, so this study was encouraged to study the acceptance and implementation of the information technology among the individuals in the public sector.

Even, this study is trying to add the culture as independent variable for the technology acceptance model TAM, TAM2 and TAM3 as empirical study and

contribution, this research will examine the acceptance and implementation of technologies in a very conservative and traditional society like The Republic of Yemen society where culture and religion dominate the way people live and perceive changes around them and can affect their acceptance or resentment of such innovation.

Also, the study combined TAM, TAM2 by setting the attitude as mediated in the relation between the believes perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and the intention to use which was deleted in the technology acceptance model TAM2 and TAM3.

Also, many studies were conducted to examine three variables affecting the technology acceptance such as individual differences, system feature and social influence and some studies examine individual differences, system feature and institutional factors, however, this study aims to examine the four factors because of the effect of each variable in the acceptance of the technology and its effect on the other variables. Also, this study uses mixed theories to give more explanatory power for the technology acceptance.

Also, this study aims to predicting the behavior of the managers and employees for accept the information technology is critical issue for the companies because the important of the information technology in the government utilities in order to enhance its internal and external performance in facilitating the work flaw and smooth transferring of the information among the individuals in the different department in one unit even between the units in the public sector.

Chapter 2

Summary for chapter 1

'From-the -previous chapter which presents the problem statement, accept, adopting, using effectively and using information technology, however, in the reality, not all employees in those organizations accept, adopting, using, effectively and using the information technology,' his means there is a gap between the ideal usage for the information technology among the employees of the Yemeni government and the reality of the usage for the technology inside those organizations. This leads to investigate and examine the determinants and characteristics (individual differences, system characteristic, social characteristics, institutional characteristic) which are effecting in accepting, adopting for such technology.

2.1 Introduction

2.1.1- The importance of Information Technology

Rapidly advanced scientific and technological innovations, economic turbulence and uncertainty are some factors that underlie the importance of information technology investment. IT enables organizations to have the capabilities to do some adaptations proactively, so IT becomes an integral part, even a pivotal part of business activities and processes undertaken by any organization (Chau& Hu, 2002), from that, question appears about the necessity to invest in IT in order to the organizations can get the benefits from adopting the information technology and to insure the success in the adoption, Agarwal and Karahanna (2000) see the success in this investment will be a valuable when IT utilized by the intended user in the way that contributes to the strategy and the operational goals of the organization, so the user acceptance of IT is the fundamental for the success of IT investment.

The importance of technology comes from that Technology has an important impact on innovation and the development of societies and economies. This impact can be observed in three steps, the first step is substitution, new technology substitutes for the old. For example, consumers start substituting their fixed telephone lines with mobile telephones. The second step is the diffusion, when adopting the new technology is widely across society because it is law cost or better or more effective than the previous technology. The final step is transformation when the new technology ways start working and emerging because the new technology is diffused so widely in society. For example, the widespread adoption of the networking has led to interesting innovations in the communication patterns of individuals such as executives conducting business while waiting in airport lounges or traveling in trains DUTTA & MIA, 2006)World Economic Forum.

ICT offers more opportunities for economic development and plays very important role in international competitiveness, rapid economic change, and productive capacity of improvements for developing countries. ICTs offer the developing countries many opportunities, as it has done in the developed world, when it created unprecedented possibilities for them. Studies have emphasized that there is evidence of a strong linkage between GDP growth and ICT investment showing the importance of ICT investment for development.

Acquiring IT to support business needs is clearly a crucial prerequisite to exploiting the potential of IT. Unfortunately acquiring appropriate IT is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for utilizing it effectively. Organizations (i.e., leaders and managers) make primary adoption decisions, yet it is individuals within the firm who are the ultimate users and consumers of IT. Thus, it is evident that true business value from any information technology would derive only through appropriate use by its target user group. In other words, systems that are not utilized will not deliver the returns anticipated by managers. Evidence suggests that individual users can exhibit a variety of different behaviors when confronted with a new information technology: They may completely reject it and engage in sabotage or active resistance they may only partially utilize its functionality, or they may wholeheartedly embrace the technology and the opportunities it offers. Obviously, each behavior has some consequential outcomes both negative and positive for managers (Agarwal, 2000).

Also, Organizations have increased their investment in information technology IT for planning in order to increase the efficiency of their business processes. Support management decision making and improve productivity. So IT become important tool to attaining competitive advantage for the organization and improves employees productivity and efficiency (Kim & Lee & Law, 2007), besides, -Many researches investigate the relation between IT investment and increase the productivity and the performance in the companies' one of studies (sircar et al, 2000) which found several organization success with the spending on the IT but others were failed. (Agarwal& karahanna, 2000) argue in this result that IT investment will be successful when IT utilized by the organization intended user in the way contribute to the strategy and the goals of the firms. Thus user acceptance is the key for the successes of the IT investment (Darsono, 2005), Even, for more than two decades information technology has been the focus for researcher in information system this is because IT considers as the key to lead the organization for the good performance so many researches focus in the initial usage for IT or continuous usage for IT.

2.2- The advantages and disadvantages from adopting informationtechnology

2.2.1 The advantages

  • Information technology uses to support the competitive strategy in helping the companies to reduce the costs of the company to give special offer for its products and services and give better care about customers and suppliers and to develop unions among the company and the company with the environment around the company and increase the virtue of its investment in IT resources.
  • By using the information technology the organization or the companies will be able to develop the value of its business throughout making the customer value the focus of its strategy which is to keep track of its customers preferences to supply its products and services anytime anywhere by using the internet or intranet and extranet(e-commerce websites).
  • A lot of organizations/companies use information technology and internet to reengineering its business process because information technology can make integration for the organization to work for the same goal of the organization and this improves the design of the work flows or the requirements of the job even the organization structures even improve the efficiency and the effectiveness.
  • Information technology provides the communication and the information required for the managers in order to manage the different activities within the organization and the resources from the partners to get the advantage from the changes in the market environment.
  • Information technology can support the organization competitive strategy by making the organization as the knowledge creating to make innovation by creating its process style or product and service for its work or learning organization by doing similar in what the another companies created by using the Internet to get the knowledge that it needs (Brien & maracas, 2008, management information system, edition 8, chapter 1, p55) the advantages (for strategy advantage).

2.2.2- The disadvantages

Some disadvantages of information technology include:

  • Unemployment - While information technology may have streamlined the business process it has also created job redundancies, downsizing and outsourcing. This means that a lot of lower and middle level jobs have been done away with causing more people to become unemployed.
  • Privacy - Though information technology may have made communication quicker, easier and more convenient, it has also bought along privacy issues. From cell phone signal interceptions to email hacking, people are now worried about their once private information becoming public knowledge.
  • Lack of job security - Industry experts believe that the Internet has made job security a big issue as since technology keeps on changing with each day. This means that one has to be in a constant learning mode, if he or she wishes for their job to be secure.
  • Dominant culture - While information technology may have made the world a global village, it has also contributed to one culture dominating mother weaker one. For example it is now argued_ that US influences how most young teenagers all over the world now act, dress and behave. Languages too have become overshadowed, with English becoming the primary mode of communication for business and everything else (http://wwwsmallbusinessbible.org/advan_disadvan information technology.html# 3/4/2009 5:10am).

2.3 Lecture review

2.3- Dependant variable

2.3.1 Actual usage

There are many definitions for the information technology from different prospective depending on the focus of each study, his study prefers the common definition that the different tools of the information technology, so the use for information technology which refers to the actual usage can be defined as:

  • Information technology can be defined in various ways. Like information technology includes hardware, software and telecommunication equipment which is used to capture such as process, store and distribute information (Watson, 2007).
  • information technology refers to "office, computing machines, communications equipment, instruments, photocopiers and related equipment, and software and related services (Brynjolfsson, 1991).
  • Information Technology (IT) refers to "Any equipment, or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission." (DODD 4630.5, January 11, 2002).
  • Information technology" can be defined in various ways. Among the most common is the BEA's (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis) category "Office, Computing and Accounting Machinery (OCAM) which consists primarily of Computers. Some researchers look specifically at computer capital, while others consider the BEA's broader category, "Information Processing Equipment (IPE)." IPE includes communications equipment, scientific and engineering instruments, photocopiers and related equipment. Besides, software and related services are sometimes included in the IT capital. Recent studies often examine the productivity of information systems staff, or of workers who use computers at work (Brynjolfsson & Yang, 1996).

