Primary health care


Primary Health Care is committed to helping patients take control of their health. This system is virtual, but our physicians and their dedication is real.

Using secure, web-based technologies provided by Medical Web, our health-care providers offer advice and treatment for a variety of conditions. Patients can communicate securely and confidentially with our physicians throughout the treatment process using our messaging system. As a physician-owned company, we are committed to helping our patients receive the utmost care and medical attention.

Priamry Health Care delivers quality healthcare through innovative services. Using secure, web-based technologies provided by Medical Web, our physicians provide advice and treatment for a variety of healthcare conditions.

Our services include:

§ Treatment of Non-emergent Conditions

§ Mental Health

§ Naturopathic Advice & Remedies

§ Physician Advice

§ Laboratory Interpretations

All of our services are provided through the Internet in a secure and confidential manner. A secure communication portal is established between the patient and a Primary health care provider to allow one-on-one interaction. Physicians can discuss treatment options with patients and patients can respond. By building a trusting relationship, Primary health care can effectively provide a direct benefit to each and every patient.


Primary health care delivers quality healthcare through innovative services. Using secure, web-based technologies provided by Medical Web, our physicians provide advice and treatment for a variety of healthcare conditions.

Our services include:

§ Treatment of Non-emergent Conditions

§ Mental Health

§ Naturopathic Advice & Remedies

§ Physician Advice

§ Laboratory Interpretations

All of our services are provided through the Internet in a secure and confidential manner. A secure communication portal is established between the patient and a Primary health care provider to allow one-on-one interaction. Physicians can discuss treatment options with patients and patients can respond. By building a trusting relationship, Primary health care can effectively provide a direct benefit to each and every patient.


Software Solutions is an IT solution provider for a dynamic environment where business and technology strategies converge. Their approach focuses on new ways of business combining IT innovation and adoption while also leveraging an organization's current IT assets. Their work with large global corporations and new products or services and to implement prudent business and technology strategies in today's environment.


* Software Development Services

* Engineering Services

* Systems Integration

* Customer Relationship Management

* Product Development

* Electronic Commerce

* Consulting

* IT Outsourcing

We apply technology with innovation and responsibility to achieve two broad objectives:

* Effectively address the business issues our customers face today.

· Generate new opportunities that will help them stay ahead in the future.


* A strategy where we architect, integrate and manage technology services and solutions - we call it AIM for success.

* A robust offshore development methodology and reduced demand on customer resources.

* A focus on the use of reusable frameworks to provide cost and times benefits.

They combine the best people, processes and technology to achieve excellent results - consistency. We offer customers the advantages of:


They understand the importance of timing, of getting there before the competition. A rich portfolio of reusable, modular frameworks helps jump-start projects. Tried and tested methodology ensures that we follow a predictable, low - risk path to achieve results. Our track record is testimony to complex projects delivered within and evens before schedule.


Our teams combine cutting edge technology skills with rich domain expertise. What's equally important - they share a strong customer orientation that means they actually start by listening to the customer. They're focused on coming up with solutions that serve customer requirements today and anticipate future needs.


They offer customers the advantage of being able to Architect, integrate and manage technology services. This means that they can rely on one, fully accountable source instead of trying to integrate disparate multi vendor solutions.


Xxx is providing its services to companies which are in the field of production, quality control etc with their rich expertise and experience and information technology they are in best position to provide software solutions to distinct business requirements.


The project is fully integrated with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) solution and developed in a manner that is easily manageable, time saving and relieving one form semi automated.

Primary health care delivers quality healthcare through innovative services. Using secure, web-based technologies provided by Medical Web, our physicians provide advice and treatment for a variety of healthcare conditions.

Our services include:

§ Treatment of Non-emergent Conditions

§ Mental Health

§ Naturopathic Advice & Remedies

§ Physician Advice

§ Laboratory Interpretations

All of our services are provided through the Internet in a secure and confidential manner. A secure communication portal is established between the patient and a Primary health care provider to allow one-on-one interaction. Physicians can discuss treatment options with patients and patients can respond. By building a trusting relationship, Primary health care can effectively provide a direct benefit to each and every patient.


* The existing system is a manual system. Here the User of the system needs to save his information in the form of excel sheets or Disk Drives.

* There is no sharing is possible if the data is in the form of paper or Disk drives.

* There is no online appointment facility.

* The manual system gives us very less security for saving data; some data may be lost due to mismanagement.

* There is no rich user interface.

* It's a limited system and fewer users friendly.

* There is no email facility.

* Searching of particular information is very critical it takes lot of time.

* The users cannot able to restrict the information.

* There is no report generation.


The development of the new system objective is to address the solutions for the drawbacks of existing problem domain. Using this new system the patient can register for making online appointment with doctor. For interaction between patient and doctor chatting has provided. By this facility patient would chat with doctor.

The development of this new system contains the following activities, which try to automate the entire process keeping in the view of database integration approach.

* User Friendliness is provided in the application with various controls provided by system Rich User Interface.

* This system provides online appointment facility.

* The system makes the overall project management much easier and flexible.

* It can be accessed over the Intranet.

* It provides email facility.

* The user information files can be stored in centralized database which can be maintained by the system.

* This can give the good security for user information because data is not in client machine.

* Authentication is provided for this application only registered users can access.

* It provides search facility.

* There is no risk of data management at any level while the project development is under process.

* Report generation features is provided to generate different kind of data reports.



After analyzing the requirements of the task to be performed, the next step is to analyze the problem and understand its context. The first activity in the phase is studying the existing system and other is to understand the requirements and domain of the new system. Both the activities are equally important, but the first activity serves as a basis of giving the functional specifications and then successful design of the proposed system. Understanding the properties and requirements of a new system is more difficult and requires creative thinking and understanding of existing running system is also difficult, improper understanding of present system can lead diversion from solution.



This document play a vital role in the development of life cycle (SDLC) as it describes the complete requirement of the system. It means for use by developers and will be the basic during testing phase. Any changes made to the requirements in the future will have to go through formal change approval process.

SPIRAL MODEL was defined by Barry Boehm in his 1988 article, “A spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement. This model was not the first model to discuss iterative development, but it was the first model to explain why the iteration models.

As originally envisioned, the iterations were typically 6 months to 2 years long. Each phase starts with a design goal and ends with a client reviewing the progress thus far. Analysis and engineering efforts are applied at each phase of the project, with an eye toward the end goal of the project.

