The importance of Information Technology

The importance of technology comes from that Technology has an important impact on innovation and the development of societies and economies. This impact can be observed in three steps.

The first step is substitution, new technology substitutes for the old. For example, consumers start substituting their fixed telephone lines with mobile telephones. The second step is the diffusion, when adopting the new technology is widely across society because it is law cost or better or more effective than the previous technology. The final step is transformation when the new technology ways start working and emerging because the new technology is diffused so widely in society. For example, the widespread adoption of the networking has led to interesting innovations in the communication patterns of individuals such as executives conducting business while waiting in airport lounges or traveling in trains.( DUTTA & MIA , 2001)World Economic Forum.

ICT offers more opportunities for economic development and plays very important role in international competitiveness, rapid economic change, and productive capacity of improvements for developing countries. ICTs offer the developing countries many opportunities, as it has done in the developed world, when it created unprecedented possibilities for them. Studies have emphasized that there is evidence of a strong linkage between GDP growth and ICT investment showing the importance of ICT investment for development. According to an OECD research project, which was conducted in the year 2002, there is an impact of ICT on the economy. In addition, in the GDP growth per capita, ICT investment accounted for between 0.5% and 1.3% (Nodu, 2004).

Also, Organizations have increased their investment in information technology IT for planning in order to increase the efficiency of their business processes. Support management decision making and improve productivity. So IT become important tool to attaining competitive advantage for the organization and improves employees productivity and efficiency (Kim & Lee & Law, 2007)

Besides, Many researches investigate the relation between IT investment and increase the productivity and the performance in the companies' one of these studies (sircar et al, 2000) which found several organization success with the spending on the IT but others were failed. (Agarwal& karahanna, 2000) argue in this result that IT investment will be successful when IT utilized by the organization intended user in the way contribute to the strategy and the goals of the firms. Thus user acceptance is the key for the successes of the IT investment (Darsono, 2005).

Also, for more than two decades information technology has been the focus for researcher in information system this is because IT considers as the key to lead the organization for the good performance so many researches focus in the initial usage for IT or continuous usage foe IT (Premkumar & Bhattacherjee, 2005).

The advantages and disadvantages from adopting information technology

(brien & maracas, 2008, management information system, edition 8, chapter 1, p55) the advantages (for strategy advantage).

  1. Information technology uses to support the competitive strategy in helping the companies to reduce the costs of the company to give special offer for its products and services and give better care about customers and suppliers and to develop unions among the company and the company with the environment around the company and increase the virtue of its investment in IT resources.
  2. By using the information technology the organization or the companies will be able to develop the value of its business through out making the customer value the focus of its strategy which is to keep track of its customers preferences to supply its products and services anytime anywhere by using the internet or intranet and extranet(e-commerce websites).
  3. A lot of organizations/companies use information technology and internet to reengineering its business process because information technology can make integration for the organization to work for the same goal of the organization and this improves the design of the work flows or the requirements of the job even the organization structures even improve the efficiency and the effectiveness.
  4. Information technology provides the communication and the information required for the managers in order to manage the different activities within the organization and the resources from the partners to get the advantage from the changes in the market environment.
  5. Information technology can support the organization competitive strategy by making the organization as the knowledge creating to make innovation by creating its process style or product and service for its work or learning organization by doing similar in what the another companies created by using the internet to get the knowledge that it needs.

The disadvantages

Some disadvantages of information technology include:

  1. Unemployment - While information technology may have streamlined the business process it has also crated job redundancies, downsizing and outsourcing. This means that a lot of lower and middle level jobs have been done away with causing more people to become unemployed.
  2. Privacy - Though information technology may have made communication quicker, easier and more convenient, it has also bought along privacy issues. From cell phone signal interceptions to email hacking, people are now worried about their once private information becoming public knowledge.
  3. Lack of job security - Industry experts believe that the internet has made job security a big issue as since technology keeps on changing with each day. This means that one has to be in a constant learning mode, if he or she wishes for their job to be secure.
  4. Dominant culture - While information technology may have made the world a global village, it has also contributed to one culture dominating another weaker one. For example it is now argued that US influences how most young teenagers all over the world now act, dress and behave. Languages too have become overshadowed, with English becoming the primary mode of communication for business and everything else (http://www.smallbusinessbible.org/advan_disadvan_informationtechnology.html# 3/4/2009 5:10am).

Lecture review

Behavior intention

According to (Davis , 1989: Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006: Hwang & Y. Yi, 2002: Phau & Gan, 2000)The technology acceptance model TAM consists of four main factors as major determinants of technology acceptance these factors are perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness, the attitudes toward the usage and the frequency of use of technology. That means if people want to accept or reject any specific technology they should increase user's believes that this technology will help them do their work better and this refer to perceived usefulness and extend their believes in that the system is ease of use and the benefit is more than the effort from the use for this technology. In another wards, If the users perceive easy of use from that technology and perceive usefulness from the technology for their work purposes .that means, there are Positive attitudes toward the technology usage n have a positive relation with the behavior intention to use the technology.

Therefore, (Chang, 2004) was conducted The study which purposed to explore the validity of the extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) based on social and facilitating as main factors to predict intranet/portal usage because those factors are most dominant in the educational environment. The study found that there was strong positive relation among Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and user's attitudes towards the intranet. And the Attitude has strong relation with the user intention to use. And the intention to behave had a strong relation with the actual usage this conform the positive significant relation in TAM and its constructs are to predicting the user acceptance of the intranet/portal. Even there are relation between experience and perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Even experience is a stronger predictor for perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness than age does.

So, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which created by (Davis& Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1989; Davis et al., 1989) Studied some important factors affecting in the use of the information technology. the TAM explained how the behavior intention to use the technology effected by one basic factor to cause the actual use for the new system, therefore the behavior intention to use the technology is the merely or only determined related to actual use for the system, beside that the latest studies confirmed that the behavior intention to use the technology is the merely mediated factor. In another words, the TAM explains attitude factors affecting the behavior intention to use with putting the focus on the attitudes as a factor to use the technology (Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006).

And in contrast that, the attitude not the only the factor who is affecting on the behavior intention to use but there are another factors can affect the behavior intention to use as in the study was conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004) which aimed to identify additional determinants factors for the technology acceptance in the education sector. The study found that there are direct and indirect significant effect for perceived usefulness on the behavior intention to use the system and this effect is strong on the behavior intention to use more than the effect on the attitudes and the attitude was formed by perceived usefulness. Beside, that perceived ease of use has effect on perceived usefulness and the attitudes of the users but the effect on the attitudes was not significant this due to the combination of the factors like organization, subjects and the technology or due to the users have one month experience and they need to use the system easier and free of effort .and self-efficacy has strong direct effect on intention to use and perceived ease of use but on ease of use more effect than intention to behavior.

Another study was conducted to confirm that intention to behavior is determined the actual behavior by (Aversano, 2005) which purposed to explore why some people refuse to use the mobile telephone in USA. The study used the theory of Ajzen to give exploration of human behavior to understanding a person's actions in behavior like social attitude and personality trait it considered as important to explain human behavior. And the study used TPB to confirm that intention to behavior is determined the actual behavior. And there are three factors predicting the Intention to behavior are attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control as same as TRA with focus in the important of the intention to behavior with the adoption for the technology. Even the study used the TAM2 which explains perceived usefulness in terms of cognitive and social influence processes.

(Aversano, 2005) was conducted the study which purposed to explore why some people refuse to use the mobile telephone in USA. The study used the theory of Ajzen to give exploration of human behavior to understanding a person's actions in behavior like social attitude and personality trait it considered as important to explain human behavior. And the study used TPB to confirm that intention to behavior is determined the actual behavior. And there are three factors predicting the Intention to behavior are attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control as same as TRA with focus in the important of the intention to behavior with the adoption for the technology. Even the study used the TAM2 which explains perceived usefulness in terms of cognitive and social influence processes.

Moreover, in the latest studies, like the study was conducted by (Hwang & Yi, 2002) in the intrinsic motivation and computer self-efficacy research to Technology Acceptance Model in order to predict the use of web-based information systems. The study found that behavioral intention and self-efficacy have a significant effect on actual use. Even perceived enjoyment and self-efficacy were significant determinants of ease of use. Even was found that self-efficacy was a strong determinant for ease of use and actual use. The study supported all the relations were purposed in the technology acceptance model. Even the studies (Klloppiing & McKiinneyy, 2004: Jones & S. Hubona, 2005) support that relation.

