PREFACE

During the last three decades, the telecoms sector of UK has observed the emergence and growth of new technologies and services; mostly because of numerous investments from several foreign countries backed-up by UK Government's sincerity to assist the investors. Among the business sectors on the receiving end, the telecom industry has been one of the leading one. To be precise, the cell phone industry has been recognized as a booming sector in the UK market. Following the footsteps of Citycell, the pioneers of cell phone service providers in the UK market who started their operations in 1996, several other operators have moved into the region to make huge investments and to make amends for themselves. In addition to that, several other cell phone operators are waiting in line to penetrate the UK mobile phone market. This immense interest among the telecom operators clearly shows the huge potential of the UK market. Regular financial information disbursed by the telecom giants, shows immense interest among the customers regarding the various products offered by the operators. But, the burning question of this moment remains un-answered; are the customers being satisfied with the service provided by the operators? In the last few years, the mobile operators have been criticized by the public for operating in an oligopolistic manner keeping call-rates much higher than rates used in neighboring countries. On the other hand, the customers are not happy with the quality of service provided by the operators either. As a result, now it is time to answer the questions that are the subscribers really happy with the service providers? Are their expectations being met by the operators? Finding the answers to these vital questions was the main reason behind choosing this topic to conduct a research. Besides, it seemed to be an appropriate report to the researchers which would reflect the current scenario. In addition to that, as students of Marketing Research conducting the first ever real life research, it was vital for the researchers to select a relatively easy and simple research problem. This made the chosen topic the clear favourite among the researcher and the supervisor. Last but not the least; the researcher had worked before on customer satisfaction studies on behalf of different operators in the past. As a result, experience gathered from those jobs helped a lot in finishing this report and because of this, the topic was chosen. In short, these have been the reasons behind choosing the proposed topic for conducting a research.

The research includes a customer satisfaction survey and responses gathered through the survey have been analyzed to find out any relationship among different variables that determine the customer satisfaction. The whole service provided by the operators has been divide into five segments, namely call-rate, network setup, VAS, customer service and brand image. The respondents were asked to judge their operators in these five dimensions. In addition to that, the respondents were asked to rate the existing service of the operators and to express their desires from the service in near future. From the gathered responses, it was then easy for the researchers to find gaps between customer expectations and customer perception regarding the operators. On the basis of the responses several intriguing findings were discovered that present a true picture concerning the customer satisfaction level in the cell-phone market.

Through the quantitative analysis, it was found that around 60-70% of the mobile users are satisfied with the current services provided by the operators. However, beneath this simple conclusion lies a very interesting feature. The relatively high percentage of satisfied users is caused by the lack of alternatives in front of the users. In reality, all the operators act as a syndicate, where all of them provide some kind of mediocre service to their customers. In addition to that, the services and call-rate settings are of almost the same type. As a result, customers are forced to accept the services they are provided. They do not have too many options to choose from. As a result, they are satisfied with what they are provided with. But, the desire and expectation of customers remain far above the existing level of service and majority of them believe that, operators should & can easily improve their services.

In reality, the mobile sector in Bangladesh requires a complete overhaul and it will take quite some time & effort to execute. Participation of people from all levels of the society is required to carry out this reform. However, the government and other regulatory authorities will have to be at the forefront of this reform. In addition to that, general users will have to play their part as well to implement the transformation. Only then, the current situation in the cell-phone market will change and the customers will be truly satisfied.

Chapter 1

1. Introduction

In recent years, UK has been recognized as one of the fastest growing cell-phone markets. As a result, telecom giants have flocked into the UK market with their service offerings. Some of them have achieved phenomenal growth over the years and boosted their investment portfolio. While others are no being able to skim the cream. Consequentially, to some extent the users, the society and the economy as a whole have been benefited because of huge initial investments and new job opportunities. In addition to that, the telecom sector has received the much needed technical boost, facilitating easy and convenient communication for the users. Without doubt, mobile operators deserve some appreciation for facilitating this communication and making the lifestyle of British people a bit easier. However, the performance of the operators has never been judged from a user's perspective. It has never been investigated whether, the expectation of users is met by the operators or not.

1.1 Statement of Research Problem:

The prime concern of the research will be to identify the variables that drive customer satisfaction in the telecom industry of UK. This will cover the following dimensions: - find out a model of consumer satisfaction for the telecom industry through secondary research, find out the variables applicable for UK. By conducting the research, the unmet desires or expectations of customers will be detected, which will present a clear picture concerning the cell phone industry in UK from the customers' perspective.

According to Ofcom, at least 85% of UK households have mobile phones. That's making over a quarter of all telephone calls in the UK and sending over 2.3 million text messages every hour. http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file35411.pdf There are almost 77 million mobile subscriptions. At the end of 2008 four in five households have both a mobile phone and a landline phone. Total mobile revenues increased to £15.4 billion in 2008. 44.5% of voice calls originated from mobile phones. 110 billion minutes of outbound calls were made in 2008. The average outbound calls per mobile connection rose to over 123 minutes per month in 2008. The UK consumer is sending an average of 99 text messages a month per mobile connection with usage increasing by 27% in 2008. The number of 3G subscriptions grew by 5.4 million to 17.9 million at the end of 2008. http://www.mobilemastinfo.com/information/history.htm

Five mobile network operators are indentified in the UK by 'The Worldwide Directory of Mobile Network Operators 2008'. IE Market Research Corp. has reported that the overall subscriber base in UK is still increasing, and the number of total subscribers will change from 77 million in 2008 to 78.0 million in 2010, with wireless penetration expected to reach 126.0% in 2010.

The five primary operators are 3 UK, Orange, T-Mobile, Telefonica O2 and Vodafone. In addition there are a number of Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNO), the MVNO Directory claims there are some 41 organisations active in the sector. These range from conventional MVNOs through to resellers, and include well-known names such as Virgin Mobile and Tesco.

http://www.telecomsmarketresearch.com/resources/UK_Mobile_Operator_Subscriber_Statistics.shtml

The reason behind conducting this research is significant. Despite rapid growth rates in the mobile industry, the focus on customer satisfaction remains un-answered. Mobile operators have heavily used promotional materials to boost sales and to capture market share, and they have been successful in gaining huge profits, but the fact that whether the customers are being satisfied with the offerings or not remains quite neglected. The huge amount of sales or revenue for the operators is generated by customers' lack of choices or their constant search for a better service provider. As a result, huge number of subscribers is regularly changing their service providers in search of a better one. But the quest for gaining satisfaction remains quite untouchable. Besides, now days, mobile phone has become an integral part of our daily lives, but as there is no operator delivering optimum service for the customers, the customers are forced to access whatever is available to them. As a result, the huge revenues do not clearly reflect the satisfaction of customers.

