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The Impact of Urban Development Corporations on City Centre Manchester
Manchester has seen radical change in recent years from its traditional 19th Century appearance of an industrial city to a modern 21st century city, with a mixture of modern, traditional and natural architecture and planning. Urban Development Corporations (UDCs) aim to move from a place of functionality to a home, community and place of pride. Manchester is following in the stead of other cities in the world, which have turned away from its traditional industries to service centres, and tourist attractions of the developed world.
Other examples are Liverpool, Glasgow and Halifax, NS,Canada. The question one has to deal with is whether these corporations are regenerating the city for the good of the entire city or is making the city exclusive and far too expensive for the average person to live in, i.e. are surrounding areas around the city such as Rochdale, Salford etc. going to become Manchester’s shanty towns or ghettos? Thesis a very significant question or geographical, environmental, political and social contexts.
UDCs are venturing for a way of life to be created within the UK as indicated by the research of Rd. Nicholas Falk of URBED:
Nicholas Falk of URBED, who are undertaking the research, said that initial work indicated that town centres in many conurbations were like galaxy, and while there were a few rising stars, others were being eclipsed or even ending up like ‘black holes’. The project is focusing on what authorities can do to stem decline, and how better collaboration within the public sector can help to spread the benefits of town and city centre renewal.
URBED is a non-profit consultancy for regeneration projects in UK, which focuses on the notion of an integral project of regeneration, environmental, political and social/cultural development of the UK, i.e. a holistic approach to regeneration that is more than just the private company sector’s drive for increased capital; rather it needs to be done in conjunction with the local authority’s collaboration for integral renewal for all aspects of the city in question. This will bathe approach taken in this discussion, especially when focusing on the environmental concerns with urban renewal, because this can cause the traditional battle between the natural and manmade environments, i.e. The problem with regeneration can equal an increased need for motorways and roadways which encroach on green belts and natural habitats. Therefore a more integral and holistic approach needs to be taken to ensure that all aspects are properly considered, i.e. an increased public transport sector.
Manchester’s regeneration has included both increased roadways and a better public transport system in part but is far from the ideal balance, i.e. its renewal with respect to the Trafford Centre created a building being built on a landfill, the need for the M60 and a very bad public transport system to the area which although a popular financially benefiting attraction has created a huge hazard to the environment. The superficially pretty architecture of the building hides an environmental faux pas. It is essential if UDCs are going to play a major role in regeneration of cities that not only the economic, political and social aspects are considered but also the environmental.
Approach & Methodology:
The environment is a key factor of any geographical layout and without its consideration a disaster will ensue if not in the near future then the distant future. Therefore this discussion will consider holistic theory, as opposed to pure environmental and economic considerations. Then it will consider some other examples of Urban Development discussing whether they illustrate a holistic approach or not and the roles of UDCs and their collaboration with the local authorities. The discussion will turn to the example of Manchester and consider the impact of UDCs and whether the approach sufficiently balances the competing interests.
It will consider some ethical and political aspects such as whether urban regeneration protects all the sectors of society or whether it has created exclusivity and alienated the average person. Finally, the discussion will conclude by critically analyzing the impact of UDCs in Manchester’s regeneration programme.
The methodology of this discussion will be from primarily a theoretical standpoint. It will consider the approaches of environmental theorists in respect to development. Also it will make a review of literature of the websites of various UDCs and the aims of their approach. It will then take this theory and literature review and consider some other case studies and the type of regeneration that has taken place and whether this is the consequence of UDCs, local authorities or culmination of both.
Finally this discussion will discuss Manchester, the role of UDCs, the role of local authorities and the success of the urban regeneration in respect to architecture, aesthetics, environmental, social and economic results and determine whether the factors relate to holistic, economic or environmental planning. Hence amalgamating the case study with the theory will relay the ultimate success in the role of UDCs. This discussion is not a quantitative analysis of the actual economic, environmental etc. effects but is considering such conclusions from perspectives from various sources of literature and already collected and analysed data.
Key Questions and Central Thesis:
This discussion will focus on the following key questions to determine the role and the effectiveness of UDCs in Manchester’s regeneration programme:
What is the theoretical perspective that the approach of regeneration seems to portray?
Who are the key players in the regeneration and do different players consistently point to a certain approach?
