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Information Technology Advantages and Disadvantages

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Published: Wed, 28 Feb 2018

The importance of Information Technology

The importance of technology comes from that Technology has an important impact on innovation and the development of societies and economies. This impact can be observed in three steps.

The first step is substitution, new technology substitutes for the old. For example, consumers start substituting their fixed telephone lines with mobile telephones. The second step is the diffusion, when adopting the new technology is widely across society because it is law cost or better or more effective than the previous technology. The final step is transformation when the new technology ways start working and emerging because the new technology is diffused so widely in society. For example, the widespread adoption of the networking has led to interesting innovations in the communication patterns of individuals such as executives conducting business while waiting in airport lounges or traveling in trains.( DUTTA & MIA , 2001)World Economic Forum.

ICT offers more opportunities for economic development and plays very important role in international competitiveness, rapid economic change, and productive capacity of improvements for developing countries. ICTs offer the developing countries many opportunities, as it has done in the developed world, when it created unprecedented possibilities for them. Studies have emphasized that there is evidence of a strong linkage between GDP growth and ICT investment showing the importance of ICT investment for development. According to an OECD research project, which was conducted in the year 2002, there is an impact of ICT on the economy. In addition, in the GDP growth per capita, ICT investment accounted for between 0.5% and 1.3% (Nodu, 2004).

Also, Organizations have increased their investment in information technology IT for planning in order to increase the efficiency of their business processes. Support management decision making and improve productivity. So IT become important tool to attaining competitive advantage for the organization and improves employees productivity and efficiency (Kim & Lee & Law, 2007)

Besides, Many researches investigate the relation between IT investment and increase the productivity and the performance in the companies’ one of these studies (sircar et al, 2000) which found several organization success with the spending on the IT but others were failed. (Agarwal& karahanna, 2000) argue in this result that IT investment will be successful when IT utilized by the organization intended user in the way contribute to the strategy and the goals of the firms. Thus user acceptance is the key for the successes of the IT investment (Darsono, 2005).

Also, for more than two decades information technology has been the focus for researcher in information system this is because IT considers as the key to lead the organization for the good performance so many researches focus in the initial usage for IT or continuous usage foe IT (Premkumar & Bhattacherjee, 2005).

The advantages and disadvantages from adopting information technology

(brien & maracas, 2008, management information system, edition 8, chapter 1, p55) the advantages (for strategy advantage).

  1. Information technology uses to support the competitive strategy in helping the companies to reduce the costs of the company to give special offer for its products and services and give better care about customers and suppliers and to develop unions among the company and the company with the environment around the company and increase the virtue of its investment in IT resources.
  2. By using the information technology the organization or the companies will be able to develop the value of its business through out making the customer value the focus of its strategy which is to keep track of its customers preferences to supply its products and services anytime anywhere by using the internet or intranet and extranet(e-commerce websites).
  3. A lot of organizations/companies use information technology and internet to reengineering its business process because information technology can make integration for the organization to work for the same goal of the organization and this improves the design of the work flows or the requirements of the job even the organization structures even improve the efficiency and the effectiveness.
  4. Information technology provides the communication and the information required for the managers in order to manage the different activities within the organization and the resources from the partners to get the advantage from the changes in the market environment.
  5. Information technology can support the organization competitive strategy by making the organization as the knowledge creating to make innovation by creating its process style or product and service for its work or learning organization by doing similar in what the another companies created by using the internet to get the knowledge that it needs.

The disadvantages

Some disadvantages of information technology include:

  1. Unemployment – While information technology may have streamlined the business process it has also crated job redundancies, downsizing and outsourcing. This means that a lot of lower and middle level jobs have been done away with causing more people to become unemployed.
  2. Privacy – Though information technology may have made communication quicker, easier and more convenient, it has also bought along privacy issues. From cell phone signal interceptions to email hacking, people are now worried about their once private information becoming public knowledge.
  3. Lack of job security – Industry experts believe that the internet has made job security a big issue as since technology keeps on changing with each day. This means that one has to be in a constant learning mode, if he or she wishes for their job to be secure.
  4. Dominant culture – While information technology may have made the world a global village, it has also contributed to one culture dominating another weaker one. For example it is now argued that US influences how most young teenagers all over the world now act, dress and behave. Languages too have become overshadowed, with English becoming the primary mode of communication for business and everything else (http://www.smallbusinessbible.org/advan_disadvan_informationtechnology.html# 3/4/2009 5:10am).

