E-commerce is in fashion so many companies of all sizes and types are reviewing their sales strategies.  Consideration is being given to either (or both) selling to other businesses electronically (B2B) or selling directly to individual customers over the Internet (B2C). 

Many companies are failing to live up to expectations, with problems such as poor website design making ordering difficult, website failure (crashes) from overload or because they were incomplete, failure to confirm the order, subsequent out-of-stock, failure to deliver on time.

The Project Brief

You, as the project manager, are to plan a project for a Triangle software house to develop an online Hotel Management system for an international hotel chain.  The project is scheduled to start on6thof July 2010.

The project should have the following options

Guests: Room Reservations for guests

Services: Adding other services use, restaurant use, bar use by guests

Maintenance: To maintain records in the system

Inquires: To know about availability of rooms, reservations, gust lists

Four computers have to be supplied for the selected project and these computers needs to be networked. Required time schedule for the project is three months.

From the Project Manager's point of view, an e-commerce project is no different from any other project.  You need a framework to plan resources and budget; you must set the plan against an appropriate calendar; and you need to ensure that you include the managerial and quality-related tasks that will help the project manager succeed.

You need to plan how the project should be initiated.  However, your initiation plan should be presented in sufficient detail for someone else to manage it.  You are not expected to have all the answers at this stage; part of the skill of project planning is to ensure that you put the tasks in place to find out what is unknown and to manage the obvious risks.

Task 1

(a) As the Project Manager, you are expected to decide on the following:

1. The tasks required to carry out the project - aim for at least 10-15 tasks. 

Traditional File System (SDLC-System Development Life Cycle)

  1. Strategic Study
  2. Business study
  3. Feasibility study
  4. Requirement analysis
  5. Requirement Specification
  6. Logical system specification
  7. Logical Design
  8. Physical Design
  9. Coding
  10. Testing
  11. Implementation
  12. Maintenance
  13. Paste out

Relate Traditional File System steps to Hotel management system Case Study.

We use Traditional File System for Hotel management systemto develop their system.

  • Strategic study: - Project Manager goes to the Hotel & study the current system; after he understood what the system that they need to develop is & what they technology must use to develop the hotel.
  • Business study:- Project Manager prepare a document project initiation document this will give the general  definition for the developing system  that document shown to the hotel managing director & we get the approval to proceed the development the new system.
  • Feasibility study: - These step uses to traditional file system how to feasible for hotel computerizes Economical, Technical & Operational, even the developing system is most modern if end users are working within difficulty that system isn't operational but this system is not difficulty use.

Cost effective ways and ensuring that the investment can be recovered and realize the benefits with allocated budget.

The technology needed is available and can be integrated with the other systems of the organization.

Deciding how the new system going to fit the current operational system and whether it's operationally acceptable.

Checking whether the new project is violating law both local and international

  • Requirement analysis: - Firstly we interview Hotel managing Director asked question about the current system & what they want to include their system to computerize ........,. 

Investigating forms and documents which are very useful to determine system data flows and transactions

Identifying the outputs by investigating below reports,

Hourly report

Daily report

Monthly report

Yearly report

Then Checking latest updated procedure manuals and user manuals

To study user activities and to concentrate on how it is being handle.

Interviewing and supervisor level users to gather opinions about the efficiency about the system, determine the needs of the users that to be in the new system, more specific details about the system.

Producing and arranging online Questionnaires for all operational users who are going to use the system. By this can gather information from all the people who are going to have direct contact with the system.

Planning formal observation sessions at 3 main hotels, specially the reception area

And closely observing the activities performed by the users. And observing customer inquiries reservation process etc

Studying a subset documents or subset of the activity in the area in order to get an impression of the whole activity or document set .it is useful to verify findings from interviews or the above discussed techniques.

  • Requirement Specification: - How the new computer system should be working this is a kind of the document which clearly specifies the requirement of the users. Use :-

Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) &  Data Flow Diagram (DFD).