Does the political and economic context play an equal role in there generation or do the political concerns outweigh the economic, vice versa or are they one in the same?
Do the social or environmental consequences factor into their generation or are these secondary to economic return, exclusivity anaesthetics?
Finally, does the theoretical basis play an important role in the consequences and which is the best overall approach, i.e. economic, environmental, social, political or a culmination and equal balancing of all these factors?
This discussion is going to argue that the best approach is the holistic or balancing approach as it provides both a more stable short-term and long-term plan. It will also argue that UDCs do play an important role because of their resources; however there needs to be sufficient monitoring from the local authorities and various on-governmental social movements so that the regeneration does not purely promote mainstream political and economic concerns and exclusivity for only those who can afford it, i.e. it does not benefit either the environment or the lower classes of society as they do not promote economic and corporate advancement.
Liberalist & Socialist Theory Outdated – A New Approach Holistic Theory:
The Third Way provides an alternative to the old political regime that was based on a socialist versus capitalist tension; this Third Ways very much a holistic approach.
“The Left today is faced with many challenges — the neo-liberalism of the 1980s has given birth to both the ‘Third Way’ and its perverse underside — the Far Right… Third Way theorists even talk about the end of ideologies, as though ideology is irrational, a thing of the past, and we should simply get on with the business of ‘good government’.”
The following discussion will consider the some of the aspects that the third way brings in new social movements and beliefs. The third way does not tie itself to the socialist principles or the capitalist politics of the West; rather it takes thought from modern movements such as equity, human rights, globalization and social welfare and justice from a centre ground.
Property rights are part of the basic rights in a capitalist society, which means that the law supports the economics and politics of mankind, even if it is to the detriment of the environment, different cultures or future generations. Therefore perhaps a view that takes in all the interests of society rather than the individual will illustrate the importance of maintaining areas which are in contest with individual rights. Locke heralds the beginning of capitalist democracy with a special emphasis on property rights; however one must ask the validity of whether property rights are really inherent, as with the right to life and the right to housing and social welfare is not?
The socialist view can be seen in the theory of state that has originated from maxim which is men make their own history, but not under conditions of their own choosing, i.e. they are subjected to the conditions of the social structure of government and need to receive benefits to even out the inherent inequalities of society. Therefore as Reiner illustrates:
“People have a degree of autonomy as historical agents and not just bearers of structural forces, nonetheless are constrained by limits determined by their past and present circumstances. This gives scope not only for human autonomy but also for cultural values to have some independent force.”
Hence this view gives the most balanced version of the state; it allows for the individual’s ability to evoke social change. Therefore socialist theory provides that individuals are always constrained byte social system, therefore should receive benefits to ensure inequalities are not exacerbated.
The Third Way tries to amalgamate the two theories of capitalism and socialism illustrating that factors of both theoretical viewpoints are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Therefore the protection of society and culture, as well as the welfare of the masses is possible at the same time that individual human rights are upheld in a competitive market. This theory allows for a limited amount of interference of the state to provide an adequate social system without completely eliminating the rights of the individual in both area of property, opportunity and human rights. Therefore is this move from the left to right or a new way altogether, i.e. is it balancing the positives and benefits of both political theories to create what the citizenry want:
“The Third Way philosophy seeks to adapt enduring progressive values tithe new challenges of the Information Age. It rests on three cornerstones: the idea that government should promote equal opportunity for all while granting special privilege for none; an ethic of mutual responsibility that equally rejects the politics of entitlement and the politics of social abandonment; and a new approach to governing that empowers citizens to act for themselves. ”
Therefore this new political approach illustrates the importance of the government and non-governmental players working together, therefore this includes corporations, new social movements as well as local and central government. The example of city regeneration would be a perfect example of this co-operation, discussion and balancing of ideologies to come to a common goal. The following discussion will consider the problems faced for the environment under traditional reasoning and the need for a holistic approach.
Sustainability encompasses various sectors of society, such as economics, politics, law, the environment, culture and religion. The key focus of sustainability is that the traditional culture and the natural environment are protected from the drive for pure economic and technological developments; rather an aided evolution of development occurs in nations, where all factors in the society have been respected. The following discussion is going to consider sustainability and the environment because environmental concerns automatically encompass the traditional culture of the area of development. Also the theoretical developments concerning sustainability and the environment have played a very important role in the broader ambit of sustainable development.