Also, the study was conducted by (Jones & Hubona, 2005) which aimed to determine the effect of staff seniority, age, and education level on usage behavior. The study supported all TAM construction. Even Education level would directly affect actual usage behavior besides effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. But in contrast, the study was conducted by (Al Mutairi, 2007) which goaled to examine TAM applicability in Kuwait ministries. The study finding did not support the relationship between the variables as were in TAM. In another ward, the study didn't find relation between ease of use and usefulness this in one hand and in the other hand there is no relation between ease of use and usefulness with actual usage. And the study mention that maybe because the differences in the national cultural, public organization context, dependent variables nature.

Also, in the study was conducted by (Chismar & Patton, 2002) which made among the physicians to examines their intention to adopt Internet-based health applications by using the applicability of the (TAM2). The study found that the strong determinant for intention to use was perceived usefulness. Intention to use by physicians was explained by the effects of usefulness and output quality. And the relation between perceived usefulness and intention to use was significant, whereas image, subjective norm and perceived ease of use were not significant. And that due to that physicians have high level of adaptability, cognitive capacity and intellectual, they comprehend faster than the normal people for new technologies. And they are willing to adopt information technology that has beneficial applications even if it not easy to use.

Attitudes and Believes

According to (Davis , 1989: Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006: Hwang & Y. Yi, 2002: Phau & Gan, 2000)The technology acceptance model TAM consists of four main factors as major determinants of technology acceptance these factors are perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness, the attitudes toward the usage and the frequency of use of technology. That means if people want to accept or reject any specific technology they should set up their attitudes by increase user's believes that this technology will help them do their work better and this refer to perceived usefulness and extend their believes in that the system is ease of use and the benefit is more than the effort from the use for this technology. In another wards, If the users perceive easy of use from that technology and perceive usefulness from the technology for their work purposes .that means, there are Positive attitudes toward the technology usage n have a positive relation with the behavior intention to use the technology.

Therefore, in order to put spotlight in the important of mediating the attitudes for the relation between the beliefs and the actual usage for the technology (Chang, 2004) conducted The study which purposed to explore the validity of the extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) based on social and facilitating as main factors to predict intranet/portal usage because those factors are most dominant in the educational environment. The found were that there was strong positive relation among Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and user's attitudes towards the intranet. And the Attitude has strong relation with the user intention to use. And the intention to behave had a strong relation with the actual usage this conform the positive significant relation in TAM and its constructs are to predicting the user acceptance of the intranet/portal. Even there are relation between experience and perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Even experience is a stronger predictor for perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness than age does.

Also, the study was conducted by (algahtani, 2004) which aimed for more understanding of the acceptance for the technology in different cultures. The study found that there is strong support for the effect of the attitude in the behavior to use the computer and satisfaction. Even though this was supported in the study was conducted In Malaysia by (Mohd& Syed-Mohamad& Zaini, 2005) to identify the relation between information quality and the acceptance of doctors for Electronic Medical Record System (EMR) in one of Malaysian hospital. The study found that the information quality has significant relationship with perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use .even the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have significant relationship with attitude of using EMR system. Moreover, the user acceptance factor Information Quality has significant relationship with attitude of using EMR system through out easy of use and usefulness.

The study conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004) which aimed to identify additional determinants for the technology acceptance in the education sector. The study found that there are direct and indirect significant effect for perceived usefulness on the behavior intention to use the system and this effect is strong on the behavior intention to use more than the effect on the attitudes and the attitude was formed by perceived usefulness. Beside, that perceived ease of use has effect on perceived usefulness and the attitudes of the users but the effect on the attitudes was not significant this due to the combination of the factors like organization, subjects and the technology or due to the users have one month experience and they need to use the system easier and free of effort .and self-efficacy has strong direct effect on intention to use and perceived ease of use but on ease of use more effect than intention to behavior.

In contrast to The study conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004), The study was conducted by (Yang, 2007) which Focus on the time in the affect of perceived usefulness and ease of use on the attitudes, which aimed to study the usage of the technology acceptance model for doing another examination of the relationships between students' attitude toward the use of WebCT and the determinants of the actual usage in light of social presence and sociability. the study found that The perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use was supported by self-efficacy, but more strong to the ease of use and both perceived usefulness and ease of use support the attitude toward the actual usage this was in the first test for the relation and in the second test was found that the subjective norms was negative value to the social presence and the actual use but lower support for the actual use. The study focuses on the time which makes the effects of the variable in the attitude. Which means perceived usefulness directly changed by times after use the system.

And the study was conducted by (Yalcinkaya & B.A & M.S, 2007) to investigate the acceptance for the police officer for the POLNET system in Turkish. The study found that Perceived ease of use has a positive effect on attitude and intentions to use the system. And the study considers that the variable ease of use considered the main factor effecting in the attitude toward behavior attention to actual usage. This Result supported the result for the last study by (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000) which conformed that perceived ease of use is strongly related to the system usage. Beside that the study found that there is positive affect for Perceived ease of use on perceived usefulness of police Officers using the system. In another ward, those police officers preferred to use the system because it's easy to use. And the same for Perceived usefulness has a positive effect on the attitude and has a strongly effect on Attitude and Intention to Use the information technology, the study mentioned that Turkish police officers' using the system because they perceive the system is useful. Hence, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are very strong predictive factors on attitude and intention to use the system.

From the pervious two studies, both studies (Yang, 2007: Yalcinkaya & B.A & M.S, 2007) confirm that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness affect on the attitude which in the same time attitude affect on the behavior intention to use toward the actual use for the technology. Regardless the stronger affect on the attitude.

The study conducted by(Ahn & Ryu & Han, 2007)which its goal to investigated the playfulness effect ion on user acceptance of online retailing , tested factors of Web quality and the relationship between those factors and user acceptance behavior. The study found that there are significant between playfulness and attitude and behavior intention to use. Even there is significant and influences for service quality, perceived strengths of system and information on playfulness, usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Even there are significant for System quality influence on usefulness, ease of use and playfulness. Even Information quality had significant influenced on usefulness, ease of use and playfulness. Service quality had significant influence on playfulness, ease of use and usefulness. Besides that Playfulness considered an important factor affecting the attitude and intention to use online retailing users.

In contrast, to the study conducted by (Kiraz & Ozdemir , 2006) which target the utilization of technology integration in the classroom focused on educational ideology, a factor not related to technology that also affects decisions in terms of educational applications. The study found that there is a direct effect of perceived usefulness on the actual use, and there is also a direct affect of perceived ease of use on attitudes. Besides, this study showed that attitudes towards the usage effected by perceived usefulness, and there is no significant effect of attitude towards usage and the actual use, this contrast the result in (TAM).Also, the study shows that there is no significant relationship between perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. In another wards, there is a strong positive relationship between pre-service teachers' perceived ease of use of educational technology and their attitudes toward use. The study mentioned that all of the ideologies were mentioned have effects on attitudes toward use. Moreover, educational anarchism, educational libertinism, and educational intellectualism have an effect on the perceived usefulness of technology. Both studies show that there is affect for perceived ease of use and usefulness on the attitude towards the behavior intention to use toward the use of the technology.

Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness

It is important to understand that the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of the technology are not formed solely by the usefulness and ease of use of the technology. According to the study was conducted by (Park& Brien& Caine& Rogers& Fisk& Ittersum& Capar& Parsons, 2006) which aimed to identify variables that can provide more understanding for technology acceptance. The study mentioned that there are many variables affecting the technology acceptance like technology characteristics, organization characteristics, subjective norm, User characteristics all interacted with the acceptance through out a positive effect on perceived usefulness.

Beside that, the study was conducted by (Kishore & Lee & McLean, 2001) which used social cognitive theory (SCT), computer self-efficacy (CSE), technology acceptance model (TAM), the risk management, personal& general innovativeness and specific computer self-efficacy to extend TAM. The study was mentioned that perceived usefulness and ease of use were granted as the main factors effecting in the actual usage.

Also, the study was conducted by (goeke, 2006) which aimed to examine the effects of experience and expertise on the actual use for the data warehouse by using TAM. The study found that perceived usefulness and ease of use had significant effect on the usage for the technology and the usefulness stronger in the effect then ease of use. Even there is direct effect for the usefulness in the actual usage for the system. Also found there is direct effect for ease of use on perceived usefulness. And there is positive effect for the external variable on both perceived usefulness and ease of use.