  • Logical system specification:- This hotel computerize system  include several logical specification there are may be several technical option that could be adapted which are capable of delivering the requirement in this stage system analysis first design & define what those technical options and then the help of manager select the most suitable option.
  • Logical Design: - This step we design a dialog design initial interface are design & Update process that change on the line system data and Enquiry process concern the interaction of useful information from system data.(we should involve the hotel manager very strongly specially dialog design influence how to system looks and behave to its users)
  • Physical Design: - This step we design program design & database design (ERD map into database components), this stage provides all the information required by the programmer.
  • Coding: - We use language is Visual Basic for coding.(First programmer code will be written in short pieces that outlines simple as well-defined program function.)
  • Testing:- we tested correctness testing, performance testing ,reliability and recovery testing then security testing & stress testing usability testing, unit and integration testing & external function testing ,system testing, regression testing, acceptance testing, installation testing, completion testing, test documentation.(  discover and rectify errors below steps are planned to be done)
  • Implementation:- This stage involve preparation of the target side and making the environment the network here the hotel new system to target environment will done and prepare in the user manual and training the hotel worker for the New system.| System will be installed \ shared in 4 computers which will be networked [LAN] (Configuration with I7 processors, 4 GB Ram..) With all required software.

2. Decide on appropriate task dependencies and state durations of them.

Task Duration (1= 1 day)Reference

  1. Strategic study 1 A
  2. Business study 1  B
  3. Feasibility study 1 C
      1. Technical Feasibility2
      2. Operational Feasibility1
      3. Legal FeasibilityParallel with Op Feasibility(1)
      4. Economical Feasibility3
  4. Requirement analysis D
    1. (Forms and documents)1
    2. (Reports)1
    3. (Procedure\user manuals)1
    4. Interview-(Management level)3
  5. Interview-(Supervisor level)3
  6. (Questionnaires)1
  7. (Observation)2
  8. (Subset documents\activity)1
  9. Requirement specification 3 E
    1. Logical system specification 2F
    2. Logical design 10 G
  10. Physical design 20H
  11. Coding 5 I
  12. Testing J
    1. (Unit) 5
    2. (Integrated) 1
    3. (System)1
    4. (User)2
  13. DebuggingParallel with testing(8)K
  14. Implementation L
    1. (Installation)2
    2. (User Training)2
    3. (Parallel Running)7
  15. MaintenanceContinues until phase out.M

Total Duration81

-The explained tasks in task 1 are shortened and listed down above, under task name.

-The Duration 1 is equals to 1 day.

-Maintenance starts after implementing the project until phase out.

-Total days for the project is 87-(81- planned days, and balances 6 days are to manage risks during the project period.





Strategic study




Business study




Feasibility study




Requirement analysis




Requirement specification




Logical system specification




Logical design




Physical design





















3. Create an Activity Net work Diagram with respect to your identified tasks,AND must be given using a standard Tool such as MS Project or MS Visio

Critical path-

A  B C D E F G H I J  L

MS Project Output

(b)There are many elements in a typical project plan. One such element is the  Introduction which briefly describes the objectives of the project and the constraints, which affect project management. Prepare such introduction for this project using reasonable assumptions.

List and explain with a sentence each other contents of a typical project plan.

I am Nadeeshani and I'm appointed as a project manager to develop this online hotel Management system for an international hotel chain by the triangle software house.

The project is based on upgrading the existing system as an online system along with these main functions,

  • Room reservations for guests
  • The options to add other services like restaurant use, bar use, gym use, etc
  • The system which has the ability to obtain inquires from the guests and the ability to give them an answer/feedback, for example for the customer queries like availability of rooms, reservations and guest list, etc.
  • And to get all the above updates and inquiries from the parties and to maintain the records in the system

We hope to start the project on 6Th of July 2010 and we were going to be finished in September 30th 2010 (3 month) period.