Sustainable development is essential in order to maintain sufficient economic development in the 21st Century; because the effects of focusing on purely economic concerns rather than the whole ambit of elements de-stabilize both medium and long-term development. The environment and its protection is one of the most congested areas in politics, science, economics, law and philosophy. It encompasses every part of humanity, but it has not been given the level of importance that it should deserve. Governments see military defence as an area where millions of pounds can be budgeted to every year. The same governments fail to see the irony of the lack of legal and political protection that is given to the environment, because the effects on deteriorating environment will create a bigger threat to the safety of its citizenry in the long term. Pahokee describes:
“Sustainability is perhaps the core environmental value which addresses most directly the long-term viability of industrial societies rather than their desirability. Concern with sustainability is nothing less than an attempt to shift the attention of contemporary societies to the needs of future generations and to reject the assumption that somehow technology will somehow almost automatically resolve all future resources needs. Sustainability implies a radically reduced dependence on non-renewable resources, a commitment to extract renewable resources no more rapidly than they are restored in nature and a minimization of human impacts on the ecosystems upon which we depend”.
Pahokee illustrates that the core idea of sustainability is that society is considering the larger picture; instead of focusing on the here and now of human wants society must consider the future effects on the environment. This can be integrated with the concept of Leopold’s larger moral community, whereby the environment is strengthened by the acknowledgement that the environment can have rights of protection and sustainability. In order to incorporate these ideas in to the present political, legal and economic structure it is necessary that the effect of humanity on the environment is considered in a holistic manner, which refers to Tuber’s Theory of reflexive law .
This theory introduces the necessity of global governance to take into account all factors that could have a negative effect on the environment and create system of governance that protects against these factors. This discussion of the theories, in response to the protection of the environment, have all supported the idea of sustainability because it would be unrealistic to expect humanity to give up their wants in favour of the needs of the environment. Instead, based upon a model of rights, environmentalists have tried to balance these conflicting interests with principles, such as sustainability and the precautionary principle.
This notion of sustainability and holism is more than just the environment but the factors that surround the question and possible action at hand. In the 21st Century in the UK, especially with the tightening of the EU’s social and environmental laws sustainability Isa key word. In order to achieve sustainability there needs to be balancing of all influencing factors as suggested by Tuber. If one applies this to the question of urban regeneration then it points tithe need to allow all sectors of society to become involved, rather than just the mainstream political and economic agendas.
This would mean a method to enhance and promote average citizens becoming involved and suggesting how regeneration should proceed. Therefore a method of participation should be created; the role of UDCs could play a very important role in analysing and formatting the data from such an open forum of participation from the social, environmental, economic and political sectors. This was the consequence of Liverpool Vision, teak’s first regeneration company; however this is not necessarily the outcome. Therefore the following section will explore the roles and consequences of using UDCs. Then the discussion will consider some case studies of successful participatory regeneration and the role of UDCs if any.
The Role of UDCs in Regeneration Programmes:
In England, Lord Rogers 1999 Urban Task Force report recommended an innovative new delivery model called Urban Regeneration Companies as ‘dedicated arms-length bodies to co-ordinate the delivery of urban regeneration projects'. The Task Force was clear that although the organizational structures of URCs would differ according to local circumstances, the longer-term goal of all would be to use public-sector investment in such a way as to maximize a 'positive market response'. In short, a vehicle through which the public and private sectors combine effectively to create growth and add value for both.
The role of UDCs have become substantially important in the context of urban regeneration as they provide a medium for all interested party to have their ideas and views put across and the company negotiates balance. The problem with UDCs is that they are privately profit run organizations which will automatically create a bias to those views that have the funding, which are usually private companies whose goalies economic gain. This will create an inherent bias against badly funded social groups and environmental groups because of the lack of capital gain from these sectors of society.
Therefore this illustrates the need for tight statutory control and independence of the UDC and ensuring accountability for the whole of the affected populace, rather than the chasing of the big money financiers. In the UK this accountability is reached through a board of executives; however the private sector is clumped as a whole rather than separation into interests and their motives behind contributing to the regeneration programme. The Scottish Executive in their consultation paper supporting the use of UDCs in Scotland focused on the flexibility and accountability of the use of UDCs.