The result from (goeke, 2006) was supported in the study was conducted by (Brown, 2002) which aimed to examine perceived ease of use for the technology web-based in learning environment in developing country not developed country. And the finding was that the study confirms TAM relations that ease of use predicts the usefulness and the actual usage but usefulness doesn't predict the actual usage. besides, there are significant influences for self-efficacy and ease of finding and ease of understanding on perceived ease of use and ease of understanding more influences than ease of finding on perceived ease of use and the self-efficacy is the strongest influences on the ease of use but computer anxiety was the fewer influences.

Inconsistent with prior research (Bani-Ali &Money, 2005) the effect of ease of use is lower than other proposed factors. A possible explanation is that users' level of experience with new software may influence the relative importance of system ease of use. Despite, the study which contacted by (Hasan &Ali, 2006) to distinguished between general, system-specific CSE and examines the effects of both levels of CSE on two key training outcomes: reactions and learning performance. Reactions were examined with respect to perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. The findings were that general CSE had significant effects on perceived ease of use and far-transfer learning. Even the study found that GCSE demonstrated a non-significant positive effect on perceived usefulness. On the other hand, SCSE exhibited a non-significant negative effect on perceived usefulness this because study were measured two weeks after training.

Also, The Study was conducted by (Saeed &Helm, 2008) which proposes that perceived usefulness affected by information quality and system integration which will then drive post adoption usage of the IS. The study findings support that system integration and information quality are significant predictors for usefulness, even usefulness positively and significantly relates to extended usage and exploratory usage. The Study mentioned that perceived usefulness affects the initial acceptance of IS, that means, there is a stronger relation between exploratory usage and usefulness.

More over, the study was conducted by (Gyampah & Salam, 2003) which aimed to examine ERP training and ERP project communication, will affect the TAM variables only through the psychological variable-shared beliefs in the perceived benefits of the ERP system. The study found that perceived usefulness is the important factor affecting in the beliefs to make positive attitudes towards the system. Even that the study supports that perceived ease of use not affect attitude towards using particular system. This supports others studies that show that perceived ease of use does not have a significant on attitude in the usage for the system. Even was found that training has important and significant positive influences on the shared beliefs in the benefits of the system and shared beliefs influence both the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of the system through out affect attitude, which in turn affects intention to behavior. Study confirms that communication with effective training affect the core TAM variables. And the training on the system has significant affect on perceived ease of use.

Besides that, the study was conducted by (Yi &Hwang, 2003) in the intrinsic motivation and computer self-efficacy research to Technology Acceptance Model in order to predict the use of web-based information systems. It found that behavioral intention and self-efficacy have a significant effect on actual use. Even perceived enjoyment and self-efficacy were significant determinants of ease of use. Even was found that self-efficacy was a strong determinant for ease of use and actual use. The study supported all the relations were purposed in the technology acceptance model. Even the studies (Klloppiing & McKiinneyy, 2004: Jones & S. Hubona, 2005) support that too.

Perceived usefulness and playfulness considered as importance from the inexperienced e-commerce shoppers prospective. That means site's playfulness is essential to perceptions of usefulness, while for more experienced e-commerce shoppers, the perceived usefulness of the site can be evident independent of its playfulness, that was proved in the study was conducted by (Klopping & McKinney, 2006) which conducted to examines the role of experience on consumer's intentions to shop online. The study found that experience has direct and indirect effects on intention to use e-commerce, and there are moderating effects on perceived usefulness, playfulness, and self efficacy to intention to use e-commerce. Besides, there is a significant difference in the relationship of playfulness on perceived usefulness between inexperienced e-commerce shoppers and experienced e-commerce shoppers.

Even, in the study was conducted by(T-Pikkarainen & K-Pikkarainen & Karjaluoto & Pahnila ,2004) which aimed to increase the understanding of the factors that influence online banking acceptance from the technology acceptance model (TAM) prospective and to study consumer acceptance of online banking in Finland . it found that Perceived usefulness, Perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, information on online banking, and security and privacy have an impact on the acceptance of online banking and Perceived usefulness and the amount of information on online banking the most factors influence the use of online banking services. And found that Perceived usefulness was more than Perceived ease of use effective in explaining technology acceptance.

There is significant in the relation between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use for accepting the technology, that was supported by (Almutairi, 2007) which aim to test the applicability of the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Kuwaiti ministries in order to understand the information technology in the government utilities, that also was supported in The study conducted by (Singletary& Akbulut & Houston, 2002) which purposed to identify factors that effect the acceptance of high school students for software application when the initial use of the application is mandatory. The finding was that there are positive relationships between perceived usefulness, ease of use and innovative usage behavior and there is a positive relationship between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

The study was conducted by (Venkatesh & Morris, 2000) which aimed to investigated gender differences in the context of individual adoption and the study conformed technology usage in the workplace by using technology acceptance model. The study found that There is a difference between women and men in that men perceived usefulness to a greater longitudinal than women in using a new technology. And perceived ease of use was more important to women compared with men after basic training and by the time with more experience in using the system that make not significant and not affect on the intention to use the system. But for women ease of use consider the important to affect the intention to use the system.

Individual differences

Individual acceptance for IT becomes an issue for researcher and the study tries to study this issue from multiple theoretical perspectives and using many constructs and definitions to explain this issue, Although, Agarwal did not directly show in his theoretical frame the relationship between individual acceptance of an IT and significant individual-level outcomes such as improved work performance, enhanced productivity, and user satisfaction. These outcomes are the first effects in a causal chain in which second effects such as enhanced competitiveness and profitability would eventually be manifested at the firm level (Agarwal, 2003).

“The importance of individual differences as a significant theoretical construct in technology acceptance is indisputable. What is not clear however is the extent to which individual differences matter in work settings because of the limited managerial control that can be exercised over such differences.” Agarwal and Prasad (1999) suggest that individual differences can be utilized to organize a profile of individuals more accepted for new technologies. The information about the individual user can then serve the role in recruitment and selection. However, acknowledging the mediating influence of beliefs and the reality that managers often cannot choose individuals to become users of IT, Agarwal and Prasad also suggest that technology acceptance can be facilitated by utilizing other intermediations that directly affect beliefs such as training and developing a learning culture. Partition out the variance explained by these differences would permit clearer insight into the effects of other managerially controllable constructs on technology acceptance (Agarwal, 2000).

Computer self-efficacy

The study was conducted by (Darsono, 2005) which focused on individual professional's users for the technology, and investigates how external variables such as individual differences and system characteristics influence lecturers as individual professionals to accept the internet technology. the study differentiate between common end-user ,knowledge workers, managers in different levels and individual professional specially lectures as individual professional because the different in specialized training ,autonomous (dependent work ) practice and professional work arrangement. The study Found that individual differences ( computer self-efficacy, knowledge of search domain) and system characteristics ( terminology, screen design, relevance) have indirect impact in perceived usefulness ,ease of use and attitude on lecturers intention to use the internet but computer self-efficacy and screen design have direct impact on using the internet.

The study conducted by (Chiasson & Lovato, 2001) which aimed to examining how a user forms his or her perceptions of an innovation over time. By report on the experiences of a health planner using a DSS software tool for health planning over a one year period. The study found that the usage for particular software depends on the work strategy requirements. And the strategy can affect end user by encourage him/her to use particular system. Even The user's experience interacts with the software to complex among perceived characteristics of the innovation, subjective norms, and the stage of adoption, implementation processes, user competence, and organizational factors. And User experience played an important role in early discussions of contextual factor: work environment (subjective norms, organizational factors), implementation (processes and adoption stage) and user background (user competence) influence on usage of new software. And Despite the difficulty in learning the software (trialability), producing immediate results in using the software outputs to satisfy colleagues (observability; result demonstrability), understanding the detailed planning content (complexity of the software), and reconciling the structured approach in the software to her organic planning style (compatibility) all these affect on the acceptance for the new software. But Perceived usefulness from the software can provide a larger conceptual about the importance of using the software.

Self efficacy is the judgment of the user ability to perform the computer related task, the study was conducted by (DARSONO, 2005) focus on individual professional's users for the technology so this research investigates how external variables as individual differences and system characteristics influence lecturers as individual professionals to accept the internet technology. the study differentiate between common end-user ,knowledge workers, managers in different levels and individual professional specially lectures as individual professional because the different in specialized training ,autonomous (dependent work ) practice and professional work arrangement. The study found that individual differences ( computer self-efficacy, knowledge of search domain) and system characteristics ( terminology, screen design, relevance) have indirect impact in perceived usefulness ,ease of use and attitude on lecturers intention to use the internet but computer self-efficacy and screen design have direct impact on using the internet.