So, from the previous definitions this study defines the information technology as it refers to the office, computing machines, hardware, software, instruments, photocopiers, telecommunication equipment, related services and workers who use computers at work which is used to capture such as process store and distribute information.

According to the study conducted by (Kiraz & Ozemir, 2006) which stated that technology acceptance model (TAM) created by (Davis & Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1989) and (Davis, 1989), studied some important factors affecting on the information technology usage, the TAM explained how the actual use for the new system effected by one basic factor the behavior intention to use to cause the usage for the technology. In another wards, the behavior intention to use the technology is the merely or only determined related to actual use for the system usage, beside that the latest studies confirmed that the behavior intention to use the technology is the merely a mediated factor.

Moreover, another studies found that there are many factors affecting the actual use for the technology not only one as mentioned in the previous study from these studies the study was conducted by (Jones & Hubona, 2005) which aimed to determine the effect of staff seniority, age, and education level on usage behavior. The study supported all TAM construction. Even Education level would directly affect actual usage behavior besides effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness.

Besides that, the study conducted by (Kishore & Lee & McLean, 2001) which used social cognitive theory (SCT), computer self-efficacy (CSE), technology acceptance model (TAM), the risk management, personal& general innovativeness and specific computer self-efficacy to extend TAM. The study mentioned that perceived usefulness and ease of use were granted as the main factors affecting in the actual usage for information technology.

Also, the study was conducted by (goeke, 2006) which aimed to examine the effects of experience and expertise on the actual use for the data warehouse by using TAM. The study found that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use had significant affect on the usage for the technology and the usefulness stronger in the effect then ease of use. Even there is direct effect for the usefulness in the actual usage for the system.

However, some studies didn't found relation between these factors with the actual use for the technology from these studies, the study was conducted by (Al Mutairi, 2007) w i to examine TAM applicability in Kuwait ministries. The study finding did not support the relationship between the variables as were in TAM. In another word, the study didn't find relation between ease of use and usefulness this in one hand and in the other hand, there is no relation between ease of use and usefulness with actual usage, that maybe because the differences in the national cultural, public organization context, dependent variables nature.

This study agreed with the pervious study (Jones & Hubona, 2005) which confirms all the relations in the technology acceptance model TAM. But support partially the study which conducted by (Kishore & Lee & McLean, 2001) in that perceived usefulness has direct affect on the actual use for the technology. Al sagree with the study conducted by (Al Mutairi, 2007) which found there isn't relation between perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness with actual use.

Therefore, there is need for investigate the factors that affecting the actual use for the technology and testing the relations in the technology acceptant model TAM.

2.4 Mediated

2.4.1 Behavior intention to use

Behavioral intention refers to the-intention end-user to make use of the new technology (Seymour & Bakanya &Berrnge, 2007), also behavior intention to use the information technology refers to the degree to which a person has formulated conscious plans to perform or not perform some specified future behave (Davis, F. D, Bagozzi, R.P, War Shaw, 1989).

According to (Davis, 1989: Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006: Hwang & Y. Yi, 2002: Phau & Gan, 2000) the technology acceptance model TAM consists of four main factors as major determinants of technology acceptance. These factors are perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness, the attitudes toward the usage, and behavioral intention to use the frequency of use of technology. Also, these studies considered behavioral intention to use is the only factor affecting the dependent variable the actual usage.

Also, this idea was supported in the study conducted by (Chang, 2004) it explored the validity of the extension of Technology acceptance Model (TAM) based on social and facilitating as main factors to predict intranet/portal usage because those factors are most dominant in the educational environment,. The study found that there were strong positive relations among Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and user's attitudes towards the intranet to use the technology. Also the Attitude has strong relation with the user intention to use. Even, the intention to ad strong relation with the actual usage, this conform the positive significant relation in TAM and its constructs are to predicting the user acceptance of the intranet/portal.

Moreover, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which created by (Davis& Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1989; Davis et al., 1989) Studied some important factors affecting on the usage of the information technology. the TAM explained how the actual usage effected by one basic factor (the behavior intention to use the technology) to cause the actual use for the new system, therefore the behavior intention to use the technology is the merely or only determined related to actual use for the system, beside that the latest study (Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006) confirmed that the behavior intention to use the technology is the merely mediated factor affecting on the actual usage.

It is observed that the attitude not the only factor affecting on the is ,vi or intention to use, but there are another factors can affect the intention to use. Also, that was found in the study was conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004) which aimed to identify additional determinants factors for the technology acceptance in the education sector. The study found that there are direct and indirect significant effect for perceived usefulness on the behavior intention to use the system, his affect is strong on the behavior intention to use the technology more than the effect on the attitudes, and the attitude was formed by perceived usefulness.

Another study co armed that the attitude not the only factor which is affecting on the behavior intention to use like the study was conducted by (Aversano, 2005) which purposed to explore why some people refuse to use the mobile telephone in USA. The study confirmed that behavior intention to use the technology is a determinant for the actual behavior, the study used the theory of Ajzen to give exploration of human behavior to understanding a person's actions in behavior like social attitude and personality trait it considered as important to explain human behavior. Even, the study used TPB to confirm that intention to use is determined the actual behavior. Also, there are three factors predicting the Intention to use are attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control as same as TRA with focus in the important of the intention to behavior with the adoption for the technology.

Moreover, the study was conducted by (Hwang & Yi, 2002) in the intrinsic motivation and computer self-efficacy research to Technology Acceptance Model in order to predict the use of web-based information systems. The study found that behavioral intention and self-efficacy have a significant effect on actual use. Even the studies (Klloppiing & McKiinneyy, 2004: Jones & S. Hubona, 2005) support that relation too.

Also, the study was conducted by (Chismar & Patton, 2002) which made among the physicians to examines their intention to adopt Internet-based health applications by using the applicability of the (TAM2). The study found that the strong determinant for intention to use was perceived usefulness. Even, intention to use by physicians was explained by the effects of usefulness and output quality. Also, the relation between perceived usefulness and intention to use was significant, whereas image, subjective norm and perceived ease of use were not significant, that due to physicians have high level of adaptability, cognitive capacity and intellectual, they comprehend faster than the normal people for new technologies. Even, they are willing to adopt information that has beneficial applications even if it not easy to use.

Although, the study was conducted by (Jones & Hubona, 2005) which aimed to determine the effect of staff seniority, age, and education level on usage behavior. The study supported all TAM construction relations. Even Education level would directly affect actual usage behavior besides effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness.

However, the study was conducted by (Al Mutairi, 2007) which aimed to examine TAM applicability in Kuwait ministries. The study finding did not support the relationship between the variables as were in TAM. In another ward, the study didn't find relation between ease of use and usefulness this in one hand and in the other hand there is no relation between ease of use and usefulness with actual usage. Also the study mention that maybe because the differences in the national cultural, public organization context, dependent variables nature.

So, this study will support the previous studies in that there are affect for the attitude, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness on the intention to use the technology, but the study disagrees with the studies that considered the attitude the only factor which is affecting on the behavior intention to use but there are another factors could affect on the behavior intention to use.

Also, this study will disagrees with the study was conducted by (Almutairi, 2007) which didn't find relation between the attitude, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness with the intention to use the technology which refer that to the differences m the national cultural, public organization context, dependent variables nature.

Therefore, there are needs for investigating the relations between the attitude, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness with the intention to use the technology in different national cultural, public organization context, dependent variables nature; these will be cover in this study.

2.4.2 Attitudes and Believes

The attitude refers to the end user attitudinal beliefs even positive or negative about using the information technology (Venkatesh & mortis & B.Davis& D.Davis, 2003; Hu et al. 2005; Huang & Chuang, 2007).

argumentation was appeared in the relations structure of the technology acceptance model TAM about conclude or exclude the attitude as mediated in the relation between the beliefs perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness with the intention to use the technology toward the actual usage for the technology, some studies argued that the attitude should exclude from the structure of the relations in the technology acceptance model TAM to take the form as in the structure of the relations in the technology acceptance models TAM2 and TAM3, but these studies didn't give explanation for this excluding or maybe because there isn't usage for the attitude in their models. From these studies which excluded the attitude in the following:

According to the study was conducted by (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000) which found that perceived usefulness is strongly related to the system usage. Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness have direct affect in the intention to use the information technology with ignoring the attitude as mediating in this relation.