It promotes a tight statutory framework and the involvement of local and central government, rather than allowing the private sector to act on its own. This is highly important otherwise the fears that economic and political agendas maybe fulfilled at the expense of equally important environmental and social concerns. The fact that the Scottish Executive is seriously considering the use of UDCs illustrates the potential success that they have in creating balanced urban regeneration, because Scotland’s present system is highly successful in this area. This can be seen byte following case study of Glasgow, which consisted of a successful development plan fuelled by local and central government, as well as public interest and participation groups.
It is this long standing history with public participation groups that the Scottish Executive finds highly important and should be efficiently integrated into these of UDCs in order to create accountability to the community. This is possibly the main with Manchester’s use of UDCs because there generation focused highly on the economic, as well as the poorer areas that have been regenerated have been come exclusive hotspots in the city centre and have begun to oust out the traditional communities.
Therefore to counter such problems the Scottish Executive in their regeneration consultation paper focused on the role of public participation groups:
We want to work with local stakeholders to work out why past initiatives have failed to make a sustained impact - and see whether different approach might overcome those obstacles, fill crucial gaps, or secure the extra funds to get projects off the ground. Social Inclusion Partnerships already play a key role in local regeneration activity and proposals are currently being developed to further integrate them within the strategic framework of CPPs. That's why in considering URCs we want to make sure that the most appropriate regeneration vehicle is selected to address the specific problem and opportunities specific to an area. URCs must not develop in isolation.
Regeneration Programmes – Case Studies:
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada:
“Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada is a modern port city teeming with culture and heritage and the perfect place for your next holiday vacation. The entire Halifax region delights visitors and citizens alike with its impressive array of entertainment, museums, galleries, historic sites, fine restaurants, colourful gardens and lively nightlife. Through our 188 communities, explore charming seaside towns, sun-drenched beaches, sparkling coves and miles of rugged shoreline guarded by graceful lighthouses. Imagine the vivacity of city living, the charms of small town life and the pristine beauty of nature - all in one place!”
The re-generation of Halifax took place around the G-7 summit; this has resulted in a fast growing economy and a booming tourist trade. Another key factor that Halifax has instituted is its yearly multicultural festival, which results from the growing population which comes from all different parts of the world. This festival allows members of different cultures to set up stalls and entertainment programmes and also facilitates one of the biggest community events in Nova Scotia. Halifax is similar to Liverpool in its seafaring ties and mix of the Irish, Scottish and English with members of the Catholic and Protestant religions.
The religious tensions in Halifax surround the Catholic Acadian French population. The cultural tensions in this region surround African-Canadians which settled in Halifax and Nova Scotia after surviving the Underground to Canada (freedom from the slave trade in the USA) and the indigenous people of Nova Scotia, the Mica Mac. Therefore the aims to get individuals of the different cultural communities, from both traditional and future immigration, and the employees of local councils is not impossible; however the most important factor is participation, education and capturing the enthusiasm and imagination of the communities and residents of the area.
In Halifax there is also a comprehensive guide on the Internet, which can be used as a tool to promote re-generation, tourism as well as tool of education on the different cultures, communities and histories of the city and the surrounding area. Development and planning is the ambit of the local government where all data, statistics and planning are implemented and designed by them. The system provided allows for full participation and the outcome seems tube as integrated as those that suggest the necessity of UDCs propose:
HRM will adopt a broad Regional Plan which, throughout the next 25years, will guide its physical development in a way that promotes healthy, vibrant, sustainable communities…
The Regional Plan will seek to address the needs and views of all HRM recognizing the diversity of its citizens, community and geography.
“In a remarkably short space of time, the city has established a new economic base cantered on the service sector, and has risen from a period of industrial decline to mount a highly successful Garden Festival in 1988, a year of international arts festivities in 1990 to celebrate its reign as European City of Culture, and a Festival of Visual Arts in 1996. Glasgow now attracts major investors, events, tourists, conference delegates from all over the world who now appreciate what Daniel Defoe meant when he referred to "one of the cleanliest, most beautiful and best built cities in Great Britain."”
Glasgow is another example of a declining industrial city coming upon hard times and realizing its cultural and tourist potential. This example is a much closer example for Liverpool to understand because of the similar backgrounds and mixture of the Catholic and Protestant. The enthusiasm and involvement of every individual was important to bring Glasgow to the point where it achieved the status of European City of Culture.