The steps for Spiral Model can be generalized as follows:

* The new system requirements are defined in as much details as possible. This usually involves interviewing a number of users representing all the external or internal users and other aspects of the existing system.

* A preliminary design is created for the new system.

* A first prototype of the new system is constructed from the preliminary design. This is usually a scaled-down system, and represents an approximation of the characteristics of the final product.

* A second prototype is evolved by a fourfold procedure:

1. Evaluating the first prototype in terms of its strengths, weakness, and risks.

2. Defining the requirements of the second prototype.

3. Planning an designing the second prototype.

4. Constructing and testing the second prototype.

* At the customer option, the entire project can be aborted if the risk is deemed too great. Risk factors might involved development cost overruns, operating-cost miscalculation, or any other factor that could, in the customer's judgment, result in a less-than-satisfactory final product.

* The existing prototype is evaluated in the same manner as was the previous prototype, and if necessary, another prototype is developed from it according to the fourfold procedure outlined above.

* The preceding steps are iterated until the customer is satisfied that the refined prototype represents the final product desired.

* The final system is constructed, based on the refined prototype.

* The final system is thoroughly evaluated and tested. Routine maintenance is carried on a continuing basis to prevent large scale failures and to minimize down time.

The following diagram shows how a spiral model acts like:


In the flexibility of the uses the interface has been developed a graphics concept in mind, associated through a browser interface. The GUI'S at the top level have been categorized as

1. Administrative user interface

2. The operational or generic user interface

The administrative user interface concentrates on the consistent information that is practically, part of the organizational activities and which needs proper authentication for the data collection. The interfaces help the administrations with all the transactional states like Data insertion, Data deletion and Data updating along with the extensive data search capabilities.

The operational or generic user interface helps the users upon the system in transactions through the existing data and required services. The operational user interface also helps the ordinary users in managing their own information helps the ordinary users in managing their own information in a customized manner as per the assisted flexibilities


The system after careful analysis has been identified to be presented with the following modules:

* Administrator

* Managers

* Doctors

* Patients

* General Public

* Web Registration

* Search

* Reports

* Authentication


Administrator is treated as a super user in this system. He can have all the privileges to do anything in this system. He is the person who received the Profile of a Doctor and accept/reject the registration.

* He is the person who receives the Complaints from the Patient and redirects to respective Doctor for response.

* He should have a facility to communicate using chat, email facility with other stakeholders.

* He should take care of Backup of Patient, Doctor details and maintain history.

* He should able to add Rooms availability and Ambulance details into the site for each Hospital.

Another tasks done by the administrator is he can generates reports, log files, backup, recovery of data any time.


* He should able to see a Patient's appointment details on a particular date.

* Also if the Patient is already visited, able to see the previous Prescription given the Patient, Disease History, Visiting details, etc.

* They should be able to see the Feedback given by the Patient.

* They should be able to see the Complaints given by the Patient and must provide the Response for that.

* He should have a facility to communicate using chat, email facility with other stakeholders.


· They should have a facility to register to the site with their Personal data along with Health details Height, Weight, Family inherited Diseases, Blood Group, etc.

· Being a Patient (after registration) should able to take an Appointment of a Doctor visit.

· They should have a facility to give Complaints about Kiosk Manager or Doctor service.

· They should able to Search for a Doctor and can see the Doctor's Profile for an appointment.

· They should able to book Rooms or make request for an Ambulance to Kiosk Manager


* He should be able to provide an Appointment of a Doctor to a Patient on request (based on Doctor's available timings).

* They should be able to see the Complaints given by the Patient and must provide the Response for that.

* He should have a facility to communicate using chat, email facility with other stakeholders.

* They should have a Search facility to find a Patient or Doctor and can check their Profile or History details.

* He should to receive the Rooms Booking or request for an Ambulance of a particular Hospital and make arrangement/approve the same for a Patient.

General Public

* General Public (i.e. Guest visitors) should able to access the site Home page, Registration Page, etc. common pages of the site.

* This user should able to see the Doctors Schedules, Contact details, Specialization details, etc.

* They should able to Search for a Doctor.

* They should able to see the Rooms available, Ambulance availability of a particular Hospital.

Web Registration

The system has a process of registration. Every User need to submit his complete details in the form of registration. Whenever a User registration completed automatically he/she can get a user id and password. By using that user id and password he/she can log into the system.


This system provides search facility to the patients. Patient can search for Doctors and their available timings for take appointments


Different kind of reports is generated by the system.

* Patients History and prescriptions

* Doctors list

* Lab reports

* Daily & Monthly Reports, Appointment list of Patients for Kiosk Managers


Authentication is nothing but providing security to the system. Here every must enter into the system throw login page. The login page will restrict the UN authorized users. A user must provide his credential like user Id and password for log into the system. For that the system maintains data for all users. Whenever a user enters his user id and password, it checks in the database for user existence. If the user is exists he can be treated as a valid user. Otherwise the request will throw back.

2.4 System Requirement Specifications

Hardware Requirements:

* PIV 2.8 GHz Processor and Above

* RAM 512MB and Above

* HDD 40 GB Hard Disk Space and Above

Software Requirements:

* WINDOWS OS (XP / 2000 / 200 Server / 2003 Server)

* Visual Studio .Net 2008 Enterprise Edition

* Internet Information Server 5.0 (IIS)

* Visual Studio .Net Framework (Minimal for Deployment) version 3.5

* SQL Server 2005 Enterprise Edition


To debug the existing system, remove procedures those cause data redundancy, make navigational sequence proper. To provide information about users on different level and also to reflect the current work status depending on organization. To build strong password mechanism.


We all know the importance of computerization. The world is moving ahead at lightning speed and everyone is running short of time. One always wants to get the information and perform a task he/she/they desire(s) within a short period of time and too with amount of efficiency and accuracy. The application areas for the computerization have been selected on the basis of following factors:

* Minimizing the manual records kept at different locations.

* There will be more data integrity.

* Facilitating desired information display, very quickly, by retrieving information from users.

* Facilitating various statistical information which helps in decision-making?

* To reduce manual efforts in activities that involved repetitive work.

Updating and deletion of such a huge amount of data will become easier.