Consequently, defining the satisfaction level of customers has become vital for both the customers and the service providers. That is why this research is being conducted. As far as the researcher is concerned, to date, there has no research of this type been conducted in UK. Hence, there remains a gap blocking valuable customer feedback and this gap should be filled up. As mentioned before, this research will provide significant customer insights regarding their satisfaction level concerning the cell phone service providers, presenting an overall picture of the market and creating a platform for the service providers to improve their services to meet customer expectations.

1.2 Aims and objectives

1.2.1 Objectives of the Research:

The research will strive to achieve the following objectives:

* Defining the level of satisfaction among the cell phone subscribers

* Detecting the gap between customer expectation and customer perception

* Identifying customer requirements that determine satisfaction

* Prescribing recommendations for service providers to enhance customer satisfaction

1.2.2 Justification of the Research:

For the following reasons, the proposed research needs to be undertaken:

§ This research is the first of its kind; as far as the researcher is concerned, there has been no researches conducted on this issue from the customers' perspective.

§ The proposed research will define the gap between Customer Expectation and Customer Perception in the present cell phone market.

§ This research will help the customer insights regarding the performance of service providers to come under the limelight, forcing the operators to improve their services.

§ As non-price factors have become critical behind a service provider's success, knowing the level of customer satisfaction is very important for the marketer.

§ In a highly competitive market, making the customers satisfied acts as a competitive advantage over the rest of the competition.

§ Level of customer satisfaction acts as measurements of an industry's performance, in this case this research will judge the performance of the cell phone service providers.

§ This research will act as a benchmark concerning customer expectation for the operators, based on which they can redesign or improve their offerings.

1.2.3 Benefits of the Research:

1.2.3.1Benefits to the society:

According to the modern Marketing principles, Customers remain at the centre of attention for any business. Having a total idea of their likings and disliking act as a barometer for a marketer. In addition to that, knowing the fact that, whether they are satisfied or not with the current offerings is vital for the success of the business. On the other hand, this research will help to bring out the say of the customers to the service providers. As a result, the findings of the research will clearly reveal the true reflection of the customers' perception and expectations regarding the mobile operators.

1.2.3.2 Benefits to the Service Providers:

Apart from helping the customers to express their perception, desires and thoughts regarding the service providers and their services, this research will also benefit the service providers. As the research will project a clear picture regarding customer satisfaction with the existing services, it will help the service providers to detect existing bottlenecks among their service offerings. Besides, the Service providers will be able to visualize the needs and wants of the customers in a more precise and accurate way by redesigning their offering or introducing new services as desired by customers. Being knowledgeable about the customer demands will enable the operators to meet he customer expectations in a better way, which will ultimately generate more revenues and profits for the service providers.

1.2.3.3 Benefits to the Economy:

The benefit for the economy will arise as a by product of the above benefits. As the service providers would become more customer focused by offering services which the customers' desire, the service providers would become more profitable. In search of profits, newer and newer operators would enter the market, which will bring huge investments for the economy creating employment opportunities and so on.

Chapter 2

2. literature review

2.1 Consumers

The concepts of ‘consumers' and ‘customers' are related. In some languages, hardly any distinction exists between these two terms. Even in English the terms are often used interchangeably. For instance, the term ‘customer satisfaction' is widely used, but a closer look would reveal that in most cases a more precise term would be ‘consumer satisfaction'. Some experts make the following distinction between a consumer and a customer:

The consumer is the one who uses a product or service,

Whereas a customer pays for the product/service, but may not be the consumer.

Simply stated, the consumer is the ‘user'; the customer is the ‘buyer'.

Another dividing line is that organizations (e.g. companies) can be customers, whilst consumer as a concept is reserved for individuals. Consumer in this project means “any natural person who buys a product for purposes that do not fall within the sphere of his/her commercial or professional activity”. By this, we clearly mean that we address the end-consumer (B2C) and not any business intermediaries (B2B).

These differences may be important when modeling a consumer satisfaction indicator. Indeed, satisfaction requires experience and use of a product or service. Individuals who pay for a product or service but do not use it do not assess the product or service in the same way as consumers.

In this report, we have chosen to use the term ‘consumer' systematically, unless reference is made to other documents or existing indicators. It should be borne in mind, however, that the model and methodology developed also allow for analysis of the satisfaction of ‘customers', at least when they are end-users and not any kind of business intermediary.

2.2 Customer Satisfaction:

A widely accepted definition of ‘satisfaction' is: ‘Satisfaction is the consumer's fulfillment response. It is a judgment that a product or service feature, or the product of service itself, provided (or is providing) a pleasurable level of consumption-related fulfillment, including levels of under-or-over fulfillment.' (Oliver, 1997)

Kotler (1997) defines customer satisfaction as follows:

Satisfaction is a person's feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing product's perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his her expectations.

Brown (1992) defines customer satisfaction as:

The state in which customer needs, wants and expectations throughout the product or service's life are met or exceeded resulting i(n repeat purchase, loyalty and word of mouth.

Bitner and Zeithmal (2003) states that satisfaction is:

The customer's evaluation of a product or service in terms of whether that product or service has met their needs and expectations.

In less ‘technical' terms: satisfaction is the consumer's assessment of a product or service in terms of the extent to which that product or service has met his/her needs or expectations. Failure to meet needs and expectations is assumed to result in dissatisfaction with the product or service.

Depending on the context, the meaning of ‘consumer satisfaction' may differ:

Consumer satisfaction may relate to a particular feature or characteristic of a product or service (e.g. the accuracy of the information provided by a bank), or alternatively it may relate to the product/service as a whole.

In general, it is the satisfaction about the product/service as a whole that merits attention, since this satisfaction influences the consumers' future buying and consuming behaviour. Yet it is also important to understand the factors that contribute to (dis)satisfaction. Often, dissatisfaction about one particular feature of a service (e.g. the unfriendliness of staff) leads to dissatisfaction about the service as a whole, even if the satisfaction about the other features is high.