The city has also has encouraged cultural festivals as well as other festivals to encourage the re-generation of the city; in addition to re-generation these festivals are a tool of education Andre-education, cultural stability and the change of cultural perceptions in the local authority and within the communities. Also Glasgow Council has a comprehensive guide to the history, culture and tourist attractions on the Internet, which is a cheap and efficient mode of advertisement as well as education.
The success of Glasgow has been without the use of UDCs; however the Scottish government has recognized the important role that UDCs could play, but with caution as it still views the importance of local and central government control of regeneration programmes to ensure that all aspects of society are considered and properly balanced:
The Scottish Executive supports and champions innovation in the public-sector. We believe that the range of models within the URC and potentially the UDC banner offer potential in Scotland but need to be carefully tested.
The Executive has already shown that it is prepared to support major, often complex projects that have the potential to deliver real and tangible improvements to people's lives. For example the Housing Stock transfer in Glasgow, major public/private partnerships in the NHS like the New Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, and ambitious plans for Edinburgh's transport infrastructure.
However, were also convinced that the spark and impetus for such innovative approaches should normally come locally. A top-down approach has been shown not to work, but government still has a key problem-solving role in supporting these local partnerships. That is the approach we intend to follow in progressing URCs and other innovative delivery vehicles.
Liverpool’s Capital of Culture Regeneration – True Holism:
“Today, Liverpool has a need to retain and attract new business. The city possesses an opportunity to build upon its status as a visitor destination. And it has the prospect to become one of Europe's most' liveable' city centres. The Strategic Regeneration Framework sets a high but attainable Vision for Liverpool City Centre; rich in a public realm of high quality streets, squares and open spaces; plans for-using many of the now vacant but architecturally significant buildings; and opportunities for new, contemporary structures. All will result in establishing Liverpool as a world class City for the 21stCentury.”
A lot of the public wanted to re-invent and re-generate Liverpool and there has been an enthusiasm for changes in the image of Liverpool. This is the understanding of modernity and the need for change otherwise the city of Liverpool will fail and decline. The forces of modernity and traditionalism are equal because many societies are torn between the past and the future in the present. If these were the only influences then there would be a stalemate between the forces. However modernity also has the additional force of economics and the need to regenerate the society and provide the basic necessities to every individual in the community.
In the modern liberalist democracy economics and economic advancement is one of the most powerful influences of society. In addition to the positive forces for change is the need for stability and the interaction between cultures, which is afforded a medium power because both traditionalism and religious tensions affect this modern goal of tolerance. However the aims of education and re-education is a positive force in enabling the traditional and religious to understand tolerance as well as feel less threatened by change and interaction with different cultures.
Tourisms a very powerful force in the change of promoting Liverpool as the Capital of Culture, because it has both positive economic and multicultural benefits. It will in fact make Liverpool a global city. The environment is a more complex problem because Liverpool must strike fine balance between development and protection of the environment because both are key drivers in European policy. However if Liverpool focuses on the environmental aspects of development and attains a policy of sustainable development and tourism then this can be attained, which can be seen in the councils of the UK with the award of DCMS Beacon of Excellence Award:
“Birmingham City Council, The Broads Authority, London Borough of Greenwich, New Forest District Council, South Hams District Council and Tynedale District Council topped entries from twenty four councils to scoop the accolade. Tourism Minister Richard Carbon said:
"Tourism is a £76 billion a year industry – the 5th largest employer in the UK – and brings real economic benefits to an area. Today's winners provide a shining example of how to harness that investment in the most positive way so that the needs of visitors, residents, businesses and the environment are met."”
Liverpool is buoyant, because it includes both a commitment to ties tithe North West as well as being an active University City, which ties the city to social events from throughout the country and the world. The social structure within Liverpool also allows for the young people to get involved, this is an effort to tackle the problem of teen gangs and promote advancement and education. This initiative could also possibly reduce the amount of vandalism and teen based crimes; however this will be a longer term plan hence a commitment to making Liverpool safe city for tourists to further encourage the growth of this service industry.
This is supported by the initiatives that the Merseyside police have set up, in relation to; street crime; education of young people; safeguarding students and visitors to Liverpool; and the reduction of fireworks on the streets . Therefore the social structure and policing policy allows for a positive arena for change within Liverpool. In addition to the UK’s Department of Culture, Media and Sport’s (DCMS’s) commitment to sustainable development and sustainable tourism indicates an understanding of environmental issues, which will possibly reduce the contention between environmental groups and developers .