Also, the study conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004) which aimed to identify additional determinants for the technology acceptance in the education sector. The study found that there is direct and indirect significant effect for perceived usefulness on the intention to behavior to use the system. Even, this effect is strong on the intention to use more than the effect on the attitudes and the attitude was formed by perceived usefulness. Also, perceived ease of use has effect on perceived usefulness and the attitudes of the users but the effect on the attitudes was not significant this due to the combination of the factors like organization, subjects and the technology or due to the users have one month experience and they need to use the system easier and free of effort. Also, self¬efficacy has strong direct effect on intention to use and perceived ease of use but on ease of use more effect than intention to behavior.

However, another studies (Agarwal, 2000) argued that the mediated of the attitude in the relation between the beliefs perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness with the intention to u the technology is essential in the relation because attitude considered a the formatter for the intention to use the technology.

another wards, If people want to accept or reject any specific technology they should set up their attitudes by increase user's believes that this technology will help them do their work better and this refer to perceived usefulness and extend their believes in that the system is ease of use and the benefit is more than the effort from the use for this technology. In another wards, if the users perceived ease of use from using that technology and perceived usefulness from using the technology for their work purposes. That means there is a positive attitude toward the usage of the technology and there is a positive relation between the attitudes with the behavior intention to use the technology.

According to the studies (Davis, 1989: Hwang & Y. Yi, 2002: Phau & Gan,

2000) the technology acceptance model TAM consists of four main factors as major determinants of technology acceptance these factors are perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness, the attitudes toward the usage and the frequency of use of technology behavior intention to use. This supported the existing of the attitude as mediated in the relations in the technology acceptance model TAM.

Also, the study was conducted by (Chang, 2004) which purposed to explore the validity of the extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) based on social and facilitating as main factors to predict intranetlportal usage because those factors are most dominant in the educational environment. The study found that there was strong positive relation among Perceived usefulness, perceived case of use and user's attitudes towards the intranet, also, the Attitude has strong relation with the user intention to use and the intention to use had a strong relation with the actual usage this confirm the positive significant; in TAM and its constructs are to predicting the user acceptance of the intranet/portal.

Moreover, the study was conducted by (Al Gahtani, 2004) which aimed to get more understanding of the acceptance for the technology in different cultures. The study findings strongly supported that the attitude affected on the intention behavior to use the computer and satisfaction. Also, The same result was supported by the study was conducted in Malaysia by (Mohd& Syed¬Mohamad& Zaini, 2005) to identify the relation between information quality and the acceptance of doctors for Electronic Medical Record System (EMR) in one of Malaysian hospital, The study found that the information quality has significant relationship with perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, even the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have significant relationship with attitude of using EMR system, even the factor Information Quality has significant relationship with attitude of using EMR system throughout ease of use and usefulness.

Besides that, the study was conducted by (Yang, 2007) which Focus on the time in the affect of perceived usefulness and ease of use on the attitudes and aimed to study the usage of the technology acceptance model for doing another examination of the relationships between students' attitude toward the use of WebCT and the determinants of the actual usage in light of social presence and sociability, The study found that the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use was supported by self-efficacy, but more strong to the ease of use and both perceived usefulness and ease of use support the attitude toward the actual usage this was in the first test for the relation. But, in the second test was found that the subjective norms was negative value to the social presence and the actual use but lower support for the actual use, the study focuses on the time which makes the effects of the variable in the attitude. Also, the study supported the important for mediating the attitude between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use with the intention to use.

Even, the study was conducted by (Yalcinkaya & B.A & M.S, 2007) to investigate the acceptance for the police officer for the POLNET system in Turkish. The study found that Perceived ease of use has a positive effect on attitude and intentions to use the system. Also, the study considered that the variable ease of use is the main factor effecting in the attitude toward the behavior attention to use then toward the actual usage. Regardless which one is stronger in its affect, both perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use affecting on the attitude toward the intention to use the technology. That adds support for the important of setting the attitude as mediated in the relation.

Also, the study conducted by(Ahn & Ryu & Han, 2007)which its goal to investigated the playfulness effects on user acceptance of online retailing , tested factors of Web quality and the relationship between those factors with user acceptance behavior. The study found that there are significant between playfulness and attitude and behavior intention to use, even that Playfulness considered an important factor affecting the attitude and intention to use online retailing users.

Moreover, the study was conducted by (Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006) which target the utilization of technology integration in the classroom focused on educational ideology, a factor not related to technology that also affects decisions in terms of educational applications, the study found that there is a direct effect of perceived usefulness on the actual use. Even, there is a direct affect of perceived ease of use on attitudes. Besides that, the study showed that attitudes towards the usage effected by perceived usefulness. Also, there is no significant effect of attitude towards the actual use and this contrast the result in (TAM). Also, the study shows that there is no significant relationship between perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. In another wards, there is a strong positive relationship between pre-service teachers' perceived ease of use of educational technology and their attitudes toward use. The study mentioned that all of the ideologies mentioned have affects on attitudes toward use. Moreover, educational anarchism, educational libertinism, and educational intellectualism had affect on the perceived usefulness of technology.

Besides that, some of the previous studies show that there is affect for perceived ease of use and usefulness on the attitude towards the behavior intention to use toward the actual use for the technology. But, some studies ignored the attitude mediated in this relation. However, this study supports the setting of the attitude as mediated between perceived ease of use and usefulness with the intention to use the technology. Also this study is going to test the factors affecting on the attitude and the effect of the attitude on the intention to use.

Therefore, there is a need for additional research examining the precise role of the attitude construct in technology acceptance_ This issue of full versus partial mediation has important practical implications because attitude plays a more critical role in the former case, provided other methods of directly influencing attitude can be devised. As recommended consistently in the literature of (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980: Agarwal, 2000).

2.4.3 Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness

Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness consider as beliefs factors mediating the relation between actual usage for the information technology and the external variables that affecting the acceptance for the technology, also, the employees accept to use new software after they perceived it as useful and founded it easy for use (Davis, 1989).

These factors can define as: Perceived usefulness Refers to the degree of which the user believed that the use for particular system will support his work. Also, Perceived ease of use Refers to the degree of the user believes that the usage for particular system will be out of efforts (Davis, 1989).

Also, most of the studies were conducted about the technology acceptance confirmed the important of these factors in explaining the acceptance for the usage of the technology. Despite that, some of these studies found both perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use have the same affect on the TAM relations, some found that perceived ease of use has more affect than perceived usefulness in the TAM relations and another studies found perceived usefulness has more affect than perceived ease of use.

Also, from these studies which found there is the same affect for both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness; The study was conducted by (Park& Brien& Caine& Rogers& Fisk& Ittersum& Capar& Parsons, 2006) which aimed to identify variables that can provide more understanding for technology acceptance. The study mentioned that it is important to understand that the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of the technology are not formed solely by the usefulness and ease of use of the technology. Even, there are many variables affecting the technology acceptance like technology characteristics, organization characteristics, subjective norm, User characteristics all interacted with the acceptance throughout a positive effect on perceived usefulness.

Also, the study was conducted by (Kishore & Lee & McLean, 2001) which used social cognitive theory (SCT), computer self-efficacy (CSE), technology acceptance model (TAM), the risk management, personal& general innovativeness and specific computer self-efficacy to extend TAM. The study was mentioned that perceived usefulness and ease of use were granted as the main factors effecting in the actual usage for information technology.

