What promotional strategies can be undertaken when environmental factors affect real estate business? Case study of “Magical Homes in London and Dubai”
Real estate business is one of biggest market of the business world, contained the largest surplus money of the business. The history of the real estate business is very strange and unpredictable. No doubt is slow moving industry with respect to time but it carries a lot. Past experiences shows that property investment was the first and safest priority in all over the world for long term investments and profit making business. Where the property investors has seen the huge profits there was also a slumps in the property market which made the real estate business an anonymous business. There were number of environmental factors behinds the uncertainty of the real estate business which influenced in the shape of recession, natural disasters, economic condition, political instability and some time in the shape of sports event like Olympics hit the real estate market positively and negatively.
On time decisions and effective management can make things easier. Promotion plans and strategies can reduced the impact of environmental factors on the real estate business. This study was about learnt the past experiences and to find out the impact of new environmental factor and their influenced on the real estate market. The aims of the study was to learnt the behaviour of the environmental factors in the modern age with respect of politically, economically, sociologically, technologically and legally. Even in the modern world an other emerging factor was the hosting of sports events like Olympics and worst factor in the history was the recession which influenced the real estate market in very unexpected manners.
The objectives of the study was to study the promotional plans and strategies which could be the best deal to reduced the impact of such environmental factors and to enhance the believe of the investors and builder to come forward and join the world leading business for huge profits and gaining. The on time decisions and the suggested strategy can raise the investment in the real estate business. The conclusion and recommendation can explain the objectivity of the study in a comprehensive manner.
Real estate property business has a very interesting history of its own. It is a very uncertain and unpredictable market and because of its strangeness, this international business market is very charming for investors and entrepreneurs. The investments in this market usually much higher than expected therefore a huge surplus of money is still lying in this business market. Despite of recent terrible crash of real estate business, still got a large investment to spend.
People visiting around the world for peace and looking for luxury living at minimum cost or affordable cost, So customers and investors need to know the ups and downs of the market in the mirror of past, present and future, no doubt its not perfectly doable but at least the research like this can make the investors wiser and predictable and they can think either their investments are in right direction or they going to make a dumb decision. There are number of factors which influence the real estate market directly and indirectly. This research would be the comprehensive discussion of these environmental factors like location, type of land, weather, culture, languages and legal property laws of that particular state. This study would be a revolution in the understanding of real estate property business.
Affordable plans, promotions and advertisement can help to guide the investors in the right direction. In today's real estate market every investor is looking for a competitive price to gain a profit as well as the service provider company should be the responsible for the successful delivery of the project, after sales support services, dedicated advantages comes in houses, arrangement of resale of the property, arrangement of rental services and all other strategies which designed to help the investor in order to maximise the return on investments. So this kind of strategies can be undertaken in order to gain trust of investors.
1.1 Background of the study
The current situation of real estate property business is very important after a terrible recession (2008-2009) in all over the world. The economic condition of the world developed countries is poor and struggling to get better environment for investments. This situation creates a compotation between the land giants but here the situation is different as we saw, State of Emirates getting better and have a sound position in terms of real estate property business infect Dubai got the attraction of the world investors and entrepreneurs' because its past planning and attention in this market.
Free hold property law of Emirates in 2003 has changed from its present condition and they are changing the map of the world in the shape of luxurious living, large resorts of islands, desserts villas, world tallest buildings, under water hotel and many more attractions made real estate property business in ‘Dubai' a great success story.
On the other hand in London situation has changed. After a terrible recession of (2008-2009) which had a worst impact on United Kingdom than European Union .UK is a huge economy of the world and has the opportunity to lead the world. The real estate property business in this country had faced the worst ever condition but now it is getting better day by day and it is going towards the peak point again. UK got the opportunity to host the Olympics 2012 in London. Olympics 2012 such a huge project with operating cost of £580 millions and it could be increase than the expected cost.
Comparison of real estate market of emerging city Dubai and developed country UK has raised many questions in the mind of investors, as time to time both countries has hit by the environmental factors like economic factors, political factors, social factors, cultural and legal factor. The uncertain situation of real estate market has created an economical crisis, because the financial institutions became tougher, the banks became stricter and this situation has affected the potential investors.
In this situation real estate companies and the investors needs to adopt the attractive and affordable promotion plans that can develop the interest of investors and buyers. Theses plans and strategies can help to reduce the impact of environmental factors on the business of real estate market.
1.2 Research Background
Jones, Lang, Lassalle entitled has given a report called ‘Reaching Beyond the Gold: The Impact of the Olympics on Real Estate Markets' examines the impact of staging the Olympics on recent host cities and looks ahead to 2012.It shows that sports event like this has an impact not only on the real estate property business but also on the every institutions of the country. Past experiences shows a positive impact on the property like the prices of property in Sydney is still rising and even the prises are 50% higher than before. So the major impact of events like Olympics is on real estate property business which could be helpful to improve the prices of property after recession.
London and Dubai, both of the cities have got their own entity in the market of real estate property business. Past experiences showed that the people of the urban areas have been moving towards rural areas and there were a number of reasons behind this migration. Even in last decade people like to buy or rent their properties in countries like Dubai. In case of city like London the situation will change because of the environmental factor has changed the economic, political, social and legal conditions of the country. UK has improved economically in last few months and the real estate market getting better especially in London and investors has risen dramatically since recession over and being the host city of Olympics.
1.3 Organisation Background
This study has a case study of “Magical homes Dubai”, is a London based company, who dealing with the investors from all around the world, they offering them advice in off-plan, resale, renting or buying property. They are offering their services in UAE and especially in Dubai for buying, selling, renting, reselling of houses, apartment, offices, villas and commercial spaces.
‘Magical homes Dubai' provided services to the customers from last ten years, is an expert in providing investment property in UAE and London. In addition providing investors with exclusive and the uniqueness in providing highly sought after property option with the best customer service is the core operation.
1.4 Rationale for the chosen topic
The main reason of the topic to be chosen that the demand of the profession and the scope of profession are very high despite of bad turn's real estate property business has a vast field of business. Living of people has changed completely and its need to change further in future which opens the new horizons in real estate property business. Infect both the developed and under developed countries have a huge market in real estate business and its growing day by day with passage of increase in population of the world, in other words shelter is the basic need of life and its never gone to end. So it's a profession of life and it has a wide scope in international business.
Currently if take a look on trends and developments of any country then its easy to say that the real estate property business plays a vital rule in assessment of the country's economic condition. The real estate property business depends on different environmental factors which are important to study and need to have a good knowledge about so the investment needs to be invest in the right place, for this purpose of knowing this study could be a mile stone. This study would be helpful in the decision making and to find out the save investment plan on the international level.
Although, Real estate property business has effected by different environmental factors directly and indirectly but critical analysis of these environmental factors in the light of past and present can make the decision making quite easier for the future prediction. Comparison of big markets like London and Dubai can make the job easier for the investors and entrepreneurs to find out the right choice around the world.
1.5 Statement of the problem
World become a global market, any company can make strategy for its local market and the strategy to hit the international market but in this case there could be various environmental factors involved which influence the business either domestic level or international level. Theses environmental factors could be economical, political, social, cultural and legal factors. This study can help to understand the emerging problems of the real estate property business market. The population of any country shows the appreciation of the people and the development in the real estate property business show the growing power. The population of London was more than 8 million and it's expected to be rise in the near future. After the recovery of economic crises the real estate property business has grown up and prices of the market is getting better and there will a positive chances of incoming investment for the near future because of the Olympics 2012. On the other hand Dubai has increasing population of 1.5 million which is expected to exceed 1.9 million in 2010. With the increase in population has directly effect the demand of property so the study can guide the investors and the financial institutions that which strategies could be helpful for new plans and promotions.
1.6 Research aims and objectives
This study contains a couple of aims and objectives but theses points cover a comprehensive study of knowledge which can provide a handsome idea to the investors and the entrepreneurs around the world.
· To examine the investors behaviour when environmental factors affect the development in the real estate sector.
* To analyse the impact of environmental factors on the real estate business internally and externally
* To find out the new strategies which could be helpful to reduce the negative influence of environmental factors
* To explore the promotional strategies that can be undertaken to help the real estate companies to overcome the crisis
· To determine the new promotional strategies that can be attractive and feasible for the investors internationally
The aims and objectives of the study is dame clear as it represents the importance and significance of the study. Real estate property business covers a big surplus of the business and it need to be study in terms of save and profit making business. So facts and s of this market are very uncertain and factors involved in the uncertainty of the market need to be study. These factors could be economic, geographical, cultural, demographical, legal and political. So the economic factor is very important in the real estate property market, it directly influence the price of the property, if the economic condition of that particular is not that well then the prices of the property could be lower than the expected prices but most of that type case the demand goes higher than higher but the supply of the property goes down and down.
The political factor is the most affective factor in environmental factors, as the political condition of any country or state has a direct impact on the economic condition, so the more stability condition of the country leads the country towards the most stable place.
The geographical factor is also an important factor in the real estate property market as it has direct impact on it, as the location of the property lies in the developed country then the prices and demand of that particular property goes high, and if the geographically it lies in the under developed country then the demand and prices goes down.
The factor of the culture has a impact on the real estate property business market, as the culture is the representative of any population if the population have a culture of luxurious life style then the market of the real estate property business will be higher but if it prevail in lower standard living then the real estate property business growth will be lower.
Demographical factor is very important factor of the real estate property business market because it has a direct influence with the real estate property business market like the first step of the building of a new housing unit is to commission the demographical study of that particular area, which shows the current population, density and the growth of the population, the age distribution of the population, the average size of the household, the race of the population, the sex of the population and the local market of the population, so demographic factor has its own importance.
The factor like legal condition of that particular area plays a very important rule, if the legal condition of the state is worthy, provides facilities to the both buyers and sellers then it can create a big market and can attract the investors but if the legal condition is not that flexible then the investors can never be interested in such type of market.
The seasonal factor has a very important place in the history of the real estate business market and it can change the destiny of the nation, as seen in the past that the seasonal events like Olympics had a positive effect on the real estate business market. The objectives of the studies are very clear which lead the study toward desirable results.
This study basically provides the feasibility of the real estate property market in the new era of world. It has also conducted to find out the potential of the real estate property market either it's a worthy business of market or dumb way of caring a business.