Therefore the social, political and economic factors of Liverpool have both positive and negative aspects, however the commitment that the people of Liverpool and their council indicates mainly positive results in promoting Liverpool as the possible European Capital of Culture. The technological benefits that Liverpool provides are typical of an English City, which includes a fully computerized council, links to the Internet, filming studios and local and regional news centre. It is close to the growing Liverpool John Lennon Airport, which serves the most popular destinations in Europe.
It is also only about thirty to forty-five minutes to Manchester International Airport from Liverpool, which serves destinations all over the globe. Liverpool also is connected nationally and to the continent via train, ferry and bus; in addition to being accessible via the motorways. Therefore transport and infrastructure in Liverpool both facilitates and encourages the growth of tourism, as well as the global interest in Liverpool’s heritage and culture. In addition the main player in Liverpool’s regeneration programme was the city council, i.e. there is tight control by the local authority that pays particular attention tithe social and environmental concerns of regeneration.
Liverpool’s City Council is made up of five sectors which are; Central Services; Education, Library and Support Services; Supported Living and Community; Re-generation; and Resources. This grouping has simplified communication between the sectors whereby the chief executive of each area sets forth their portfolio and each sector has an equal say. Therefore in respect to ensuring each employee is involved within the campaign, the structure of Liverpool City Council definitely facilitates this possibility. In addition this simplified structure which is streamlined would allow for the interaction of employees and the possibility of personal development in which cultural perception plays and important role.
This structure allows for the possibility of providing incentives to each area and ensuring an equal interaction occurs. This structure allows for all concerns and ideas to be voiced not just the more powerful players of re-generation, resources and central services. As mentioned earlier Liverpool City Council is unique because of its commitment to elected officials and not just proposed members; which illustrate how the people of Liverpool demand participation at all levels. In addition to this streamlined, business approach Liverpool Council also recognizes the importance of accountability and participation of the residents of Liverpool; as well as a commitment to both cultural and economic concerns.
This model of governance has a hierarchical structure of management for each portfolio, but each of the five portfolios has an equal say in the governance of Liverpool and the size of the budget does not control everything. The other important factor that needs to be mentioned is that Liverpool Council is committed to modernization and the passing of information through all of its employees and the community.
One methods through the use of the Internet and e-mail, which allows for councilmembers to communicate on all levels as well as with the community. The council also understands that it must deliver to all levels of its staff to deliver the customer service and governance it strives to obtain, this has become a major focus in it strategy from a seaport town e-port:
“Working with stakeholders in the private sector and local communities, Liverpool City Council is ready to break the mould and create a new model of service delivery. Focused on the customer and investing in technologies of tomorrow, the City Council is helping Liverpool make the quantum leap from seaport to e-port.”
Liverpool, also understands the importance of UDCs with the use of Liverpool Vision the UK’s first UDC. Without this company’s role there generation would be greatly limited. The role of this company is to bring together the financing and the actual possibility of complete and sustainable regeneration:
Liverpool Vision is an independent company established to bring together key public and private sector agencies to produce a strategy -the Strategic Regeneration Framework (SRF) - that guides there generation of Liverpool City Centre.
The success of the tight communication created by the UDC, the private, public and local governmental sectors has made the successful regeneration project that Liverpool has so far seen. Liverpool has been nominated as the UK’s candidate for European Capital of Culture, which has since generated the funding and building of the Fourth Grace on Liverpool’s Waterfront; the opening of the Film, Art, Creative Technology (FACT) Centre; opening of six hotels; the building Andre-generation of the Paradise Street Project, one of Europe’s largest regeneration schemes of a city centre; a new arena, conference centre and exhibition centre; a new transit system; and further investment into the local area. In addition success has been in the use of the key activities to encourage the inclusion of every member in Liverpool Council’s employment are to offer incentives and ways to allow these employees to suggest methods and activities to encourage their involvement as well getting members of the public to become involved.
Such incentives include allowing each department to come up with a way to deliver their message to the public and get involved in a cultural festival. This would be similar to the cultural festival held in Glasgow and in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It would be a way to bring all the cultures together in Liverpool, as well as tightening the social structure and co-operation between varying cleavages of the society. In addition to the strengthening of ties in the society there will also be further reason to encourage tourists and bring further financial, cultural and structural development.