Even, that was conducted by (Almutairi, 2007) which aim to test the applicability of the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Kuwaiti ministries in order to understand the information technology in the government utilities, There is significant in the relation between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use for accepting the technology. Also, that was supported in the study conducted by (Singktarv& Akbulut & Houston, 2002) which purposed to identify factors that affect the acceptance of high school students for software application when the initial use of the application is mandatory. The finding was that there are positive relationships between perceived usefulness, ease of use and innovative usage behavior and there is a positive relationship between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

Also, the study was conducted by (Venkatesh & Morris, 2000) which aimed to investigated gender differences in the context of individual adoption and the study conformed technology usage in the workplace by using technology acceptance model. The study found that There is a difference between women and men in that men perceived usefulness to a greater longitudinal than women in using a new technology. Also, perceived ease of use was more important to women compared with men after basic training and by the time with more experience in using the system that make not significant and not affect on the intention to use the system. But for women ease of use consider the important to affect the intention to use the system.

Besides that, there are some studies found perceived ease of use has more affect than perceived usefulness in the TAM relations. From these studies, the study was conducted by (Brown, 2002) which aimed to examine perceived ease of use for the technology web-based in learning environment in developing country not developed country. The study confirms TAM relations that ease of use predicts the usefulness and the actual usage but usefulness doesn't predict the actual usage. Besides, there are significant influences for self-efficacy, ease of finding and ease of understanding on perceived ease of use and ease of understanding more influences than ease of finding on perceived ease of use. Also, the self-efficacy is the strongest influences on the ease of use but computer anxiety was the fewer influences.

Also, the study which contacted by (Hasan &Ali, 2006) to distinguished between general, system-specific CSE and examines the effects of both levels of CSE on two key training outcomes: reactions and learning performance. Reactions were examined with respect to perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. The findings were that general CSE had significant effects on perceived ease of use and far-transfer learning. Even the study found that GCSE had demonstrated a non-significant positive affected on perceived usefulness. On the other hand, SCSE exhibited a non-significant negative effect on perceived usefulness this because the study were measured two weeks after training.

Even, the study was conducted by (Yi &Hwang, 2003) in the intrinsic motivation and computer self-efficacy research to Technology Acceptance Model in order to predict the use of web-based information systems. It found that behavioral intention and self-efficacy have a significant effect on actual use. Even perceived enjoyment and self-efficacy were significant determinants of ease of use. Even the study found that self-efficacy was a strong determinant for ease of use and actual use. Even, the study supported all the relations were purposed in the technology acceptance model. Also, the studies (Klloppiing & McKiinneyy, 2004: Jones & S. Hubona, 2005) support that too.

Besides that, there are some studies found that perceived usefulness has more affect than perceived ease of use in the TAM relations. From these studies, the study was conducted by (goeke, 2006) which aimed to examine the effects of experience and expertise on the actual use for the data warehouse by using TAM. The study found that perceived usefulness and ease of use had significant affect on the usage for the technology and the usefulness stronger in the effect then ease of use. Even there is direct effect for the usefulness in the actual usage for the system. Also, the study found there is direct effect for ease of use on perceived usefulness. Even, there is positive effect for the external variable on both perceived usefulness and ease of use.

Also, The Study was conducted by (Saeed &Helm, 2008) which proposes that perceived usefulness affected by information quality and system integration which will drive post adoption usage of the IS. The study findings support that system integration and information quality are significant predictors for usefulness. Even, usefulness positively and significantly relates to extended usage and exploratory usage. Also, the Study mentioned that perceived usefulness affects the initial acceptance of IS. That means, there is a stronger relation between exploratory usage and usefulness.

Even, the study was conducted by (Gyampah & Salam, 2003) which aimed to examine ERP training and ERP project communication, even that will affect the TAM variables only through the psychological variable-shared beliefs in the perceived benefits of the ERP system. The study found that perceived usefulness is the important factor affecting in the beliefs to make positive attitudes towards the system. Even, the study supported that perceived ease of use not affect attitude towards using particular system. This supports others studies show that perceived ease of use does not have a significant on attitude in the usage for the system. Even the study found that training has important and significant positive influences on the shared beliefs in the benefits of the system. Also, the shared beliefs influence both perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of the system throughout the affecting on the attitude, which it's in turn affects intention to behavior. Also, the study confirms that communication with effective training affect the core TAM variables, and the training on the system has significant affect on perceived ease of use.

Moreover, the study was conducted by (Klopping & McKinney, 2006) which conducted to examines the role of experience on consumer's intentions to shop online. The study found that experience has direct and indirect effects on intention to use e-commerce, and there are moderating effects on perceived usefulness, playfulness, and self efficacy to intention to use e-commerce. Even, Perceived usefulness and playfulness considered as importance from the inexperienced e-commerce shoppers prospective. That means site's playfulness is essential for the perceptions of usefulness, while for more experienced e-commerce shoppers, the perceived usefulness of the site can be evident independent of its playfulness.

Even, the study was conducted by(T-Pikkarainen & K-Pikkarainen & Karjaluoto & Pahnila ,2004) which aimed to increase the understanding of the factors that influence online banking acceptance from the technology acceptance model (TAM) prospective and to study consumer acceptance of online banking in Finland the study found that Perceived usefulness, Perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, information on online banking, security and privacy have an impact on the acceptance of online banking. Also, Perceived usefulness and the amount of information on online banking the most factors influence the use of online banking services. Also, the study found that Perceived usefulness was more than Perceived ease of use affective in explaining technology acceptance. Also, the study conducted by (Bani-Ali &Money, 2005) confirmed that too. Even, the study found that the affect of ease of use is lower than other proposed factors. A possible explanation is that users' level of experience with new software may influence the relative importance of system ease of use.

So, from the differences in the previous studies about that Perceived usefulness and Perceived ease of use have the same affects in the relations of the technology acceptance model TAM or there is different in their affect. This study is supporting the notion that Perceived usefulness has more affectation in the TAM relations than Perceived ease of use does. Therefore, this study is going to test this relation in order to give more explanation for the TAM relations.

2.5 Independent variables

2.5.1 Individual differences

Individual differences define as it's the individual perspective about his own ability to success in the result he wants to reach it or goal he wants to achieve depending on the desire he has to achieve his goal (Lewis& Agarwal& V.Sambamurthy, 2003). Another definition is Individual differences refers to dissimilarities among people including differences in perception and behavior, traits and personality characteristics and circumstances (Stylianou & Jackson, 2007). Individual acceptance for IT becomes an issue for researcher. Also, this study tries to examine this issue from multiple theoretical perspectives, using many constructs and definitions to explain this issue.

"The importance of individual differences as a significant theoretical construct in technology acceptance is indisputable. What is not clear however is the extent to which individual differences matter in work settings because of the limited managerial control that can be exercised over such difjerences" (Agarwal & Prasad, 1999). Also, they suggest that individual differences can be utilized to organize the profile of individuals to be more accepted for new technologies. The information about the individual user can then serve the role in recruitment and selection. However, acknowledging the mediating influence of beliefs and the reality that managers often cannot choose individuals to become users of IT, Agarwal and Prasad also suggest that technology acceptance can be facilitated by utilizing other intermediations that directly affect beliefs such as training and developing a learning culture. Partition out the variance explained by these differences would permit clearer insight into the effects of other managerially controllable constructs on technology acceptance (Agarwal, 2000).

So, this study will focus in computer self-efficacy as one of individual differences determinants because the important of the self-efficacy as generator inside the person affecting in his beliefs (Agarwal & Prasad, 1999).

2.5.1.1 Computer self-efficacy

In order to exhibit the important of Computer Self efficacy and it's affected on the individual beliefs; this study adopts the following definition for Computer Self efficacy Computer: Self efficacy defined as the judgment of the user ability to perform the computer related task (Slylianoa & Jacksn, 2007). Also, Self efficacy is the judgment of the user ability to perform the computer related task.

According to the study was conducted by (Park & Brien & Caine & Rogers& Fisk& Ittersum& Capar & Parsons, 2006) which seeks to identify variables that would provide insight understanding for technology acceptance with focus in individual characteristics and the organizational characteristics, the study defined self-efficacy as a judgment of one's ability to use a technology to accomplish a particular job or task, even the study found that Psychological trait like personal innovativeness, technology readiness, and self-efficacy of the user are more determinants of acceptance of computer technology than (age, gender, education) as demographics factors. Even, psychological traits are stronger determinants in case of the group than in individual characteristics. Also, the study can predict that an older user with high self efficacy is more acceptable for the technology than younger users with low self efficacy. Even, that organizational characteristic and individual characteristic interact with the technology characteristics to influence acceptance of technology through a positive effect on perceived usefulness.