This research will provides a brief but a comprehensive outline and relative concerns of the real estate property business market, which includes the brief knowledge of the market sector that how it can work? The pros and cons of the real estate property market, how the demand can be show?, how the property did suit the requirement of the investor?, how the offer can be made?, how to negotiate with the seller?, how the deal can be finalize the deal?, how to meet the legal laws of that particular part of the world?, how to make sure that the property is free hold or lease property?, how the survey of the property can be done?, how the demand and supply can be calculated?, how the demand and supply effect the prices of the property? Etc. it also includes the information about the financial estimate of the property that is very helpful to understand the feasibility of any property matches with the need of investors. It also includes the knowledge of the human resource that is required for the investment and maintains of the property.
1.7 Structure of the dissertation
1.7.1 First chapter
is introduction about the research work, tell about the research topic, its background, history, importance, aims and objective of the study, statement of the problem, scope of the study and then the structure of the study that how the reader can go through the study and find the guide for next study.
1.7.2 Second chapter
This chapter was the literature review of the study, which gives the brief but comprehensive guide of the study that has a complete knowledge about the research that was done in respect of the topic chosen.
1.7.3 Third chapter
This chapter is regarding the research methodology used in this study and has followed the recommended ‘harwared style of referencing' and research process and eventually select the method of the research used to get the primary data and processed the secondary data.
1.7.4 Fourth chapter
This chapter was about the outcomes and finding knowledge of the research study made, which gave a comprehensive idea of the solution of the problem.
1.7.5 Fifth Chapter
This chapter was about the conclusion and recommendation of the study. The conclusion of the study was about the guideline for problem's solution and some suggestions for the company or any other institution having same kind of difficulties and the recommend the way for further studies.
2 Literature Review
In previous chapter of introduction presented the basic theme of this study that what has been discussed in the rest of the study. It showed the main aims and objectives and what research question have discussed to find the objectives of the study. In this chapter of literature review, a strong formation of knowledge and the efforts made in this study or the related study will be discussed that leads towards the finding and conclusion of the research work.
Promotional strategies can be undertaken when environmental factors affect the real estate business and it is the phenomenon of every business that promotion plans and strategies like market pull and product push strategies could be helpful to make good business strategies accordingly.
* A process can be a push operates as long as there all the goods or services to be processed, a system is said to be operate push if all its stages are push.
* A process can be operate pull if it is dictated to work or remain idle because of the feedback from downstream. So the system is called pull operates if all the stages are pull. (Brassington and Pettitt, 2007).
Push and pull strategy
(Brassington and Pettitt, 2007)
2.1 PESTLE Analysis of the real estate business
While analysing the factors affecting the real estate industry, it is vital to over look the factors that in one way or another affect the number of important variables that have there influence on the specific business or organisations supply and demand and its cost (Katter and Schlesinger, 1991; Johnson and Scholes, 1993). The radical ongoing recession in the entire business world brings change in the society and customers behaviour towards their purchasing power and on real estate has its wide spread affect. (Tsiakkiros, 2002) Number factors been catalogues' have possible issues addressed in the recent days which directly or indirectly affect the industry. PEST analysis is one of them which categories environmental influence as political, economic, social and technological forces. In recent studies two additional factors of environmental and legal added to make it PESTLE analysis. Analysis and impact of these factors will be examined and to observe their affect on the entire industry later the findings will be used to make the contingency plans against the threats to the business strategy and its growth plans (Byars, 1991; Copper, 2000).
According to Kotler(1998) PEST analysis is very influential tool for making business strategies for making growth and to understand the reasons for decline , positioning the product in the market, enhancing the product offer and its promotions, seeking the potential market and direction for operation. PEST is usually applied by companies for reviewing the business direction, and marketing proposition. Real estate business enhance its fortune in the modern world by this influential tool of PEST for making strategic planning , business and product development, and also for affective research of the market. PEST also ensures to the businesses that their performance in the market is aligned in positive direction while having the powerful forces of change which affect the business environment (Porter, 1985). PEST also helpful for the businesses which are which are new in the market operations in a very new market or country. Concluding the basic concept of PEST, it helps to effectively change to the realities of the new environment.
Main aspects of PEST analysis includes:
Government policies which include tax policy, employment laws, trade restrictions, reforms, tariffs and political stability influence many other environmental factors which can affect the organisations performance. Policies like European countries join the single European currency or remain outside. There are many other aspects in which government policies will affect the organisation and the country's economic situation a as a whole as they provide opportunities and threats. Where capital markets responsible for determining the for the alternatives for funding the organisations and business and they are under control of the governments policies. Even in UK Bank of England, which also influenced by the government policies like rate of interest charged for the loans some times determined by the government. Thompson (2002), refers capital markets will be more buoyant when government spending increase the money supply. Company performance according to the shareholders expectations, their decisions to sell the companies shares and willingness for providing more equity will also be affected by the government policies. Labour market which represents the national and regional availability of specific skills which all influenced by the government and other regional agencies. The power of trade unions and inflation which influenced on labour cost all affect the business environment in one way or other.
The economic condition which affects every business that how much its easy to flourish the business in easy economic conditions and what difficulties a business can face during the recession period of the economy . Economic conditions affect the success and profitability of the business at any time as it affects the capital availability, cost and product demand (Thompson, 2002). The timing factor for the investment also influenced by the economic conditions. When the economy as a whole or certain part of the economy sectors growing demand may exist for the product and services which are not in demand in economic recession circumstances. Recession and downturn situation in the economy is bad for most of the businesses but at the same time in these conditions some businesses prosper and avail some growth opportunities' (Robinson and et al., 1978; Thompson, 2002).
Economic condition of the current era is also the worst one of its kind. Which resulted in the low demand for the housing and real estate and this can be judged from the declining trend in the UK and Dubai real estate businesses. Many large firms like Barrett's homes in UK and Emaar stop there progress work on the ongoing projects and recent economic downturn in the Dubai World business is directly affected by Emaar company slump. Economic factor is the most important factoring the PEST analysis in the recent time.
What is occurring socially in markets in which businesses operates , population growth rate , age groups , career attitude , emphasis on safety , global warming .Demand for fashion , taste and rapidly changing trends in the sociocultural environment both provide with threats and opportunities to the businesses (Thompson , 2002 ; Pearce and Robinson, 2005). Products production and promotion strategies affect to the change in the behaviour and liking and disliking of the customer. Changing behaviour of the customers affects the ways of routine production and forced the businesses to change the formal procedures of designing and producing the product. The demographic factor must be considered by the organisations while doing the overseas businesses as the products and services needs variations. The structure, age and the people working has vital important while bearing the demand and demand for the particular product and services.
Rapid changes in the technology has forced the companies to update there ways of doing the businesses to meet the demands and services of the customers. |technology in a way or other also benefited the organisations for cutting there cost by outsourcing etc. Various literatures in strategic management recognised technology (Capron and Glazer, 1987; Johnson and Scholes, 1993; Jan, 2002) for giving the competitive advantage to the organisation; technology is used for creating the model. Breakthrough in technology resulted in the invention of new industries which also poses the threat to the existing organisations in the market for its products and services , the affected firms must be alert themselves for coping with the new innovation threat from the new industries by enhancing the business techniques by adopting the new technology . New technology can provide a useful input and procedures for manufacturing the products and offering services. It all requires the well trained and skilled staff and there is a need for heavy funding.
2.2 SWOT Analysis of the real estate business
Accessibility of resources and environmental opportunity is one thing and proper utilisation of these opportunities by the champion or the strategic leader is both different aspects of organisations efficiency. Evaluation of environment opportunities is very important by analysing and in direct relation to the strengths and weaknesses of the organisations resources and culture. The close relation between environment, values and resources results in the existence of real opportunities. Evaluating and analysing the organisations strengths and weaknesses in context to the environmental opportunities is generally known as SWOT analysis.
While studying strategic and marketing analysis history SWOT is considered to be a very important tool. Who actually explored and invent SWOT not known, but the text books in 1972 on strategy and marketing has some of its features. It advocates on the importance of SWOT in a way that, it is a tool to measure the fitness of the organisation‘s strategies and its environment and also used to suggest that the ways to defend the organisation against its weaknesses and threats (Adams, 2005). SWOT is criticised in recent period because of its simplicity as both the management and people at the academic level use and apply this tool without considering the long term impact of their decisions using SWOT which normally useless. The SWOT concept has been conceived and achieved in that simple time when there were no theories like trade-offs of strategic theory not comes into existence (De Witt and Meyer, 1998)
Internal and external customer s can only analyse and determine the strong aspects of an organisation. Strength is a, Resources of the firm which gives the competitive advantage in the market and cause to serve or expected to serve in the market.
In SWOT, strength of the organisation refers to the comparative advantage of the firm's distinctive competence on the other firms in the marketplace. Strengths of the company arise from the resources edge of the organisation available to the firm from other organisation.
The firm's weaknesses also not determined from organisations point of view but again from customers view point. Usually it is quite difficult for the firms to admit and acknowledge its mistakes and shortcomings but as far as the business ethics are
considered, they must admit their weaknesses and work for its improvement. A weakness of a firm is a,
“Limitation or deficiency in one or more resources or competencies relative to competitors that impedes a firm's effective performance”
* http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_h-ozPPN71BY/Sqd0HAS-MKI/AAAAAAAAAas/wlb15zL5SfM/s400/swot-analysis-image.png 25/12/09
Organisations always try to continue to grow their business and opportunity is another major factor of SWOT which enables organisations to analyse the available opportunities in the marketplace to grow. Opportunities refer to the adaptation and use of new technology in the market, flexible government to encourage investment and new businesses, demographic and social patterns. Having an opportunity in the organisations environment is a big situation. Critical analysis of prior overlooked market segments, adaptation in competitive atmosphere, changes in technology and enhanced relationship between buyers or supplier relationship all refers to the strong opportunity for the firm's growth.
No one consider the threats what any business can face at any point of time during the course of their business , no matter with fact that they are not controllable , like, recent economic recession in the world , for which the world economy as a whole was not prepared . Here, it is very necessary for the strategic management of the organisation to be prepared themselves for the threats even in the peak time of their businesses. Threat considered being the major and unfavourable condition in the business life. Threats can also become the key factor in the firm's current and future position.
