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Creating an E-Health System

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Published: Tue, 27 Feb 2018

Infrastructure of the E-Health

ABSTRACT

This project is based on the e-health which provides medical advice, latest news on diseases general information, registration of patient, patient records maintaining ,telephone helpline, health news by e-mail, patient health observation, list of hospitals & searching for particular hospital and doctor, before and after comparisons, providing health demos. Providing tips for health and food.

The main aim is to provide full detail information and support regarding any disease to patient. It is the medium between a doctor and a patient. The main goal of the project is to give User friendly features. It is a web application which shows and helps patients to collect most of the information about Hospitality and Medical Services. It can used by the patients to view the list of doctors available in their cities and take appointments of doctors with the help of this site. The site will include different articles from famous doctors through e-mail facility. There will be online help for and counseling etc… patients through e-mail facility.

  • It is maintained by an administrator.
  • User accounts for patients. The data is well protected for personal use and makes the data processing very fast.
  • Receive emails from doctors and specialists about diseases, preventive measures and general awareness.
  • User should be able to search the records for doctors, patients and related medication information, tips for the health and diet along with the user record.
  • Unique platform to maintain transparency and accuracy along with formatted order with proper maintenance of data records.
  • Health information technology plays an important role in supporting decision making, health care delivery system , and management of health services. Many socio-technical factors affect physicians adoption and implementation of health information systems.
  • Place to post ads.
  • As it is a web-enabled project low cost and time of project deployment and maintenance.

Chapter – 1

1. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT

In the present e health is maintained through the storing the information into a single system and then using the search engines to search the data which user wants to. In the current scenario maintaining the search engines and maintaining the data costs a lot and can be feasible if data is in huge volumes. It cannot be feasible for small volumes of data. Data management is enough and it will be a best feasible solution if the data is stored in records and fetched through the simple forms.

It will provides medical advice, latest news on diseases general information, registration of patient, patient records maintaining ,telephone helpline, health news by e-mail, patient health observation, list of hospitals & searching for particular hospital and doctor, before and after comparisons, providing health demos. Providing tips for health and food. It is the medium between a doctor and a patient. The main goal of the project is to give User friendly features. It is a web application which shows and helps patients to collect most of the information about Hospitality and Medical Services. It can be used by the patients to view the list of doctors available in their cities and take appointments of doctors with the help of this site. The site will include different articles from famous doctors through e-mail facility. In current system displays pages in continuously but it is very lengthy and very difficult to the user to search what he needed for user easiness here we provide + and – buttons before that heading if he want to see items on that particular pages he can click + button and see the sub items. Finally we will provide 3 dropdown links problem name, hospital name, doctor name and by selecting them we want to give e-mail confirmation regarding appointment. And the patient information also viewed by the doctor and telephone number is used for tele-medication.

Objectives:-

Objectives of this project is to provide the simple web based forms to User with simple interactive forms to maintain transparency, accuracy and simply effective in maintaining the data over recent past years. Here user can register, enter patient related data along with the options to maintain or update the user own records where all those records can be maintained in the database. User can be able to search the records for doctors, patients and related medication information, tips for the health and diet along with the user record.

There is no or unique platform to maintain transparency and accuracy along with formatted order with proper maintenance of data records. Data management is very conventional and complicated manner. No existing mechanism to handle this situation in the present market. Just this causing wasting unnecessarily time and cost.

In the present e health is maintained through the storing the information into a single system and then using the search engines to search the data which user wants to. In the current scenario maintaining the search engines and maintaining the data costs a lot and can be feasible if data is in huge volumes. It cannot be feasible for small volumes of data. Data management is enough and it will be a best feasible solution if the data is stored in records and fetched through the simple forms.

As I am using small forms and a simple data base, following SDLC phases. Before this in the primary research I have done with gathering overall objective of my research topic E health. As a secondary research I have collected the sample data to use, creating the functional flows, best ways to implement this.

Chapter – 2

EXISTING SYSTEM

Existing system refers to the system that is being followed till now. Presently all the health functionalities or services are completed manually. That is if a patient want to consult a doctor he can visit their till his chance called or call-up and take appointment in office hours. To know any general information about any epidemics or diseases that causes panic among the people if not rightly informed on right time. This makes the person very difficult. Out Patient and In Patient tickets are distributed directly. The main disadvantage is that there will be lot of difficulty for the patient.

So, all these procedures will be a time consuming one.

Draw backs of existing system:

  • Difficult for patients
  • Time consuming.