Lecture review

Behavior intention

According to (Davis , 1989: Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006: Hwang & Y. Yi, 2002: Phau & Gan, 2000)The technology acceptance model TAM consists of four main factors as major determinants of technology acceptance these factors are perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness, the attitudes toward the usage and the frequency of use of technology. That means if people want to accept or reject any specific technology they should increase user’s believes that this technology will help them do their work better and this refer to perceived usefulness and extend their believes in that the system is ease of use and the benefit is more than the effort from the use for this technology. In another wards, If the users perceive easy of use from that technology and perceive usefulness from the technology for their work purposes .that means, there are Positive attitudes toward the technology usage n have a positive relation with the behavior intention to use the technology.

Therefore, (Chang, 2004) was conducted The study which purposed to explore the validity of the extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) based on social and facilitating as main factors to predict intranet/portal usage because those factors are most dominant in the educational environment. The study found that there was strong positive relation among Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and user’s attitudes towards the intranet. And the Attitude has strong relation with the user intention to use. And the intention to behave had a strong relation with the actual usage this conform the positive significant relation in TAM and its constructs are to predicting the user acceptance of the intranet/portal. Even there are relation between experience and perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Even experience is a stronger predictor for perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness than age does.

So, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which created by (Davis& Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1989; Davis et al., 1989) Studied some important factors affecting in the use of the information technology. the TAM explained how the behavior intention to use the technology effected by one basic factor to cause the actual use for the new system, therefore the behavior intention to use the technology is the merely or only determined related to actual use for the system, beside that the latest studies confirmed that the behavior intention to use the technology is the merely mediated factor. In another words, the TAM explains attitude factors affecting the behavior intention to use with putting the focus on the attitudes as a factor to use the technology (Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006).

And in contrast that, the attitude not the only the factor who is affecting on the behavior intention to use but there are another factors can affect the behavior intention to use as in the study was conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004) which aimed to identify additional determinants factors for the technology acceptance in the education sector. The study found that there are direct and indirect significant effect for perceived usefulness on the behavior intention to use the system and this effect is strong on the behavior intention to use more than the effect on the attitudes and the attitude was formed by perceived usefulness. Beside, that perceived ease of use has effect on perceived usefulness and the attitudes of the users but the effect on the attitudes was not significant this due to the combination of the factors like organization, subjects and the technology or due to the users have one month experience and they need to use the system easier and free of effort .and self-efficacy has strong direct effect on intention to use and perceived ease of use but on ease of use more effect than intention to behavior.

Another study was conducted to confirm that intention to behavior is determined the actual behavior by (Aversano, 2005) which purposed to explore why some people refuse to use the mobile telephone in USA. The study used the theory of Ajzen to give exploration of human behavior to understanding a person’s actions in behavior like social attitude and personality trait it considered as important to explain human behavior. And the study used TPB to confirm that intention to behavior is determined the actual behavior. And there are three factors predicting the Intention to behavior are attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control as same as TRA with focus in the important of the intention to behavior with the adoption for the technology. Even the study used the TAM2 which explains perceived usefulness in terms of cognitive and social influence processes.

(Aversano, 2005) was conducted the study which purposed to explore why some people refuse to use the mobile telephone in USA. The study used the theory of Ajzen to give exploration of human behavior to understanding a person’s actions in behavior like social attitude and personality trait it considered as important to explain human behavior. And the study used TPB to confirm that intention to behavior is determined the actual behavior. And there are three factors predicting the Intention to behavior are attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control as same as TRA with focus in the important of the intention to behavior with the adoption for the technology. Even the study used the TAM2 which explains perceived usefulness in terms of cognitive and social influence processes.

Moreover, in the latest studies, like the study was conducted by (Hwang & Yi, 2002) in the intrinsic motivation and computer self-efficacy research to Technology Acceptance Model in order to predict the use of web-based information systems. The study found that behavioral intention and self-efficacy have a significant effect on actual use. Even perceived enjoyment and self-efficacy were significant determinants of ease of use. Even was found that self-efficacy was a strong determinant for ease of use and actual use. The study supported all the relations were purposed in the technology acceptance model. Even the studies (Klloppiing & McKiinneyy, 2004: Jones & S. Hubona, 2005) support that relation.

Also, the study was conducted by (Jones & Hubona, 2005) which aimed to determine the effect of staff seniority, age, and education level on usage behavior. The study supported all TAM construction. Even Education level would directly affect actual usage behavior besides effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. But in contrast, the study was conducted by (Al Mutairi, 2007) which goaled to examine TAM applicability in Kuwait ministries. The study finding did not support the relationship between the variables as were in TAM. In another ward, the study didn’t find relation between ease of use and usefulness this in one hand and in the other hand there is no relation between ease of use and usefulness with actual usage. And the study mention that maybe because the differences in the national cultural, public organization context, dependent variables nature.