The study conducted by (Park & Brien & Caine & Rogers& Fisk& Ittersum& Capar & Parsons, 2006) which seeks to identify variables that would provide insight understanding for technology acceptance with focus in individual characteristics and the organizational characteristics. The study defined self-efficacy as a judgment of one's ability to use a technology to accomplish a particular job or task. Even the study found that organizational and individual characteristics interact with the technology characteristics to influence acceptance of technology through a positive effect on perceived usefulness.

Besides that Psychological trait like personal innovativeness, technology readiness, and self-efficacy of the user are more determinants of acceptance of computer technology than (age, gender, education) as demographics factors. Moreover psychological traits are stronger determinants in case of the group than in individual characteristics. And, the study can predict that an older user with high self efficacy is more acceptable for the technology than a younger use with low self efficacy.

The study conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004) which aimed to identify additional determinants for the technology acceptance in the education sector. The study found that there are direct and indirect significant effect for perceived usefulness on the intention to behavior to use the system and this effect is strong on the intention to use more than the effect on the attitudes and the attitude was formed by perceived usefulness. And that perceived ease of use has effect on perceived usefulness and the attitudes of the users but the effect on the attitudes was not significant this due to the combination of the factors like organization, subjects and the technology or due to the users have one month experience and they need to use the system easier and free of effort .and self-efficacy has strong direct effect on intention to use and perceived ease of use but on ease of use more effect than intention to behavior.

The study by (Klopping & McKinney, 2006) which conducted to examines the role of experience on consumer's intentions to shop online. The study found that experience has direct and indirect effects on intention to use e-commerce, and there are moderating effects on perceived usefulness, playfulness, and self efficacy to intention to use e-commerce. Besides, there is a significant difference in the relationship of playfulness on perceived usefulness between inexperienced e-commerce shoppers and experienced e-commerce shoppers. Even playfulness considered as importance as perceived usefulness from the inexperienced e-commerce shoppers prospective. That means site's playfulness is essential to perceptions of usefulness, while for more experienced e-commerce shoppers, the perceived usefulness of the site can be evident independent of its playfulness.

The study was conducted by (Sharp, 2006) to examine the development, extension, and application of TAM for information systems educators. The study found that Computer self-efficacy is a significant determinant of perceived ease of use this was supported by (Chan & Lu, 2004; Gong et al., 2004). One study, however, indicated that it was not significant (Chau, 2001).

The study was conduct by (Brown, 2002) which aimed to examine perceived ease of use for the technology web-based in learning environment in developing country not developed country. And the finding was that Self-efficacy and computer anxiety has strong influence on the user to use particular system through out their affect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Even that ease of finding and ease of understanding are significant affects on perceived ease of use. And ease of understanding has more affect than ease of finding. And computer anxiety and computer self- efficacy considered important determinants for adopting the system and make no need for formal training for the system.

The study was conducted by (Hwang & Yi, 2003) in the intrinsic motivation and computer self-efficacy research to Technology Acceptance Model in order to predict the use of web-based information systems. It found that behavioral intention and self-efficacy have a significant effect on actual use. Even perceived enjoyment and self-efficacy were significant determinants of ease of use. Even was found that self-efficacy was a strong determinant for ease of use and actual use and perceived enjoyment has a significant direct effect on ease of use. The study supported all the relations were purposed in the technology acceptance model. Even the studies (Klloppiing & McKiinneyy, 2004: Jones & S. Hubona, 2005) support that too.

The study was conducted by (Slylianoa & Jackson, 2007) to examine the individual differences and beliefs variables across two technologies e-commerce and internet technology. And the study found the self efficacy more closely correlation with e-commerce whereas the comfortable is related with internet usage. and the study found self efficacy influences the technology usage even for long period even influence the chose of what technology to use and it has effect on the perceive usefulness.

Education level

According to the study conducted by (Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006) which target the utilization of technology integration in the classroom focused on educational ideology, a factor not related to technology that also affects decisions in terms of educational applications, the study mentioned that all of the ideologies have effects on attitudes toward the usage of the technology, and educational anarchism, educational libertinism, and educational intellectualism have an effect on the perceived usefulness of technology.

Also, the study conducted by (Jones & Hubona, 2005) which aimed to determine the effect of staff seniority, age, and education level on usage behavior. The study supported all TAM construction. Even that Education level would directly affect actual usage behavior besides effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Even in the findings staff seniority and education level had direct negative effects in frequency usage of email. Even Education level was positive effect on perceived usefulness in case of the email but not affect perceived ease of use for email. And no effect in case of Microsoft ward in both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness.

Even, the study conducted by (Bani-Ali &Money, 2005) which aimed to examine the relationships among: computer self-efficacy, ease of use, project complexity , system functionality, information quality , performance impact, organization size, project size, user education and training & experience level. The study found that there are two effects for the user experience on the usage, project management experience had no relationship with the new software usage, but software experience had a strong and direct relationship. And the study considered education level as a moderator in the relation with the use of the new software.

Experience level

In The study conducted by (Singletary& Akbulut & Houston, 2002) which purposed to identify factors that effect the acceptance of high school students for software application when the initial use of the application is mandatory, The finding was that computer experience has positive direct effects on self-efficacy, computer anxiety, perceived ease of use and positive indirect effects on perceived usefulness. And the study mentioned that computer experience would not have a significant direct effect on usage but the effect would be positive and significant overall. And recommended extend this study with qualitative research like interviews, focus groups and cognitive mapping.

the study conducted by (Bani-Ali &Money, 2005) which aimed to examine the relationships among: computer self-efficacy, ease of use, project complexity , system functionality, information quality , performance impact, organization size, project size, user education and training & experience level. The study found that there are two effects for the user experience on the usage, project management experience had no relationship with the new software usage, but software experience had a strong and direct relationship. And the study considered education level as a moderator in the relation with the use of the new software.

Even The study conducted by (Staples & Wong & Seddon, 2002) to examine the implementing of new system effects on its users, with focus on the relationship between pre- implementation expectations and their perceived benefits based on post-implementation experience. The study finding confirmed that System usefulness, ease of use and information quality has strong relation to information system success and user satisfaction.

The study conducted by (Chang, 2004) which purposed to explore the validity of the extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) found that prior experience is a stronger predictor of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness than age.

The study conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004) which aimed to identify additional determinants for the technology acceptance in the education sector. The study found that there are direct and indirect significant effect for perceived usefulness on the intention to behavior to use the system and this effect is strong on the intention to use more than the effect on the attitudes and the attitude was formed by perceived usefulness. And that perceived ease of use has effect on perceived usefulness and the attitudes of the users but the effect on the attitudes was not significant this due to the combination of the factors like organization, subjects and the technology or due to the users have one month experience and they need to use the system easier and free of effort .and self-efficacy has strong direct effect on intention to use and perceived ease of use but on ease of use more effect than intention to behavior.

Training

According to the study was conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004) which aimed to identify additional determinants for the technology acceptance in the education sector, the study found that there is significant adoption for the system in the world and it's important to understand the acceptance for the new technology in order to motivate the users to use the system, also should provide different features to motivate user's perceived usefulness to make interactive between human and the system to increase perceived ease of use, that by providing training programs to increase the user's self-efficacy, And the training should plan carefully in steps to insure the user got the benefit from each step with using professional trainer, that was confirm by The study conducted by (Gyampah & Salam, 2003) which aimed to examine ERP training and ERP project communication, will affect the TAM variables only through the psychological variable-shared beliefs in the perceived benefits of the ERP system, the study found that training has important and significant positive influences on the shared beliefs in the benefits of the system and shared beliefs influence both the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of the system through out affect attitude, which in turn affects intention to behavior. Study confirms that communication with effective training affect the core TAM variables. And the training on the system has significant affect on perceived ease of use.

Also, the study conducted by (Seymour & Makanya & Berrangé, 2007) which aims to Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to investigate the factors that influence the acceptance of the user for ERP systems, the study found that there are three factors facilitating conditions that are training and support, belief in the system and project communication. And that Training has been identified as one of the important factors for end-user acceptance of the System. It is important for the organizations to adopt particular system to get the length, timing and enclosure of end-user training right, because it's positive influence on the acceptance of the end-user for the system. Training gives end-users time to adjust to the change that occur with the implementation of the system and allows them to gain first hand experience and explore the usefulness of the system (Amaoko& Gyampah, 2004).