Another conceptual distinction within measures of consumer satisfaction is whether they relate to satisfaction about a single ‘service encounter' (e.g. most recent experience with a bank) or rather reflect ‘cumulative satisfaction' (e.g. in relation to all the experiences with banks). It is possible to be quite satisfied about one particular transaction in the post office, but be dissatisfied about the quality of the postal service's overall (or vice-versa). Most existing customer satisfaction indexes are based on the measurement of cumulative satisfaction. This implies that different elements are part of the consumer's assessment, from their prepurchase intentions up to their loyalty towards a particular provider.

Another potentially important distinction is between consumer satisfaction about a particular supplier, and consumer satisfaction about the sector as a whole. For instance, one may be quite satisfied with the offerings and performance level of a particular mobile phone operator, but in general feel uncomfortable with the pricing and marketing strategy as a whole.

Consumer usually face a broad array of products and services that might satisfy a given need. Customer form expectations about the value and satisfaction that various market offerings will deliver and buy accordingly. Satisfied customers buy again and tell others about their good experiences. Dissatisfied customers often switch to competitors and disparage the product to others. (Kotler,P. and Armstrong, G. 2004).
Marketers must be careful to set the right level of expectations. If they set expectations too low, they may satisfy those who buy but fail to attract enough buyers. If they raise expectations too high, buyers will be disappointed. Customer value and customer satisfaction are key building blocks for developing and managing customer relationships. Most studies show that higher levels of customer satisfaction lead to greater customer loyalty, which in turn results in better company performance. (Kotler,P. and Armstrong, G. 2004).

Highly satisfied customers produce several benefits for the company. Satisfied customers are less price sensitive. They talk favourably to others about the company and its products and remain loyal for a longer period. However, the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty varies greatly across industries and competitive situations. (Kotler,P. and Armstrong, G. 2001).

Even a slight drop from complete satisfaction can create and enormous drop in loyalty. For example one study showed that completely satisfied customers are nearly 42 percent more likely to be loyal than merely satisfied customers. Another study by AT&T, showed that 70 percent of customers who say they are satisfied with a product or service are still willing to switch to a competitor ; customers who are highly satisfied are much more loyal. Xerox found that its totally satisfied customers are six times more likely to repurchase Xerox products than are its satisfied customers. (Kotler,P. and Armstrong, G. 2001).

However, although the customer centred firm seeks to deliver high customer satisfaction relative to competitors, it does not attempt to maximize customer satisfaction. A company can always increase customer satisfaction by lowering its price or increasing its services. But this may result in lower profits. Thus, the purpose of marketing is to generate customer value profitably. This requires a very delicate balance: the marketer must continue to generate more customer value and satisfaction but not “give away the house”. (Kotler,P. and Armstrong, G. 2004).

Most customer satisfaction indexes measure the satisfaction level for the sector as a whole. Yet they do this by calculating a weighted average for the satisfaction about individual suppliers.

We measure both consumer satisfaction about services overall, as well as about the services' particular characteristics: quality aspects, pricing issues, image, etc. This double approach makes it possible to identify the key factors that contribute to increasing or decreasing overall satisfaction.

2.3 Antecedents to Satisfaction:

2.3.1 Perceived Value

Past research has shown that perceived value is an important antecedent for overall satisfaction. Research has conceptualized value simply as the price for which a customer pays to receive a product service (Zeithaml 1988). However, a number of recent researchers argue that value is not the only price. For example, Babin et al. (1994) and Babin and Attaway (2000) considered two value dimensions: utilitarian value and hedonic value.

Utilitarian value is defined as that value that a customer receives based on a task-related and rational consumption behavior (Babin et al. 1994). Hedonic value is defined as that value a customer receives based on the subject experience of fun and playfulness (Hirschman and Holbrook 1982, Babin et al. 1994). Traditionally, studies of information technology application usage, such as mobile services, believed that users adopt technologies or use information services for utilitarian purposes (e.g., Chiou 2004). It stand to reason that because technologies or information services are tools for solving customers' problems, past research has focused on technology effectiveness to understand why a customer adopts technology.

However, users do not adopt such applications only for functional benefits but also for entertainment purposes (Holbrook and Hirschman 1982). Customers may have emotional feelings, which they desire, by using technology. Moreover, utilitarian value and hedonic value do not have a mutually exclusive relationship (Babin et al. 1994) so that customers may not only get hedonic value from using mobile phone services but can satisfy their specific purposes (Hirschman and Holbrook 1982, Babin et al. 1994).

Thus, we consider that the perceived value construct, namely, hedonic value and utilitarian value, are useful for understanding users' evaluations of mobile phone services.

2.3.2 Perceived Service Characteristics

We suggest that perceived service characteristics that construct interactivity, quality, and ease of use, can help us understand users' evaluations of mobile phone services, particularly customer satisfaction which derives from such services.

Perceived Interactivity: Regarded as the crucial element in a successful human-computer interaction (Hoffman and Novak 1996, McMillan and Hwang 2002, Liu and Shrum 2002, Teo et al. 2003), interactivity is one of the key characteristics of the new media (Hoffman and Novak 1996). Individuals rate interactivity on the basis of their perceptions of two-way communication, control choices, and time to load (McMillan and Hwang 2002). It stands to reason that interactivity is the degree to which mobile phone service users have control over items such as video phone, media, objects, and other similar items.

2.3.3 Perceived Quality:

High product or service quality is the crucial topic for providers to gain increased market share or become a market leader. High quality is necessary to satisfy user's needs and expectations. Therefore, mobile phone service providers must satisfy customers when they are using services. (Lee et al., 2001)

2.3.4 Switching Costs:

In explaining the link between customer satisfaction and loyalty, only a few studies in marketing have examined the role of switching costs. Switching costs are costs that the consumer incurs by changing providers that they would not incur if they stayed with their current provider (Lee et al., 2001). In marketing, Fornell (1992) was one of the first writers to consider switching costs: adding them to customer satisfaction in the customer loyalty function. Jones and Sasser (1995) mentioned switching costs as one factor that determines the competitiveness of market environment, since high switching costs discourage changing from a current provider, thereby yielding less incentive for firms actively to compete.