The key factor in a cultural fests not to plan from the top end down, but to allow every cleavage and culture in society to have input in this unification of cultures in Liverpool’s society. Instead the council should have a supervisory role. Also Liverpool could also allow for the religious cleavages to get involved in this festival, which is unique because such get-together seem to avoid the religious because of tensions in the world.
However if there was a way for members of different religions could educate themselves about different faiths and it could facilitate method to tolerate not just different cultures, but also different religions. This will therefore increase the political and social stability of Liverpool, which will result in a higher economic growth. Therefore this will aid companies such as Liverpool Vision to create Liverpool into the Capital of Culture, in addition to fulfilling their vision of regenerating the city and making it a global city and not just a city of North West England.
The most important aspects of these case studies are their use of cultural factors in their re-generation projects with the use comprehensive Internet sites, as a tool of participation, education and economic growth; however the role of private company funding and planning plays a key role. This is a similar method that is used in Manchester, London, New Orleans and countries across the globe, therefore the strategy that this campaign will also employ.
Manchester’s Regeneration Programme:
The successes in renewal initiatives in the centre of Manchester could lead to the creation of thousands of new jobs; and many employers in the city have experienced shortages of staff. There should be considerable scope for equipping residents in the hard-hit inner city localities to take up new job opportunities in expanding sectors of the city’s economy -- for instance, in Trafford Park.
Much of the most striking community involvement on the part of the private sector has been concerned with developing skills among the population of Moss Sideband Hulme and East Manchester… There is much good practice to be built upon in the 1990s, and there are good examples of the benefits of a long-term partnership approach by the private sector to areas with deep-seated economic and social problems.
This discussion of Manchester’s regeneration will primarily focus on the City Centre where the key goals are to improve the aesthetics and economic centre of the city. The problem with the regeneration statement is that it fails to deal with the environmental, social and cultural factors of Manchester. Although the mission statement does mention the social and cultural the main focus is maximization of economic return:
Developing and promoting the Regional Centre's role as a key economic driver for the North West of England and the centre of its economic, social and cultural life.
Maximising the economic return, and the wider regeneration benefits, from the effective management of the City Council's land and property assets.
Therefore the possible problem with the lack of all pertinent factors being assessed is that the regeneration of Manchester was based on short-sighted principle, which have caused long-standing battle between the local and central government over planning surrounding the M60,Manchester Airport and the city centre. The following discussion will determine if this short-sightedness is due to regeneration goals or the lack of balanced goals due to the lack of accountability on the part of the UDCs.
Manchester has two UDCs, one for the city centre and the other for the Trafford Park region. The aim of these UDCs surround the building of infrastructure for both the community and as a tourist attraction; as well as regenerating the housing in central Manchester from a very down-beaten and drug problem area. The city centre is infamous in the areas of Moss Side and Hulme for primarily Afro-Caribbean and Asian element with the fear of gang warfare, drugs and muggings.
In this area also is a high population of the disadvantaged, i.e. impoverished elderly, single parents and those unable to find work. Therefore the aim of the economic was to bring jobs to those who could work and home improvements to those who cannot via the taxes that the regeneration would bring. In order to do this, ties needed to be forged between the various public and private sector parties. The inception of UDCs seemed to be the key especially with respect to the success of Liverpool Vision the UK’s first UDC.
Role of UDCs:
In Manchester the UDC that this discussion will focus on is New East Manchester Ltd. This was the second UDC to be created and involved the partnerships between national, regional and local partnerships of government; as well as a strong participatory regime from the local community. The goal was to create sustainable development in the area from the poor communities to the regeneration of old industrial warehouses and factories. There was a key focus on making Manchester prettier place to live, because its historical past as city of the industrial revolution left it drab, uninviting and industrial based.
As the end of the 20th Century drew near the industry in the city began to fade out and replaced by a strong service sector, University population and tourist attraction called for the city to receive a face lift. In addition as the traditional industrial sectors were in decline it was important for the UDC to forge partnerships with the service sector in order to promote learning and education in the new service sectors popping up, such as call centres. Therefore not only the aesthetics were important but also sustainable economic development:
[To ensure] that East Manchester maximizes the contribution it can make to the regional, national, and global economy.