However, the study was conducted by (Bani-Ali &Money, 2005) which aimed to examine the relationships among: computer self-efficacy, ease of use, project complexity , system functionality, information quality , performance impact, organization size, project size, user education and training & experience level. The study found that training, education and manager experience has a positive relationship with the use of new software, but this study did not support the level of project manager training, and user training level has no significant relationship with the use of new software. That was supported in the study was conduct by (Brown, 2002) which aimed to examine perceived ease of use for the technology web-based in learning environment in developing country not developed country. And the finding was that Self-efficacy and computer anxiety has strong influence on the user to use particular system through out their affect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Even that ease of finding and ease of understanding are significant affects on perceived ease of use. And ease of understanding has more affect than ease of finding. And computer anxiety and computer self- efficacy considered important determinants for adopting the system and make no need for formal training for the system.

The study was conducted by (Chismar & Patton, 2002) which made among the physicians to examines their intention to adopt Internet-based health applications by using the applicability of the (TAM2) in Hawaii. The study found that Technology acceptance and its usage affected by the nurse perception about the computer is usefulness than by the training provided.

System characteristic

1. Information quality

Individual characteristics, Institutional characteristics and social characteristics are not the only factors that interacted with each other to influence the technology acceptance as mentioned in the study with conducted by (Agarwal, 2003) but, even interacted with the technology characteristics to influence the technology acceptance this was supported by the study conducted by (Park & Brien & Caine & Rogers& Fisk& Ittersum& Capar & Parsons, 2006) which seeks to identify variables that would provide insight understanding for technology acceptance with focus in individual characteristics and the organizational characteristics. The study found that Individual characteristics interacted with technology characteristics to influence technology acceptance. Therefore, many studies were conducted to measure the affect of the technology characteristic in the technology acceptance by studying many factors like determinants - performance expectancy and effort expectancy as in the study conducted by (Schaper & Pervan, 2004), Relative advantage , Ease of use, Result demonstrability, Trialability, Visibility, Image, Compatibility, Voluntariness (Venkatesh& Morris& Davis & Davis, 2003) and Information quality .

Also, Information quality it is the type, level of detail and variety of information which are determined then the system designed and development phase while the timeliness, accuracy, and reliability result from the system operations. In another hand, Information quality is the report content and form which considered as a measurement of user perceived effectiveness of the quality of the information, content included accuracy, relevance, adequacy, and understandability of report contents, while form included quality of format, timeliness of reports, manner of presentation, and result of information (Ahn & Ryu & Han, 2007).

Beside that, the study which conducted In Malaysia by (Mohd & Syed- Mohamad & Zaini, 2005) to identify the relation between information quality and the acceptance of doctors for Electronic Medical Record System (EMR) in one of Malaysian hospital. The study found information quality has significant impact on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use toward using the system. And the study mentioned that it is important for system designers for effectively communicate with the end users to get their requirements of system in terms of information quality factors. This result was supported by the study was conducted by (Chismar & Patton, 2002) which made among the physicians to examines their intention to adopt Internet-based health applications by using the applicability of the (TAM2) in Hawaii. The study found that the important factor for predicting the intention to use the system is the technology is useful and the output quality is sufficient for their daily work. And there is an affect for perceived usefulness and output quality on the intentions to use by physicians. Physicians focus on the strong staff support for operating medical equipment and related technologies. The same result was found by the study was conducted by (Algahtani, 2004) which aimed for more understanding of the acceptance for the technology in different cultures. The study found that information quality, Relative advantage, compatibility, observability and trialability had positive significant relation with the end user acceptance and the Complexity considered the negative affect on the computer acceptance.

Moreover, the pervious both studies (Mohd & Syed- Mohamad & Zaini, 2005; Chismar & Patton, 2002) were supported by the study was conducted by (Ahn & Ryu & Han, 2007) which aimed to tested the relationship between Web quality factors and user acceptance behavior with a focus on service quality and investigates the affect of playfulness on user acceptance of online retailing. The study found that Information quality has a positive impact on perceived ease of use and usefulness of a Website. And that the levels of information quality considered as (various, complete, detailed, accurate, timely, relevant, and reliable). And System quality, Information quality, Service quality had significant effect on playfulness, ease of use and usefulness and this effect increase when they mediated by ease of use. Even Service quality, system quality and information quality had significant over all the effects on intention behavior to use. Even the quality of the Web has significant affect on intention behavior to use mediated by playfulness, ease of use, usefulness and attitude which call user substantial beliefs. And results have gave attention to the managers about the investing on the time and resources when designing and operating Web sites to make ease of use for the customers better than they shift to another resources.

Also, in the study which conducted by (Bani-Ali &Money, 2005) and aimed to examine the relationships among: computer self-efficacy, ease of use, project complexity , system functionality, information quality , performance impact, organization size, project size, user education and training & experience level. The study found that System characteristics are the determinant factors and affecting the new software usage. Information quality, system functionality, and ease of use have strong, positive, and direct relationships with using the new software. And information quality provided good explanatory power for the new software usage. The same result was confirmed by the study was conducted by (Staples& Wong& Seddon, 2002) to examine the implementing of new system effects on its users, with focus on the relationship between pre- implementation expectations and their perceived benefits based on post-implementation experience. The study finding confirmed that System usefulness, ease of use and information quality has strong relation to information system success and user satisfaction.

Even, The Study (Saeed &Helm, 2008) which proposes that perceived usefulness affected by information quality and system integration which will then drive post adoption usage of the information system. The study found that System integration and information quality are significant predictors of user perceptions regarding information system usefulness. Usefulness positively and significantly relates to extended usage and exploratory usage of the information system. Even there is significant affect for the information quality on extended usage and system integration on exploratory usage only partially supported. If users are convinced that the information system effects and supports their work at the post adoption stage, they will extend the usage and also experiment with how to apply the information system in top settings. Moreover, information quality and system integration helped forming the user representation about the usefulness of the system. So there is direct affect for information quality on the system quality and the extended usage on exploratory usage. Beside that, Perceived usefulness influence initial acceptance of particular system, and facilitating post adoption system usage. So, with good experience contribution and user's cognitions prefer using the features and functions offered by the system and exploring the uses of the new system in the academic work. And that usefulness has a partial mediating in these relationships. Thus, information system characteristics offer critical motivation influence the user's perceptions about value of the information system. Moreover, information quality has stronger relationship with usefulness for the female group. But, not support for the male group. The group with high internet experience gives more value on information quality to form their usefulness perceptions contrast to the low internet experience.

Social characteristics

1. Subjective Norms

AGARWAL in the study (Agarwal, 2000) mentioned that Social reactions are tool for generating meaning and shared understanding in the organization. Therefore, it provides an important basis for expected manners of behavior. So, the beliefs and attitudes of any group can shape the usage behavior for the technology in inside this group by suggestion or advices or communication the user for using the technology. And Social influence has been found two issues from a variety of sources For example, peers can influence the attitudes and behavior of individuals, social pressure from friends may influence individuals, supervisors, and co-workers. And the study found that Co-worker behavior influential technology usage more than supervisor behavior. Even the study supported the result that social pressure might induce new users to exhibit initial adoption behavior and normative influences were found to be more important in intentions to adopt, and attitudes dominated as a predictor of continued use intentions.

In the study was conducted by (Park & Brien & Caine & Rogers& Fisk& Ittersum& Capar & Parsons, 2006) which seeks to identify variables that would provide insight understanding for technology acceptance with focus in individual characteristics and the organizational characteristics. The study found that There is effect for social influences dimensions on the acceptance for the technology such as the organizational environment is work-related like managers or Supervisors who works in team has more accept for new technologies, social influence like social pressure., subjective norm, system features and communication. Subjective norm has strong effect on technology acceptance moderated by voluntariness and has positive effect on the image of the person and there is large effect for Social influences like social pressure on the user's acceptance. Even The influence of Subjective norm by interpersonal influence like family members, friends, colleagues or work-related and influence by external influences like expert ideas, different kinds of media reports. And subjective norm of an individual influenced acceptance through a positive effect on perceived usefulness. Moreover, there are another factors influence the acceptance of the technology such as readiness, trust and innovativeness had stronger relationship among each other and influences the acceptance of technology. The study mentioned that the variables influence acceptance of technology vary depending on the purpose of use.

Even, the study was conducted by (Singletary& Akbulut & Houston, 2002) which purposed to identify factors that effect the acceptance of high school students for software application when the initial use of the application is mandatory. The study found that there are a positive relationship between Social Norms and Image, perceived usefulness and innovative usage behavior, even the study conducted by (Chang, 2004) which purposed to explore the validity of the extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) based on social and facilitating as main factors to predict intranet/portal usage because those factors are most dominant in the educational environment. It found that social factors can be effective when it related with the user attitudes to predict the behavior intention to use and facilitating conditions can be effective when it related with intention to use to predict actual usage. In other wards, Social factors were related to intention to use an intranet and facilitating conditions were related to actual use.