Also, in the study was conducted by (Chismar & Patton, 2002) which made among the physicians to examines their intention to adopt Internet-based health applications by using the applicability of the (TAM2). The study found that the strong determinant for intention to use was perceived usefulness. Intention to use by physicians was explained by the effects of usefulness and output quality. And the relation between perceived usefulness and intention to use was significant, whereas image, subjective norm and perceived ease of use were not significant. And that due to that physicians have high level of adaptability, cognitive capacity and intellectual, they comprehend faster than the normal people for new technologies. And they are willing to adopt information technology that has beneficial applications even if it not easy to use.

Attitudes and Believes

According to (Davis , 1989: Kiraz & Ozdemir, 2006: Hwang & Y. Yi, 2002: Phau & Gan, 2000)The technology acceptance model TAM consists of four main factors as major determinants of technology acceptance these factors are perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness, the attitudes toward the usage and the frequency of use of technology. That means if people want to accept or reject any specific technology they should set up their attitudes by increase user’s believes that this technology will help them do their work better and this refer to perceived usefulness and extend their believes in that the system is ease of use and the benefit is more than the effort from the use for this technology. In another wards, If the users perceive easy of use from that technology and perceive usefulness from the technology for their work purposes .that means, there are Positive attitudes toward the technology usage n have a positive relation with the behavior intention to use the technology.

Therefore, in order to put spotlight in the important of mediating the attitudes for the relation between the beliefs and the actual usage for the technology (Chang, 2004) conducted The study which purposed to explore the validity of the extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) based on social and facilitating as main factors to predict intranet/portal usage because those factors are most dominant in the educational environment. The found were that there was strong positive relation among Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and user’s attitudes towards the intranet. And the Attitude has strong relation with the user intention to use. And the intention to behave had a strong relation with the actual usage this conform the positive significant relation in TAM and its constructs are to predicting the user acceptance of the intranet/portal. Even there are relation between experience and perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Even experience is a stronger predictor for perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness than age does.

Also, the study was conducted by (algahtani, 2004) which aimed for more understanding of the acceptance for the technology in different cultures. The study found that there is strong support for the effect of the attitude in the behavior to use the computer and satisfaction. Even though this was supported in the study was conducted In Malaysia by (Mohd& Syed-Mohamad& Zaini, 2005) to identify the relation between information quality and the acceptance of doctors for Electronic Medical Record System (EMR) in one of Malaysian hospital. The study found that the information quality has significant relationship with perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use .even the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have significant relationship with attitude of using EMR system. Moreover, the user acceptance factor Information Quality has significant relationship with attitude of using EMR system through out easy of use and usefulness.

The study conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004) which aimed to identify additional determinants for the technology acceptance in the education sector. The study found that there are direct and indirect significant effect for perceived usefulness on the behavior intention to use the system and this effect is strong on the behavior intention to use more than the effect on the attitudes and the attitude was formed by perceived usefulness. Beside, that perceived ease of use has effect on perceived usefulness and the attitudes of the users but the effect on the attitudes was not significant this due to the combination of the factors like organization, subjects and the technology or due to the users have one month experience and they need to use the system easier and free of effort .and self-efficacy has strong direct effect on intention to use and perceived ease of use but on ease of use more effect than intention to behavior.

In contrast to The study conducted by (Gong& Xu &Yu, 2004), The study was conducted by (Yang, 2007) which Focus on the time in the affect of perceived usefulness and ease of use on the attitudes, which aimed to study the usage of the technology acceptance model for doing another examination of the relationships between students’ attitude toward the use of WebCT and the determinants of the actual usage in light of social presence and sociability. the study found that The perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use was supported by self-efficacy, but more strong to the ease of use and both perceived usefulness and ease of use support the attitude toward the actual usage this was in the first test for the relation and in the second test was found that the subjective norms was negative value to the social presence and the actual use but lower support for the actual use. The study focuses on the time which makes the effects of the variable in the attitude. Which means perceived usefulness directly changed by times after use the system.