To conduct this research, first a literature research was conducted to find the appropriate determinants in the telecom industry. With the help of the internet, key variables were identified and a model of consumer satisfaction was found. Then a questionnaire survey was conducted to find out the applicability of the determinants and construction of a model for UK mobile phone industry.

The focus of the secondary research was to find an applicable model of customer satisfaction for the telecom industry. Quite a few models were found. However, in the end, one model was used. The model had been developed by Deloitte for the European Commission Directorate General on Health and Consumer Protection. The research was conducted on nine industrial sectors including telecommunications, and conducted in 15 EU countries. The research constructed a single model that was later restructured for the telecom industry.

2.3.5 Latent Variables

Latent variables are the direct determinants of consumer satisfaction. A change in the latent variable directly influences the consumer satisfaction level.

Latent variables directly influence the consumer satisfaction. A change in the latent variable will change the level of consumer satisfaction in general. These variables are relatively complex elements that can not be measured directly and be sub-divided into many other components. Usually any latent variable is composed several manifest variables.

2.3.6 Manifest Variables

Manifest variables are the determining factors for latent variables. A change in a manifest variable usually means a change in the latent variable, which in return effect the consumer satisfaction. Each manifest variable corresponds to a question in the survey to the consumers. Many of these manifest variables are similar across sectors, but some are specific to the telecom industry. Even if they are identical, their importance may vary between sectors. A list of latent variables and their corresponding manifest variables can be found in table no. 5.1.

2.3.7 Models Derived from the Literature Survey

The qualitative research revealed three basic models of consumer satisfaction:

1. The ACSI Model

2. The ECSI Model

3. The Contemporary Model

Following are brief descriptions of these models.

2.3.7.1 The ACSI Model

In 1989, Sweden became the first country in the world to have a uniform, cross company, cross-industry national measurement instrument of customer satisfaction and evaluations of quality of products and services, the Swedish Customer Satisfaction Barometer (SCSB). SCSB has been adopted and adapted for use in the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). Since other countries have started similar national indexes. http://www.blweb.it/esoe/tqmhe2/29.PDF

The American Consumer Satisfaction Index was introduced in 1994. Like its

Swedish predecessor, it is a standardized and independent measure of household consumption experience. ACSI generates a customer satisfaction index based on measures from seven broad economic areas, 39 industrial sectors and more than 200 companies and public agencies. http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/topics/consumer_satisfaction_final_sum_en.pdf

The ACSI model is a set of causal equations that link the variables of customer expectations, perceived quality and perceived value to customer satisfaction.

In turn, satisfaction is linked to consequences as defined by customer complaints and customer loyalty. When simplified, this model may be presented as follows.

The model considers three simple values that indicate customer satisfaction - expectations of customers from the service provider, the perceived quality of the service in question and the value that consumers believe the company is providing. These three variables decide how satisfied customers are with the service. And customer satisfaction level decides whether there are complaints or the loyalty to the company. It is to be noted that, even though there are complaints, the handling of these complaints often lead to loyalty.

http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/topics/consumer_satisfaction_final_sum_en.pdf

2.3.7.2 The ECSI Model

The ECSI initiative (European Consumer Satisfaction Index) is another variation of the ACSI model. The so-called ‘European Customer Satisfaction Program' was launched by a number of private and non-profit European organizations, complemented by some national platforms. http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/topics/consumer_satisfaction_final_sum_en.pdf

The successful experiences of the Swedish and American customer satisfaction indexes have inspired recent moves towards creating an European Customer

Satisfaction Index (ECSI), founded by the European Organisation for Quality (EOQ), the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) and the European Academic Network for Customer-Oriented Quality Analysis, and supported by the European Commission (DG III). A pilot study in 1999 started in 12 European countries, including Denmark.

European experts, both academics and practitioners, have developed the ECSI methodology, based on a set of requirements (ECSI Technical Committee, 1998). The basic ECSI model (see 1) is a structural equation model. The model links customer satisfaction to its determinants, and in turn, to its consequence, namely customer loyalty. The determinants of customer satisfaction are perceived company image, customer expectations, perceived quality, and perceived value (“value for money”). Perceived quality is conceptually divided into two elements: “hard ware”, which consists of the quality of the product/service attributes and “human ware”, which represents the associated customer interactive elements in service, i.e. the personal behaviour and atmosphere of the service environment.

ECSI has been modeled in a way that is similar to ACSI. Yet there are some differences:

The split between ‘product quality' (hardware) and ‘service quality' (software) has been generalized. Quality is related to the consumer's quality experience with a service, and refers both to:

o Its technical components (product quality or hardware): security/safety, information, reliability, confidentiality, etc.

o The quality of the associated functional services (service quality or software), such as opening hours, friendliness of personnel, consumer dialogue, complaint handling etc.

The variable ‘customer loyalty' has been specified in a different way. It includes likelihood of retention, the likelihood of recommending the company or brand, and the likelihood of an increase in the amount of customers purchasing the product.

The variable ‘customer complaints' was not taken into account.

The variable ‘corporate image' has become a variable, with effects on customer expectations, satisfaction and loyalty.

Graphically, the model can be represented as the following:

http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/topics/consumer_satisfaction_final_sum_en.pdf

2.3.7.3 The Contemporary Model

The contemporary model of consumer satisfaction has been derived from both the ACSI and ECSI model. In this model, satisfaction is treated as an overall evaluation of consumer experiences as well as quality of the service. The model can be graphically represented as follows:

The model contains 6 latent variables determining the consumer satisfaction.

This model recognizes the importance of consumer service plays to improve satisfaction level.

Single-headed arrows represent the impact of one variable/construct on another. Lines represent covariance or correlations between pairs of variables/constructs.

Image, price, quality and expectation (dis)confirmation are the antecedents of overall satisfaction. Overall satisfaction is the antecedent for complaints, alternatives and substitutes and trust. Market conditions, image, price and quality covariate.

http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/topics/consumer_satisfaction_final_sum_en.pdf

Table 2.1: List of Latent and Manifest Variables

Latent Variable

Manifest Variable

Explanation

Perceived

Quality

Reliability

Whether the connection works as per requirement.

Ease of Use

The ease at which a subscriber can use the service.

Voice Clarity

During a conversation, it defines how clearly a person can hear the other person.

Coverage

Whether the service works everywhere required by the user.

Call Drop

The chance the connection getting cut during a conversation.

Interconnectivity

The capacity to call other operators.