On that project running period we are considering Saturdays & Sundays as working days. We hope to finished this project 26Th of September 2010.

The project has run 87 days but we are planning to be completed within 82 days rest 5 days we are planning to do collecting unanticipated problems & complete the project report however we will make sure to complete this project in this 87 days period.

This is the project plan how we are going to do the project.

I hope the committee members will do their best to complete the project.

The quality of the system will be maintained throughout the project by regular progress checking and progress monitoring.

The project has been run through the 13 stages.

  1. Strategic study
  2. Business study
  3. Feasibility study
  4. Requirement analysis
  5. Requirement specification
  6. Logical system specification
  7. Logical design
  8. Physical design
  9. Coding, Testing
  10. Debugging
  11. Implementation
  12. Maintenance

These stages are planned in a greater level of detail.

(These plans are used to track progress on a week by week basis through regular progress monitoring.)

These stages are also separated into sub tasks basically contains the lowest details. It will specify activities down to a daily level. This will be created in parallel with the above mentioned stage plans.

And the monitoring and tracking will be on daily basis.

As a project manager I hope we will be finished the project with less errors & I believe you all are will be do your best. Clearly indicated whose responsible for what in the project, clearly shown what the project is to deliver, why and for whom and by making the project that can easily understand by everyone, mainly on time and within budget

My motivation is to completely utilize my accumulated experience and knowledge to the fullest extent possible and making this projects a success.

Task 2

(a) Explain what are your typical responsibilities as a Software Project  Manager in managing any type of software project and your typical tasks

A software project manager has the overall responsibility for the successful initiation, planning, execution and closure of a project. A successful Project Manager must simultaneously manage the four basic elements of a project: resources, time, money, and most importantly, scope. All these elements are interrelated. Each must be managed effectively. All must be managed together if the project, and the project manager, is to be a success.

  • Resources
    People, equipment, material
  • Time
    Task durations, dependencies, critical path
  • Money
    Costs, contingencies, profit
  • Scope
    Project size, goals, requirements

This title is used in the construction industry, architecture, information technology and many different occupations that are based on production of a product or service.

The project manager must possess a combination of skills including an ability to ask penetrating questions, detect unstated assumptions and resolve interpersonal conflicts as well as more systematic management skills.

The role of the project manager encompasses many activities including :-Planning and Defining Scope, Activity Planning and Sequencing, Resource Planning, Developing Schedules, Time Estimating, Cost Estimating, Developing a Budget, Controlling Quality, Managing Risks and Issues, Creating Charts and Schedules, Risk Analysis, Benefits Realization, Scalability, Interoperability and Portability Analysis,Documentation,Team Leadership, Strategic Influencing, Customer Liaison.

As a software project manager my typical tasks in managing a software project will be below.

Manage the production of the required product.

Direct and motivate the project team.

Plan and monitor the project.

Manage business and project risks.

Responsible for change control.

Report the true progress report and stage assessment to the steering committee.

Prepare the end project report.

Responsible for project administration.

Responsibility Matrix

In a large project, there may be many people who have some role in the creation and approval of project deliverables. Sometimes this is pretty straightforward, such as one person writing a document and one person approving it. In other cases, there may be many people who have a hand in the creation, and others that need to have varying levels of approval. The Responsibility Matrix is a technique used to define the general responsibilities for each role on a project. The matrix can then be used to communicate the roles to the appropriate people associated with the team. This helps set expectations, and ensures people know what is expected from them.

On the matrix, the different people, or roles, appear as columns, with the specific deliverables in question listed as rows. Then, use the intersecting points to describe each person's responsibility for each deliverable.