Threats refers to the easy entrance of the competitors in the market, slow grow rate , higher bargaining power of buyer or suppliers is another threat for the business and revised government regulations.(Adam, 2005)
2.3 Promotional strategies
Every business needs to sell its product at an attractive price. For this reason the benefits of the products must be conveyed to the customers in a very smooth and easy way. In marketing, for addressing the benefits of the products to the customers directly, companies climb on the ladder of known as “promotion”. “Promotion is all about companies communicating with customers”. (Jobber, 2007)
Walkers the UK's number one brand in grocery, which cover the lucrative market of over 37 percent. They are spending about £17m on the advertising. It was heard that there is a nutrition shortage in children and the growing number of people were concerned about children obesity. In 2004 walkers has faced a downturn in the sales which was 1.7 percent in bagged sales and about 1.9 percent on the overall range of snacks. That was tougher time for nation's favourite snacks then they need to develop a new product with a reduced fat and salt content in the product. Technicians had worked on the new product of low in fat and salt and high in nutrition. In 2004 according to a new promotional strategy of giving away walker pack to catch up with the active life style of the people and to save the brand name was carried out. These initiatives was used to tackle the negative impact of the brand name then to head on with good name, they also introduced the new promotion strategy of giving 9000 iPod minis online in autumn 2005. This promotional strategy was already introduced on the web site to motivate the customers that they can win iPod mini in every 5 minutes during September. Along with this there were heavy investment made in the advertisement for the potato head range to let the customer know there is no fat, no artificial flavour, no artificial colour and low salt variant. So this strategy gave the assurance that the customer who were fall out of core category, this is the right product for those people. (Harwood, 2005; parry, 2005).
In the global environment of business, new plans and promotion are necessary for the rival of the business. To get a competitive edge in higher competition, promotional strategies can play a role. Some time environmental factors like political, social, economical, and cultural and can be affect the business harshly but wise decisions of the management in the shape of promotional strategies can save the business empire.
P&O liner Aurora, a luxury cruise has started its 103 days voyage around the world with 1759 passengers on 9th January 2005. It was made for life time ‘voyage' but unfortunately it cost a lifetime saving for passengers. But the trouble started in the early days of her life, when sailed around Isle of Wight. Engine problem started and 300 passengers abandoned the cruise because of sever problem in information progress. Aurora finally started the planned route on the 19th of January from the cost of Devon but disappointment again propulsion problem arose even just after 110 miles. The ship and passenger returned to Southampton after cancellation of trip.
Aurora failure story hit all the broadcast and printing media, focused on they difference between expectations of the passengers and the real experience. The realty of the matter revealed in an article few days later that Aurora had a strange history of early days of her opening. As the champagne was not smashed on her naming ceremony, broken down in her maiden voyage and the 600 passengers and crew had experienced a highly contagious virus in 2003. Mitchell (2005) revealed the lack of positivism in action and PR during the 10 days as leaving P&O had pulled out the stop providing a good time and unprofessional, uncaring behaviour towards the passenger on board. Aurora might have not found either way of spend some of her £11.5m budget on the promotional strategies to came back into services.
(Daily mail, 2005; Marketing week; Mitchell, 2005)
Promotional strategies does work when environmental factors affect the business, of course in term of save the big investment or the business empire, further promotional strategies necessarily needs to be adopt. Other wise business can be face loses and bad name of the business.
According to the investigation carried out in Cyprus that the criteria followed by the real estate investors was the wrong estimate of decision making, it was revealed in the investigation city has developed in the real estate industry due to different environmental factors. Tourist development was the most important factor then size of the earthquake risk in this area. (MOSCHBOIS, et al, 2008)
Cypriot realtors have to issue the appreciation report that shows the growing power of the city and the promotional strategies like development of tourist industry can boost the real estate business in Cyprus. On the other hand it can also be under estimate as the risk of earthquake, the population of the city and then an under develop area could be critical aspect of the development of Cyprus.
2.3.1 Characteristics of promotional strategy
Every business marketing its products using the communications programme is called “promotional mix” which consists of six different steps can be undertaken for the promotion of any product or plan. Theses steps can be helpful for the implementation of the strategies and plans. (Jobber, 2007)
Brief discussion of six key tools of promotional strategy
* For reaching the wide audience rapidly it can make a bridge for good awareness
* For communication the brand positioning affectedly and repeatedly, TV medium is particularly strong
* It can be used to accelerate the sales efforts to give status to the company and its products
* Questions regarding personal liking flexibility can not be answered
* sales closure capability is limited
* interactive: it can be helpful to answer the question and to achieve the objective
* adaptable: performance can be altered depending on the customer need
* critical argument can be developed
* personal selling can be resulted in building personal nature relationship
* opportunities are higher to close the sales
* higher cost on sales calls ( )
* customer response is more to a direct targeting of consumer needs
* direct marketing can be communicate personally
* easy to measure the short term effectiveness
* building the continuous relationship by periodic contact
* competitors can be defeated because of its less visible activity
* response of customer could be low
* poor way of targeting can be result of customer annoyance
* low cost, global reach to the customers
* sites visited by the customer can be measured
* high rate of direct sales
* dialogue between companies, supplier and customer can build
* prices and catalogue can be update quickly and cheaply
* easy way of searching and buying product
* necessity of the negotiating with the sales people can be avoid
* sales promotion and incentive can gives a quick boost to the sales
* its effectiveness could be limited
* more incentive on product (eg money off ) can damage the brand image
* credibility is high as the information and message come from third party
* has edge on advertisement because of higher readership in trade and technical publication
* Higher risk that the contents of press release may be distorted
(Jobber, 2007; pp: 499)
Detailed discussion on the above six key promotion tools can be as followed.
is the first step in order to implement any strategy and no doubt advertisement plays a very important role in the strategic process. It could be in any shape like electronic media, by word of mouth or the physical demonstration of the product.
Wright and Crimp (2003) stated that how advertising works as it has varied task, based on the consensus that there can be no single all-embracing theory. In modern age advertisement has vital role in any business which appeal to the customer need and explain every single step involved.
Strong and weak theories of how advertising works
According to Cridge (2009), in the modern age the companies should be able to ensure that they create not just the big but irresistible ideas for advertisement of their product. In today's age advertisement of the brand and product is not an easy task; companies need to be ensuring that is irresistible. Advertisement agency called 118 118 has opened recently which provides services to the customers looking for any business contact number (Cridge, 2009).
According to Shepherd (2005), television advertiser can demonstrate the product in action by using television. Television advertisement often use when the building of brand image is required. Comparatively to other media of advertisement, it is easy to create an atmosphere for the product promotion. Shepherd (2005) points out the potential threat to this medium of advertisement by referring to the rapid emergence of personal video recorders (PVRs) that can store up to 30 hours of programs, gives convenience to consumer to play them back. Watching the recorded programs using (PVRs) allowing the consumer to skip the ads. Alone in USA 92% of the ads been skipped by the 6% of the population who watched 60% of their programs through (PVRs). But this take up is slow in Europe because of prices fall may accelerate and this create fall in television advertisement. (Shepherd, 2005)
Television is a strong source of advertisement of the product and services and it plays an important part in the process of advertisement but on the ad
Developing an advertising strategy
Hick (2005), elaborated in a special report in a radio campaign, the advent of the digital radios increased the number of radio stations which also include the sound quality along with the screen displays allowing companies web sites and telephone number run same time as an advertisement. The availability of radio listening through web browser is become a reality which in result increase the radio advertisement campaign. (Hick, 20005). Radio in the modern age is an important sort of advertisement. Which can hit a number of consumers but has a threat as well of not being listened by the listener? As the customer have the choice to ignore it.
Internet is another revolutionary force for the promotion of product allowing global reach to the consumer at lower cost. Companies are able to measure the number of customers visit web sites, click on the advertisement which accelerate direct sales and possible growth of e-business mostly in the areas of hotel travel and information technology. It also gives the facility to change the advertised contents, business to business catalogue and price list. Internet also established a convenient way of dialogue between companies their customers and suppliers. Google and yahoo are the most powerful and fastest form of advertisement placing web links; they are also the market leader for ‘pay-per-click' advertising (economist, 2005). Internet adverting is very common and a cheap way of advertising now a days and got a broader scope in the advertising process. On the other hand every company trying to do the same and competition has risen which made it less affective.
Ocado, an online grocery services provider for the big supermarket giant called Waitrose. They use different marketing communication for their promotional strategies, like advertised on radio, use attractive posters, free vouchers for the dedicated customers, regular contact with their customer by contacting them post or electronic mail to remind their weakly or monthly online grocery shopping and when they add any new area in their territory, they used to drive around in that area with the objective of raising awareness of availability of services in that area. Ocado was the best online grocery services provider in 2005 and it was the chance of reassurance to their existing customer that they having made a good choice and attract the customer by send a newsletter, magazine, leaflet and gift voucher. (Armitt, 2005)
So promotional strategies like keep the customer in touch by reminding mails, magazine, free vouchers and leaflet of new offers. It reminds the loyalty of the services provider toward the customer and it create a good name of the business but on the other side of picture these promotions could be waste if the customer never noticed theses offers and forget to keep it mind for further transactions.
Baileys a brand has used a perfectively affective way of advertising. They were continually looking a way in which to recruit the new youngster drinkers to the brand. They tried to change the old-fashion and created a new sassier image. The research agency has presented the report that how can target the real customer of the product and they sponsored the programme called ‘sex and the city' in this channel 4 TV programme. A husky female voice over is used to answer the question full of sexual innuendo in the beginning and the end of the programme. By this ‘sex and the city' city cocktail trend has changed in trendy pubs and clubs.
(Elms and svender, 2005; singh 2004; Wilkinson, 2004)
Television advertising has always an affect on the specific age of the customer and if it is an entertainment for the customer in the shape of musical or comedy programme then it find the proper way of attention to the customer but it could have a negative impact on the mind of youngster and could be against the law.
ASA (advertising standard authority) received 375 complaints regarding the campaign ‘love your bum' of the toilet tissue's maker company called Velvet. In this advertisement a number bare bottoms have been showed off to encourage people to treat themselves ‘feel-good experience'. Even some of the public member did not bother this ad but ASA feel no hesitation to an action even that was not much offensive. When the advertising agency called Saatchi and Saatchi been questioned about the produced billboard for club 18-30 for holidays carrying an anonymous slogan of ‘summer of 69' and ‘beaver Espana' and the featuring picture shows a young men in boxer short close-up of crotch shots to present the ‘holiday package' but the company claimed that the graphic are the true picture of such holidays. As the ASA received about 492 record witness complaints so the authority of ASA ruled that these poster should be withdrawn. (Burrell, 2005)
No doubt advertisement plays an important role in the marketing process of any goods and services but the bad slogan creates a bad name for the company and the bad advertisement can ruin the product life cycle.