Also, Self-efficacy and computer anxiety have strong influence on the user to use particular system throughout their affect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Also, computer anxiety and computer self- efficacy considered important determinants for adopting the system and make no need for formal training for the system, that was confirmed in the study was conduct by (Brown, 2002) which aimed to examine perceived ease of use for the technology web-based in learning environment in developing country not developed country, the study found that

Moreover, most of the studies were conducted in the technology acceptance found the same result about the important of computer self- efficacy but they different in that the affects of computer self- efficacy on the beliefs was significant or not significant, from these studies the study was conducted by (Darsono, 2005) which focused on individual professional's users for the technology, and investigates how external variables such as individual differences and system characteristics influence lecturers as individual professionals to accept the Internet technology. the study differentiate between common end-user knowledge workers, managers in different levels and individual professional specially lectures as individual professional because the different in specialized training autonomous (dependent work ) practice and professional work arrangement. The study Found that individual differences ( computer self-efficacy, knowledge of search domain) and system characteristics ( terminology, screen design, relevance) have indirect impact in perceived usefulness ease of use and attitude on lecturers intention to use the Internet but computer self-efficacy and screen design have direct impact on using the Internet.

Although, in the study was conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004) which aimed to identify additional determinants for the technology acceptance in the education sector. The study found that there are direct and indirect significant affect for perceived usefulness on the intention to behavior to use the system and this affect is strong on the intention to use more than the affect on the attitudes. Also, the attitude was formed by perceived usefulness. Even, that perceived ease of use has affect on perceived usefulness and the attitudes of the users but the affect on the attitudes was not significant this due to the combination of the factors like organization, subjects and the technology or due to the users have one month experience and they need to use the system easier and free of effort. Also, self-efficacy has strong direct effect on intention to use and perceived ease of use but the affect on ease of use more than intention to behavior.

Moreover, the study was conducted by (Sharp, 2006) to examine the development, extension, and application of TAM for information systems educators, the study found that Computer self-efficacy is a significant determinant of perceived ease of use. Also, the studies (Chan & Lu, 2004; Gong et al., 2004) confirmed that. also, that was supported in The study was conducted by (Lewis& Agarwal& Sambamurthy, 2003) which aimed to examine the factors that influence key individual beliefs about technology use, the study found ease of use did not have a significant influence on perceived usefulness. Also, computer self-efficacy had a significant affected on ease of use alone, the fact that, computer self-efficacy did not affect perceived usefulness, it appears that for this sample, perceived instrumental outcomes associated with technology use are not influenced by individual judgments of their ability to engage in technology use.

Besides that, the study was conducted by (Hwang & Yi, 2003) in the intrinsic motivation and computer self-efficacy research to Technology Acceptance Model in order to predict the use of web-based information systems; the study found that behavioral intention to use and self-efficacy have a significant effect on actual use, even perceived enjoyment and self-efficacy were significant determinants of ease of use. Also, the study found that self-efficacy was a strong determinant for ease of use and actual use. Even, perceived enjoyment has a significant direct effect on ease of use. The study supported all the relations were purposed in the technology acceptance model. Besides that, the studies (Klloppiing & McKiinneyy, 2004: Jones & S. Hubona, 2005) support that too.

Also, self efficacy influences the technology usage for long period even influence the selection of what technology to use and it has effect on the perceive usefulness, the findings in the study was conducted by (Slylianoa & Jackson, 2007) which aimed to examine the individual differences and beliefs variables across two technologies e-commerce and Internet technology. The study found the

Even, the study was conducted by (Klopping & McKinney, 2006) which aimed to examines the role of experience on consumer's intentions to shop online, the study found that there are moderating effects on self efficacy, perceived usefulness and playfulness to intention to use e-commerce, and experience has direct and indirect effects on intention to use e-commerce. Despite, the study (Chau, 2001) which indicated that the effect of computer self efficacy on the beliefs was not significant.

So, this study will agrees with the previous studies about the important of computer self efficacy in its affects on the beliefs perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Therefore, this study is going to sets computer self efficacy as important independent variable in order to test its affects on the beliefs.

2.5.2 System characteristic

According to the study 1*~conducted by (Agarwal, 2003) Individual characteristics, Institutional characteristics and social characteristics are not the only factors that interacted with each other to influence the technology acceptance. But, they even interacted with the technology (system) characteristics to influence the technology acceptance.

Also, this idea was supported in the study was conducted by (Park & Brien & Caine & Rogers& Fisk& Ittersum& Capar & Parsons, 2006) which seeks to identify variables that would provide insight understanding for technology acceptance with focus in individual characteristics and the organizational characteristics. The study found that Individual characteristics interacted with technology characteristics to influence technology acceptance.

Consequently, many studies were conducted to measure the affect of the technology characteristic in the technology acceptance by studying many factors like determinants - performance expectancy and effort expectancy as in the study was conducted by (Schaper & Pervan, 2004), Relative advantage , Ease of use, Result demonstrability, Trialability, Visibility, Image, Compatibility, Voluntariness (Venkatesh& Morris& Davis & Davis, 2003) and Information quality. Also, this study considers information quality as determent for the system characteristics and has its affects on the technology acceptance throughout its interaction with Individual characteristics, Institutional characteristics and social characteristics,

2.5.2.1 Information quality

According to the study was conducted by (Ahn & Ryu & Han, 2007) Information quality (output quality) considered as important determent for the technology (system) characteristics which can provide more understanding for technology acceptance. Also, Information quality defined as it is the type, level of detail and variety of information which are determined then the system designed and development phase while the timeliness, accuracy, and reliability result from the system operations. In another hand, Information quality is the report content and form which considered as a measurement of user perceived effectiveness for the quality of the information, content included accuracy, relevance, adequacy, and understandability of report contents, while form included quality of format, timeliness of reports, manner of presentation, and result of information.

Besides, most of the studies which conducted on the technology acceptance found the same result that information quality is an important factor for accepting the technology. Despite that, the different in those studies is that some studies considered information quality is important from the vender prospective and another studies considered information quality is important from the user prospective.

Also, from these studies which considered the information quality is important to facilitate the acceptance of the technology from the vender prospective, the study which conducted In Malaysia by (Mohd & Syed- Mohamad & Zaini, 2005) to identify the relation between information quality and the acceptance of doctors for Electronic Medical Record System (EMR) in one of Malaysian hospital. The study found information quality has significant impact on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use toward using the system. Even the study mentioned that it is important for system designers for effectively communicate with the end users to get their requirements of system in terms of information quality factors. Also, these results have gave attention to the managers about the investing on the time and resources when designing and operating the new system to make ease of use for the user better than they shift to another resources.

However, another studies argued the important of the information quality from the user prospective, from these studies the study was conducted by (Chismar & Patton, 2002) which made among the physicians to examines their intention to adopt Internet-based health applications by using the applicability of the (TAM2) in Hawaii. The study found that the important factor for predicting the intention to use the system is that the technology is useful and the output quality is sufficient for their daily work. Also, there is an affect for perceived usefulness and output quality on the intentions to use by physicians. Physicians focus on the strong staff support for operating medical equipment and related technologies. Also, the same result was found by the study was conducted by (Algahtani, 2004) which aimed for more understanding of the acceptance for the technology in different cultures. The study found that information quality, Relative advantage, compatibility, observe ability and trial ability had positive significant relation with the end user acceptance and the Complexity considered the negative affected on the computer acceptance.

Moreover, the study was conducted by (Ahn & Ryu & Han, 2007) which aimed to tested the relationship between Web quality factors and user acceptance behavior with a focus on service quality. Also, investigates the affect of play-fuh)ess on user acceptance of online retailing. This study supported the result of the previous study (Mohd & Syed- Mohamad & Zaini, 2005; Chismar & Patton, 2002) in that the Information quality has a positive impact on perceived ease of use and usefulness of a Website. Even that, the levels of information quality considered as (various, complete, detailed, accurate, timely, relevant, and reliable). Also, The study found that System quality, Information quality and Service quality had significant effect on playfulness, ease of use and usefulness and this effect increase when they mediated by ease of use. Even Service quality, system quality and information quality had significant over all the effects on intention behavior to use. Also, the quality of the Web has significant affect on intention behavior to use mediated by playfulness, ease of use, usefulness and attitude which call user substantial beliefs.