As far as the project is developed the functionality is simple, the objective of the proposal is to strengthen the functioning of Audit Status Monitoring and make them effective and better. The entire scope has been classified into five streams knows as Coordinator Level, management Level, Auditor Level, User Level and State Web Coordinator Level. The proposed software will cover the information needs with respect to each request of the user group viz. accepting the request, providing vulnerability document report and the current status of the audit.


The major inputs and outputs and major functions of the system are follows:


* Admin enter his user id and password for login

* Admin accept the Doctor registration.

* User enters his user id and password for login.

* Patient registers for the Appointment.

* New user gives his completed personnel, address and phone details for registration.

* Administrator giving information to generate various kinds of reports.


* Admin can have his own home page.

* Admin get all Doctors details.

* Admin can view all Patients details.

* Users enter their own home page.

* Admin will get the login information of a particular user.

* The new user's data will be stored in the centralized database.

* Admin get the search details of different criteria.

* Different kind of reports is generated by administrator.



The following commands specify access control identifiers and they are typically used to authorize and authenticate the user (command codes are shown in parentheses)


The user identification is that which is required by the server for access to its file system. This command will normally be the first command transmitted by the user after the control connections are made (some servers may require this).


This command must be immediately preceded by the user name command, and, for some sites, completes the user's identification for access control. Since password information is quite sensitive, it is desirable in general to "mask" it or suppress type out.

Feasibility Report

Preliminary investigation examine project feasibility, the likelihood the system will be useful to the organization. The main objective of the feasibility study is to test the Technical, Operational and Economical feasibility for adding new modules and debugging old running system. All system is feasible if they are unlimited resources and infinite time. There are aspects in the feasibility study portion of the preliminary investigation:

* Technical Feasibility

* Operational Feasibility

* Economical Feasibility


The technical issue usually raised during the feasibility stage of the investigation includes the following:

* Does the necessary technology exist to do what is suggested?

* Do the proposed equipments have the technical capacity to hold the data required to use the new system?

* Will the proposed system provide adequate response to inquiries, regardless of the number or location of users?

* Can the system be upgraded if developed?

* Are there technical guarantees of accuracy, reliability, ease of access and data security?

Earlier no system existed to cater to the needs of ‘Secure Infrastructure Implementation System'. The current system developed is technically feasible. It is a web based user interface for audit workflow at NIC-CSD. Thus it provides an easy access to the users. The database's purpose is to create, establish and maintain a workflow among various entities in order to facilitate all concerned users in their various capacities or roles. Permission to the users would be granted based on the roles specified. Therefore, it provides the technical guarantee of accuracy, reliability and security. The software and hard requirements for the development of this project are not many and are already available in-house at NIC or are available as free as open source. The work for the project is done with the current equipment and existing software technology. Necessary bandwidth exists for providing a fast feedback to the users irrespective of the number of users using the system.


Proposed projects are beneficial only if they can be turned out into information system. That will meet the organization's operating requirements. Operational feasibility aspects of the project are to be taken as an important part of the project implementation. Some of the important issues raised are to test the operational feasibility of a project includes the following: -

* Is there sufficient support for the management from the users?

* Will the system be used and work properly if it is being developed and implemented?

* Will there be any resistance from the user that will undermine the possible application benefits?

This system is targeted to be in accordance with the above-mentioned issues. Beforehand, the management issues and user requirements have been taken into consideration. So there is no question of resistance from the users that can undermine the possible application benefits.

The well-planned design would ensure the optimal utilization of the computer resources and would help in the improvement of performance status.


A system can be developed technically and that will be used if installed must still be a good investment for the organization. In the economical feasibility, the development cost in creating the system is evaluated against the ultimate benefit derived from the new systems. Financial benefits must equal or exceed the costs.

The system is economically feasible. It does not require any addition hardware or software. Since the interface for this system is developed using the existing resources and technologies available at NIC, There is nominal expenditure and economical feasibility for certain.


The software, Site Explorer is designed for management of web sites from a remote location.


Purpose: The main purpose for preparing this document is to give a general insight into the analysis and requirements of the existing system or situation and for determining the operating characteristics of the system.

Scope: This Document plays a vital role in the development life cycle (SDLC) and it describes the complete requirement of the system. It is meant for use by the developers and will be the basic during testing phase. Any changes made to the requirements in the future will have to go through formal change approval process.


The developer is responsible for:

* Developing the system, which meets the SRS and solving all the requirements of the system?

* Demonstrating the system and installing the system at client's location after the acceptance testing is successful.

* Submitting the required user manual describing the system interfaces to work on it and also the documents of the system.

* Conducting any user training that might be needed for using the system.

* Maintaining the system for a period of one year after installation.



Outputs from computer systems are required primarily to communicate the results of processing to users. They are also used to provides a permanent copy of the results for later consultation. The various types of outputs in general are:

* External Outputs, whose destination is outside the organization.

* Internal Outputs whose destination is within organization and they are the

* User's main interface with the computer.

* Operational outputs whose use is purely within the computer department.

* Interface outputs, which involve the user in communicating directly.


The outputs should be defined in terms of the following points:

§ Type of the output

§ Content of the output

§ Format of the output

§ Location of the output

§ Frequency of the output

§ Volume of the output

§ Sequence of the output

It is not always desirable to print or display data as it is held on a computer. It should be decided as which form of the output is the most suitable.

For Example

§ Will decimal points need to be inserted

§ Should leading zeros be suppressed.

Output Media:

In the next stage it is to be decided that which medium is the most appropriate for the output. The main considerations when deciding about the output media are:

* The suitability for the device to the particular application.

* The need for a hard copy.

* The response time required.

* The location of the users

* The software and hardware available.

Keeping in view the above description the project is to have outputs mainly coming under the category of internal outputs. The main outputs desired according to the requirement specification are:

The outputs were needed to be generated as a hot copy and as well as queries to be viewed on the screen. Keeping in view these outputs, the format for the output is taken from the outputs, which are currently being obtained after manual processing. The standard printer is to be used as output media for hard copies.


Input design is a part of overall system design. The main objective during the input design is as given below:

* To produce a cost-effective method of input.

* To achieve the highest possible level of accuracy.

* To ensure that the input is acceptable and understood by the user.