Abbot (2005) argues, about the situation faced by the basic customers and tells that the sales environment need to be consider because of integration between brand and consumer. Companies realised that the affective advertising is very important for communication objectives. Retail environment has increasingly crowded and competition has increased so retailers need to be more and more advertising using every sort of media including posters, banners, leaflets, displays and the impact of standout has arisen. One area of advertising faces the growth that is floor media, if we consider Tesco in this respect then it shows that every store spends about £400 for week on floor media and every 400 stores of Tesco experience the same. Slogan and brand name can be found every where until the customer finish the shopping and pay, which influence the buyer. (Benady, 2005)
Microsoft trying to make a contract with Adrail to put the footprint of dinosaur in the down station to emphases the floor media which portrait the computer-illiterate as dinosaur and same way BT has used floor media in providing internet services in the network rails. In such a way a big competitive environment can be seen which either can influence the customers mind or can made them confused in between the brand names and prices. So affective adverting can only communicate with the customer needs that can be any promotion or incentive which influence the customer's mind.
Sony Ericson has made a use of print media when expand paper to online. In summer 2005 Sony Ericson has advertised on vogue.com where the fashion team member did the job and provided their one picture with one piece of their wardrobe clothes using a Sony Ericson phone and that was posted on the web with the explanations, why that clothing is their favourite piece of clothing. This initiative was thought to introduce a new model of Sony Ericson handset. (New media age, 2005)
Impressive way of advertising using an affective communicating sort have been recognised by the influenced customer and it open the new way of advertising and launching the product.
Zanussi Electrolux launched its Jetsystem washing machine and advertised it in the magazine with a slogan of ‘Everyone knows showers are more efficient than bath' and answer the question about the Jetsystem that how effectively it works power-shower, cloths-clean, and save money, energy, water and time. It was revealed in the corporate line ‘makes life a little easier' that all the advertisement of what ever Zanussi product indicate the same massage of motivation that gives customer incentive. The corporate line also claims that there should always be a message to exemplify the benefit of the product. (Homes and gardens, 2005)
So the advertisement should always been carrying a good a beneficial message for the audience which influence the mind and creates a motivation to buy the product.
In 2005, jazzfm.com was relaunched by the Guardian Media Group, which was the one of the few online radio service at that time. It has a large number of advertising opportunities like 650.000 ‘jazz head' individual were motivated and attracted toward the services each month. By offering typical banners, buttons, branded microsites and bespoke online advertising solution for customers. ‘Jazz.com' also able to provide advertising services for BT, British Airways, Microsoft Corporation and Mercedes, with the access to this niche but also influential audiences, at the fraction of the cost of traditional media. (Jones, 2005)
Radio has been used as the source of advertising since long time ago but in this modern age it comes in the emerging shape because listeners can listen the radio online and other handy devices like mobile phone and iPods. So it has a large number of influential audiences which are typically 30-40 years old. The advertising solution and fraction of cost also motivate to have the services. On other side if the take a look on it critically then it has also got some bad points that audience can miss or loss the information in the adds by different ways.
According to Polak, (2005), global advertising has increased rapidly. Some sectors of the continent can be treated in a single territory and could have the same advertising approach but in this Europe can be treated as a single territory for the products of ‘Nestle'. But in this situation an n environmental factor affects the whole advertisement process as the Europe has 44 different nations and about 60 different languages and same of advertising does not work for the whole the Europe. Say for instance if we consider the Nescafe the product of Nestle need to be advertise in the Europe then it need to have a various version of advertisement in different culture and language to attract the each country audiences. (Polak, 2005)
Culture and language are very important environmental factor which need to be consider in any type of international business when expand the business globally. So it can raise the cost of the advertisement and directly raise the cost of the product and services.
According to marketing week, the company called Brother sign a £2m deal with channel 4 business programme (Risking). The company is basically dealt with the office equipments and that deal was the part of their promotional campaign. The management of the company believes that the programme is about the fortune of the people and it has about 3 million viewers. The company provide idents at the beginning, end of the programme and in the breaks as well. In addition on the website of the channel 4 viewers also see the badge of the company. The Organisation provides an opportunity to recognise the pressure faced by the new small business developers and believes that it printers and all-in-one ranges are ideally suited for those specifics needs and the objective of the deal was gain as to align the Brother with small new businesses. (Marketing Week, 2005b).
To find the influence audience, target marketing is very important to address the target audience for the promotional strategies. In this way the marketing objectives can be obtain easily and address the right audience who would be influence by the advertising directly. 2.3.3 Personal selling
is the marketing task, unlike advertising, promotion and non personal communication. Basically it is a marketing task and a form of direct selling, which is related to face to face relation with the customer directly. In personal selling the seller have direct contact with the buyer, who can understand the needs and identified the problems and requirement of the buyer, which could be helpful for the seller to upgrade the product in the light of this knowledge. The particular matters of the buyer could also be sort out with one-to-one basis.
Over 70% of marketing budget spend on the sales force because of the nature of product. It needs the concentration of the sales person in terms of travelling and other sort of expenses also include in the sales. (Jobber, 2007)
However, it is likely to be seen that companies and big organizations are trying to reduce their sales force because of the customer concentration on the centralized buying. It is also have big budget of the marketing to maintain a sales force of the company. So companies are moving their attentions toward relationship marketing.
Sales force has automated with laptop, palmtop computers, mobile phones, fax machines, e-mail and sophisticated sales-oriented software, which helped out in avoid travelling, account planning, recruitment and selection and evaluation of the sales personnel. Every sales person has connected with the head office using wireless technology in two ways, “(i) sales person's laptop is synchronized with head office by connecting a mobile phone to the laptop; (ii) a personal digital assistant is used by the sales person to transmit sales information to, and receive reports from the head office”. (Jobber and Lancaster (2006))
The selling process (Jobber, 2007)
Personal selling in modern age becomes very mortal, sales person has latest techniques using latest technology rather than just having an idea in mind and the presentation of the sales ideas. It made the job easy and timely convenient without having several interactions with the customer or the buyer, just go through the web or the e-mail resources to have the latest knowledge and updates of the business. (Moncrief and Marshall (2005))
Technology revolution has played and important part in the history of sales and marketing of any business as it saved money, time and sales force as well. Now it is so easy so expand the business globally without any hesitation of distance and to have a contact between sales person and the head office, so technology like this can help to reduce the effect of environmental factors.
Characteristics of modern selling
(Moncrief and Marshall (2005))
2.4 The promotional mix methods
There are some other methods which are used to increase the sales; they are used as secondary methods after advertising, direct selling, personnel selling and digital selling. In fact theses Promotional method got equal importance and each method is used as a part of consistent communication programme so they can used to support and reinforce the whole process and the message for the whole process needs to be consistent in the whole programme for the product positioning. Some of the methods areas followed. (Jobber, 2007)
* Sales promotion
* Public relation and publicity
* Product placement
2.4.1 Sales promotion
can be done in different ways. It could be in the shape of money off on the product, bonus pack, premium pack or the free sample. Basically it's all about the consumer promotion and no doubt it increase the sales of the product but some time the brand name recognize as just like the other brand.
2.4.2 Old traditional methods of promotions
BOGOFs,(buy one get other one free) also a consumer promotion which means in the price of one the consumer will get two, some time wine offered the same deal that if the consumer buy one bottle of wine other comes free. But according to ‘Ritson' These kind of promotion can be dangerous for the premium positioning of the brand and can be consider just as the other brands names which are available at discounted price in bulks. (Ritson, M. 2005)
It was an error decision for Cadbury of offering (buy one get one free), it increase the sales of the product for the time being but proved as the worst strategy ever for the brand premium.
According to Quilter 2005, “volume discount are given to retailer that hit sales target”. The promotion strategy can be discount in price and this discount can be given by the manufacturer or by the manufacturer and the retailer both in order to hit the target sales. In that case retailer needs to be devoted as well as to allow the product as larger space ever before. So that is a joint competition allows in store demonstrations.
In an other case of promotion manufacturer contributes the whole devotion as paying the adverting cost in the store of the retailer like to have an advertisement of 10 sec on the screen of the retailer could cost the manufacturer. (Quilter, 2005)
In such type of promotional strategies the manufacturer paid a lot in the shape of advertisement and the reduced prices of the product but it can be recovered by the sales targets.
2.4.3 New trends of promotion
Although promotional strategies not being adopted by the big brands names but its still been adopted in almost every business sector like IT, car industry, leisure and holidays, financial services institution, telecom and travel industries for the rise of the sales.
2.4.4 Public relation and publicity
T-mobile has make a use of the promotional strategy as offering their customer to keep their phone on when they travel abroad to get a free waterproof pouch. The return on investment was 2.5 to 1 and about 75 percent of the customers attracted by this promotional offer. Another promotional offer by the motor giant called fiat has offered the chance to compete a racing game or win a free DVD player and Xbox consoles. In the very first three weeks created about 1400 visits of the dealers and 203 cars were sold as a result of this campaign. (Eastwood, 2005 and Mclukan 2005)
In case Fiat they have used the integrated campaigner, media, television and new media with promotional techniques but in case of BBC promotional strategy when they promote their magazine ‘what to wear' by an e-mail directed at 100'000 dedicated readers and invited them to come and play with celebrities and a chance to win free £500 for shopping. That e-mail was send forward to friends and family by the eight fold viral effects and game was played 100'000, which cause the increase in sales of magazine by 20 percent. (Eastwood, 2005 and Mclukan 2005)
These promotional strategies could help out the business to align the product or to increase the sales and no longer the sales promotion is limited like the money off and bonus pack and so on. These integrated campaigns in every sectors becoming the norms.
According to Barrand (2005), “sponsorship can achieve a number of communicational objectives but there are also risks”. Sponsorship is an effective way of publicity for the brand name and a source of providing entertainment to the consumer or the buyer but it still got some risks include in this type of promotional method, like for example when Nike has entered in to the golf market for the five years plan of about £90 million with Tiger Woods. The company became very disappointed on the very first day of a major event. Woods lost his at his very first short when he was playing with the Nike driver and then he later reverted on his old driver made by rival Titleast. (Barrand, 2005)
According to Clark, 2005, to create a favourable association for a brand or company is very important objective of the sponsorship. Like for example Red Bull's sponsorship of such a crazy events like flugtag in which amateur pilots launched flying on a 30 foot ramp using a hand made flying machine. Which reinforce the 'wacky' image of the pilot and the sponsorship of UK athletics reinforces its energy association.