To avoid all these limitations and make the working more accurately the system needs to be online.

PROPOSED SYSTEM

The aim of proposed system is to develop a system of improved facilities. The proposed system can overcome all the limitations of the existing system. The system provides data accuracy and save disc space. The existing system has several disadvantages and many more difficulties to work well. The proposed system tries to eliminate or reduce these difficulties up to some extent. The proposed system will help the user to consume time. The system requires very low system resources and the system will work only in internet connection.

In the existing system displays pages in continuously but it is very lengthy and very difficult to the user to search what he needed for user easiness here this application will provide + and – buttons before that heading if he want to see items on that particular pages he can click + button and see the sub-items in Treeview form. In existing system/site he shows time that is not updated continuously but in our application we have implemented timely updates for every second. Finally we have provided 3 dropdown links problem name, hospital name, doctor name and by selecting them system will to give e mail confirmation regarding appointment. And the patient information also viewed by the doctor and telephone number is used for tele-medication.

Advantages of Proposed System :

The system is very simple in design and to implement. The system requires very low system resources and the system will work in almost all configurations. It has got following features

  • This website will provide online help for patients and counseling / advices for specialists.
  • This website helps all the users to view the list of doctors available in their cities
  • User is provided the option of monitoring the records that he enter earlier and also he can see the required records with the multiplicity of options provided by him.
  • From each part of the project the user is provided with the links all the way through framing so that he can go from one option of the project to other as per the necessity. This is bound to be easy and very friendly as per the user is concerned. That is, we can say that the project is user friendly which is one of the major concerns of any good project.
  • This website will help take appointments of doctors for the users.
  • In the existing system displays pages in continuously but it is very lengthy and very difficult to the user to search what he needed for user easiness here this application will provide + and – buttons before that heading if he want to see items on that particular pages he can click + button and see the sub-items in Treeview form.

Chapter – 3

3. FEASIBILITY STUDY

Feasibility study is about the viability of a system. The proposed system has to be examined for its technical, economical and operational feasibility. This system for posting news and working the website was inspected with all these aspects in mind.

3.1.1 Technical Feasibility

It is the process of assessing the development internet websites ability to construct a proposed system. Test is made to see whether reliable hardware and software, technical resources capable of meeting the needs of a proposed system can be acquired or developed by webpage in the required time. In this process, since Dot.Net is used for developing the simple internet application, it’s seemed to be very feasible. While accessing the technical feasibility, the various issues that are considered are system performance, system interfaces, development processes, risks, failure immunity and security. This system is proven to be technically feasible.

3.1.2 Economic Feasibility

It is a process of identifying the airfare search benefits with a development project. This project is found to be economically feasible since security is the need of the time. The search benefit analysis is made considering the intricacies such as time to considerations, get more details, effectiveness, and maintainable design.

3.1.3 Operational Feasibility

Operational feasibility study is a must, because it ensures that the project implemented in the web pages works the feasibility should be high. The operational feasibility of this project is very high as it automates document control and web interface, which is easy and friendly for the user to use it.

3.2. SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT

3.2.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

Processor : Pentium-IV or higher

Hard Memory : 20GB or higher

Monitor : 1024 * 768 Resolutions

Ram : 1GB

3.2.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

Front End : ASP.Net

Back End : Microsoft SQL Server 2000

Operating System : Windows XP

Language : C#.Net

Framework : .Net 2.0

3.2.3 CLIENT SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

Browsers : IE 7 or above, Firefox 2 or above

Flash Player : 8 or above

Monitor Resolution : 1024*768 Resolution

3.3 ASP. NET

ASP.NET it is a part of the .NET Framework and also a new platform from Microsoft for creating applications that are highly distributed across the Internet. Highly distributed means the components of the application, as well as the data, may reside anywhere on the Internet rather than all being contained inside the one software program somewhere. Each part of an application can be referred and accessed by using a standard procedure. ASP.NET is the part that provides the features easily tie up all this capability together for coherent web-based applications. It is a programming framework, but there is a primary difference between this and traditional ASP it uses Common Language Runtime (CLR) capable of running compiled code on a web server to deploy powerful wed-based applications.

ASP.NET still use HTTP to communicate to the browser and back, but it can brings added functionality that makes the communication process much richer. If any files have the appropriate extension or contain code then the server routes those files to ASP.NET for processing prior to sending them out to the client. The script or code is then processed and the appropriate content is generated for transmission back to the browser/client because the processing takes place before the results are delivered to the user and also all manner of functionality can be built-in such as database access, component usage and the ordinary programmatic functionality available with scripting languages.