The main input stages can be listed as below:

* Data recording

* Data transcription

* Data conversion

* Data verification

* Data control

* Data transmission

* Data validation

* Data correction


It is necessary to determine the various types of inputs. Inputs can be categorized as follows:

* External inputs, which are prime inputs for the system.

* Internal inputs, which are user communications with the system.

* Operational, which are computer department's communications to the system?

· Interactive, which are inputs entered during a dialogue.


At this stage choice has to be made about the input media. To conclude about the input media consideration has to be given to;

* Type of input

* Flexibility of format

* Speed

* Accuracy

* Verification methods

* Rejection rates

* Ease of correction

* Storage and handling requirements

* Security

* Easy to use

* Portability

Keeping in view the above description of the input types and input media, it can be said that most of the inputs are of the form of internal and interactive. As

Input data is to be the directly keyed in by the user, the keyboard can be considered to be the most suitable input device.


At this stage care is to be taken to ensure that input data remains accurate form the stage at which it is recorded up to the stage in which the data is accepted by the system. This can be achieved only by means of careful control each time the data is handled.


Even though every effort is make to avoid the occurrence of errors, still a small proportion of errors is always likely to occur, these types of errors can be discovered by using validations to check the input data.


Procedures are designed to detect errors in data at a lower level of detail. Data validations have been included in the system in almost every area where there is a possibility for the user to commit errors. The system will not accept invalid data. Whenever an invalid data is keyed in, the system immediately prompts the user and the user has to again key in the data and the system will accept the data only if the data is correct. Validations have been included where necessary.

The system is designed to be a user friendly one. In other words the system has been designed to communicate effectively with the user. The system has been designed with popup menus.


It is essential to consult the system users and discuss their needs while designing the user interface:


1. User initiated interface the user is in charge, controlling the progress of the user/computer dialogue. In the computer-initiated interface, the computer selects the next stage in the interaction.

2. Computer initiated interfaces

In the computer initiated interfaces the computer guides the progress of the user/computer dialogue. Information is displayed and the user response of the computer takes action or displays further information.


User initiated interfaces fall into tow approximate classes:

1. Command driven interfaces: In this type of interface the user inputs commands or queries which are interpreted by the computer.

2. Forms oriented interface: The user calls up an image of the form to his/her screen and fills in the form. The forms oriented interface is chosen because it is the best choice.


The following computer - initiated interfaces were used:

1. The menu system for the user is presented with a list of alternatives and the user chooses one; of alternatives.

2. Questions - answer type dialog system where the computer asks question and takes action based on the basis of the users reply.

Right from the start the system is going to be menu driven, the opening menu displays the available options. Choosing one option gives another popup menu with more options. In this way every option leads the users to data entry form where the user can key in the data.


The design of error messages is an important part of the user interface design. As user is bound to commit some errors or other while designing a system the system should be designed to be helpful by providing the user with information regarding the error he/she has committed.

This application must be able to produce output at different modules for different inputs.


Performance is measured in terms of the output provided by the application.

Requirement specification plays an important part in the analysis of a system. Only when the requirement specifications are properly given, it is possible to design a system, which will fit into required environment. It rests largely in the part of the users of the existing system to give the requirement specifications because they are the people who finally use the system. This is because the requirements have to be known during the initial stages so that the system can be designed according to those requirements. It is very difficult to change the system once it has been designed and on the other hand designing a system, which does not cater to the requirements of the user, is of no use.

The requirement specification for any system can be broadly stated as given below:

* The system should be able to interface with the existing system

* The system should be accurate

* The system should be better than the existing system

The existing system is completely dependent on the user to perform all the duties.



The Microsoft .NET Framework is a software technology that is available with several Microsoft Windows operating systems. It includes a large library of pre-coded solutions to common programming problems and a virtual machine that manages the execution of programs written specifically for the framework. The .NET Framework is a key Microsoft offering and is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform.

The pre-coded solutions that form the framework's Base Class Library cover a large range of programming needs in a number of areas, including user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. The class library is used by programmers, who combine it with their own code to produce applications.

Programs written for the .NET Framework execute in a software environment that manages the program's runtime requirements. Also part of the .NET Framework, this runtime environment is known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR). The CLR provides the appearance of an application virtual machine so that programmers need not consider the capabilities of the specific CPU that will execute the program. The CLR also provides other important services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. The class library and the CLR together compose the .NET Framework.
Principal design features


Because interaction between new and older applications is commonly required, the .NET Framework provides means to access functionality that is implemented in programs that execute outside the .NET environment. Access to COM components is provided in the System.Runtime.InteropServices and System.EnterpriseServices namespaces of the framework; access to other functionality is provided using the P/Invoke feature.

Common Runtime Engine

The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the virtual machine component of the .NET framework. All .NET programs execute under the supervision of the CLR, guaranteeing certain properties and behaviors in the areas of memory management, security, and exception handling.

Base Class Library

The Base Class Library (BCL), part of the Framework Class Library (FCL), is a library of functionality available to all languages using the .NET Framework. The BCL provides classes which encapsulate a number of common functions, including file reading and writing, graphic rendering, database interaction and XML document manipulation.

Simplified Deployment

Installation of computer software must be carefully managed to ensure that it does not interfere with previously installed software, and that it conforms to security requirements. The .NET framework includes design features and tools that help address these requirements.


The design is meant to address some of the vulnerabilities, such as buffer overflows, that have been exploited by malicious software. Additionally, .NET provides a common security model for all applications.


The design of the .NET Framework allows it to theoretically be platform agnostic, and thus cross-platform compatible. That is, a program written to use the framework should run without change on any type of system for which the framework is implemented. Microsoft's commercial implementations of the framework cover Windows, Windows CE, and the Xbox 360. In addition, Microsoft submits the specifications for the Common Language Infrastructure (which includes the core class libraries, Common Type System, and the Common Intermediate Language), the C# language, and the C++/CLI language to both ECMA and the ISO, making them available as open standards. This makes it possible for third parties to create compatible implementations of the framework and its languages on other platforms.


Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)

5.3 C#.NET

ADO.NET is an evolution of the ADO data access model that directly addresses user requirements for developing scalable applications. It was designed specifically for the web with scalability, statelessness, and XML in mind.

ADO.NET uses some ADO objects, such as the Connection and Command objects, and also introduces new objects. Key new ADO.NET objects include the Dataset, Data Reader, and Data Adapter.