According to Stokes (2006) and Barrand (2005), “The clutter to be found in sports sponsorship has meant an increase in sponsorship of events in the arts, education and particularly music”. Brands like Carling, Heineken and coca-cola are competing each other in primary association with music sponsorship. Like for example carling sponsoring the weekend in Leeds and reading music, called carling weekend music festival and it also sponsoring different academies for music venues around the UK.
As number of people increased in downloading the music on handsets therefore companies like O2, T-mobile, Virgin, Orange and Vodafone has start sponsoring the music, they are hosting different events like v festival by virgin, O2 host the wireless festival but Vodafone has withdraw the sponsorship of Manchester united football club and start sponsoring the live music award and live gigs to its customer. Orange has heavily involved in sponsoring of Glastonbury festival, Leeds and Reading festival as well. (Barrand 2005 and Stokes 2006)
Basically the core purpose of this type of sponsorship is to target mind and hearts of 18-34 years old people, provides them the natural setting of young segments where they can enjoy themselves. The sponsored company, therefore by benefit by the association of the key leisure activities enjoyed by the young people.
Sponsoring the broadcaster is also an effective way of targeting the influenced audience and by this source of sponsorship, the broadcaster who face the higher cost of programming and the sponsor get the degree of influenced audience. Sponsor can get the cheaper way of advertising and right to exploit the programme, its characters and actors for the promotional purpose. An example of Domino's pizza's got the sponsorship of the Simpsons cartoon, a very famous character on television.
Nike is a big brand in the spots market and it has been the sponsor of Olympics in 1996 and 2000 by giving the highest bid of sponsorship. The return on investment was more than the expected. All the countries bidding for of Olympics of 2012, so keeping in mind the sponsorship, Nike has requested to advertise all sites close to the event in order to lead the market. (Choueke, 2005)
2.4.6 Product placement
Product placement is an important segment in the promotion of any product or services because the brand name seen in the movie or any television screen has a long lasting effect on the mind of the viewers. So product placement was not new trends in promotion sector that has been doing since 1945, when the star Joan Crawford was drinking a Jack Daniel's bourbone whisky seen in a movie. Another movie 1951, character was seen disposing of Humphrey Bogart's Gordon's gin. Growing film industry of India is also welcome such type of source of income. (Barn, 2005)
In the same way, Turner 2005 has explained the use of product placement as a positive association. The positive images of the film or television characters can be use to present the image of the brand name. The use of the Aston Martin or Jaguar car in the movies of James bond had created an image of sophistication. In famous movie Matrix the phone technology has been used by the sponsor of Samsun's mobile which highlighted the enhance technology of the brand. (Turner, 2005)
Further enhancement of the product placement has been given by the European Commission law. Which stated that the product placement in the movie or the television programme needs to be indicates clearly before the show. Pre-show declaration has proven the importance of the product placement. (Pesola, 2005)
Product placement has a very important place in promotional strategies. It helps to enhance the good name and positive image of the brand. On the other side product placement in today's age is very expensive way of promoting brand.
3 Research methodology
This chapter started with the introduction of research design which dealt with philosophy of research in which different paradigms were discussed .After that research design and research approach would explain why primary research method was selected for current study. Research approach explained the qualitative and quantitative methods used for data collection. Furthermore, sampling methods and sampling size were discussed to explain the data analysis. The chapter ended with the limitation of the research work.
3.2 Research design
3.2.1 The philosophy of research
It is important to understand the philosophical issues which come under the consumer behaviour research and it clarify research design, recognises the limitation of particular approaches and finally the knowledge of the philosophy can help the researcher find out and even create the designs that may be experienced in the past. “There is long standing debate in the social sciences about the most appropriate philosophical position from which method should be derived, i.e. epistemology and ontology” (Saunder et al 2007).
“From a philosophical viewpoint ontology is the understanding and explanation of the nature” (Saunder et al 2007, p. 423). Moreover, “ontology is concerned with theory of the nature of social entities and pre assumption of the nature of social reality” (.Bryman & Bell, 2007, p. 22). “These considerations are concerning to objectivism versus constructionist, also constitute important dimensions of the quantitative/ qualitative contrast”. (Bryman & Bell, 2007)
Basically in objectivism all the concentrations are put on objects rather than the consideration of thoughts or feelings. More specifically it can be defined as “ social phenomena and their meaning have an existence that is independent of social actors” and “implies that social phenomena and the categories that we use in everyday discourse have an existence that is independent or separate from actors” (Bryman & Bell, 2007).
“Constructivism is an ontological position which assert that social phenomenon and their meanings are continually being an accomplished by social actors. It implies that social phenomenon and categories are not only produced through social interaction but that they are in contrast state of revision”. (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p. 16)
3.2.2 Epistemological Considerations
“An epistemological issue concerns the question of what is (or should be) regarded as acceptable knowledge in a discipline”. (Saunder et al 2007, p.123) A central issue in this matter is whether the social world can/should be studied in the same way as natural science, following the same principals and procedures. (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p.17). Epistemological consideration is divided in to two approaches, positivism and interpretivism (hermeneutics). The researcher has used the epistemological technique.
Positivism is an “epistemological position that advocates the application of the Methods of the natural sciences to the study of social reality and beyond” (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p.17). A positivist approach is based on the assumption that science should be exact, verifiable and free from subjectivity. One of its fundaments is the notion of an objective reality (meaning, that there exist a reality which appears the same, no matter when, where and who is viewing it. According to (Bryman & Bell, 2006), positivism is the traditional approach followed in sciences that study nature, e.g. physics, chemistry and biology to name a few. In these areas it provides a focus on researching cause and effects the laws and relations that are universally applicable and independent from the individual who studies them. The positivistic ideal is to strive for a formulation of an independent description of what causes and affects a phenomenon appearing in reality. Researchers applying the positivistic approach prefer the use of quantitative analysis methods, as mentioned earlier these will be described later. The researcher used the positivism approach to analyse the data.
Interpretivism is an “epistemological position that requires the social scientist to grasp the subjective meaning of social action” (Bryman, 2006, p.18). It is an alternative to the positivistic approach (Bryman, 2006, p.18) .The hermeneutic position is based on the assumption that reality may only be understood by a human interpreting the actions and language of another human. It assumes that people “look for meaning in their actions because they are interpretive creatures and tend to place their own subjective interpretations on what happens around them” (Bryman, 2006, p.18). Hermeneutist scientists believe that they can make these subjective pictures of reality “objectively accessible”.
The methodology used by a researcher play an important role to the success of the research. After the critical analysis of literature review and two type of research paradigm; researcher intend to conduct primary research by using the Qualitative method. However, in this research, qualitative method was more effective method to investigate the environmental issues. The more personal objective such as “comparison of two big giant of property business” can be explored by qualitative method.
3.3 Research Approaches
Before deciding which method is more appropriate to achieve the research objectives, author has examined the research paradigms. The two accepted research paradigms to be considered are the positivist (quantitative /objective) and phenomenological (qualitative /subjective).
Deductive research approach will be adopted because deductive research is basically the fact finding with interpretation and analysis of trends in events, attitudes, and facts in terms of their commonality and potential for prediction. The objective of descriptive research is to provide a definitive answer to a research question. This kind of research typically involves activity analysis, normative survey, case, and historical or documentary methods.
Cross-Sectional research design will be used because it primarily answers the research questions in the form of what, who, how many, where, how much? It entails the collection of data on normally more than one case at a single point in time to collect a body of quantitative and/or qualitative data in connection with two or more variables (usually more than two), which are then examined to detect patterns of association. (Jewel lecture notes, 2007)
Case study strategy will be used to find out the aims and objectives of the study. As research strategy the case study work would be the comprehensive knowledge of the research questions.
3.3.1 Research Strategy
According to Yin 2003 cited in Saunders
Et al (2007) that each research strategy can be used for exploratory, descriptive and explanatory research. Selecting a research strategy was very important phase in the process of research design. Case study strategy will be used to find out the aims and objectives of the study. As research strategy the case study work would be the comprehensive knowledge of the research questions Researcher could used that strategy which was most appropriate for his research as these strategies were not mutually exclusive and these could be used in combination with each other. (Saunders et al 2007)
3.3.2 Case study Strategy
Case study strategy was defined according to Robson 2002 p178 cited in Saunders et al (2007 p 139) ” strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon which in its real life context using multiple sources of evidence”.
In case study the phenomenon of the study could not be perfectly visible. In this thesis researcher used case study of “magical homes Dubai” as a strategy that helped him in better understanding of the phenomenon. (Yin 2003 cited in Saunders et al 2007).
A case study strategy helped to find out the answers of the questions like how a particular phenomenon happened, why was it happened? What was the situation of that phenomenon? It helped researcher in better understanding of the context in which particular phenomenon happened along with their outcomes. (Morris and Wood 1991 cited in Saunders et al 2007)
Research strategy for this research was based on the key questions that are being answered in this research. The key questions were clearly visible in the title of this thesis that what environmental factors effects the real estate business and what promotional strategies can be helped out in that particular situation.
3.3.3 Secondary research
Secondary research was used to understand the process of doing the primary research. Secondary research was based on the research has been done before the researcher of this study related to the topic. That secondary material can help the researcher to follow the guideline. It tells the study that was already done but obviously old work, tells the knowledge about the topic but it need to be updated.
3.3.4 Primary research
Primary research was basically based on the research been done by the researcher on the topic chosen. It was not concern with the secondary data and the previous data collected and analyse unless it provides the guideline for the primary data collection. Primary data can be in the shape of questionnaires, group study, focused group discussions and interviews of the people or the working managers etc.
3.3.5 Group Discussions
It's a very important step in the analyses of primary data. It guides the researcher to find in the right way of finding and the knowledge was given, perfect and accurate according to the requirement of the topic.
3.3.6 In depth Interviews
Interview was the main sources of getting primary data for the researcher and accurate way of finding results and solutions for the research questions. In this way researcher can get the proper knowledge of the topic by itself. Interview can be conducted in two ways, face-to-face interviews and the telephonic interviews.
Questionnaire was also the best source of getting primary data collection. The data was got by the best data in term of finding the random a discrete value of the research. It needs to be fill it up by the concerned person and the person must be an adult of over 16's.
3.3.8 Qualitative research
As deductive research will be used as described above, so for that reason qualitative research will be used because qualitative research is deductive in which the researcher is more interested in process, understanding and meaning derived from words, pictures and/or objects while on the other hand quantitative research involves the analysis of numerical data which is available in the form of numbers and statistics. (Merriam, (1988); Creswell (1994))...