Project Sponsor

Project Manager

Project Team

Client Managers


Requirements Management Plan






Requirements Report

I, A



I, A


Process Model




I, A


Data Model




I, A


Requirements Traceability Matrix






(Table 2.1)

  • A - Approves the deliverable
  • R - Reviews the deliverable (and provides feedback).
  • C - Creates the deliverable (could be C (1) for primary, C (2) for backup). Usually there is only one person who is responsible for creating a deliverable, although many people may provide input.
  • I - Provides input
  • N - Is notified when a deliverable is complete
  • M - Manages the deliverables (such as a librarian, or person responsible for the document repository)

In the table above, the Requirements Management Plan is created by the project manager, approved by the sponsor and client managers, and reviewed by the project team and analysts.

The purpose of the matrix is to gain clarity and agreement on who does what, so you can define the columns with as much detail as makes sense. For instance, in the above example, the 'Project Team' could have been broken into specific people or the person responsible for creating the Data Model could have been broken out into a separate column. After the matrix is completed, it should be circulated for approval. If it is done in the Project Charter process, it can be an addendum to the Project Charter. If it is created as a part of the initial Analysis Phase, it should be circulated as a separate document.

Examples of responsibility codes are as follows. Our project may define different codes, as long as you explain what they mean so that people know what the expectations are for them.


(b) Briefly explain how you are going to manage the risk in the above project.

Risk management is the process of analyzing exposure to risk and determining how to best handle such exposure. The project is planned to be a continuous process throughout the project until completion and considered in two main parts, the risk analysis part and the risk management part. I have planned to run risk management as below,

At the start of the project, as a part of the decision of whether to undertake the project

And at every end stage assessments

Risk management includes the following activities

  • Planning how risk management will be held in the particular project. Plan should include risk management tasks, responsibilities, activities and budget.
  • Assigning risk officer - a team member other than a project manager who is responsible for foreseeing potential project problems. Typical characteristic of risk officer is a healthy skepticism.
  • Maintaining live project risk database. Each risk should have the following attributes: opening date, title, short description, probability and importance. Optionally risk can have assigned person responsible for its resolution and date till then risk still can be resolved.
  • Creating anonymous risk reporting channel. Each team member should have possibility to report risk that he foresees in the project.
  • Preparing mitigation plans for risks that are chosen to be mitigated. The purpose of the mitigation plan is to describe how this particular risk will be handled - what, when, by who and how will be done to avoid it or minimize consequences if it becomes a liability.
  • Summarizing planned and faced risks, effectiveness of mitigation activities and effort spend for the risk management.
  • As an analyzing tool to assist in the risk management process, Decision tree is used to analyze the risks,
  • Because the explanation for the result is easily described by simple graph in a simply understandable way which can be combined with other decision techniques as well.
  • Important details can be generated based on its alternatives, probabilities, costs and their preferences for outcomes.
  • First after analyzing the possible risks by identifying,
  • Estimating the effectiveness by comparing the likelihood with the impact of a risk and finally evaluating by confirming that they are in correct sequence and the cross checking with the risk reduction options assessing the acceptable level of each other.
  • We select the most suitable risk management approach for each risk and a detailed plan of action which confirms its goals will be prepared by discussing with members.

The risk management consist four main activities and below tasks will be completed at the end of each part.


Most appropriate selection will be selected for each risk and a detailed plan of action which confirms its desirability and objectives will be developed.

Sometimes this activity may proceed in parallel with risk evaluation.


This will identify and assign the necessary resources to do the work and will confirm that the revised plan is feasible and cost effective.


This will make sure that the execution of the plan is having the desired effect on the risk.

This will ensure the management of the risk process will apply effectively and it will modify the plan where it necessary.


This will check the stages of the risk and also check that the counted measures are happening effectively.

During monitoring, if it feels that the risk management plan is ineffective, then we can go back to the risk analysis part.

When managing the risks these below features will be considered mainly,

Factors that need to continue correctly, threats, systemic risks for the successful delivery project and benefits, risks to the business, risks for the customers and suppliers, risks of unexpected outputs and success of the international hotel chain.

This is how I have planned to manage the risk, which can happen during a process and which will effect with a negative result to the process in the project.