Also, the same results of the previous studies was found in the study was conducted by (Bani-Ali &Money, 2005) which aimed to examine the relationships among: computer self-efficacy, ease of use, project complexity, system functionality, information quality, performance impact, organization size, project size, user education, training and experience level. The study found that System characteristics are the determinant factors affecting the new software usage. Even, Information quality, system functionality, and ease of use have strong positive and direct relationships with using the new software. Also, information quality provided good explanatory power for the new software usage. Moreover, this result was confirmed by the study was conducted by (Staples& Wong& Seddon, 2002) to examine the implementing of new system effects on its users, with focus on the relationship between pre-implementation expectations and their perceived benefits based on post-implementation experience. The study finding confirmed that System usefulness, ease of use and information quality has strong relation to information system success and user satisfaction.

Even, The Study was conducted by (Saeed &Helm, 2008) which proposes that perceived usefulness was effected by information quality and system integration which will then drive post adoption usage of the information system. The study found that System integration and information quality are significant predictors of user perceptions regarding information system usefulness. Even there is significant affect for the information quality on extended usage and system integration on exploratory usage only partially supported.

So, information system characteristics (information quality) offer critical motivation influence the user's perceptions about the value of the information system and its importance from different prospective. Also, in another words, if users are convinced that the information system effects and supports their work at the post adoption stage, they will extend the usage and also experiment with how to apply the information system in top settings (Saeed &Helm, 2008).

Therefore, this study supports the studies which consider the information quality is important from the user prospective. Also, this study is trying to measure the affects of information quality on the user's acceptance of the information technology" and provide more explanation about its affects on the user acceptance.

2.5.3 Social characteristics

Social characteristics (social influence) was defined as the perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform the behavior. Another conceptualization is the information conveyed via individuals' social networks influences their cognition about a target technology (Lewis & Agarwal & V.Sambamurthy, 2003). Also, Social factors were defined as whether the subject perceived that their work group (faculty, staff, study group, professor) thought they should use the intranet and whether or not they would follow what others thought they should do(Chang, 2004). Even, Social influence was defined as it is the degree to which an employee perceives that others coworkers believe he or she should use a technology (Dadayan& Ferro, 2005).

2.5.3.1 Subjective Norms

Subjective norm (SN) was defined as it is the result of an individual's response to the perceived expectations of his or her peer group and his belief that he must comply with those expectations (Aversano, 2005). Also Subjective norms was defined as the person's perception about that most of the people who are important to him thinking that he should or shouldn't perform the behavior (Park & Brien & Caine & Rogers, Fisk & Ittersum & Capar & Parsons, 2006).

Davis in his study in 1989 which created the technology acceptance model TAM ignored the subjective norms as factor effecting on the acceptance for the technology. But, after he realized the important and the effects of social influences on individuals to cause the acceptance of the technology, he concluded this factor in the technology acceptance model TAM2 and TAM3. Also, AGARWAL in his study (Agarwal, 2000) mentioned that Social reactions are tool for generating meaning and shared understanding in the organization. That means, social influences dimensions affect on the acceptance for the technology such as the organizational environment or work-related like managers or Supervisors who work in team have more accept for new technologies, social influence like social pressure, subjective norm, culture and communication. Also, Subjective norm has strong effect on technology acceptance moderated by voluntariness and has positive effect on the image of the person. Also, there is large effect for Social influences like social pressure on the user's acceptance (Park & Brien & Caine & Rogers& Fisk& Ittersum& Capar & Parsons, 2006).

Even, the influence of Subjective norm by interpersonal influence like family members, friends, colleagues or work-related and influence by external influences like expert ideas, different kinds of media reports. And subjective norm of an individual influenced acceptance through a positive effect on perceived usefulness. Moreover, there are another factors influence the acceptance of the technology such as readiness, trust and innovativeness had stronger relationship among each other and influences the acceptance of technology. The study mentioned that the variables influence acceptance of technology vary depending on the purpose of use, that was the finding in the study was conducted by (Park & Brien & Caine & Rogers& Fisk& Ittersum& Capar & Parsons, 2006) which seeks to identify variables that would provide insight understanding for technology acceptance with focus in individual characteristics and the organizational characteristics.

However, some studies have seen that there isn't effects for the social influences on the acceptance of the technology, from those studies the study was conducted by (Venkatesh & Morris, 2000) which aimed to investigated gender differences in the context of individual adoption and conformed technology usage in the workplace by using technology acceptance model. The study found that Subjective norm did not influence men in using the system but influence women in the begging of introducing the system but after short time there isn't any effect in the women intention to use the system despite the increase in the experience. That means, subjective norm would not be significant with increasing experience due to the short time for testing this relation. Also, perceived usefulness, perceived ease and subjective norms can explain the effect on the woman intention to use the system. Despite, usefulness only can explain the men intention to use the system.

Also, social influences didn't have influence on the acceptance for the technology was found in the study conducted by (Seymour & Makanya & Berrange, 2007) which aimed to Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) and to investigate the factors that influence the acceptance of the user for ERP systems. The study found that there are significance related between all variables except social influence with project communication and symbolic adoption. There wasn't relation found between social influence and symbolic adoption. Also, the social influence subjective norm reduces by the time till become non-significant after short time from the implementation for the system. Besides that, the social influence failed in the reliability. Also, that was Supported the finding of (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000) which found that social constructs (Subjective norm, social factors and image) aren't significant when the systems usage is optional. But if the usage for the system is obligation the relation is significant. That causes social influences to have a direct effect on intention.

Moreover, Physicians didn't influence by peer pressures or what they will be perceived if they adopt the technology. But they are independent and don't put attention to subjective norm or image. That was found in the study was conducted by (Chismar & Patton, 2002) which aimed to examines the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM2) applicability on the physicians' intention to adopt Internet-based health applications. The study found that Perceived usefulness is strong determinant of intention to use. Also, perceived usefulness, job relevance and output quality has significant effect on the intention to use. Even, perceived ease of use, the social factors subjective norm and image don't have significant effect on the intention to use. Also, these results were supported by (Seymour & Makanya & Berrange, 2007; Venkatesh & Davis, 2000).

Nevertheless, another studies found that social influences has a positive influence on the technology acceptance and this effects is a positive. From those studies, the study was conducted by (Singletary& Akbulut & Houston, 2002) which purposed to identify factors that affect the acceptance of high school students for software application when the initial use of the application is mandatory. The study found that there are a positive relationship between Social Norms and Image, perceived usefulness and innovative usage behavior. Also, the study was conducted by (Chang, 2004) which purposed to explore the validity of the extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) based on social and facilitating as main factors to predict intranet/portal usage because those factors are most dominant in the educational environment. the found that social factors can be effective when it related with the user attitudes to predict the behavior intention to use and facilitating conditions can be effective when it related with intention to use to predict actual usage. In other words, Social factors were related to intention to use an intranet and facilitating conditions were related to actual use.

Also, social influences like subjective norms has significant effects on the student acceptance for the new technology, that was found in the study was conducted by (Yang, 2007) which aimed to use the technology acceptance model for doing another examination of the relationships between students' attitude toward the use of WebCT and the determinants of the actual usage in light of social presence and sociability. The study found that after subjective norms were tested three times over time was found that there is significant effect for the subjective norms on the student.