Research approach will be deductive because the process of qualitative research is basically inductive in nature in which researchers construct concepts, hypothesis, and theories from details. (Merriam, (1988); Creswell (1994))
Qualitative research is “a term used to refer to research whose findings are not subject to quantification or quantitative analysis” (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p 348) Qualitative research is “The non numerical examination & interpretation of observations, for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships” (Babbie, 1997).Furthermore the goal of qualitative research is to produce inclusive, authentic, descriptive accounts of experience and action, and if two many informants are recruited, it will prove impossible to do justice to their contribution to the research.
* Better way to understand in depth motivations and feelings
* Open ended dynamic and flexible
* Rich source of ideas
* Broader and deeper data base
* More time consuming practice
* Difficult to analyse the data
* Less credible by non researchers
3.3.9 Phenomenology (collection of Qualitative Data)
In order to gather the data on individual perceptions of the area under study, it was felt that engaging in face to face conversations would be the best way of proceeding. In order to capture the richness of participant's thoughts, feeling, opinion and attitude the use of a semi structure interview schedule was selected as the most appropriate method of collecting the qualitative data. Semi structured interview are those in which researchers have list of theme and questions to be covered although these may be vary from interview to overview. This means that you omit some questions in particular interviews, given the specific organisational context that is encountered in relation to researched topic. (Saunders and Lewis, 2003 p, 453).This will involve the use of several open ended question. Following are the research objectives will be achieved by adopting this method that need more detail information
Advantages of Interviews
* Detail information
* Clarification of area of confusion or ambiguity
* Facilitate further discussion of a particular area
* Enhance the volume and depth of information collected
Disadvantages of Interview
· Difficult to arrange
· Smaller sample size is necessary
· Personal Biasness
For the interview, a total of ten participants were selected 50.50 percent: five of them include higher management at magical homes Dubai and remaining five were the staff members.
3.3.11 Variables in conceptual framework
126.96.36.199 Dependent variables
The conceptual framework specified three outcome variables as a result of feasibility plan for interested investors, information seeking behaviour, better cross-culture understanding and mutual relationship. Rather than using a single dependent variable, researcher used three dependent variables to measure the attitude toward feasibility.
188.8.131.52 Independent variables
The independent variables were grouped into five factors: personal beliefs, demographics, socioeconomics, health and status.
Qualitative research is “The non numerical examination & interpretation of observations, for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships” (Babbie, 1997, p.112). Quantitative research is concerned with measuring aspect of market or the population of consumer making up the market, this include soft phenomenon such as consumer attitudes as well as the hard thing such as market size , purchase frequencies.
Quantitative or numerical data research is “objective in nature and concentrates on measuring phenomena” (Hussey and Hussey, 1997, p. 12). For example, statistical tests can be used to analyse data collected from a questionnaire with closed-end. Different statistical relationships may also be explored in order to try to identify patterns or hypotheses. This type of data research may sound complex due to all the possible statistical tests involved, but one advantage is that it is structured.
184.108.40.206 Questionnaires Design
The design of question, structure of the questionnaire, play vital role to maintain the validity and reliability of the collected data and the response rate of the respondents. A valid question will enable accurate data to be collected, and one that is reliable will mean that data is collected consistently. (Saunder, 2007, p.423) Questions used in the questionnaire are developed after the literature analysis .Item selected were based on the previous studies on behaviour pattern to ensure the content validity .The scale used to measure the awareness, involvement, concern and attitude toward the diversity, will be created after the exhaustive review of item used in the study.
3.4 Sampling methods
Selection of small number of elements from a larger defined target group of elements and expecting that the information gathered from the small group will allow judgement to be made about the larger group.
3.4.2 Sampling Method Probability sampling method
Developing an accurate method sampling method is an important issue when designing a study that uses interviewing or surveys for data collection. Overall there are two basic sampling methods
* Probability sampling method
* Non probability sampling method
According to (Saunder, 2007, p.425) probability method is “A technique of drawing a sample in which sampling unit has a non probability of being in the sample” it has further four types which are as follow
* Simple random sampling method (SRS)
* Systematic random sampling (SYMRS)
* Stratified random sampling (STRS)
* Cluster sampling
3.4.3 Non probability samplingmethod
“A Sampling process where the probability of selecting each sampling unit is
Unknown” it has further three types which are as follow
* Convenience sampling
* Judgment sampling
* Quota sampling
* Snowball sampling
3.4.4 Convenience sampling
This is non- probability sampling procedure where the selection of the respondent is left entirely to the interviewer and/ or researcher. It is mostly used where the population is generally difficult to access.
A convenience sample is one that is simply available to the researchers by the virtue of its accessibility. The chances are that the researchers will receive all or almost all the questionnaires back, so there will be a good response rate and the finding may prove interesting. (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p 184)
In this research convenience sampling has been used with questionnaires and interviews as the primary data collection method.
3.5 Research Ethics
Following are the research ethics that a researcher should take into account.
* Be done according to rules and regulation
* Be obtained for a specific and lawful purpose and not any further processed in any manner incompatible with specific purpose.
* Be proper and deserve recognition.
* Not to go in the unnecessarily depth.
* Appropriate measures must be taken to protect against unauthorized, accidental, loss or damage of the personal data.
* Personal data shall not be transferred to any one.
* The matter regarding confidentiality, created difficulties for many forms of qualitative researches, should be careful where possible.
Ethics codes increasingly emphasize the importance of openness and honest in communicating information about the research to all interested parties.
3.6 Limitation of the work
This study is no doubt of comprehensive information about the promotional strategies but still it got a limitation that this study would not be the best for property dealing matters and the financial matters of the real estate property business, these matters are the core issues of the real estate property business but as the focused point can explain the aims and objectives of the study.
In this proceeding chapter the main focused on the end result of the previous chapters. As according to the introduction chapter the conceptual review of the main topic through literature review of the study and the research methodology used in the whole study for the research understudy. The analysis of the data gathered with the view of presenting the result or objectives gained through the process of the research methodology. The explanation of each and every method and sample used by the researcher for the process of have the findings and the data collection method used.
4.2 Data collection method
As the researcher mentioned earlier that qualitative method have been used for the analysis of the data. Two type of data used for the processing of data analysis, primary data and secondary data. Primary data was collected from the questionnaire and the group discussion and the depth interviews with the various managers of the real estate businesses. The main focused of the data collected was the face to face interviews of the manager of the ‘Magical homes Dubai' in the London office and the telephonic interviews done with the managers in Dubai. Some other real estate business agents were also consulted in order to have a random collection of the data. The manager of ‘Holmes estate agents' was also interviewed to find the independent results of the study.
4.3 Inferences drawn
The face-to-face interviews were conducted to find out the main objective of the study and questionnaire was made to get the required points, which was as followed.
* List the environment factors effected the most.
* Either political factor influence the real estate business or not
* Tax policy of any country is important key factors or not for real estate business
* Which environmental laws are more suitable for real estate business
* Trade restriction and reforms in any country effect the real estate business or not
* How important the political stability in any country for real estate business?
* How important the economical factor is for real estate business?
* Inflation of any country effect the real estate business.
* Unemployment of any country can affect the real estate business.
* Credit availability in the country can effect the most
* Cost of living can gives the idea of property market.
* How important the exchange rate is for real estate business?
* Economic growth or economic decline in any country can cause the higher or lower the real estate business
* Can the Interest rate of the banks or financial institutions hit the real estate business
* How important the sociological factors in the real estate business?
* Is the real estate business effect by the population growth rate?
* What kind of age distribution hit the real estate business?
* How important the global warming is for real estate business?
* Can the technology affect the real estate business?
* How important the technology for the growth of real estate business?
* How the growing powers of technology impact the real estate business?
* Real estate business could be influence by the financial decisions and outsourcing.
* What legal factors are important for the real estate business?
* Can the real estate business get influencing by the import or exports taxation?
* How important the employment laws of the country effect the real estate business?
* How the environmental change, can change the nature of the business?
* Seasonal events can effect the real estate business or not
* Which factors would have no effect on the real estate business
* Does the life style of the people effect the real estate market?
* How career expectations effect the real estate business?
* Can the consumer activism influence the real estate market?
* Rate of family formation is an effective factor, how it can be justify accordingly in different parts of the world?
* Real estate business can be effected with regional shifts in population
* Can the life expectancies equalise the load of growing population and demand of new houses
* How important the birth rate is for the calculations of the houses required for the growing population
* GNP (Gross National Product) trends can effect the real estate market
* The supply of the money can have the influence on the real estate market or not?
* Inflation rate can be the hurdle of the real estate market
* Wage/price control can indicate the level of the real estate market in any area of the world
* Either devaluation or revaluation is more effective factor for the real estate business
* How important factors are the availability of energy and cost in the real estate market?
* How total organisational spending on R&D is effecting on the real estate business?
* How total industry spending on R&D is effecting on the real estate industry?
* Focus of technological efforts can be effect on the real estate business
* Is the patent protection required in the real estate industry?
* New can be effect the real estate business
* Transfer of technology from lab to market place can be effect the real estate business
* How important the productivity improvement through automation in the real estate business
* Antitrust regulation is a main political factor, is it effect on the real estate business as well?
* Environmental protection laws can be the hurdle for big project of real estate business
* Special incentive law can be effect the real estate business
* How important the attitude towards the foreign companies in real estate business
* The laws on hiring and promotion is a directly related to the real estate business
* How important the stability of the government in any country of carrying a business like real estate
* Adequate financial resources is a the factor of the real estate market
* Good competitive skills can effect the real estate market
* How important, well thoughts of by buyers in the real estate market
* How important to an acknowledged market leader in the real estate market
* Well-conceived functional area strategy could be the strategy for the real estate market
* Does the real estate business have the access to economies of scale?
* How important the insulated from strong competitive pressures?
* How the proprietary technology can be effect the real estate business
* Cost advantage can be the main factor of the real estate business
* Competitive advantage is another factor of the real estate business
* Product innovation ability is a technique could be relate to the real estate business
* No clear strategic direction can be the failure or loss of the real estate business
* A deteriorating competitive position can be the weakness of the real estate business
* Lack of managerial depth and talent is a big hurdle of the development of the real estate business
* Missing any of the key skills or competencies can cause the miss management of the real estate business
* Implementing strategy process can effect the real estate business
* Plagued with internal operating problem is another weakness of the real estate business
* Vulnerable to competitive pressure can be the weak point for real estate business
* Falling behind in R&D is also the main weak point of the real estate business
* Product line is too narrow in the real estate business, does it effect?
* How important is for the real estate business, If the market image is weak?