Perceived

Value

Startup Costs

The cost of acquiring a new subscription from the operator.

Tariff

The cost of using the service, usually expresses as per minute rate.

Features

The number of features available for the price paid.

Options

Availability of the right set of features and services at the right price for a user.

Competitiveness

The costs of the service compared to the market.

Customer

Service

Cost of Service

How costly it is to obtain customer service.

Waiting Time

How long one has to wait to avail customer service - both on phone and at customer centers.

Issues Solved

The capacity of the service provider to solve the problems.

Availability of

Service

Whether service is available at

convenient time and location

Courtesy

How courteous the managers are.

Caring ness

If the managers show care towards the customer.

Information

Availability of the right information to the user and the ease of availing

Complaint Handling

Capability of handling the customer complaints delicately.

Competence

Whether the customer managers are competent enough to deal with the customer and the issue.

Company

Image

Reputation

The reputation of the company.

Popularity

How popular the company is among the peer groups.

Social Activity

Whether the company is involved in any form of social activity or not.

Environmental

Consciousness

How environmentally conscious the company is; whether it has any environmental impact or not; whether it actively participates in improving the environment.

Knowledge

The knowledge level of the customer regarding the product.

Familiarity

The familiarity of the customer with the operator.

Personal &

Market Factors

Involvement

How much the consumer cares about the operator.

Lifestyle

Concern of the consumer about the operator suiting the lifestyle.

Ability to Move

The ability to switch operator.

Differentiation

The differences among the operators in the market.

Price Sensitivity

How sensitive the consumer is

Regarding the product.

Competitiveness

The competitive nature of the market.

Accessibility

Whether the service is available to the consumer or not.

2.3.7.3.1 Main differences from other models

The above model exhibits several features that are similar to those found in other consumer satisfaction measurement methods. However there are a number of significant differences:

* The model is much more comprehensive than any other existing model, when it comes to the number of manifest variables taken into account. This should allow policymakers to understand exactly which factors influence consumer satisfaction and in which areas corrective actions are needed.

* The number of latent and manifest variables has been extended, to reflect the specific requirements of this assignment.

* The set of cause-and-effect relationships between latent variables differs somewhat from those in other models, reflecting recent research in this area.

* Consumer satisfaction is modelled as a manifest, resultant variable (and not as a latent variable comprising several questions); the additional question on fulfilment of expectations is used as a control question.

* The survey methodology underpinning the model cannot be used to capture company data and benchmarking between firms. The focus is on the satisfaction of consumers, not on their behaviour. Unlike other models, ‘loyalty' is not the final resultant variable; it is not even present as a latent variable.

* The model has been designed to cover the sectors that were part of the assignment. Modifications might be necessary if other economic sectors have to be included, in particular manufacturing.

* The ‘end-result' of the survey is not an overall index of consumer satisfaction. Rather it is a set of indicators (and related visual representations) that highlight particular aspects and components of satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/topics/consumer_satisfaction_final_sum_en.pdf

2.3.7.4 Discussion of the variables included in the provisional model

2.3.7.4.1 (Perceived) Quality

Quality perception of consumers regarding the product or service in question influence consumer satisfaction. Perceived product quality is perhaps one of the most important constructs in marketing.

In recent years, perceived quality has been the subject of considerable interest by both practitioners and researchers, mainly in services marketing (http://marketing-bulletin.massey.ac.nz/V16/MB_V16_N4_Tsiotsou.pdf).

In the early stages of the quality movement (1980s and 1990s), some ‘quality gurus' went even so far as to equate quality to customer satisfaction. This is, of course, somewhat exaggerated. Yet it highlights the view of many that the perceived quality is of prime importance for consumer satisfaction. All the existing national models view quality as an antecedent of consumer satisfaction. The same approach has been adopted in the chosen model.

http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/topics/consumer_satisfaction_final_sum_en.pdf

2.3.7.4.2 (Perceived) Pricing:

Several national customer satisfaction measurement models include a latent variable ‘(perceived) value' as an antecedent to consumer satisfaction. Quality is modelled as an antecedent to value. Also influenced by the quality perception about the service, value perception of consumers determines how satisfied he/she is with the service. For example, a high quality service may provide low value, resulting in lower satisfaction levels.

2.3.7.4.3 Market and Personal Factors:

Characteristics of the market and personal knowledge of the product is a major determining factor of consumer satisfaction. In a competitive market, consumer satisfaction is usually high since consumers can choose from the options they have and usually pick the one that best suits them. Again, the more knowledgeable a person is about the product, the more is usually the satisfaction since the consumer faces lower levels of problems.

2.3.7.4.4 Company Image:

The image of the company, influenced by quality perception and market factors, as well as other manifest variables, determines the level of satisfaction. A company with a strong image is likely to have a higher satisfaction level.

The image of a service sector is created by the consumer's direct experiences with service providers, by any other form of communication and symbolism that provides information about the service provider's offers, and/or by comparison with the service offers of competitors or substitutes. This variable is therefore often very stable over time, and not highly dependent on a specific consumer transaction with a service provider.

http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/topics/consumer_satisfaction_final_sum_en.pdf

2.3.7.4.5 Consumer Expectations

2.3.7.4.6 Consumer Service:

It is becoming more and more important to serve consumer with post sales support in the modern world. This is especially true for a subscription based company where subscriber retention is essential to the company's existence. Consumer service has a two way flow with consumer satisfaction -

1. A satisfied consumer is more unlikely to seek consumer service;

2. More importantly, a service provided properly will increase the level of consumer satisfaction.

2.3.7.4.7 Alternatives and Substitutes:

An unhappy consumer is likely to seek alternative services or substitute products. Moreover, if a consumer is not provided with up-to-the standard service or does not find a proper solution a problem situation, he/she might move to competitor products.

2.3.7.4.8 Commitment:

Satisfied consumers are usually more committed to the company they use and are likely to make repeated purchases.

3 Statement of the design and methodology

3.1 Methodology of the Research

Classification of Marketing Research

Based on the major purposes marketing research can be classified into problem identification research and problem solving research.

l Problem identification research helps to identify the problems which are not apparent on the surface and yet to exist or likely to arise in the future. Research on market potential, market share, image, sales analysis research business trends etc. can be considered as problem identification research.

l Problem-solving research is undertaken to arrive at a solution of the identified problem. Research on segmentation, product, price, promotion and distribution can be considered as problem solving research.