Although, the subjective norm was not found as a very strong determinant of technology adoption, Subjective norm has positive and significant effect on intention to use new system that was found in the study was contacted by (Yalcinkaya & B -A, & M.S. 2007) to investigate the acceptance for the police officer for the POLNET system in Turkish, and that subjective norm has a negative direct effect on intention to use, this due to that the target user (police man) likes to listen to the people with valued opinions for them and that increase the intention to use the system and most of their tasks are determined by rules because their cultures having high power distance and the supervisors or the manager opinions affect the people who have the lower power. Even was found the subjective norm was not found as a very strong determinant of technology adoption. Beside that the subjective norm is not the only predictor of intention to use the system but, this factor may be mediated by perceived usefulness,

Even, user's experience interacts with subjective norms influence on usage of new software. In other words, Subjective Norms, other organizational members' opinions had a strong influence on the user perceptions. Also, Subjective norms played a strong and complex part in the usage of the software system that was found in the study was conducted by (Chiasson & Lovato, 2001) which aimed to examining how a user forms his or her perceptions of an innovation over time. By report on the experiences of a health planner using a DSS software tool for health planning over a one year period. Besides that, the study was conducted by (Aversano, 2005) which purposed to explore why some people refuse to use the mobile telephone in USA. The study used the theory of Ajzen to give exploration of human behavior to understanding a person's actions in behavior like social attitude and personality trait it considered as important to explain human behavior. Even, the study used TPB to confirm that the behavior intention to use is determined the actual behavior and there are three factors predicting the Intention to use the technology like attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control as same as TRA mentioned with focus in the important of the intention to behavior in the adoption for the technology. Even, the study used the TAM2 «-hick explains perceived usefulness in terms of cognitive and social influence processes.

So, from the previous argued, this study supports that social influences like subjective norm provides an important basis for expected manners of behavior. Also, the beliefs and attitudes of any group can shape the usage behavior for the technology inside this group by suggestion or advices or communication the user for using the technology. Also, Social influence has been found two issues from a variety of sources. For example, peers can influence the attitudes and behavior of individuals, social pressure from friends may influence individuals, supervisors, and co-workers. Even, social pressure might induce new users to exhibit initial adoption behavior and normative influences were found to be more important in intentions to adopt, and attitudes dominated as a predictor of continued intentions to use (Agarwal, 2000).

Therefore, this study is going to test the effects of the social influences like subjective norms on the acceptance for the technology in order to provide more explanation for its effects in the technology acceptance in different culture.

2.5.3.2 Culture

The Culture consists of the patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts. Even, it's "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another" (Zakour, 2004).

Also, the culture defines as : 1- something that is shared by all or almost all members of some social group, 2- something that the older members of the group try to passion to the younger members,3- something that shapes behavior, or that structures one's perception of the world (Merchant, 2007).

According to the study was conducted by (Merchant, 2007) which aimed to investigate the relationship between the cultural/work values of the people involved and IT adoption among three cultures. Also, the correlation of their cultural/work orientations and the adoption of IT via the technology acceptance model TAM. The study found that the studying for the attitudes of three separate cultures on the adopting of information technology considered culture as a crucial element that can determine the acceptance or rejection for the technology and there is needs for consider cultural resistance to technologies. Also, that was supported in the study was conducted by (Brown et al, 1998) too.

Also, (Merchant, 2007) found that French and Americans would most likely adopt new innovation to deal with changes and thrust on them, the Chinese orientation of task and role were less enthusiastic to adopt as fast as the French and American, and that there isn't correlation for two instruments individual elements with perceived usefulness and ease of use these instruments are role orientation correlation with ease of use for French and for USA increase productivity, enhance effectiveness on the job and easy learning to use.

Moreover, there is different in accepting the technology due to the variability between countries in the culture dimensions, this dimensions are Individualism/collectivism, power distance, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, monochromic/polychromic time and high context low context. Also, there is better percept in the people who have high-context values for the technology than who have low-context values cause high¬context don't give more information in the context of the message when use the electronic communication. Even, there is effect for perceived quality on intention to use among feminine culture better than masculine culture. The people with low level of uncertainty avoidance use information technology more than high level of uncertainty avoidance. Besides that, Uncertainty avoidance, Individualism/collectivism, Power distance and Masculinity/Femininity, Individualism/collectivism are moderators between subjective norms and intention to behavior. Even found Social influence from important people in cultures want to avoid uncertainty is much more important in determining information technology usage than in cultures comfortable with uncertainty, that was found in The study conducted by (Zakour, 2004) which aimed to extend TAM to give more understanding for the national cultural values differences as predictor for behavior toward information technology.

Also, cultural factors play major roles in the technology acceptance and there is strong support for the effects of the attitude in the behavior to use the computer and satisfaction that was confirmed in the study was conducted by (Algahtani, 2004) which aimed for more understanding of the acceptance for the technology in different cultures. Also, that can view clearly in the study which conducted by (Merchant, 2007) which searched for the relation between the culture/work value of the people and the usage of IT. The study used TAM to explain how the knowledge of the employee's orientation culture has facilitated the usage of the technology. The study found that the orientation culture effects in the individual in the way how they communicate in their work place to achieve the company goals that through the effect of the culture in the moderated perceived usefulness and ease of use Which effect in the behavior intention to use then the actual usage for the technology, this study test the result in many countries like America, France, china and five Arab countries all success except in china.

However, what can success in one country could not success in another country, as in the case of the study was contacted by (Almutairi, 2007) which aimed to test the applicability of the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Kuwaiti ministries in order to understand the information technology in the government utilities, the study found that TAM didn't explain the acceptance for the technology cause it doesn't have international validity and it doesn't suit another cultures. Also, the study define the culture as "collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of on human group from another" and the culture by its four dimensions work together to form the prospective and the behavior of human group about different thing around them. Even, the fail for TAM in this study is return to the different in the culture.

So, culture consider as a barrier for the success or the acceptance of the information technology if there isn't intention for its affects in the acceptance for the technology that was found in the study conducted (Ali, 2004) which aimed to view the low usage for the technology specially the Internet in Arab countries comparing to developed countries. Also, the study mentioned that Arab countries have collective cultures with their tradition and value so if Arab countries want to be in the same level with the developed countries in using the technology they should accelerate different sector like society and the subcultures because most of the problems from the prospective about the information technology in middle east.

Therefore, this study plans to study the culture factor and its effects on the technology acceptance in order to provide more explanation for the effect of this variable. Also, in order to give recommendation for the public organizations to put in their consideration the effect of the culture during the planning for developing the information technology.

2.5.4 Institutional characteristic

Institutional factors were defined as the workers in the organization receive information from the organization about how work goes on and what is the instrument to achieve the work. Also, when the top and the medal management use the technology to do the work, support, rewards for using the technology this influence the workers beliefs in using the technology to accomplish the work (Lewis& Agarwal& V.Sambamurthy, 2003).

2.5.4.1 Management support or Government support

Top management support refers to the degree to which the top management understands the importance of IS function and the content to which it involved in the activities (Nathan &Apigian & Nathan & Tu, 2004). Even, Organizational facilitating or facilitating conditions were defined as the degree to which an employee perceives that an organizational and technical infrastructure exists to support use of the technology (adapted from Venkatesh et al. 2003). Also, Facilitating conditions are described as "the degree to which an individual believes that an organizational and technical infrastructure exists to support use of the system" (Venkatesh et al., 2003: Seymour & Makanya & Berrange, 2007).

To management support in the organization has either positive or negative effects in accepting the technology, some studies found negative effects like that most of the problems the organization face in the developing, planning, usage of the technology is because the failing of the top management to manage and support the usage of the technology, that was supported by (Nathan &Apigian & Nathan & Tu, 2004).

Also, if the top management didn't give the required support or the end-users didn't touch or feel the management support that could lead for the failed in accepting or adopaeg for the information technology. Besides that, Government support, organization support and Computer training factors could prevent the end-user from using particular system, so these supports should be perceived by the end-users. Also, that was supported by the study was conducted by (Chen, 2006) which aimed to examine the quality recognition of medical information systems in Tzu-chi hospital in Taiwan and explore the factors make the physicians not using medical information system.

Moreover, the study conducted by (schot & greetman &Vonk, 2007) which aimed to explore ways to improve the effectiveness of strategies for the diffusion of geo-information technology in public planning organization. The study found that the importance of the failure factor categories in explaining the adoption of PSS for the organization are the attitudes of the managers, social organization users, awareness of the potential and the implementation support by the organization those factors considered important factors affecting on the acceptance for the system.