The important distinction between this evolved stage of ADO.NET and previous data architectures is that there exists an object -- the DataSet -- that is separate and distinct from any data stores. Because of that, the DataSet functions as a standalone entity. You can think of the DataSet as an always disconnected recordset that knows nothing about the source or destination of the data it contains. Inside a DataSet, much like in a database, there are tables, columns, relationships, constraints, views, and so forth.

A DataAdapter is the object that connects to the database to fill the DataSet. Then, it connects back to the database to update the data there, based on operations performed while the DataSet held the data. In the past, data processing has been primarily connection-based. Now, in an effort to make multi-tiered apps more efficient, data processing is turning to a message-based approach that revolves around chunks of information. At the center of this approach is the DataAdapter, which provides a bridge to retrieve and save data between a DataSet and its source data store. It accomplishes this by means of requests to the appropriate SQL commands made against the data store.

The XML-based DataSet object provides a consistent programming model that works with all models of data storage: flat, relational, and hierarchical. It does this by having no 'knowledge' of the source of its data, and by representing the data that it holds as collections and data types. No matter what the source of the data within the DataSet is, it is manipulated through the same set of standard APIs exposed through the DataSet and its subordinate objects.

While the DataSet has no knowledge of the source of its data, the managed provider has detailed and specific information. The role of the managed provider is to connect, fill, and persist the DataSet to and from data stores. The OLE DB and SQL Server .NET Data Providers (System.Data.OleDb and System.Data.SqlClient) that are part of the .Net Framework provide four basic objects: the Command, Connection, DataReader and DataAdapter. In the remaining sections of this document, we'll walk through each part of the DataSet and the OLE DB/SQL Server .NET Data Providers explaining what they are, and how to program against them.

The following sections will introduce you to some objects that have evolved, and some that are new. These objects are:

* Connections. For connection to and managing transactions against a database.

* Commands. For issuing SQL commands against a database.

* DataReaders. For reading a forward-only stream of data records from a SQL Server data source.

* DataSet. For storing, Remoting and programming against flat data, XML data and relational data.

* DataAdapters. For pushing data into a DataSet, and reconciling data against a database.

When dealing with connections to a database, there are two different options: SQL Server .NET Data Provider (System.Data.SqlClient) and OLE DB .NET Data Provider (System.Data.OleDb). In these samples we will use the SQL Server .NET Data Provider. These are written to talk directly to Microsoft SQL Server. The OLE DB .NET Data Provider is used to talk to any OLE DB provider (as it uses OLE DB underneath).


Connections are used to 'talk to' databases, and are represented by provider-specific classes such as SqlConnection. Commands travel over connections and resultsets are returned in the form of streams which can be read by a DataReader object, or pushed into a DataSet object.


Commands contain the information that is submitted to a database, and are represented by provider-specific classes such as SqlCommand. A command can be a stored procedure call, an UPDATE statement, or a statement that returns results. You can also use input and output parameters, and return values as part of your command syntax. The example below shows how to issue an INSERT statement against the Northwind database.


The Data Reader object is somewhat synonymous with a read-only/forward-only cursor over data. The DataReader API supports flat as well as hierarchical data. A DataReader object is returned after executing a command against a database. The format of the returned DataReader object is different from a recordset. For example, you might use the DataReader to show the results of a search list in a web page.


The Dataset object is similar to the ADO Recordset object, but more powerful, and with one other important distinction: the DataSet is always disconnected. The DataSet object represents a cache of data, with database-like structures such as tables, columns, relationships, and constraints. However, though a DataSet can and does behave much like a database, it is important to remember that DataSet objects do not interact directly with databases, or other source data. This allows the developer to work with a programming model that is always consistent, regardless of where the source data resides. Data coming from a database, an XML file, from code, or user input can all be placed into DataSet objects. Then, as changes are made to the DataSet they can be tracked and verified before updating the source data. The GetChanges method of the DataSet object actually creates a second DatSet that contains only the changes to the data. This DataSet is then used by a DataAdapter (or other objects) to update the original data source.

The DataSet has many XML characteristics, including the ability to produce and consume XML data and XML schemas. XML schemas can be used to describe schemas interchanged via WebServices. In fact, a DataSet with a schema can actually be compiled for type safety and statement completion.


The DataAdapter object works as a bridge between the DataSet and the source data. Using the provider-specific SqlDataAdapter (along with its associated SqlCommand and SqlConnection) can increase overall performance when working with a Microsoft SQL Server databases. For other OLE DB-supported databases, you would use the OleDbDataAdapter object and its associated OleDbCommand and OleDbConnection objects.

The DataAdapter object uses commands to update the data source after changes have been made to the DataSet. Using the Fill method of the DataAdapter calls the SELECT command; using the Update method calls the INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE command for each changed row. You can explicitly set these commands in order to control the statements used at runtime to resolve changes, including the use of stored procedures. For ad-hoc scenarios, a CommandBuilder object can generate these at run-time based upon a select statement. However, this run-time generation requires an extra round-trip to the server in order to gather required metadata, so explicitly providing the INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE commands at design time will result in better run-time performance.

1. ADO.NET is the next evolution of ADO for the .Net Framework.

2. ADO.NET was created with n-Tier, statelessness and XML in the forefront. Two new objects, the DataSet and DataAdapter, are provided for these scenarios.

3. ADO.NET can be used to get data from a stream, or to store data in a cache for updates.

4. There is a lot more information about ADO.NET in the documentation.

5. Remember, you can execute a command directly against the database in order to do inserts, updates, and deletes. You don't need to first put data into a DataSet in order to insert, update, or delete it.

Also, you can use a DataSet to bind to the data, move through the data, and navigate data relationships

5.4 SQL SERVER -2005

A database management, or DBMS, gives the user access to their data and helps them transform the data into information. Such database management systems include dBase, paradox, IMS, SQL Server and SQL Server. These systems allow users to create, update and extract information from their database.

A database is a structured collection of data. Data refers to the characteristics of people, things and events. SQL Server stores each data item in its own fields. In SQL Server, the fields relating to a particular person, thing or event are bundled together to form a single complete unit of data, called a record (it can also be referred to as raw or an occurrence). Each record is made up of a number of fields. No two fields in a record can have the same field name.