* Competitive disadvantages can be the weak point of the real estate business
* Bellow average marketing skills can be the hurdle in the real estate business
* Adequate finance for change in strategy could be the weakness of the real estate business
* New market or segment entry could have a positive effect on the real estate business
* How important role of diversity into related product?
* Can the addition of complementary product or promotion be a positive sign?
* Vertical integration can be the opportunity for the real estate business
* Ability to move better strategic group can be a positive posture for real estate business
* Complacency among the rival group give the opportunity in the real estate business
* Faster market growth can be the opportunity for real estate business
* New entry in the real estate business is likely
* Slower market growth can be threats of the real estate business
* Adverse government policies can be a big threat of the real estate business
* Growing competitive pressure is also a big threat for real estate market
* Vulnerability to recession and business cycle can be a threat for the real estate business
* Growing bargaining power of customer and seller can be the cause of low profit sharing
* Buyers need changing every day, should it effect the real estate business
* Graphic changes can effect the real estate business in both aspect
4.4 Primary data collected from interviews
There were number of interview undertaken for the purpose of collection primary data, in order to get the enhanced knowledge of the research questions. Detailed interviews of some managers and the findings of the remaining interviews undertaken are explained as below. Interview conducted with manager of ‘Holmes estate agent' Mr S Khan and the director of ‘Magical homes Dubai' Mr Khalid Bhatti.
4.4.1 Findings of the London real estate market
* There are list of environment factor but in today's age the more effected factors is recession which hit all over the globe especially in UK and Dubai.
* The political stability is important for the commencement of any business. In case of city like London the real estate market getting better after 2008-09 recession and the city is under the political stability and in case of Dubai after recession city getting better environment for real estate business and the politically a better served.
* Tax policy of the country will have a direct influence on any business, its important to have good knowledge of the tax system to find out turn over investment and tax credit etc.
* There are quite strict trade restriction in the UK and need to follow the laws and restriction of the trade but got more opportunities. On the other hand in Dubai there are quite lesser restrictions on the property investment and property buying therefore Dubai is getting better in real estate business.
* The economical condition of any country can play an important part in the development and effect the business directly. As the city of London and Dubai both are most costly cities in the world.
* Of course the inflation is the more effected factor which influence the real estate business directly as the inflation rate in London was high in 2007-08 therefore prices of houses were soaring and in case of Dubai the prices getting higher and higher every day due to inflation.
* Unemployment of the country has a negative influence on the real estate business as it hit the high prices and the purchasing gone down.
* Credit availability is also directly effect the buying power of the people because the mortgage and lease are in fact depends on the credit availability and available on the low rate of interest.
* Cost of living of the people can help to find the buying power of the people in any territory in the world
* Exchange rate has direct influence on the real estate market of any country as the exchange goes higher the lesser the investment from the out side of the country.
* Interest rate of the banks and financial institution is very important in the real estate business as the whole dealing of the real estate business depends on the interest rate given. In Emirates the banks has provided the guarantee of the investment with a premium rate of interest that is very helpful for the investors to believe on and have a piece of mind.
* The real estate business has influenced by the sociological factors as the population of the country goes rise the prices of the houses automatically raise because the demand rises.
* Another sociological fact that the age distribution and demographic features are also effect the real estate business.
* Global warming has an impact on the real estate business. Both have a direct relationship because the more property estate industry grows the higher the global warming is.
* The technology in the modern world has it own importance and plays a vital role in growth of every business or industry and it definitely has a broader effect on the real estate industry, in terms of world become the global village and technology is helping to make it better.
* Legal factors are very important in conducting the business in any where in the world, these factors help to find the right way of conducting business which saves the money, time and further difficulties. Like in Emirates the legislation regarding the business industry was made in 2003 that can guides the international investor and motivate them to buy the property in Dubai and other cities of Emirates and same situation in the London the legal rights of the investors plays a part in the process of dealing a business in property.
* Employment laws were also the important factor to discuss in term of buyers capacity to invest in the property business for a particular territory of the world and it does affect the business in terms of having the employees which was legally allowed to work in that area or the country.
* Sports events like Olympics have a greater influence on the real estate business and effect the business in the positive rise which can create a boost in the property market of the world as we seen in the history of Olympics that where ever the Olympics has gone, it gave the boost to that particular country and of course it brought a positive impact on the real estate business as well.
* So the upcoming event of Olympics will be in London 2012. This event has already effect the real estate market and is been expecting to rise up to the maximum level of the property boost. In case of Dubai, was become the land of real estate business and the world property matters were dealt with the property in Dubai. Even after shocks of recession Dubai is still growing in the real estate industry and it because of the promotional strategies of the Emirate Government.
5 Conclusions and Recommendations
To conclude the finding and results of the research study was quite easy and the recommendation for the further studies and for the company to enhance the promotional strategies as per the current affairs and circumstanes of the new world age is very important. As the researcher has concluded the finding of the research by giving the answer and solution for aims and objective of the research study.
5.2 Evaluate the findings and conclusion
As it was discussed in the last chapter that the environmental factors which have influenced on the real estate business directly or indirectly. The finding was on the basis of interviews conducted, the questionnaire and focused group discussion respectively. The results and the finding has given the idea about the modern age and past experience that which strategies was followed in the past and the present to dealt with the factors that has effect the real estate business directly or indirectly. The real estate business has influence by almost all the environmental factors like political factors, economical factors, sociological factors, technological factors and legal factors in different types of behaviours.
In the modern age, the researcher has analyses the present condition of the real estate business market by keeping in mind the influence and behaviour of the past that the factors like Olympics has a very broad impact on the real estate business. As it was discussed in the introduction and literature review that the events like Olympics can never be ignored in the history of real estate business. So the upcoming Olympics 2012 in London has a large budget of the event of around £580 million. So the promotional strategies need to be done for that particular period of boom when the property will go up and market will face the boom. Strategies that should be the affordable, attractive and customer oriented can get the customer trust and can cover the big market.
5.3 Conceptual Clarification
A discussion about the recreation land development, need some recognition of some basic factors that historically have provided impetus for the real estate market. The most important factor is the purchasing power of a family that enable it to buy a luxury living then the second most important factor is to have a sufficient time to spend the income on recreational activities (joseph,jack,1978). These factors are basic factors, effecting on the buying of the investors since the history of the real estate investment. So the purchasing power of the investor the sufficient time to spend on recreational activities.
Being an appraiser and analysts, the researcher remember to take the advantage to analyze the past project in order to gain insight into the pertinent factors that guides toward the successful venture of the future. So analyses of various statistical data can play a vital role in the interpretation of market (Richard 1975). Past data of the real estate market has its own worth because it shows the static of up and down of the market. Apparently that data has a value of just the information because of uncertainty of the market but atheist it could be the guideline for new investors.
Dubai, United Arab Emirates, is planning to build the world's first underwater hotel. (Middle East economic digest, 7/3/09). No doubt state like Dubai opened a new horizon in the history of real estate business. Ventures like that underwater hotel would be historical place of the world which will definitely be the greatest wonder of the world and attract the visitors from around the world. This project has announced in 2003, due to lack of management was abandoned.
5.4 The objective of the study
Can be clearly pointed out that the emerging factor which are the main reason in the uncertainty of the real estate business. The main four objectives of the study was the clear stance of this research as follows.
5.4.1 Objective 1
To examine the investors behaviour towards the investments when the environmental factors effected the development of the real estate was the important objective of the study. The extended literature and the finding of the study showed that investor has a capacity to change the position of the market and environmental factor like recession has effected the behaviour of the investors.
5.4.2 Objective 2
The environmental factor has both internally and externally impacts on the real estate business. The literature review and the findings of the study indicated that the real estate business can be prevented by the effective promotional plans and strategies. By following the laws of hiring and promotion the internal capacity of the company, the managerial depth and talent can be increased. On other hand by implementing the right strategy for right time and follow the right track can reduced the impact of the negative environmental factors.
5.4.3 Objective 3
In the modern age the priorities of the business has changed and with the increase of competitive advantage the new promotional strategies are required to capture the market. So in this study, after evaluating the old strategies of the ‘Magical homes Dubai' some new strategies has been suggested and some of the previous need to be change according to the changing world.
5.4.4 Objective 4
This study has highlighted a few effective strategic plans and techniques to overcome the recent crises of the environmental factors. The recession of the 2008-09 has badly effect the real estate business and made the real estate business an uncertain business. The investors and the buyers need to have the assurance of the investments. So the promotional strategy in this situation need to change and offer have to be guarantee of the investments and guarantee of the profit, is such type of strategy can gain the believe of the customers.
5.4.5 Objective 5
In this study the international market of the real estate business has been discussed and overviewed by the researcher in a quite comprehensive manners. The real estate market of Dubai has become an emerging market of the world which has attracted the investors from all over the world but still the real estate market suffered due to the recent recession which has a worst impact on Dubai. So the new promotions plans and strategies can be reviewed and implement in order to overcome the crises.
Researcher has made a broader view of the real estate market in the present and past context. The secondary data helped a lot to find out the primary data and the promotional strategies can be undertaken in the future or in the present situation of the real estate market. As the company called ‘Magical homes Dubai' have a broader scope of business in the UK and Dubai to cover a big market of the world. The researcher has gone through the promotional strategies of the company been adopted and the promotional offers given to the customer in the near past. As the history of the company was not much old but the company has got a reliable and sound position in the market of real estate business.
5.5.1 Promotional strategies of magical homes Dubai
There were a number of promotional strategies have been made in the past and there were a coolest ever offer they have given to their customer, the brief discussion is given below.
* The strategy of giving the affordable prices for Ajman properties, which was probably the best and affordable prices for the new buyers with a fully furnished living that is quite comfortable for the immigrant who looking to go Emirates for living.
* The promotion strategies of promises of giving the opportunity of double the investments of the potential customers and make the best deal in the market.
* The offer of basically motivate the customers to buy the property in Dubai and Ajman by the advertisement and arranged an exhibition in the Cumberland hotel in London. The purpose was to motivate the customer and to give them the best deal ever to buy the property in Dubai.
* The affordable prices given to customer with guarantee of double investment and the balance of the investment was paid by the bank in Dubai and after the completion the investment will be double.
5.5.2 Recommended strategies
‘Magical homes Dubai' is currently working on the new investment in Dubai and Ajman and the promotional strategies are to motivate the potential customers. In order to enhance the sales of the company, they might need to arrange some new offers and effective promotional strategies for the investors in the UK and around the world. These new strategies must focus on the need of the today's buyer and the investors who are worried about the safety of investment. In this respect Emirates Government has provided the facility of ‘safety investment' by the banks which means that the banks will be responsible for the safety of investment until the end of the proposed plan.