However, one very useful classification is in terms of the fundamental objective of the research:

Exploratory research,

Descriptive research, and

Causal research.

Exploratory research: Exploratory Research is on the discovery of ideas and insights. Exploratory research is used for any or all of the following purposes:

l formulating a problem for more precise investigation or for developing hypothesis;

l establishing priorities for further research;

l gathering information about the practical problems of carrying out research on particular problem statements;

l increasing the analyst's familiarity with the problem; and

l Clarifying concepts.

Descriptive Research: Descriptive research requires a clear, specification of the who, what, when, where, why and how of the research. Descriptive research is used when the purpose is as follows:

l To describe the characteristics of certain groups;

l To estimate the proportion of people in a specified population who behave in a certain way;

l To determine the perception of product characteristics

l To determine the degree to which marketing variables are associated.

l To make specific predictions.

Different types of Descriptive Studies

l Market studies: Describe the size of the market, buying habit of the consumers, Consumer profiles, availability of distributors

l · Market share studies: company performance in terms of sales, market share of competitors

l · Sales analysis: sales by territory, sales by product line, sales types of consumer etc.

Causal Research

l Many times, the marketing manager has one or more specific X-causes Y-hypotheses that need to be examined.

l The marketing managers to test the expected consequences of various alternatives use many causal researches. These include concept testing, advertising copy testing and product testing.

Causal research in appropriate for the following purposes:

l · To understand which variables are the cause (independent variables) and which variables are the effect (dependent)

l · To determine the nature of the relationship between the causal variables and the effect to predicted.

The Type of research is descriptive. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used.

a. Qualitative Research: Firstly, an initial qualitative research was used to find a customer satisfaction model applicable to the telecom industry around the world. Secondly, the qualitative survey identified the variables of consumer satisfaction used by other telecom operators in other countries.

b. Quantitative Research: A quantitative research is carried out to find out how many of the variables identified during the qualitative research are actually applicable for this country.

The research, the researcher wish to conduct has followed an extensive methodology. It is like this:

3.2 Population:

Population is the aggregate of all the elements that share some common set of characteristics and that comprise the universe of which researcher wishes to make some inferences.

Naresh K Malhotra, Marketing research, Fourth edition, p312-334

As this research targets to find out Determinants of Consumer Satisfaction of the mobile phone users, the first and foremost focus was on the users of mobile phones. For conducting this research, the population is the entire customer base of the cell-phone industry. In short, all the people who have & use mobile phones acted as the population for the research.

Sample: A subgroup of the elements of the population selected for participation in the study. Naresh K Malhotra, Marketing research, Fourth edition, p312-334

Sample frame: The listing of all population elements from which the sample will be drawn. Naresh K Malhotra, Marketing research, Fourth edition, p312-334

Here the sampling frame is mobile phone subscribers residing in London.

3.3 Sample Size:

Among this huge population, a small sample was chosen. The researchers chose a sample of 50 individuals. (13+12+11+10+4)

3.3 Sampling Method:

Sampling Techniques:

According to Naresh Malhotra there are two types of sampling techniques:

Probability Sampling

Non Probability Sampling

Probability Sampling

1.Simple random sampling: Each of the population element has equal chance of selection.

2. Systematic sampling: Steps to followed are:

l Identify, list and number the elements

l Identify the skip interval (kth)

l Identify the random start

l Draw a sample by choosing every kth entry.

3. Stratified sampling: The process of drawing a stratified sample is:

l Determine the variables to use for stratification

l Determine the proportion of the stratification

l Randomly select the elements

Naresh K Malhotra, Marketing research, Fourth edition, p312-334

4. Cluster sampling:

The population can be divided into subgroups based on the heterogeneity of the elements within the subgroup and with homogeneity of the groups. Then, some groups can be selected randomly. Naresh K Malhotra, Marketing research, Fourth edition, p312-334

Non-probability Sampling

l 1. Convenience sampling: Researcher chooses whoever they find cheapest and easiest to conduct the interview. This is called convenience sampling.

l 2. Purposive sampling: Non-probability sample that conforms to certain criteria is called purposive sampling.

l Judgment sampling:

l Quota sampling: First set the quota and then use judgment to select the sample units.

l 3.Snowball sampling: First select on randomly then others with the referrals.

While choosing the members of the sample, the Stratified Sampling Method was adopted for this research. According to that, the members of the sample will have the same proportion in terms of the service provider they avail, in order to achieve the same ratio that exists in the whole population. Accordingly, in the sample 13 out of 50 respondents will be Vodafone users to achieve the 25.4% ratio. In case of these 13 individuals each of them will be chosen from other users of the same kind using Convenience Sampling and Quota Sampling.

Data Collection Form: Questionnaire:

Once the sample was chosen, the respondents were provided a questionnaire containing extensive and relevant questions. The questionnaire included a Likert rating scale to take subscribers opinions to determine their levels of satisfaction with each of the variables. The individuals had to choose the most appropriate answer for every question from the set of alternatives provided in the questionnaire. All the questions are Close-ended ones having several options for each question. In most of the questions, Semantic Belief Scale was used. The questionnaire contained 12-15 questions concerning customers' perception & expectation from the cell-phone service providers.

The basic purposes of questionnaire:

1. The goal of questionnaire design is to translate the research objectives into questions that will collect the desired information.

2. The questionnaire must motivate the respondents to cooperate, become involved, and provide complete and accurate answers.

3. The questionnaire should minimize response error.

Problems of collecting data using questionnaire

l Unwillingness to respond

l Inability to respond

l Influence of questioning process

Reasons of unwillingness to answer the questions

1.Efforts required answering the questions

2.Inappropriateness of questions

3.Lack of legitimate purpose of questions

4.Sensitive questions

After collecting data; those were sorted, entered and tabulated with the help of computers. Once the data input was completed, several software were used to analyze the collected data to find out specific characteristics of the responses. Among other software, MS Excel was widely used. Several graphs, charts and diagrams are featured in the research to portray a clear picture about the level of customer satisfaction and related topics. Then, several specific findings were generated to project a clear picture concerning the research topic. All these statistical findings were calculated at .01 level of confidence. In addition to that, some recommendations are prescribed at the end of the research to benefit both the customers and service providers.