During an SQL Server Database design project, the analysis of your business needs identifies all the fields or attributes of interest. If your business needs change over time, you define any additional fields or change the definition of existing fields.


SQL Server stores records relating to each other in a table. Different tables are created for the various groups of information. Related tables are grouped together to form a database.


* Redundancy can be avoided

* Inconsistency can be eliminated

* Data can be Shared

* Standards can be enforced

* Security restrictions ca be applied

* Integrity can be maintained

* Conflicting requirements can be balanced

* Data independence can be achieved.


A significant disadvantage of the DBMS system is cost. In addition to the cost of purchasing of developing the software, the hardware has to be upgraded to allow for the extensive programs and the workspace required for their execution and storage. While centralization reduces duplication, the lack of duplication requires that the database be adequately backed up so that in case of failure the data can be recovered.


SQL SERVER is one of the leading database management systems (DBMS) because it is the only Database that meets the uncompromising requirements of today's most demanding information systems. From complex decision support systems (DSS) to the most rigorous online transaction processing (OLTP) application, even application that require simultaneous DSS and OLTP access to the same critical data, SQL Server leads the industry in both performance and capability.

SQL SERVER is a truly portable, distributed, and open DBMS that delivers unmatched performance, continuous operation and support for every database.

SQL SERVER RDBMS is high performance fault tolerant DBMS which is specially designed for online transactions processing and for handling large database application.

SQL SERVER with transactions processing option offers two features which contribute to very high level of transaction processing throughput, which are

* The row level lock manager


SQL Server's fast commit groups commit and deferred write technologies dramatically reduce disk I/O bottlenecks. While some database write whole data block to disk at commit time, SQL Server commits transactions with at most sequential log file on disk at commit time, On high throughput systems, one sequential writes typically group commit multiple transactions. Data read by the transaction remains as shared memory so that other transactions may access that data without reading it again from disk. Since fast commits write all data necessary to the recovery to the log file, modified blocks are written back to the database independently of the transaction commit, when written from memory to disk.



Software design sits at the technical kernel of the software engineering process and is applied regardless of the development paradigm and area of application. Design is the first step in the development phase for any engineered product or system. The designer's goal is to produce a model or representation of an entity that will later be built. Beginning, once system requirement have been specified and analyzed, system design is the first of the three technical activities -design, code and test that is required to build and verify software.

The importance can be stated with a single word “Quality”. Design is the place where quality is fostered in software development. Design provides us with representations of software that can assess for quality. Design is the only way that we can accurately translate a customer's view into a finished software product or system. Software design serves as a foundation for all the software engineering steps that follow. Without a strong design we risk building an unstable system - one that will be difficult to test, one whose quality cannot be assessed until the last stage.

During design, progressive refinement of data structure, program structure, and procedural details are developed reviewed and documented. System design can be viewed from either technical or project management perspective. From the technical point of view, design is comprised of four activities - architectural design, data structure design, interface design and procedural design.


It is a process of converting a relation to a standard form. The process is used to handle the problems that can arise due to data redundancy i.e. repetition of data in the database, maintain data integrity as well as handling problems that can arise due to insertion, updating, deletion anomalies.

Decomposing is the process of splitting relations into multiple relations to eliminate anomalies and maintain anomalies and maintain data integrity. To do this we use normal forms or rules for structuring relation.

Insertion anomaly: Inability to add data to the database due to absence of other data.

Deletion anomaly: Unintended loss of data due to deletion of other data.

Update anomaly: Data inconsistency resulting from data redundancy and partial update

Normal Forms: These are the rules for structuring relations that eliminate anomalies.


A relation is said to be in first normal form if the values in the relation are atomic for every attribute in the relation. By this we mean simply that no attribute value can be a set of values or, as it is sometimes expressed, a repeating group.


A relation is said to be in second Normal form is it is in first normal form and it should satisfy any one of the following rules.

1) Primary key is a not a composite primary key

2) No non key attributes are present

3) Every non key attribute is fully functionally dependent on full set of primary key.


A relation is said to be in third normal form if their exits no transitive dependencies.

Transitive Dependency: If two non key attributes depend on each other as well as on the primary key then they are said to be transitively dependent.

The above normalization principles were applied to decompose the data in multiple tables thereby making the data to be maintained in a consistent state.

6.3 E-R Diagrams

* The relation upon the system is structure through a conceptual ER-Diagram, which not only specifics the existential entities but also the standard relations through which the system exists and the cardinalities that are necessary for the system state to continue.

* The entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) depicts the relationship between the data objects. The ERD is the notation that is used to conduct the date modeling activity the attributes of each data object noted is the ERD can be described resign a data object descriptions.

* The set of primary components that are identified by the ERD are

* Data object

* Relationships

* Attributes

* Various types of indicators.

The primary purpose of the ERD is to represent data objects and their relationships.


A data flow diagram is graphical tool used to describe and analyze movement of data through a system. These are the central tool and the basis from which the other components are developed. The transformation of data from input to output, through processed, may be described logically and independently of physical components associated with the system. These are known as the logical data flow diagrams. The physical data flow diagrams show the actual implements and movement of data between people, departments and workstations. A full description of a system actually consists of a set of data flow diagrams. Using two familiar notations Yourdon, Gane and Sarson notation develops the data flow diagrams. Each component in a DFD is labeled with a descriptive name. Process is further identified with a number that will be used for identification purpose. The development of DFD'S is done in several levels. Each process in lower level diagrams can be broken down into a more detailed DFD in the next level. The lop-level diagram is often called context diagram. It consists a single process bit, which plays vital role in studying the current system. The process in the context level diagram is exploded into other process at the first level DFD.

The idea behind the explosion of a process into more process is that understanding at one level of detail is exploded into greater detail at the next level. This is done until further explosion is necessary and an adequate amount of detail is described for analyst to understand the process.

Larry Constantine first developed the DFD as a way of expressing system requirements in a graphical from, this lead to the modular design.

A DFD is also known as a “bubble Chart” has the purpose of clarifying system requirements and identifying major transformations that will become programs in system design. So it is the starting point of the design to the lowest level of detail. A DFD consists of a series of bubbles joined by data flows in the system.


In the DFD, there are four symbols

1. A square defines a source(originator) or destination of system data

2. An arrow identifies data flow. It is the pipeline through which the information flows

3. A circle or a bubble represents a process that transforms incoming data flow into outgoing data flows.

4. An open rectangle is a data store, data at rest or a temporary repository of data

Process that transforms data flow.