And the study was conducted by (Yalcinkaya & B.A & M.S, 2007) to investigate the acceptance for the police officer for the POLNET system in Turkish. The study found that Perceived ease of use has a positive effect on attitude and intentions to use the system. And the study considers that the variable ease of use considered the main factor effecting in the attitude toward behavior attention to actual usage. This Result supported the result for the last study by (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000) which conformed that perceived ease of use is strongly related to the system usage. Beside that the study found that there is positive affect for Perceived ease of use on perceived usefulness of police Officers using the system. In another ward, those police officers preferred to use the system because it’s easy to use. And the same for Perceived usefulness has a positive effect on the attitude and has a strongly effect on Attitude and Intention to Use the information technology, the study mentioned that Turkish police officers’ using the system because they perceive the system is useful. Hence, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are very strong predictive factors on attitude and intention to use the system.

From the pervious two studies, both studies (Yang, 2007: Yalcinkaya & B.A & M.S, 2007) confirm that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness affect on the attitude which in the same time attitude affect on the behavior intention to use toward the actual use for the technology. Regardless the stronger affect on the attitude.

The study conducted by(Ahn & Ryu & Han, 2007)which its goal to investigated the playfulness effect ion on user acceptance of online retailing , tested factors of Web quality and the relationship between those factors and user acceptance behavior. The study found that there are significant between playfulness and attitude and behavior intention to use. Even there is significant and influences for service quality, perceived strengths of system and information on playfulness, usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Even there are significant for System quality influence on usefulness, ease of use and playfulness. Even Information quality had significant influenced on usefulness, ease of use and playfulness. Service quality had significant influence on playfulness, ease of use and usefulness. Besides that Playfulness considered an important factor affecting the attitude and intention to use online retailing users.

In contrast, to the study conducted by (Kiraz & Ozdemir , 2006) which target the utilization of technology integration in the classroom focused on educational ideology, a factor not related to technology that also affects decisions in terms of educational applications. The study found that there is a direct effect of perceived usefulness on the actual use, and there is also a direct affect of perceived ease of use on attitudes. Besides, this study showed that attitudes towards the usage effected by perceived usefulness, and there is no significant effect of attitude towards usage and the actual use, this contrast the result in (TAM).Also, the study shows that there is no significant relationship between perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. In another wards, there is a strong positive relationship between pre-service teachers’ perceived ease of use of educational technology and their attitudes toward use. The study mentioned that all of the ideologies were mentioned have effects on attitudes toward use. Moreover, educational anarchism, educational libertinism, and educational intellectualism have an effect on the perceived usefulness of technology. Both studies show that there is affect for perceived ease of use and usefulness on the attitude towards the behavior intention to use toward the use of the technology.

Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness

It is important to understand that the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of the technology are not formed solely by the usefulness and ease of use of the technology. According to the study was conducted by (Park& Brien& Caine& Rogers& Fisk& Ittersum& Capar& Parsons, 2006) which aimed to identify variables that can provide more understanding for technology acceptance. The study mentioned that there are many variables affecting the technology acceptance like technology characteristics, organization characteristics, subjective norm, User characteristics all interacted with the acceptance through out a positive effect on perceived usefulness.

Beside that, the study was conducted by (Kishore & Lee & McLean, 2001) which used social cognitive theory (SCT), computer self-efficacy (CSE), technology acceptance model (TAM), the risk management, personal& general innovativeness and specific computer self-efficacy to extend TAM. The study was mentioned that perceived usefulness and ease of use were granted as the main factors effecting in the actual usage.

Also, the study was conducted by (goeke, 2006) which aimed to examine the effects of experience and expertise on the actual use for the data warehouse by using TAM. The study found that perceived usefulness and ease of use had significant effect on the usage for the technology and the usefulness stronger in the effect then ease of use. Even there is direct effect for the usefulness in the actual usage for the system. Also found there is direct effect for ease of use on perceived usefulness. And there is positive effect for the external variable on both perceived usefulness and ease of use.

The result from (goeke, 2006) was supported in the study was conducted by (Brown, 2002) which aimed to examine perceived ease of use for the technology web-based in learning environment in developing country not developed country. And the finding was that the study confirms TAM relations that ease of use predicts the usefulness and the actual usage but usefulness doesn’t predict the actual usage. besides, there are significant influences for self-efficacy and ease of finding and ease of understanding on perceived ease of use and ease of understanding more influences than ease of finding on perceived ease of use and the self-efficacy is the strongest influences on the ease of use but computer anxiety was the fewer influences.