ASP.NET applications can be coded by using the plain text edited such as notepad, although this is not the most proficient method to use. Developing of all the other resources that might be required for a particular ASP.NET application, particularly for the user interface, may involve range of particular tools including image-editing programs and HTML editors.

1. ASP.NET also enables you to separate HTML design from the data retrieval mechanism. Therefore changing the HTML deign does not affect the program that retrieve data from the databases. Similarly, server-side scripting ensures that changing data sources does not require a change in HTML documents.

2. ASP.NET has a number of advance features that help you develop robust web applications. The advance features of ASP.NET are based on the .NET Framework.

3.3.1 ASP.NET in .NET Framework

ASP.NET, which is the .NET version of ASP, is built on Microsoft .NET Framework. Microsoft introduced the .NET Framework to help developers create globally distributed software with Internet functionality and interoperability.ASP.NET application include WEB Forms, configuration files and XML, web service files. ASP.NET has a number of advance features that help you develop robust web applications. The advance features of ASP.NET are based on the .NET Framework.

3.3.2 FEATURES OF ASP.NET

1. Compiled Code – Code written in ASP.NET is compiled and not interpreted. It makes ASP.NET applications much faster to execute than other server- side scripts that are interpreted such as scripts written in a previous ASP.

2. Enriched Tool Support – The ASP.NET Framework is provided with a rich toolbox and designer in VS.NET IDE.Some of the features of this powerful tools are drag-and-drop server controls and automatic deployment.

3. Power and Flexibility – The ASP.NET applications are based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR).

4. Simplicity – ASP.NET enables you to build user interfaces that separates application logic from the presentation content. In addition, CLR simplify the application development by using managed code services, such as garbage collection and automatic reference counting.

5. Manageability – The ASP.NET allow you to manage Web applications by storing the configuration information in an XML file . You can also open the XML file in the visual Studio .NET IDE.

6. Scalability – ASP.NET has been designed with scalability and it has some features that helps you to improve performance in a multiprocessor environment.

7. Security – ASP.NET has a options for implementing security and restricting the user access to a web application. All these options are cond within the same configuration file.

3.3.3 ASP.NET Architecture

ASP.NET is based on the fundamental architecture of the .NET Framework. Visual Studio provides a standardized way to combine the various features of this Architecture.

Architechture of Asp.Net

Architecture is explained form bottom to top in the following discussion.

At the bottom of the Architecture is Common Language Runtime(CLR) .NET Framework CLR resides on the top of the operating system services. The common language runtime masses and executes the code that targets the runtime. This code called as managed code. The runtime gives an example that is ability for cross language integration.
.NET Framework provides set of class libraries. These classes include in base classes, like input ,output and networking classes .
The ADO.NET is Microsoft’s ActiveX Data Object (ADO) model for .NET Framework.
The 4th layer of the framework consists two types of applications they are Windows application model and in parallel Web application model. The Web application model presents ASP.NET it includes Web services and Web forms. ASP.NET comes with built-in control Web Forms which are responsible for generating the user interface(UI).
One of the important themes of .NET is association and interoperability between different programming languages. In order to achieve this certain rules must be laid and all the languages must be following these rules. In other words we don’t have languages to running around their own extensions and their own new data types. CLS is the collection of the rules and constraints that every language (that seeks to achieve .NET compatibility) should follow.
In general the CLR and the .NET Frameworks are designed in such a way that the code has been written in one language we cannot badly used by another language. Hence ASP.NET can be coded in any of the .NET compatible languages whether it is VB.NET, C#(C SHARP), Managed C++ or JavaScript.NET.

3.4 C#.Net

C# (“C-Sharp”) is one of the object-oriented programming languages developed by Microsoft. “C# is a modern, object-oriented language it enables programmers to quickly build a wide range of applications for the new Microsoft .NET. Which provides tools and services that are fully exploited in both computing and communications? C# original called codename is “Cool” being released as a beta in 2000. After that Microsoft released different version of language including the latest release of C# 2.0.

Some of the basic features of the C# programming language they are namespaces, type-safe variables, multi-dimensional arrays, jagged arrays, operator overloading, indexers, delegates, versioning, attributes and overriding. C# also have two types of parameters they are “pass by reference” and “pass by value” and also have xml based documentation with some special comment tags, Integration with COM components are developed using Visual Studio 2005.