Also, the study was conducted by (YANG, 2007) which aimed to use the technology acceptance model for doing another examination of the relationships between students' attitude toward the use of WebCT and the determinants of the actual usage in light of social presence and sociability and found that after subjective norms were tested three time over time was found that there is significant effect for the subjective norms on the student, In contrast to (YANG, 2007), the study was conducted by (Venkatesh & Morris, 2000) which aimed to investigated gender differences in the context of individual adoption and conformed technology usage in the workplace by using technology acceptance model. The study found that Subjective norm did not influence men in using the system but influence women in the begging of introducing the system but after short time there isn't any effect in the women intention to use the system despite the increase in the experience. That means, subjective norm would not be significant with increasing experience due to the short time for testing this relation. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease and subjective norms can explain the effect on the woman intention to use the system .despite, usefulness only can explain the men intention to use the system.

Moreover, the study conducted by (Seymour & Makanya & Berrangé, 2007) which aims to Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to investigate the factors that influence the acceptance of the user for ERP systems. The study found that there are significance related between all variables except social influence with project communication and symbolic adoption. There isn't relation was found between social influence and symbolic adoption. And the social influence subjective norm reduces by the time till become non-significant after short time from the implementation for the system. Beside that, the social influence failed in the reliability. This was Supported the finding of (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000) which found that social constructs (Subjective norm, social factors and image) aren't significant when the systems usage is optional. But if the usage for the system is obligation the relation is significant. That causes social influences to have a direct effect on intention.

Also, the results from (Seymour & Makanya & Berrangé, 2007; Venkatesh & Davis, 2000) were supported in the study was conducted by (Chismar & Patton, 2002) which aimed to examines the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM2) applicability on the physicians' intention to adopt Internet-based health applications. The study found that Perceived usefulness is strong determinant of intention to use. And perceived usefulness, job relevance and output quality has significant effect on the intention to use. And that perceived ease of use, the social factors subjective norm and image don't have significant effect on the intention to use. Physicians didn't influence by peer pressures or what they will be perceived if they adopt the technology. But they are independent and don't put attention to subjective norm or image.

From the previous argued, the subjective norm was not found as a very strong determinant of technology adoption, beside that the subjective norm is not the only predictor of intention to use the system but, this factor may be mediated by perceived usefulness. And Subjective norm has positive and significant effect on intention to use the system, And when it mandatory with voluntariness subjective norm has a negative direct effect on intention to use this due to that the target user (police man) likes to listen to the people with valued opinions for them and that increase the intention to use the system and most of their tasks are determined by rules because their cultures having high power distance and the supervisors or the manager opinions affect the people who have the lower power. Even was found the subjective norm was not found as a very strong determinant of technology adoption. Beside that the subjective norm is not the only predictor of intention to use the system but, this factor may be mediated by perceived usefulness, that was found in the study was contacted by (Yalcinkaya & B.A & M.S, 2007) to investigate the acceptance for the police officer for the POLNET system in Turkish.

Also, the user's experience interacts with subjective norms influence on usage of new software. In other wards, Subjective Norms: other organizational members' opinions had a strong influence on the user perceptions; Subjective norms played a strong and complex part in the usage of the software system, that was found in the study was conducted by (Chiasson & Lovato, 2001) which aimed to examining how a user forms his or her perceptions of an innovation over time. By report on the experiences of a health planner using a DSS software tool for health planning over a one year period. Beside that, the study was conducted by (Aversano, 2005) which purposed to explore why some people refuse to use the mobile telephone in USA. The study used the theory of Ajzen to give exploration of human behavior to understanding a person's actions in behavior like social attitude and personality trait it considered as important to explain human behavior. And the study used TPB to confirm that the behavior intention to use is determined the actual behavior. And there are three factors predicting the Intention to use the technology are attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control as same as TRA with focus in the important of the intention to behavior with the adoption for the technology. Even the study used the TAM2 which explains perceived usefulness in terms of cognitive and social influence processes.

2. Culture

There is different in accepting the technology due to the variability between countries in the culture dimensions, this dimensions are Individualism/collectivism, power distance, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, monochromic/polychromic time and high context/low context. And there is better percept in the people who have high-context values for the technology than who have low-context values cause high-context don't give more information in the context of the message when use the electronic communication. And there is effect for perceived quality on intention to use among feminine culture better than masculine culture. The people with low level of uncertainty avoidance use information technology more than high level of uncertainty avoidance. Beside that Uncertainty avoidance, Individualism/collectivism, Power distance and Masculinity/Femininity, Individualism/collectivism are moderators between subjective norms and intention to behavior. Even found Social influence from important people in cultures want to avoid uncertainty is much more important in determining information technology usage than in cultures comfortable with uncertainty. That was found in The study conducted by (Zakour, 2004) which aimed to extend TAM to give more understanding for the national cultural values differences as predictor for behavior toward information technology.

Also, in the study was conducted by (Algahtani, 2004) which aimed for more understanding of the acceptance for the technology in different cultures. And found that there is strong support for the effect of the attitude in the behavior to use the computer and satisfaction. The study confirms that cultural factors play major roles in the technology acceptance. This can view clearly in the study which conducted by (Merchant, 2007) which searched for the relation between the culture/work value of the people and the usage of IT. The study used TAM to explain how the knowledge of the employee's orientation culture has facilitated the usage of the technology. The study found that the orientation culture effects in the individual in the way how they communicate in their work place to achieve the company goals that through the effect of the culture in the moderated perceived usefulness and ease of use Which effect in the behavior intention to use then the actual usage for the technology, this study test the result in many countries like America, France, china and five Arab countries all success except in china.

Even, what can success in one country could not success in another country, as in the case of the study was contacted by (Almutairi, 2007) which aimed to test the applicability of the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Kuwaiti ministries in order to understand the information technology in the government utilities, the study found that TAM didn't explain the acceptance for the technology cause it doesn't have international validity and it doesn't suit another cultures. The study define the culture as “collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of on human group from another” and the culture by its four dimensions work together to form the prospective and the behavior of human group about different thing around them. And the fail for TAM in this study is return to the different in the culture.

So culture consider as a barrier for the success or the acceptance of the information technology if there isn't intention for it's affects in the acceptance for the technology that was clear in the study conducted (Ali, 2004) which aimed to view the low usage for the technology specially the internet in Arab countries comparing to developed countries. The study mentioned that Arab countries have collective cultures with their tradition and value so if Arab countries want to be in the same level with the developed countries in using the technology they should accelerate different sector like society and the subcultures because most of the problems from the prospective about the information technology in middle east.

Institutional characteristic

Management support

According to the study which conducted by (Nathan &Apigian & Nathan & Tu , 2004) which aimed to study the relationship between the top management support (TMS)and the information system performance (IS) to give more evidence for this relation and it describes the relation between top management support with (IS)function and (IS) performance. The study found the important of information system as strategy for the organization for the developing and competitive advantage that can achieve by the top management support, whereas most of the problems the organization face in the developing, planning, usage of the technology is because the failing of the top management to manage and support the usage of the technology. Even though, the top management gives direct and indirect support for the organization to use the technology, the indirect support like vendors and consultant as undertaking in efforts of the system in the organization, the direct support is positioning the IS in the organization even for the planning and developing.

Also, (Nathan &Apigian & Nathan & Tu, 2004) was supported by the study was conducted by (Chen, 2006) which aimed to examine the quality recognition of medical information systems in Tzu-chi hospital in Taiwan and explore the factors make the physicians not using medical information system, which found that Computer training; government support and organization support factors could prevent the end-user from using particular system, and the same result was found in the study was conduct by (Brown & Town, 2002) which aimed to examine perceived ease of use for the technology web-based in learning environment in developing country not developed country. And the finding was that the appropriate strategy in the learning technology should design to make the information ease to find and ease to understand for adopt the information technology system. Even making training and management support to increase the abilities of the user to use the system and reduce the anxiety from using the system.

Moreover, in supporting for the previous studies, the study conducted by (Vonk & greetman & schot, 2007) which aimed to explore ways to improve the effectiveness of strategies for the diffusion of geo-information technology in public planning organization. The study found that the importance of the failure factor categories in explaining the adoption of PSS for the organization are the attitudes of the managers, social organization users, awareness of the potential and the implementation support by the organization those factors considered important factors affecting on the acceptance for the system.