Inconsistent with prior research (Bani-Ali &Money, 2005) the effect of ease of use is lower than other proposed factors. A possible explanation is that users’ level of experience with new software may influence the relative importance of system ease of use. Despite, the study which contacted by (Hasan &Ali, 2006) to distinguished between general, system-specific CSE and examines the effects of both levels of CSE on two key training outcomes: reactions and learning performance. Reactions were examined with respect to perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. The findings were that general CSE had significant effects on perceived ease of use and far-transfer learning. Even the study found that GCSE demonstrated a non-significant positive effect on perceived usefulness. On the other hand, SCSE exhibited a non-significant negative effect on perceived usefulness this because study were measured two weeks after training.

Also, The Study was conducted by (Saeed &Helm, 2008) which proposes that perceived usefulness affected by information quality and system integration which will then drive post adoption usage of the IS. The study findings support that system integration and information quality are significant predictors for usefulness, even usefulness positively and significantly relates to extended usage and exploratory usage. The Study mentioned that perceived usefulness affects the initial acceptance of IS, that means, there is a stronger relation between exploratory usage and usefulness.

More over, the study was conducted by (Gyampah & Salam, 2003) which aimed to examine ERP training and ERP project communication, will affect the TAM variables only through the psychological variable-shared beliefs in the perceived benefits of the ERP system. The study found that perceived usefulness is the important factor affecting in the beliefs to make positive attitudes towards the system. Even that the study supports that perceived ease of use not affect attitude towards using particular system. This supports others studies that show that perceived ease of use does not have a significant on attitude in the usage for the system. Even was found that training has important and significant positive influences on the shared beliefs in the benefits of the system and shared beliefs influence both the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of the system through out affect attitude, which in turn affects intention to behavior. Study confirms that communication with effective training affect the core TAM variables. And the training on the system has significant affect on perceived ease of use.

Besides that, the study was conducted by (Yi &Hwang, 2003) in the intrinsic motivation and computer self-efficacy research to Technology Acceptance Model in order to predict the use of web-based information systems. It found that behavioral intention and self-efficacy have a significant effect on actual use. Even perceived enjoyment and self-efficacy were significant determinants of ease of use. Even was found that self-efficacy was a strong determinant for ease of use and actual use. The study supported all the relations were purposed in the technology acceptance model. Even the studies (Klloppiing & McKiinneyy, 2004: Jones & S. Hubona, 2005) support that too.

Perceived usefulness and playfulness considered as importance from the inexperienced e-commerce shoppers prospective. That means site’s playfulness is essential to perceptions of usefulness, while for more experienced e-commerce shoppers, the perceived usefulness of the site can be evident independent of its playfulness, that was proved in the study was conducted by (Klopping & McKinney, 2006) which conducted to examines the role of experience on consumer’s intentions to shop online. The study found that experience has direct and indirect effects on intention to use e-commerce, and there are moderating effects on perceived usefulness, playfulness, and self efficacy to intention to use e-commerce. Besides, there is a significant difference in the relationship of playfulness on perceived usefulness between inexperienced e-commerce shoppers and experienced e-commerce shoppers.

Even, in the study was conducted by(T-Pikkarainen & K-Pikkarainen & Karjaluoto & Pahnila ,2004) which aimed to increase the understanding of the factors that influence online banking acceptance from the technology acceptance model (TAM) prospective and to study consumer acceptance of online banking in Finland . it found that Perceived usefulness, Perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, information on online banking, and security and privacy have an impact on the acceptance of online banking and Perceived usefulness and the amount of information on online banking the most factors influence the use of online banking services. And found that Perceived usefulness was more than Perceived ease of use effective in explaining technology acceptance.

There is significant in the relation between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use for accepting the technology, that was supported by (Almutairi, 2007) which aim to test the applicability of the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Kuwaiti ministries in order to understand the information technology in the government utilities, that also was supported in The study conducted by (Singletary& Akbulut & Houston, 2002) which purposed to identify factors that effect the acceptance of high school students for software application when the initial use of the application is mandatory. The finding was that there are positive relationships between perceived usefulness, ease of use and innovative usage behavior and there is a positive relationship between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

The study was conducted by (Venkatesh & Morris, 2000) which aimed to investigated gender differences in the context of individual adoption and the study conformed technology usage in the workplace by using technology acceptance model. The study found that There is a difference between women and men in that men perceived usefulness to a greater longitudinal than women in using a new technology. And perceived ease of use was more important to women compared with men after basic training and by the time with more experience in using the system that make not significant and not affect on the intention to use the system. But for women ease of use consider the important to affect the intention to use the system.

Individual differences

Individual acceptance for IT becomes an issue for resea


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