Therefore this angle has caused problems for the cultural and environmental problems that the regeneration has brought and aims to bring, as the plan was not only to promote economics but to double the population of Manchester East.
In an overpopulated city centre it seems not to deal with the possible economic and environmental consequences. As with the project in Hulme the housing as greatly improved but the price range was lifted so high that the traditional Afro-Caribbean population of low-income has been forced to move to other parts of the city, creating bigger ghettos in Levenshulme and the surrounding area.
Therefore exacerbating the problem in another area and overpopulating the new ghetto creating substantial environmental stress. Manchester East seems to be going down the same doomed path with the improvement and further building of homes, which will increase the exclusivity of the area. This is already being seen in the An coats area near to Piccadilly Train Station which was a traditional home to prostitutes and drug dealers rather flats for1000 pounds per month are being renovated and the area is being cleaned up; however where has the traditional population been forced to are they being further ghettoized in other parts of the city.
This will cause geographical and environmental stress; as well as exacerbating the problems of poor and disadvantaged in Manchester City. Rather than focusing funds on these inherent problems the superficial and economic goals outweighed serious concerns and the Commonwealth Stadium was built, the Town Centre given a face lift with a hideously built cement wall in the middle of Piccadilly Gardens, which seems to illustrate thuds total disregard of the natural environment; as well as the plan’s focus on the superficial and economic over the real problems that are generation plan should have aimed to solve.
The only possible benefit to the environment was the transit system; however it is so expensive that the average person cannot afford it therefore rendering it useless to the average individual. There has been a focus on creating regional parks; however the city centre parks have been highly neglected and the home for drug deals; muggings and rapes. In short the UDC failed to provide a well balanced approach to urban regeneration. However this problem is not only that of the UDC, but the short-sighted approach of the local government in respect to the regeneration agenda. This would seem indicative of the lack of comprehensive participation from all sectors of the community.
This is illustrated in Carly et all’s case study on Manchester where there are some local participation groups and no environmental groups; however the majority of the groups are corporations and economic identities such as the local Chamber of Commerce. The result of this is a very narrow focus and the need for there to be a more comprehensive approach rather than the traditional economic and political agendas, because the prettying up and creating exclusivity of Manchester City Centre will not create sustainable development, as the building of the Trafford Centre or the Commonwealth Stadium will. The only positive approach that the UDC has taken has to get companies to educate the unemployable in order to gain experience and jobs in the given sector. This is illustrated in Carly et AL’s discussion of the Kellogg Company, its new approach for job creation, education and raising the employability of Manchester’s impoverished:
Policy has developed considerably over the past decade. The company’s aim to be a ‘socially responsible’ corporate citizen is set out in admission Statement prepared in the early 1980s, and the range of activities in which the firm is involved has expanded. There has been shift from an emphasis on charitable donations to community investment in a broad sense, and the budget for community support has grown very substantially.
This has created the best step towards sustainable development, especially as the company has a history in the Moss Side and Hulme areas, understanding the cultural and social context. Other than this Manchester’s successful use of the UDC has been primarily in the economic and political arenas of mainstream politics, i.e. capitalist policies. The balancing approach that was seen in Liverpool was missed where sustainable development as defined by the EU was the key, i.e. Not only the superficial geographic factors but also long-term consequences such as possible overpopulation, the environment and sustainable transport.
Therefore in response to the key questions thud and the local authority failed to meet the criteria of holism and sustainability and focused on the traditional economic factors. This will and is causing problems in Manchester City as the traditional low-priced housing is being reduced and the impoverished population is being ghettoized in a smaller area; in addition to the incomprehensive public transport system, which the poor can afford which is controlled by numerous bus companies creating inconsistency and unreliability, which are integral to environmental concerns.
The effect of the UDC in Manchester has fallen short of the Liverpool experience, which is primarily due to the lack of public participation, which Liverpool advanced. In this it has created a void for cultural and environmental concerns. Therefore the geographic outlay of the project will cause problems for sustainable development as it fails to address these problems.
In short the theoretical basis of this projects purely economic, which falls short of long-term development because the holistic approach of Liverpool was ignored and without this vision the role of the UDC is no more successful than its short-sighted approach. Therefore as the Scottish Executive promote the role of integral public participation from all sectors of society in order to create sustainable development and the correct geographic outlay and infrastructure for this long-term development.
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