The study conducted by (Seymour & Makanya & Berrangé, 2007) which aims to Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to investigate the factors that influence the acceptance of the user for ERP systems. The study found that there are three factors facilitating conditions that are, training and support, belief in the system and project communication. And that Training has been identified as one of the important factors for end-user acceptance of the System. It is important for the organizations to adopt particular system to get the length, timing and enclosure of end-user training right, because it's positive influence on the acceptance of the end-user for the system. Training gives end-users time to adjust to the change that occur with the implementation of the system and allows them to gain first hand experience and explore the usefulness of the system (Amaoko& Gyampah, 2004).

2) Government support

The factors that influence acceptance of computer technology go beyond organizations. Factors external to organization such as sector (public vs. private), volatility (uncertainty), growth rates, and concentration of markets also have been shown to affect acceptance of technology (Park& Brien& Caine & Rogers& Fisk& Ittersum & Capar & Parsons, 2006), and the role of the government in developing countries is vary, and IT is one of the areas that considered as the subject of increased government resources throughout improvised information programs, increased training opportunities and technology support grants and awards. One thing is providing these programs. Another thing having small business takes advantage of them. To be able to take advantage of government programs, tow events have to occur. First small business has to know about them. This means that governments have to be proactive in informing small business of the programs in the communities within which small business operates. Secondly, small business must be convinced that their investment of resources into the programs will provide identifiable benefits to their business. (Burgess, 2002: Managing Information Technology in Small Business: Challenges and Solutions, chapter 1, 13 pages).

Government support, organization support and Computer training factors could prevent the end-user from using particular system, was found by the study conducted by (Chen, 2006) which aimed to examine the quality recognition of medical information systems in Tzu-chi hospital in Taiwan and explore the factors make the physicians not using medical information system.

3) Organization Strategy

According to the study was conducted by (Chiasson & Lovato, 2001) which aimed to examining how a user forms his or her perceptions of an innovation over time. By report on the experiences of a health planner using a DSS software tool for health planning over a one year period, the study found that the usage for particular software depends on the work strategy requirements, and the strategy can affect end user by encourage him/her to use particular system, Even the user's experience interacts with the software to complex among perceived characteristics of the innovation, subjective norms, and the stage of adoption, implementation processes, user competence, and organizational factors. And User experience played an important role in early discussions of contextual factor: work environment (subjective norms, organizational factors), implementation (processes and adoption stage) and user background (user competence) influence on usage of new software. And Despite the difficulty in learning the software (trialability), producing immediate results in using the software outputs to satisfy colleagues (observability; result demonstrability), understanding the detailed planning content (complexity of the software), and reconciling the structured approach in the software to her organic planning style (compatibility) all these affect on the acceptance for the new software. But Perceived usefulness from the software can provide a larger conceptual about the importance of using the software.

Also, the study was conducted by (Jones & Hubona, 2005) which aimed to determine the effect of staff seniority, age, and education level on usage behavior. The study mentioned that “education level did not affect perceived ease of use for email, and it had no effect on either perceived usefulness or perceived ease of use for word processing. Although we did not expect these results, they support the strategy of including direct effects of individual differences, since education level had direct effects on the usage in both models. A possible explanation for the lack of education level's effect on perceived ease of use is that word processing and email were not complex enough to lead to differences across education levels, especially given that all participants were from an IT division”, that means by using particular strategy to overrule the individual differences towards influencing the technology acceptance, that was supported by (Chiasson & Lovato, 2001).

Therefore, if management can take appropriate steps to positively influence the belief structures that bring about positive attitude formation that will then lead to more acceptance of the technology by the organization's members. In another wards, the core idea from formulation the organization strategy to influence the belief and the attitude of the workers in the organization toward the acceptance of the technology, that was the result in The study conducted by (Gyampah & Salam, 2003) which aimed to examine ERP training and ERP project communication, will affect the TAM variables only through the psychological variable-shared beliefs in the perceived benefits of the ERP system, and the study found that One of the strategy mechanisms for influencing belief structures is through training provided as part of the system implementation. Training provides the hands-on mechanism that allows users of the ERP system to explore the system both from a technical standpoint as well as from a functional perspective. It allows the users to obtain first hand information and experience. It also allows them to explore the perceived ease of use for the system. Thus, training helps in the formation of the shared beliefs in the benefits of the ERP By providing an appropriate training environment where users have the ability to interact with the system or a prototype, managers should be able to influence the formation of beliefs regarding the perceived usefulness and benefits of the system. Thus, although managers have recognized the importance of training in system implementation, the research provides both theoretical and empirical support for why training is important and should help encourage managers in their training efforts.

Moreover, the appropriate strategy in the learning technology should design to make the information ease to find and ease to understand for adopt the information technology system. Even making training and supporting to increase the abilities of the user to use the system and in order to reduce the anxiety from using the system, that was found in the study was conduct by (Brown & Town, 2002) which aimed to examine perceived ease of use for the technology web-based in learning environment in developing country not developed country. Also, the explanation for the negative relation between the end user of the public sector and the computer usage, it might be because of the style of computer usage policy in each sector follows whether discretionary or mandatory as the latter is probably more applicable in private organization achieving higher level of captive computer usage, that was found in the study was conducted by (Algahtani, 2004) which aimed for more understanding of the acceptance for the technology in different cultures.

Oh and Pinsonneault (2007) find that when the fit between business strategy and IT strategy is high, organizational performance is higher than when the fit is low. Whalen (2007, p. 40) states that “strategic business and technology planning must become integrated and ‘real time' as opposed to annual or serial events in order to maintain competitiveness.”

4) Other company characteristics

The organization or company size could play an important role in influence the technology acceptance in the organization in order to develop different aspect in the organization or to reduce the wasting time in the work processes that was confirmed in the study conducted by (Hayes, 2006) to examined how client size affects various aspects of the audit in one clinic. The study found that it is important and reasonable to expect that with a larger organization the managers will direct his or her attention to more critical areas. Even, he will spend more time and effort, which may include utilizing tools available to him, such as an information system. Even, suggest a link between client size and audit strategy and examining the effect of client factors, such as organization size, the same ideas were supported by (Agarwal, 2003) which not directly shown in his theoretical frame the a relationship between individual acceptance of an IT and significant individual-level outcomes such as improved work performance, enhanced productivity, and user satisfaction. These outcomes are the first effects in a causal chain in which second effects such as enhanced competitiveness and profitability would eventually be manifested at the firm level.

Also, the affect of the organization size on the use of new software was supported strongly in the study conducted by (Bani-Ali &Money, 2005) which aimed to examine the relationships among: computer self-efficacy, ease of use, project complexity , system functionality, information quality , performance impact, organization size, project size, user education and training & experience level with the use of new software. The study found that perceived ease of use, perceived functionality, organization size and perceived information quality, project complexity, project size has positive relationships with the use of the new software and the study supported that strongly. But support the project size partially.

And In contrary to the norm, End user in higher organization level tends to be less related to new technology, that was found in the study was conducted by (algahtani, 2004) which aimed for more understanding of the acceptance for the technology in different cultures. But, the organization level has appositive significant relationship with computer usage. Also, the end user of the public sector had negative relation to computer usage and there is not significant relationship between types of sector with satisfaction, this might reflect the style of computer usage policy in each sector follows whether discretionary or mandatory as the latter is probably more applicable in private organization achieving higher level of captive computer usage.

Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

TAM2

Davis (1986, 1989) conceptualized the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explain user acceptance of technology (Adams, Nelson & Todd, 1992). The model can be used in a wide variety of ways. The model may be used by system designers to obtain user feedback of different system features or design approaches. According to Adams et al., TAM may also be used to diagnose problems with user acceptance after the implementation of technology.

Fishbein's and Azjen's (1975) theory of reasoned action provides the theoretical basis for TAM. Fishbein and Ajzen hypothesized that an individual's behavior depends on his or her intention to perform a function, the individual's evaluation with respect to the act, and the person's subjective norm or perception of the normative pressures regarding the behavior. Davis (1986, 1989) adopted the belief, attitude-intention-behavior sequence to explain user acceptance of information technology. According to Davis et al. (1989), TAM was intended to “provide an explanation of the determinants of computer acceptance that is general, capable of explaining user behavior across a broad range of end-user computing technologies and user populations, while at the same time being both parsimonious and theoretically justified.”(p. 985)

Davis (1986) proposed that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use predict usage of information technology. Perceived usefulness was defined as the “the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance. Perceived ease of use was defined as “the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort.” (Davis, 1989, p. 14) With theoretical support from various theories and models including expectancy theory, self-efficacy theory, cost-benefit research, innovation research, and the channel disposition model, TAM postulates that computer usage is a function of the end-user's behavioral intention to use the system. Behavioral intention was jointly determined by a person's attitude toward using the system as well as the end-user's perception of the usefulness of the system. TAM also postulates that perceived usefulness is influenced by perceived ease of use and external variables. External variables that influence perceived usefulness include features of the system, training, documentation, demographic characteristics of end-users, and end-user support.