Source or Destination of data

Data flow

Data Store


Several rules of thumb are used in drawing DFD'S:

1. Process should be named and numbered for an easy reference. Each name should be representative of the process.

2. The direction of flow is from top to bottom and from left to right. Data traditionally flow from source to the destination although they may flow back to the source. One way to indicate this is to draw long flow line back to a source. An alternative way is to repeat the source symbol as a destination. Since it is used more than once in the DFD it is marked with a short diagonal.

3. When a process is exploded into lower level details, they are numbered.

4. The names of data stores and destinations are written in capital letters. Process and dataflow names have the first letter of each work capitalized.

A DFD typically shows the minimum contents of data store. Each data store should contain all the data elements that flow in and out.

Questionnaires should contain all the data elements that flow in and out. Missing interfaces redundancies and like is then accounted for often through interviews.


1. The DFD shows flow of data, not of control loops and decision are controlled considerations do not appear on a DFD.

2. The DFD does not indicate the time factor involved in any process whether the dataflow take place daily, weekly, monthly or yearly.

3. The sequence of events is not brought out on the DFD.


1. Current Physical

2. Current Logical

3. New Logical

4. New Physical


In Current Physical DFD process label include the name of people or their positions or the names of computer systems that might provide some of the overall system-processing label includes an identification of the technology used to process the data. Similarly data flows and data stores are often labels with the names of the actual physical media on which data are stored such as file folders, computer files, business forms or computer tapes.


The physical aspects at the system are removed as much as possible so that the current system is reduced to its essence to the data and the processors that transforms them regardless of actual physical form.


This is exactly like a current logical model if the user were completely happy with the user were completely happy with the functionality of the current system but had problems with how it was implemented typically through the new logical model will differ from current logical model while having additional functions, absolute function removal and inefficient flows recognized.


The new physical represents only the physical implementation of the new system.



1) No process can have only outputs.

2) No process can have only inputs. If an object has only inputs than it must be a sink.

3) A process has a verb phrase label.


1) Data cannot move directly from one data store to another data store, a process must move data.

2) Data cannot move directly from an outside source to a data store, a process, which receives, must move data from the source and place the data into data store

3) A data store has a noun phrase label.


The origin and /or destination of data.

1) Data cannot move direly from a source to sink it must be moved by a process

2) A source and /or sink has a noun phrase land


1) A Data Flow has only one direction of flow between symbols. It may flow in both directions between a process and a data store to show a read before an update. The later is usually indicated however by two separate arrows since these happen at different type.

2) A join in DFD means that exactly the same data comes from any of two or more different processes data store or sink to a common location.

3) A data flow cannot go directly back to the same process it leads. There must be at least one other process that handles the data flow produce some other data flow returns the original data into the beginning process.

4) A Data flow to a data store means update (delete or change).

5) A data Flow from a data store means retrieve or use.

A data flow has a noun phrase label more than one data flow noun phrase can appear on a single arrow as long as all of the flows on the same arrow move together as one package.

DFD Diagrams

Context Level Diagram (O Level)

Login DFD

Admin Activities DFD

1st Level

2nd Level

3rd Level

Doctor Activities

1st Level

2nd Level

Patient Activities

1st Level

2nd Level


After carefully understanding the requirements of the client the entire data storage requirements are divided into tables. The below tables are normalized to avoid any anomalies during the course of data entry.

Tables Design:


Use Case Diagrams :

Activity Diagrams:

Login Activity Diagram:

Admin Activity

Doctor Activity

Patient Activity

User Registration Sequence

Login Sequence

Admin Sequence to Approve Doctors

Admin Sequence to Add Rooms

Doctors Sequence to View Appointments

Doctors Sequence to Manage Mails

Patient Sequence to Take Appointment

Patient Sequenct to Give Complaints

Collaboration Diagrams


Admin Collaboration to Approve Doctors

Admin Collaboration to Add Rooms

Doctors Collaboration to View Appointments

Doctors Collaboration to View Appointments

Patient Collaboration to Take Appointment

Patient Collaboration to Take Appointment




Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification, design and coding. In fact, testing is the one step in the software engineering process that could be viewed as destructive rather than constructive.

A strategy for software testing integrates software test case design methods into a well-planned series of steps that result in the successful construction of software. Testing is the set of activities that can be planned in advance and conducted systematically. The underlying motivation of program testing is to affirm software quality with methods that can economically and effectively apply to both strategic to both large and small-scale systems.


The software engineering process can be viewed as a spiral. Initially system engineering defines the role of software and leads to software requirement analysis where the information domain, functions, behavior, performance, constraints and validation criteria for software are established. Moving inward along the spiral, we come to design and finally to coding. To develop computer software we spiral in along streamlines that decrease the level of abstraction on each turn.

A strategy for software testing may also be viewed in the context of the spiral. Unit testing begins at the vertex of the spiral and concentrates on each unit of the software as implemented in source code. Testing progress by moving outward along the spiral to integration testing, where the focus is on the design and the construction of the software architecture. Talking another turn on outward on the spiral we encounter validation testing where requirements established as part of software requirements analysis are validated against the software that has been constructed. Finally we arrive at system testing, where the software and other system elements are tested as a whole.


Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software design, the module. The unit testing we have is white box oriented and some modules the steps are conducted in parallel.


This type of testing ensures that

* All independent paths have been exercised at least once

* All logical decisions have been exercised on their true and false sides

* All loops are executed at their boundaries and within their operational bounds

* All internal data structures have been exercised to assure their validity.

To follow the concept of white box testing we have tested each form .we have created independently to verify that Data flow is correct, All conditions are exercised to check their validity, All loops are executed on their boundaries.


Established technique of flow graph with Cyclomatic complexity was used to derive test cases for all the functions. The main steps in deriving test cases were:

Use the design of the code and draw correspondent flow graph.

Determine the Cyclomatic complexity of resultant flow graph, using formula:

V(G)=E-N+2 or

V(G)=P+1 or

V(G)=Number Of Regions

Where V(G) is Cyclomatic complexity,

E is the number of edges,

N is the number of flow graph nodes,

P is the number of predicate nodes.

Determine the basis of set of linearly independent paths.