3.4.1 FEATURES OF C#

v There are no pointers used in C#.

v In C# Unsafe operations are not allowed like direct memory manipulation.

v In C# we don’t use “:” or “->” operators.

v C# based on the current trend it is very powerful and simple for construct robust applications.

v C# includes built in support to turn any component into a web service that can be invoked over the Internet from any application running on any platform.

v C# supports encapsulation, polymorphism and interfaces.

v In C# we cannot convert double to a Boolean.

v C# supports the COM and windows based applications.

3.4.2 SQL Server

SQL – Structured query language.

3.4.2.1 INTRODUCTION TO SQL SERVER:

To create a database that determines the name of the user (who creates the database) and database size. Then all file groups are used to store it and retrieve it. Before creating a database we must follow these steps:

* Take Permission to create a database defaults to members of the system administrator and Database Creator has some fixed server roles, although they can grant permissions to other users.

* User who creates their own database becomes owner of the database.

* We can create maximum of 32,767 databases on a server.

* Name of the database must be follows rules for identifiers.

Three types of files are used to store a database:

· Primary files

Primary files contain the startup information for the database. It can also used for stores the data. one primary file allocated to one database.

· Secondary files

Secondary files hold all the data that data is not fit into the primary data file. In Databases primary file cannot hold all the data in that situation we use secondary file. Some databases have large data files so we need to use secondary files or some databases may use secondary files on separate disk drives to spread the data into multiple disks.

· Transaction log

Log files are used to hold the log information and to recover the database. Each database contains one log file although there may be more than one log file. Minimum size the log file is 512 kilobytes (KB).

It specifies a maximum size to which the file is permitted to grow. This prevents the file is growing data is added until the disk space is exhausted. To specify a maximum size of file we used to write MAXSIZE parameter.

CREATING DATABASE PLAN:

The first step of the database creation is creating a plan that serves both guide to be used for database implementation and functional specification for the database after that it has been implemented. Detailed database design is dictated by the complexity and size of the database application as well as the user population.

Database can vary nature and complexity as well as planning of application. Single person can easily design and use a database or it can be large or complex for example, bank can handle many of transactions at a time.

In planning database we use these basic steps:

1. First we need to gather all information.

2. Objects identified.

3. Object model.

4. Types of information for objects.

5. Relationships between the objects.

3.5 SYSTEM DESIGN

3.5.1 DATABASE DESIGN

Database is a collection of interrelated data that data we stored with minimum redundancy to serve for many users quickly and competently. General objective of database design is to make the data access easy, inexpensive and flexible to the user.

Database design is used to define and then specify the structure of business used in the client/server system. A business object is nothing but information that is visible to the users of the system. The database must be normalized one.

Data Normalization

The entities along with their attributes can be stored in many different ways into a set of tables. The methods of arranging these attributes are called normal forms. The theory behind the arrangement of attributes into table is known as normalization theory. It helps in,

* Minimization of duplication data.

* Providing flexibility to support different functional requirements.

* Enabling the model to be translated to database design.

All relations in a relational database are required to satisfy the following condition, every value in a relation each attribute value is atomic so far as system is concerned. Advantages of normalization are:

* Helps in reduction in the complexity of maintaining data integrity by removing the redundant data.

* It reduces inconsistency of data

First normal form:

* Eliminate the repeating fields.

* Creates a row for each occurrence of a repeated field

* Allows exploitation of column functions

Second Normal Form:

The second normal form has the characteristics of the first normal form and all the attributes must fully be dependent on the primary key.

Input Design:

Input design is process of converting the user-oriented inputs to the computer-based format. Goal of the designing input data is to make automation as easy and easily finds errors as possible. Provides good input design for the application easy data input and selected features are adopted.

There is some basic requirements of the input design such as user friendliness, consistent format and give right message for interactive dialogue and it also helps the user at right time are also considered for development of the project.

Following points are consider while designing the input:

* Data to input?

* Medium to use?

* How data is arranged or coded?

* Input provides dialogue to the users.

* To detect the errors we need validation for data items and transactions.

* when Methods for performing input validation and steps to follow when errors occur.

Minimize the number of input actions required from user. This can be accomplished by using the mouse to select from predefined set of inputs. In application the user can select the options by using the mouse. The user is allowed to choose priority, mode of transport using predefined set of values. Maintain consistency between information display and data input. The visual characteristics of the display (e.g. text size, color etc) should be carried over to the input domain. In this project the status information are represented by different colors.