3.4 Timetable

Time Frame: 12 Weeks

Weeks

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Problem

Identification

Literature

Review

Research

Design

Choice of

Methodology

Data

Sources

Data

Collection

Data

Analysis

Writing up

Draft

Editing

Final

Document

Submission

Chapter 4

Data Analysis and findings

This segment will include in-depth description of the people surveyed in the research from various angles and then try to find out any linkage among several variables that might have significant influence on consumer behaviour. This part will start-off with a brief description of the sample.

Demographic Profile:

A. Age of Respondent:

18-25 years:

34

25-32 years:

07

32-45 years:

07

45 or more:

02

The sample included majority of the respondents from the age group of 18-25 years. This was carefully chosen in order to collect data conveniently in a time-saving manner. The age distribution of the respondents can be shown from the following graph:

B. Sex of Respondent:

Male:

33

Female:

17

In terms of gender, the majority of the respondents were males and this was also because of collecting data conveniently as it is a bit tricky to collect information from females. The gender distribution of the sample looks like this:

C. Operator Availed

It is important to have a clear picture regarding the sample in terms of operators availed by them. It was also a prerequisite for the researchers to have the same ratio of customers of different operators in the sample as it exists in the population. The researchers were careful to choose customers of different operators in order to achieve that ratio. This is the ratio of customers of different operators:

Vodafone

13

O2

12

T-Mobile

11

Orange

10

Three (3)

3

Others

1

From the graph it will be clearer:

D. Prime Concern behind Choosing an Operator

For this research, it was vital to find out the motives behind choosing any operator as it reflects the customers expectation from the operator. Besides, it also shows how the operators stack-up against each other in terms of different variables. From the research, the following insights were found:

Cheap Call-rate:

17

Superior Network/Coverage:

20

Value Added Services(VAS):

03

Customer Service:

06

Brand Image:

04

The graphical presentation looks like this:

E. Number of Connections

In recent times it has become quite a trend among Bangladeshi mobile phone users to own several mobile connections. The researchers conducted a survey on this aspect as well and found the following results:

No. of Connections

Respondents

I

15

II

24

III

06

IV

01

V

03

VI

01

The following chart is derived from these data:

From the above data and illustrations, it is easy to have a clear idea about the sample's demographic traits. The distribution of respondents in terms of operators resembles the population as the sample follows the same ratio as the population does. One of the most important aspects of this research was to find the motive behind choosing an operator and this info will be used to determine the customers' expectation and perception regarding the operators. From the survey, it was found that, for majority of the respondents it is either a low call-rate or superior network that determines the choice of operators. Another key feature of the mobile users in UK is the ownership or usage of service provided by multiple operators. As a result most of the mobile users have more than one connection. From the survey, it was found that around 36% of the respondents have more than one connection and this piece of information demonstrates two strong insights. First, any single mobile operator is not performing well in all aspects of the services provided. Second, a good number of customers do not trust a single operator for all types of services. This provides a hint that, the customer expectations are not met properly by the current operators. This insight will be elaborated in detail in the next segments of the report.

KEY INSIGHTS

This segment of the report will try to establish relationship between variables used in the survey to detect vital gaps that ultimately result in operators failing to meet customer expectations. After finding the gaps, several potential recommendations will be provided in order to enable operators to improve their service quality.

Age-Operator Relationship

Pearson Correlation between Age and Operator chosen is found to be -.051 at the .01 level of confidence, which suggests no significant relationship between these two variables. The practical implication is, in UK offering age based packages are not that effective.

Sex-Operator Relationship

At the .01 level of confidence, the Pearson Correlation between Sex and Operator measures to be .177. This shows a weak relation between the two variables. This means that, the choice of operator does not depend on the sex of the user. So any gender based packages will not be that effective in the Bangladeshi mobile phone market. Banglalink experienced this when the “Ladies First” package, designed for the female segment of the market, was availed by all users regardless of their gender.

Age-Purchasing Factor Relationship

A .029 measurement Pearson Correlation test explains a very weak positive relationship between the age of the user and the motives behind choosing an operator. However, cross-tabular analysis shows that, for younger customer segments, low call-rate and superior network acts as the deciding factor while choosing an operator. But as the users get older other factors, such as innovative VAS, Brand Image and Customer Service play a vital role in choosing the operator.

Superior Network & Customer Service-Satisfaction Relationship

Among five factors determining customer satisfaction, superior network and customer service have the closest relationships with customer satisfaction. At the .01 level of confidence, the Pearson correlation measurement between Superior Network and Satisfaction is .396 and for customer service & Satisfaction, it is .492. These s show that, a superior network and superior customer service are the key determinants of customer satisfaction. The key finding is, low call-rate is not a significant determinant of customer satisfaction. It means customers are willing to pay higher rates if they are able to get improved services.

Brand Image Determination

Among the four factors, superior network and excellent customer service were calculated to be the key determinants of brand image. At the .01 level of confidence the Pearson Correlation between Network & Brand image is .449, while the correlation between customer service & Brand Image is .498. These measurements defy the general conception that a lower call-rate improves the brand image of the operator. In contrast, a low call rate reduces an operator's brand image as lower call rate has a weak negative correlation with Brand Image. So, operators intending to improve their Brand Image should focus on improving network and customer service, rather than reducing call-rate.

The customer evaluation of the operators in the following five dimensions can be presented by the following table:

Attributes

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

T. Rate

Total response

Aevrage

Reliability

14

24

2

10

50

292

50

5.84

Ease of Use

20

20

6

4

50

306

50

6.12

Voice Clarity

16

22

10

2

50

302

50

6.04

Perceived Quality

Coverage

10

12

6

8

8

2

4

50

232

50

4.64

Call Drop

10

18

10

6

2

2

2

50

260

50

5.2

Interconnectivity

16

16

16

2

50

288

50

5.76

Startup Costs

4

14

18

8

4

2

50

248

50

4.96

Tariff

2

8

18

14

4

4

50

224

50

4.48

Perceived
Value

Features

10

12

22

6

50

276

50

5.52

Options

16

10

16

6

2

50

282

50

5.64

Competitiveness

8

12

16

12

2

50

256

50

5.12

Cost of Service

16

12

6

4

6

2

4

50

252

50

5.04

Waiting Time

6

14

8

10

6

4

2

50

226

50

4.52

Issues Solved

16

16

14

2

2

50

286

50

5.72

Availability of Service

14

8

12

10

4

2

50

258

50

5.16

Customer
Service

Competence

8

16

16

8

2

50

270

50

5.4

Courtesy

18

14

12

6

50

294

50

5.88

Information

12

20

10

8

50

286

50

5.72

Complaint Handling

8

20

12

6

4

50

272

50

5.44

Reputation

30

12

4

4

50

318

50

6.36

Company
Image

Popularity

30

8

6

6

50

312

50

6.24

Social Activity

16

6

12

10

4

2

50

260

50

5.2

EnvironmentalConsciousness

14

10

10

12

4

50

256

50

5.12

Knowledge

6

20

14

10

50

272

50

5.44

Familiarity

12

20

12

6

50

288

50

5.76

Involvement

8

18

16

6

2

50

270

50

5.4

Personal &
Market Factors

Lifestyle

12

6

14

6

6

4

2

50

234

50

4.68

Ability to Move

6

24

12

2

4

2

50

268

50

5.36

Differentiation

14

12

12

10

2

50

276

50

5.52

Price Sensitivity

18

14

4

6

6

2

50

274

50

5.48

Accessibility

14

14

16

4

2

50

284

50

5.68

Competitiveness

18

16

10

4

2

50

294

50

5.88

From the table, it might seem that, customers are satisfied with the current level of service provided by the operators. To some extent it is true as the following table reinforces this premise, which includes the replies of respondents when they were asked whether they are satisfied with the operators or not:

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

T. Rate

Total response

Aevrage

Overall Satisfaction

6

26

16

2

50

286

50

5.72

The responses can be graphically presented in the following way:

But the truth is that, customers are satisfied because they do not have any other option. As a result they are left with little options and forced to avail what is available to them. So, it can be said that, the above table does not represent the true picture regarding the customer expectation and perception concerning the mobile operators. However, the following table shows the fact that, despite being satisfied for now with current services, customers still expect far better quality of service from their operators. The researchers used a Semantic Belief Scale to measure the expectation and perception regarding the operators, which clearly shows a clear gap between the customer expectation and customer perception. Here are the results of that measurement:

Call rate

Network

VAS

Customer Service

Brand Image

Perception:

4.84

5.82

4.94

5.24

5.70

Expectation:

6.54

6.78

6.18

6.48

6.42

Source: Data Collected from Field Survey

Table-3: Customer Expectation & Perception

Reflecting this response is the fact that, a handsome proportion of the respondents replied that they are either unsure or unwilling to recommend their operator to a new user. This tells us that, currently the users' expectations are not being met by the service providers' performance and the above chart showing customer satisfaction is merely the representation of the fact that, customers are forced to accept whatever is available to them. The chart shows it in detail:

FINDINGS of THE REPORT

From the data collected through the survey & analyzed by different software, the researchers have come to the following concluding remarks:

§ Mobile phone users are somewhat satisfied with the current call-rate settings.

§ A significant number of users are not currently satisfied with network setup.

§ Around 90% of the users are satisfied with overall service provided by the cell-phone operators.

§ This quantitative measurement regarding the customer satisfaction does not resemble the whole picture as adequate gap remains between customer expectation and customer perception concerning the mobile operators.

§ Users have little to choose from as all the operators are somewhat all the same and none of them are all-round high-performers.

§ Age and Gender of the user does not determine the choice of operator.

§ For younger users, cheap call-rate and good network is the primary concern behind choosing an operator. But, as the users get older, they consider VAS, customer service and Brand Image of the operator before actually choosing it.

§ Younger users are more likely to switch brands than older customer groups.

§ A superior network and excellent customer services offered by an operator act as key determinants of customer satisfaction.

§ The two above factors are true for determining Brand Image as well. However, a low call-rate undermines the Brand Image of an operator.

§ Almost all the respondents want their operators to improve their respective network setups and call-rate settings.

§ Advertisement and other promotional activities have very little influence on choice of operator.

§ However, advertisements have some influence on building Brand Image of the operator.

§ None of the operators is ranked high in all aspects of the overall service offering.

§ All the operators need to improve in one or more aspects of their service offerings.

ACTION-PLAN for the TRANSFORMATION

Active participation of people from all levels and classes is required to bring in the transformation in the mobile sector of Bangladesh. The government, regulatory authorities, economists, market experts, operators and users-all the people will have to take part in a revolutionary overhaul of this sector. If done properly, this complete overhaul will benefit all the parties but mostly the users.

First of all, the government of UK will have to play a crucial supervisory role over all the operators, guiding and determining the operations of the operators. There must be a detailed policy or guideline containing detailed rules & regulations regarding all aspects of operations for the operators, which will dictate the operations and policies undertaken by the operators. In this aspect, the economists, market analysts and regulatory authorities can play a pivotal role in developing the guideline and monitoring the proper execution of it. However, developing the guidelines is not the end of the job, it is just the beginning. Government must closely monitor the operations of the operators in order to ensure their appropriateness in terms of operations and policy formulation.

Secondly, operators must be instructed to publish financial statements on an annual basis to ensure transparency in their operations. In order to further pressurize the operators to raise their performances, they must come in the stock market. This will increase control of the public in the management of the operators, reducing tyranny by the operators. Besides, introducing shares will enforce the operators for better performance and increase competitiveness among the operators. In order to survive in a competitive market the operators will be forced to reduce their call-rates and improve their services which will ultimately benefit the end users. One thing that needs to be ensured by the government and other regulatory authorities is, the operators must not be allowed to form a syndicate among themselves. For the last decade or so, all the operators have been criticized for operating as a syndicate creating a near-monopoly market.

Most importantly, users need to unite under one umbrella to protect their interests. The end users or the general public needs to form some kind of consumer forum in order to communicate their dissatisfaction or desire to the operators on a regular basis. In extreme cases, they can seek help from government as well. Media can play a vital role in this aspect by criticizing the operators and supporting the suffering general public.

However, a well-planned and coordinated movement is required to enforce the operators to improve their services. And in order to do so, active and sincere participation of people from all races of life is vitally needed. Only then, the majority of the users will be truly satisfied with the cell-phone service providers. Currently, the responses gathered through this survey do not resemble the whole picture of the Bangladeshi cell-phone market. This scenario must be changed and the sooner the change takes place, the better it will be for the general people.

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