In this part of the testing each of the conditions were tested to both true and false aspects. And all the resulting paths were tested. So that each path that may be generate on particular condition is traced to uncover any possible errors.


This type of testing selects the path of the program according to the location of definition and use of variables. This kind of testing was used only when some local variable were declared. The definition-use chain method was used in this type of testing. These were particularly useful in nested statements.


In this type of testing all the loops are tested to all the limits possible. The following exercise was adopted for all loops:

All the loops were tested at their limits, just above them and just below them.

All the loops were skipped at least once.

For nested loops test the inner most loop first and then work outwards.

For concatenated loops the values of dependent loops were set with the help of connected loop.

Unstructured loops were resolved into nested loops or concatenated loops and tested as above.

Each unit has been separately tested by the development team itself and all the input have been validated.

1 Test Case 1 - Login

Test 1:

· Incorrect input: An empty requirement field. (user name and password)

* Pass criteria: An appropriate error message should be displayed and the user shouldn't be allowed to login.

* Correct input: Right user name and password.

* Pass criteria: The user should be directed to the secure web page which the user is requested.

Test 2:

* Incorrect input: Wrong user name and/or wrong password.

* Pass criteria: The user shouldn't be allowed to login to the system and an appropriate error message should be displayed.

* Correct input: Right user name and password.

* Pass criteria: The user should be login to the system and directing to the requested secure web page.

2 Test Case 2 - New User Register

* Incorrect input: An empty requirement field. (first name, last name, middle name, Photo, address, Date Of Birth, phone number, user name, password, e-mail address)

* Pass criteria: An appropriate error message should be displayed and the user shouldn't be allowed to create an account.

* Correct input: Fill in all requirement fields in correct format.

* Pass criteria: The user information should be added into the database.
Test Case 3 - Generate Report (Patient)

Test 1:

· Incorrect input: An empty requirement field. (Select Date)

* Pass criteria: An appropriate error message should be displayed and the user should not be able to generate a report.

* Correct input: Enter(Select) Correct Date

· Pass criteria: The user (admin) should be allowed to generate the report.


The protection of computer based resources that includes hardware, software, data, procedures and people against unauthorized use or natural

Disaster is known as System Security.

System Security can be divided into four related issues:

* Security

* Integrity

* Privacy

* Confidentiality

SYSTEM SECURITY refers to the technical innovations and procedures applied to the hardware and operation systems to protect against deliberate or accidental damage from a defined threat.

DATA SECURITY is the protection of data from loss, disclosure, modification and destruction.

SYSTEM INTEGRITY refers to the power functioning of hardware and programs, appropriate physical security and safety against external threats such as eavesdropping and wiretapping.

PRIVACY defines the rights of the user or organizations to determine what information they are willing to share with or accept from others and how the organization can be protected against unwelcome, unfair or excessive dissemination of information about it.

CONFIDENTIALITY is a special status given to sensitive information in a database to minimize the possible invasion of privacy. It is an attribute of information that characterizes its need for protection.


System security refers to various validations on data in form of checks and controls to avoid the system from failing. It is always important to ensure that only valid data is entered and only valid operations are performed on the system. The system employees two types of checks and controls:


Various client side validations are used to ensure on the client side that only valid data is entered. Client side validation saves server time and load to handle invalid data. Some checks imposed are:

* VBScript in used to ensure those required fields are filled with suitable data only. Maximum lengths of the fields of the forms are appropriately defined.

* Forms cannot be submitted without filling up the mandatory data so that manual mistakes of submitting empty fields that are mandatory can be sorted out at the client side to save the server time and load.

* Tab-indexes are set according to the need and taking into account the ease of user while working with the system.


Some checks cannot be applied at client side. Server side checks are necessary to save the system from failing and intimating the user that some invalid operation has been performed or the performed operation is restricted. Some of the server side checks imposed is:

* Server side constraint has been imposed to check for the validity of primary key and foreign key. A primary key value cannot be duplicated. Any attempt to duplicate the primary value results into a message intimating the user about those values through the forms using foreign key can be updated only of the existing foreign key values.

* User is intimating through appropriate messages about the successful operations or exceptions occurring at server side.

* Various Access Control Mechanisms have been built so that one user may not agitate upon another. Access permissions to various types of users are controlled according to the organizational structure. Only permitted users can log on to the system and can have access according to their category. User- name, passwords and permissions are controlled o the server side.

* Using server side validation, constraints on several restricted operations are imposed.


It has been a great pleasure for me to work on this exciting and challenging project. This project proved good for me as it provided practical knowledge of not only programming in ASP.NET and C#.NET web based application and no some extent Windows Application and SQL Server, but also about all handling procedure related with “Primary health care”. It also provides knowledge about the latest technology used in developing web enabled application and client server technology that will be great demand in future. This will provide better opportunities and guidance in future in developing projects independently.


The project is identified by the merits of the system offered to the user. The merits of this project are as follows: -

* It's a web-enabled project.

* This project offers user to enter the data through simple and interactive forms. This is very helpful for the client to enter the desired information through so much simplicity.

* The user is mainly more concerned about the validity of the data, whatever he is entering. There are checks on every stages of any new creation, data entry or updation so that the user cannot enter the invalid data, which can create problems at later date.

* Sometimes the user finds in the later stages of using project that he needs to update some of the information that he entered earlier. There are options for him by which he can update the records. Moreover there is restriction for his that he cannot change the primary data field. This keeps the validity of the data to longer extent.

* User is provided the option of monitoring the records he entered earlier. He can see the desired records with the variety of options provided by him.

* From every part of the project the user is provided with the links through framing so that he can go from one option of the project to other as per the requirement. This is bound to be simple and very friendly as per the user is concerned. That is, we can sat that the project is user friendly which is one of the primary concerns of any good project.

* Data storage and retrieval will become faster and easier to maintain because data is stored in a systematic manner and in a single database.

* Decision making process would be greatly enhanced because of faster processing of information since data collection from information available on computer takes much less time then manual system.

* Allocating of sample results becomes much faster because at a time the user can see the records of last years.

* Easier and faster data transfer through latest technology associated with the computer and communication.

* Through these features it will increase the efficiency, accuracy and transparency,


* The size of the database increases day-by-day, increasing the load on the database back up and data maintenance activity.

* Training for simple computer operations is necessary for the users working on the system.







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