Allow the user to customize input. An expert user might decide to create customer commands or dispense with some types of warning messages and action verification.

Output Design:

When designing output, systems analyst must accomplish the following:

* Determine what information to present

* Decide whether to display, print the information and select the output medium

* Arrange the presentation of information in an acceptable format

* Decide how to distribute the output to intended recipient

Accomplishing the general activities listed above will require specific decisions, such as whether to use preprinted forms when preparing reports and documents, how many line to plan on printed page, or whether to user graphics and color. The output design is specified on layout forms, sheets that describe the location characteristics (such as length and type), and format of the column headings and pagination

Table Name: Login

This table stores the details about the login .User login table contains the fields username and password.

Field Name

Data Type

Description

User Name

Text

User Name

Password

Text

User Name

Table Name: Admin Registration

This table stores the details about the admin .Admin registration table contains the fields username and password.

Field Name

Data Type

Description

User Name

Text

User Name

Password

Text

User Name

Table Name: User Registration

This table stores the details about the user registration. The User Registration table contains the fields.

Field Name

Data Type

Description

Name

Text

User Name

Age

Integer

Age

Gender

Text

Gender

Address

Text

Address

Phone no

Long

Phone Number

User Name

Long

User Name

Password

Long

Password

Table Name: Doctor Registration

This table stores the details about the doctor registration. The Doctor Registration table contains the fields.

Field Name

Data Type

Description

Dr name

Text

Doctor Name

Gender

Text

Gender

Dept

Text

Department

Consultation time

Integer

Consultation Time

Address

Text

Address

Contact no

Long

Contact Number

Emergency no

Long

Emergency Number

Consult fee

Long

Consultation fees

Date

Date/Time

Date

Consultation day

Text

Consultation Day

Tot pat

Double

Total Patient

3.6 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM:

Data flow oriented techniques advocate that the major data items handled by a system must be first identified and then the processing required on these data items to produce the desired outputs should be determined. The DFD (also called as bubble chart) is a simple graphical formalism that can be used to represent a system in terms of input data to the system, various processing carried out on these data, and the output generated by the system. It was introduced by De Macro (1978), Gene and Sarson (1979).The primitive symbols used for constructing DFD’s are:

Symbols used in DFD:

A circle represents a process.

A rectangle represents external entity

A square defines source of the system data.

An arrow will identify the dataflow.

Double line with one end closed indicates data store

3.6.1CONTEXT DIAGRAM:

3.6.1.1Level 1 DFD Administrator:

3.6.1.2 Level 1 DFD User

3.6.1.3 Level 2 DFD User:

3.6.1.4 Level 2 DFD Admin:

3.8 SYSTEM TESTING:

Testing is a process to show the correctness of the program. Testing is needed to show completeness, t improve the quality of the software and to provide the maintenance aid. Some testing standards are therefore necessary reduce the testing costs and operation time. Testing software extends throughout the coding phase and it signify the ultimate review of the design ,configuration and coding. Based on the way the software reacts to these testing, we can decide whether the configuration that has been built is study or not. All components of an application are tested, as the failure to do so many results in a series of bugs after the software is put to use.

Testing involves

* Unit testing

* Integration testing

* Acceptance testing

The first level of test is unit testing. The purpose of unit testing is to ensure that each program is fully tested.

The second step is integration testing. In this individual program units or programs are integrated and tested as a complete system to ensure that the software requirements are met.

Acceptance Testing involves planning and the execution of various types of tests in order to demonstrate that the implemented software system satisfies the requirements. Finally our project meets the requirements after going through all the levels of testing.

Chapter – 4

4.IMPLEMENTATION AND MAINTENANCE

4.1System Implementation:

Implementation includes all those activities that take place to convert from the old system to the new system. The new system may be totally new, replacing an existing system. Proper implementation is essential to provide a reliable system to meet the organization requirements. Sometimes successful implementation may not guarantee any improvement in the organization using the new system.

The implementation phase includes the following tasks:

* Careful planning.

* Investigation of the system and constraints.

* Design of methods to achive the change over phase.

* Training of staff in the change over phase.

* Evaluation of change over.

The method of implementation and time scale to be adapted is found out initially.Next,the system is tested properly and at the same time the users were trained in the new environment.

In Infrastructure of the E-Health implementation process is successfully implemented the system by satisfying all the aspects of the user. All the procedure are designed to minimise the users resistance to change and make a attitude for f


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