The need to arrange some attractive strategic plan in this scared environment of the economical recession, like for example by the giving guarantee of the investment and save deposit of the money. The company can offer the free air ticket for Dubai and other cities from the host cities of the investors. This kind of offer can attract the customer and provides the chance to visit the Dubai and other cities. In this way the strategy will work to provide the chance to see the property, which motivates the investors to invest the property.
The promotional strategy, like to arrange fairs and exhibition to enhance the scope of investment in the property of Dubai and invites the new potential investors to comes and join in the festival or exhibition to see the environment and have the knowledge of the benefits of the investment.
* Kotter, J. and Schlesinger, L. (1991) Choosing strategies for change, Harvard Business Review, pp.24-29.
* Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. (1993) Exploring Corporate Strategy - Text and Cases, Hemel Hempstead: Prentice-Hall.
* Tsiakkiros A (2002) "Strategic planning and education: The case of Cyprus", The International Journal of Educational Management Bradford 2002
* Byars, L. (1991) Strategic Management, Formulation and Implementation - Concepts and Cases, New York: HarperCollins
* Kotler, P. (1998) Marketing Management - Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control, 9th Edition, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall
* Porter, M. (1985) Competitive Advantage, New York: Free Press
* Thompson, J. (2002) Strategic Management, 4th Edition, London: Thomson
* Robinson, S., Hichens, R. and Wade, D. (1978) The directional policy matrix-tool for strategic planning, Long Range Planning Journal, Vol. 11, pp.8-15
* Pearce, J. and Robinson, R (2005) Strategic Management, 9th Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.
* Capron, N. and Glazer, R. (1987) Marketing and technology: a strategic coalignment, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51 Issue 3, pp.10-21
* Adams, J. (2005) Analyze Your Company Using SWOTs, Supply House Times, Vol. 48 Issue 7, pp. 26-28
* De Witt, B. and Meyer, R. (1998) Strategy: Process, Content, Context, and 2nd ed., Oxford: International Thompson Business Press.
* (http://www.css.nccu.edu.tw/mepa/mepa_course/2005/kao/ 20060221_1.ppt#1).
* (http://gift.postech.ac.kr/admin/bbs/data/summer_session_2004/ Corporate%20Strategy_ver%5B7%5D_final (1).ppt).
* Wright, L.T and M. Crimp (2003) the Marketing Research Process, London: Prentice - Hall, 180.
* Mark Cridge, new media age, (2009), p05-05, 1/2p
* Shepherd. I. (2005) views from the bridge, campaign, 27 may, 4.
* Hicks. R. (2005) special report, radio, 4 November, 20.
* Anonymous (2006) Pay per Sale, economist, 1 October, 73.
* Armitt, c. (2005), ‘food for thought', new media age, 11 august, pp. 16-17.
* Elms, s. and svender, j. (2005), ‘the mind, the brain and the media', Admap, April, PP. 28-31.
* Harwood, S. (2005), ‘consumer brand give web a key role'. New media age, 4 (august), p. 10.
* Burrell, I. (2005), ‘No such thing as bad publicity-the ten most controversial billboards', the independent, 27july, pp.12-13.
* Benady, D. (2005). ‘Marketing to look down on', Marketing week, 14july, pp.39-40.
* Homes and gardens (2005), advertisement featured in homes and gardens, p.98.
* Jones, G, (2005), ‘GMG Transposes jazz FM into standalone online radio station'. New Media Age, 2 Jones, p. 5.
* Polak, E. (2005). ‘Going Global; how local origins affect brand strategy'. Admap, May.
* Marketing Week, (2005b), ‘Brother signs £2m deal with C4 Business show', Marketing Week, 8 September, p. 18.
* Jobber, D and G, Lancaster (2006) sale and sales management, Harlow; FT Prentice Hall
* Moncrief, W. and G. W. Marshall (2005) the evaluation of the seven stages of selling, Industrial Marketing management. 34, 13-22.
* Ritson, M. (2005) Cadbury's Decision to BOGOFs is a strategy error, Marketing, 25 may. 24.
* Quilter, J. (2005) Aisles OF Plenty. Marketing. 10 August, 15
* Eastwood, G. (2005) Giving too Much Away? Marketing Week. 17 February. 41-2.
* Mclukan. R. (2005). Branching out, Marketing, 6 April. 39-40.
* Barrand, D. (2005) When Disaster Strikes, Marketing, 9 March, 35-6.
* Clark, N. (2005) Red Bull Eyes Sporting Chance. Marketing, 27 July. 14-5.
* Barrand, D. (2005) Sponsorship Leagues, Marketing, 15 June. 37-8.
* Stokes, B (2006) Music v Sports Sponsorship, Marketing Week, 16 March, 15.
* Kilby, N. (2005) Intel in Worldwide BMW and Marketing tie-up, Marketing Week, 15 December. 3.
* Coueke, M. (2005) When it Pay To Pounce, Marketing Week, 7 July, 28-9.
* Barn, S. (2005) Product Placement and Bollywood movies, Middlesex University of business working paper no 30, April 1-17.
* Turner, C. (2005) Product Placement gets EC Go-ahead, Marketing Week, and 12 December. 10.
* Pesola, M. (2005) Samsung play to the Young Generation, Financial Times, 29, March, 11.
* Saunders, S. (2005), ‘Right and Wrong', Creative Review, June, pp.58-9.
* Sing, S. (2004), ‘will TV be Teetotal if Ofcom Gets Its Way', Marketing Week, 30September, pp. 22-3.
* Wilkinson, A. (2004), ‘it's Hard Work to Fill a Prior Sponsor's Shoes', Marketing Week, 4 November, pp. 17-18.
* Brand Republic (2005), ‘Super brand case Studies: Doritos', Brand Republic, 8 August.
* Churchill, G,, Ford, N., Walker, O., Johnston, M. and Tanner, J. (2000), Sales Force Management, 6TH edn, Irwin.
* Fill, C. (2002), Marketing Communications: Context, Strategies and Applications, 3rd edn, Financial Times Prentice Hall.
* Russell, F. et al, (1977), Text Book of Salesmanship, 10th edn, McGraw-Hall.
* Sissors, J. and Bumba, L. (1989), Advertising Media Planning, 3rd edn, NTC Business Books.
* Smith, P. and Taylor, J. (2002), Marketing Communications: An Integrated Approach, 3rd edn, Kogan Page.
* Wall Street Journal (2005), ‘China, in Boom to Firm like Amway, to Ease Ban on Direct Sales', Wall Street Journal, 18 August, p. A9.
* Bailey, J.(1991), ‘Employee Publications', in P. Lesly (ed.), The Handbook of Public Relations and Communication, 4th edn, McGraw-Hill.
* Benady, D. (2005), ‘Wish You Were Still Here', Marketing Week, 4 August, P. 20.
* Clark, A. (2005), ‘Redeeming Point', The Guardian, 8 January, p.2.
* Cohn, I. (2005), ‘You Wanted Manchester United, Malcolm. Did You Know How Much It Cost? ', The Independent on Sunday, 4 December, p. 13.
* Davies, C. (2003), ‘Premier League Nets £57m Deal', The Daily Telegraph, 4 October, p.3.
* Edwards, J. (2005), ‘Caring Culture Comes To Force', Birmingham Post, 13 June, p.39.
* Gander, p. (2005), ‘See Me, Feel Me, Touch Me', Marketing Week, 10 November, pp. 39-40.
* Gillis, R. (2005), ‘FIFA Turns the Screw', Marketing, 20 April, p.17.
* Hornby, M. (2005), ‘Fury at “gory” knives as Toys', Liverpool Echo, 17 November, p.11.
* Klinger, P. (2005), ‘man United Sponsor Lend Sport from Touchline', The Times, 30 May, p.41.
* Marketing Week (2005), ‘Vodafone Boss Puts Emphasis on Brand Experience, Not Advertising', Marketing Week, 3 February, p.7.
* Marketing Week (2005), ‘Scots Pub Mull Action Over Happy Hour ban', Marketing week, 6 October, p.9.
* Milmo, C. (2005), ‘Sail of the century', The Implement, 9 February, p.12.
* Precision Marketing (2005), ‘Diabetes in UK in drive for Member Recruits', Precision Marketing, 1 July, p.5.
* Promotion and Incentives (2005), ‘Promotion Works, Mullerlight', Promotion and Incentives, March, p.6.
* PR Week (2005), ‘Research and Girls gives Pillow Sales a Boost', PR Week, 19 August, p.23.
* Rigby, E. (2005), ‘MacArthur sponsorship Deal Proves Plain Sailing', Financial Times, 9 February, p.3.
* Steiner, R. (2005), ‘Owzat! England Clinch New £16m Vodafone Deal', Sunday Business, 3 July, p. C3.
* SenGupta, R. (2006) Trouble at Homes for Overseas Bribes, Financial Times, 2 February, 12.
* McCawley, A. (2006) Nectar Loyalty Card set for Global Roll-out, Marketing Week, 19 January, 3.
* Payne, A. and P. Frow (2006) Customer Relationship Management: from strategy to Implementation, Journal of Marketing Management 22(1/2), 135-68.
* Gander, P. (2005) We Don't Talk Anymore, Marketing Week, 22 September, 39.
* Roche, R. (2005) An Old Medium that's still vital in the new economy, Marketing Week, 24 November, 37.
* Roman, E. (1995) The Cutting Edge Strategy for synchronizing Advertising, Direct Mail, Telemarketing and Field Sales, Lincolnwood IL:NTC Business Books.
* Hughes, M. and S. Rouse (2005) The Death of the Dialler?. Marketing, 27 April, 38-46.
* Arthur, A, Thompson, Jt., and A.J. Strickland iii, strategic management: concepts cases 7th ed. (plano, tax.: business publications, 1993), p. 88.
· http://www.provenmodels.com/files/1e75ea74c642995ddc8cc85a9c41bbd7/PEST_analysis.gif 25/12/09
* http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_h-ozPPN71BY/Sqd0HAS-MKI/AAAAAAAAAas/wlb15zL5SfM/s400/swot-analysis-image.png 25/12/09
* Stone, M, D. davies and A. Bond (1995) Direct Hit: Direct Marketing with a winning Edge, London pitman.
* Fletcher, K. C. Wheeler and J. Wright (1990) the Role and Status of UK Database Marketing Quarterly Review of Marketing. Autumn. 7-19.