However, another studies found that top management support has positive effects in the accepting or adopting the information technology and this effect could be direct or indirect support for the organization to use the technology, the indirect support like vendors and consultant as undertaking in efforts of the system in the organization, the direct support is positioning the IS in the organization even for the planning and developing. From these studies the study was conducted by (Nathan &Apigian & Nathan & Tu, 2004) which aimed to study the relationship between the top management support (TMS) and the information system performance (IS) to give more evidence for this relation. Also, it describes the relation between top management supports with (IS) function and (IS) performance.

Also, the appropriate strategy in the learning technology should design to make the information ease to find and ease to understand for adopt the information technology system. Even, making training and management support to increase the abilities of the user to use the system and reduce the anxiety from using the system all that helping the success in accepting the technology that confirmed in the study was conduct by (Brown & Town, 2002) which aimed to examine perceived ease of use for the technology web-based in learning environment in developing country not developed country.

Also, such support might help overcome obstacles in learning to use the technology through the availability of assistance that was the finding in the study was conducted by (Lewis& Agarwal& Sambamurthy, 2003) which aimed to examine the factors that influence key individual beliefs about technology use, the study found the individual factor of personal innovativeness and institutional factor of top management commitment and support had significant relationships with perceived usefulness and ease of use. Even, the institutional factor of top management commitment has positive influence on usefulness beliefs and significant relationship between top management commitment and ease of use, this due to that the individual's assessment of the resource allocation implications of top management commitment and support.

So, this study supporting the notion that top management support has positive effects in accepting of the technology and without its support the organization will face the problems in the developing, planning and usage of the information technology. Therefore, is going to test the affects of the top management on the accepting for the technology throughout its affects on the individual beliefs toward the actual usage for the technology in order to provide more explanation for this relation.

2.6- The Theory

Individuals decision for accept the information technology is conscious act that can be sufficiently explained and therefore predicted by their behavioral intention (Chau& Hu, 2002), and because the difficulty to identify determinants for individual intention toward accept the technology, technology acceptance model TAM is an established model in explaining information technology acceptance behavior, and from its benefits it provides a framework to investigate the impact of external variables.

Framework

2.6.1- Technology acceptance model TAM

Davis (1989) proposed that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use predict usage of information technology. Perceived usefulness was defined as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance. Perceived ease of use was defined as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort." (Davis. 1989, p. 14) With theoretical support from various theories and modus including expectancy theory, self-efficacy theory, cost-benefit research, innovation research, and the channel disposition model.

Besides that, TAIM postulates that computer usage is a function of the end-user's behavioral intention to use the system. Behavioral intention was jointly determined by a person's attitude toward using the system as well as the end-user's perception of the usefulness of the system. TAM also postulates that perceived usefulness is influenced by perceived ease of use and external variables. External variables that influence perceived usefulness include features of the system, training, documentation, demographic characteristics of end-users, and end-user support.

TAM 1 Davis (1989)

Framework

Even, Davis (1986, 1989) conceptualized the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explain user acceptance of technology (Adams, Nelson & Todd, 1992). The model can be used in a wide variety of ways. The model may be used by system designers to obtain user feedback of different system features or design approaches. According to Adams et al., TAM may also be used to diagnose problems with user acceptance after the implementation of technology.

Although, Fisbbcei's and Azjen's (1975) theory of reasoned action provides the theoretical basis for TAM. Fishbein and Ajzen hypothesized that an individual's behavior depends on his or her intention to perform a function, the individual's evaluation with respect to the act, and the person's subjective norm or perception of the normative pressures regarding the behavior. Davis (1986, 1989) adopted the belief, attitude-intention-behavior sequence to explain user acceptance of information technology. According to Davis et al. (1989), TAM was intended to "provide an explanation of the determinants of computer acceptance that is general, capable of explaining user behavior across a broad range of end-user computing technologies and user populations, while at the same time being both parsimonious and theoretically justified.

Also, Davis (1989) proposed that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use predict usage of information technology. Perceived usefulness was defined as the "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance. Perceived ease of use was defined as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort." (Davis, 1989, p. 14) With theoretical support from various theories and models including expectancy theory, self-efficacy theory, cost-benefit research, innovation research, and the channel disposition model, TAM postulates that computer usage is a function of the end-user's behavioral intention to use the system. Behavioral intention was jointly determined by a person's attitude toward using the system as well as the end-user's perception of the usefulness of the system. TAM also postulates that perceived usefulness is influenced by perceived ease of use and external variables. External variables that influence perceived usefulness include features of the system, training, docamentatiaq demographic characteristics of end-users, and end¬user support.

Moreover, Davis and Davis et al proposed TAM to address why users accept or reject information technology. Their model is an adaptation of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) proposed by Fishbein and Ajzen to explain and predict the behaviors of people in a specific situation.

Therefore, this study considers that the key purpose of TAM is to provide a basis for tracing the impact of external variables on internal beliefs, attitudes, and intentions. It suggests that perceived ease of use (PEOU), and perceived usefulness (PU) are the two most important factors in explaining system use. TRA and TAM propose that external variables intervene indirectly, influencing attitude, subjective norms, or their relative weight in the case of TRA, or influencing PEOU and PU in the case of TAM. Attitude towards using (AT) and behavioral intention to use (BI) are common to TRA and TAM, and Davis used Fishbein and Ajzen's method to measure them. Davis chose not to keep the variable subjective norms, because he estimated that it had negligible effect on BI. In TAM2, Venkatesh and Davis reconsidered this choice.

In its original version, TAM had the following components: PU, PEOU, AT, BI, and actual use (U). Thus on the basis of the five components present and taking into account the structure of the model, 10 relations could potentially be examined: (1) PEOU-PU; (2) PU-AT; (3) PEOU AT; (4) PU-BI; (5) PEOU¬BI; (6) AT-BI; (7) AT-U; (8) BI-U; (9) PEOU-U; and (10) PU-U. In its original form (Fi& 2)t, TAM included both AT and BI as in TRA. The ultimate objective of TAM was to predict use.

Also, in the External variables, TAM postulates that external variables intervene indirectly by influencing PEU and PU. Table 5 presents the external variables considered. W e note that there is no clear pattern with respect to the choice of the external variables considered.

2.6.2- TAM2

Venkatesh and Davis (2000) presented theoretical extensions to the technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1986, 1989). Their new model, TAM2, explains perceived usefulness in terms of cognitive and social influence processes. Vankatesh and Davis suggested job relevance, one of the cognitive processes that demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with perceptions of usefulness of technology and suggested this construct may be analogous to construct of person-job-fit. From its original model, TAM has evolved over time. This is the model used by Venkatesh. The notion of time has been included in the analysis of the factors that influence use. Research has shown that the influence of some factors on intention to use IS, varies at different stages in the IS implementation process. Innovation introduced such characteristics as: triability; relative advantage; complexity; compatibility; and observability.

2.6.3 Theory- of Reasoned Action (TRA)

A great deal of attention has been given to intention based theory with regard to adoption of technology. Theory of reasoned action (TRA) is a much researched area that has been applied across a number of areas. The authors, Ajzen and Fishebein ascribe that their theory applies to "virtually any human behavior." IT researchers have used this theory extensively to better understand user's behaviors in technology adoption. According to TRA, the unique behavior of an individual is determined by one's behavioral intention (BI) to act on the behavior, and it is performed in conjunction with an individual's attitude (A) and subjective norm (SN) of the behavior that is being performed. Attitude is the result of what the person believes about the action that is being performed and the expected result. Subjective norm (SN) is the result of an individual's response to the perceived expectations of his or her peer group and his belief that he must comply with those expectations. TRA addresses a person's internal psychological variables by which multiple external variables are studied. IT researchers have relied heavily on this theory to lay the groundwork for a better understanding of why users adopt technological innovations.

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was the follow on work by Icek Ajzen. (1985, 1987) "Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavioral subjective norms and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain."

Ajzen theory is rooted in the psychological exploration of human behavior and all of the intricacy that is involved in understanding a person's actions. The Concepts dealing with "behavioral dispositions such as social attitude and personality trait have played an important role in these attempts to predict and explain human behavior" (Ajzen, 1988; Campbell, 1963; Sherman & Fazio, 1983) According to TPB, behavior is determined by the intention to perform the behavior. Intention is predicted by three factors: attitude towards the behavior (A), subjective norms (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC).

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