Davis and Davis et al proposed TAM to address why users accept or reject information technology. Their model is an adaptation of the theory of reasoned action (TRA, see Fig. 1) proposed by Fishbein and Ajzen to explain and predict the behaviors of people in a specific situation. Fig. 2 presents original version of TAM. A key purpose of TAM is to provide a basis for tracing the impact of external variables on internal beliefs, attitudes, and intentions. It suggests that perceived ease of use (PEOU), and perceived usefulness (PU) are the two most important factors in explaining system use. TRA and TAM propose that external variables intervene indirectly, influencing attitude, subjective norms, or their relative weight in the case of TRA, or influencing PEOU and PU in the case of TAM. Attitude towards using (AT) and behavioral intention to use (BI) are common to TRA and TAM, and Davis used Fishbein and Ajzen's method to measure them. Davis chose not to keep the variable subjective norms, because he estimated that it had negligible effect on BI. In TAM2, Venkatesh and Davis reconsidered this choice.

Versions of TAM

In its original version, TAM had the following components: PU, PEOU, AT, BI, and actual use (U). Thus on the basis of the five components present and taking into account the structure of the model, 10 relations could potentially be examined: (1) PEOU-PU; (2) PU-AT; (3) PEOU-AT; (4) PU-BI; (5) PEOU-BI; (6) AT-BI; (7) AT-U; (8) BI-U; (9) PEOU-U; and (10) PU-U. In its original form (Fig. 2), TAM included both AT and BI as in TRA. The ultimate objective of TAM was to predict use.

External variables

TAM postulates that external variables intervene indirectly by influencing PEU and PU. Table 5 presents the external variables considered. We note that there is no clear pattern with respect to the choice of the external variables considered.

Measures of PU and PEOU Perceived Usefulness (PU): Davis, in his study of PU, proposed a six items measurement tool. The six items include the four items most commonly used: (1) using (application) increases my productivity; (2) using (application) increases my job performance; (3) using (application) enhances my effectiveness on the job; and (4) overall, I find the (application) useful in my job. I find the (application) easy to use Perceived ease of use (PEOU): We observe that four items are more frequently used: (1) learning to operate (the application) is easy for me; (2) I find it easy to get the (application) to do what I want to do; (3) the (application) is rigid and inflexible to interact with; and (4) overall, I.

TAM2

Venkatesh and Davis (2000) presented theoretical extensions to the technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1986, 1989). Their new model, TAM2, explains perceived usefulness in terms of cognitive and social influence processes. Vankatesh and Davis suggested job relevance, one of the cognitive processes that demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with perceptions of usefulness of technology and suggested this construct may be analogous to construct of person-job-fit (Meyer & Allen, 1991). From its original model, TAM has evolved over time. This is the model used by Venkatesh (Fig. 3). The notion of time has been included in the analysis of the factors that influence use. Research has shown that the influence of some factors on intention to use IS, varies at different stages in the IS implementation process. Innovation introduced such characteristics as: triability; relative advantage; complexity; compatibility; and observability.

Recently, work (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000) on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has focused on developing theoretical extensions that explain perceived usefulness, in particular, in terms of cognitive and social influence processes. In their seminal paper on the model, referred to as TAM2,Venkatesh and Davis proposed and empirically demonstrated that “job relevance” represented a viable explanation for cognitive processes that influence users' intentions to use an information system. Vankatesh and Davis suggested job relevance was analogous to the profile-comparison construct of person-job-fit, a popular psychological process for explaining organizational commitment (Meyer & Allen, 1991). Vankatesh and Davis noted that:

“Progress might also come from adopting profile-comparison processes from research on person-job-fit (Caldwell & O'Reilly, 1990) to the assessment of system-job fit. Understanding this matching process is a vital research direction since it explicitly links the functional design characteristics of a system to perceived usefulness and ultimately user acceptance.

Theory of Reasoned Action

A great deal of attention has been given to intention based theory with regard to adoption of technology. Theory of reasoned action (TRA) is a much researched area that has been applied across a number of areas. The authors, Ajzen and Fishebein ascribe that their theory applies to “virtually any human behavior.” IT researchers have used this theory extensively to better understand user's behaviors in technology adoption. According to TRA, the unique behavior of an individual is determined by one's behavioral intention (BI) to act on the behavior, and it is performed in conjunction with an individual's attitude (A) and subjective norm (SN) of the behavior that is being performed. Attitude is the result of what the person believes about the action that is being performed and the expected result. Subjective norm (SN) is the result of an individual's response to the perceived expectations of his or her peer group and his belief that he must comply with those expectations. TRA addresses a person's internal psychological variables by which multiple external variables are studied. IT researchers have relied heavily on this theory to lay the groundwork for a better understanding of why users adopt technological innovations.

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was the follow on work by Icek Ajzen. (1985, 1987) “Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavioral subjective norms and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain.”

Ajzen theory is rooted in the psychological exploration of human behavior and all of the intricacy that is involved in understanding a person's actions. Concepts dealing with “behavioral dispositions such as social attitude and personality trait have played an important role in these attempts to predict and explain human behavior” (Ajzen, 1988; Campbell, 1963; Sherman & Fazio, 1983) According to TPB, behavior is determined by the intention to perform the behavior. Intention is predicted by three factors: attitude towards the behavior (A), subjective norms (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC).

The relation between the TAM and TRA with this study

In process

Extra

Acceptance behavior is posited to be influenced by a variety of factors, including individual differences, social influences, beliefs and attitudes, situational influences, and managerial interventions. Managerial interventions and individual differences, in turn, are hypothesized to have an effect on beliefs and attitudes. The following discussion begins with an overview of the major theoretical paradigms that form the basis for the derivation of the overall frame. Subsequent sections elaborate on each construct and relationship in greater detail.

Acquiring IT to support business needs is clearly a crucial prerequisite to exploiting the potential of IT. Unfortunately acquiring appropriate IT is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for utilizing it effectively.1 Organizations (i.e., leaders and managers) make primary adoption decisions, yet it is individuals within the firm who are the ultimate users and consumers of IT. Thus, it is evident that true business value from any information technology would derive only through appropriate use by its target user group. In other words, systems that are not utilized will not deliver the returns anticipated by managers. Evidence suggests that individual users can exhibit a variety of different behaviors when confronted with a new information technology: They may completely reject it and engage in sabotage or active resistance they may only partially utilize its functionality, or they may wholeheartedly embrace the technology and the opportunities it offers. Obviously, each behavior has some consequential outcomes both negative and positive for managers. (Agarwal, 2000).

Why we use attitude?

AGARWAL in the study (Agarwal, 2000) mentioned that Social reactions are tool for generating meaning and shared understanding in the organization. Therefore, it provides an important basis for expected manners of behavior. So, the beliefs and attitudes of any group can shape the usage behavior for the technology in inside this group by suggestion or advices or communication the user for using the technology. And Social influence has been found two issues from a variety of sources For example, peers can influence the attitudes and behavior of individuals, social pressure from friends may influence individuals, supervisors, and co-workers. And the study found that Co-worker behavior influential technology usage more than supervisor behavior. Even the study supported the result that social pressure might induce new users to exhibit initial adoption behavior and normative influences were found to be more important in intentions to adopt, and attitudes dominated as a predictor of continued use intentions.

There is a need for additional research examining the precise role of the attitude construct in technology acceptance. This issue of full versus partial mediation has important pragmatic implications because attitude plays a more critical role in the former case, and it could be argued then that the beliefs selected do not matter in and of themselves, provided other methods of directly influencing attitude can be devised. Researchers who retain the attitude construct in their theoretical models are encouraged to be particularly sensitive to its operationalization. As recommended consistently in the literature (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), the measurement of attitude should be focused directly and specifically on feelings about the focal behavior as opposed to the object associated with the behavior. In other words, attitudes as related to using an IT should be measured rather than attitudes that represent liking or disliking the technology itself (Agarwal, 2000