Task 3

Configuration Management is an essential part of a project. In a large project Configuration librarian plays a major role.

Configuration management (CM) is the detailed recording and updating of information that describes an enterprise's hardware and software. Such information typically includes the versions and updates that have been applied to installed software packages and the locations and network addresses of hardware devices. Special configuration management software is available.

When a system needs hardware or software upgrade, a computer technician can accesses the configuration management program and database to see what is currently installed. The technician can then make a more informed decision about the upgrade needed.

An advantage of a configuration management application is that the entire collection of systems can be reviewed to make sure any changes made to one system do not adversely affect any of the other systems

Configuration management is also used in software development, where it is called Unified Configuration Management (UCM). Using UCM, developers can keep track of the source code, documentation, problems, changes requested, and changes made.

(a) Briefly out line some configuration items in the project given in the scenario.

Manage the configuration: -

  1. Hotel Management systemPlan what is required and how it will be achieved
  2. Guests: Room Reservations for guests

    Services: Adding other services use, restaurant use, bar use by guests

    Maintenance: To maintain records in the system

    Inquires: To know about availability of rooms, reservations, gust lists

    Four computers have to be supplied for the selected project and these computers

    needs to be networked. Required time schedule for the project is three months.

    (Use a Configuration Management Plan (Project Quality Plan)

  3. Identify components of the final product
    • Use Defining and Analyzing Products (PL2) to create a Configuration Item Record
    • Use unique identifiers for each product and each version:


    Product Type

    Product Name

    Product Version.

  4. Control changes to baseline products by using change authority
    • Submit products to the Configuration Librarian to put under configuration control
    • Release (issue) products and/or copiesS
  5. Product Status Account to record and report product information
    • Report the status of products from the Configuration Librarian
  6. Verify product integrity
    • Perform product configuration audits by the Configuration Librarian
    • Perform project audits by Project Assurance.

In the above hotel management system developing project at each stage end as an output as below final deliverables will be reported.

1st stage -Strategic study -information technology strategy will be produced.

2nd stage Business study -project initiation document.

3th stage Feasibility study- Feasibility report.

4th stage -Requirement analysis- the gathered exact requirements of the users to develop    the system will be produced as Requirement analysis report

5th stage -Requirement specifications-the requirements will be produced in a diagrammatic way and a wordy report.

6th stage Logical system specification -the mapped business and technical aspects of the system will be produced.

7th stage Logical design- interface design will be produced.

8th stage -Physical design -the database design and program design using miniature specifications like pseudo codes, flowcharts, structure diagrams, etc will be produced.

9th stage -Coding- the written program which is written with a programming language will be produced.

10th stage -Testing -testing report.

11th stage -Debugging-debugging report.

12th stage -Implementation- the released version of the system in the target environment.

13th stage -Maintenance-reports regarding the changes carried out throughout the system after the implementation.

(b) Give a statement of the configuration librarian's responsibilities.

Configuration Librarian is the guardian of all the master copies of the project's products.    The role will be also to look after change control on behalf of the project manager.

Purpose  : -

  1. Custodian and guardian of all master copies of the project's products
  2. Receives, baselines and releases (issues) products
  3. Updates the product status and informs the Project Manager
  4. Maintains the Issue Log.

The major tasks of the configuration librarian are summarized as follows:-

To control the receipt, identification, storage and issues of all project products

To provide information on the status of all products

To number, record, store and distribute change control documents

The specific responsibilities of the configuration librarian are as follows:-

  • Assist the project manager to prepare the configuration management plan
  • Create libraries at other storage areas to hold products
  • Assist in the identification of products
  • Create configuration item description records
  • Hold the master copies of all project products
  • Maintain the change control records
  • Assist in conducting configuration audits
  • Liaise with other configuration librarians where products required by the project are common to other systems

(c) Briefly outline what are the things that we must consider in change control of Project Management.

In this hotel management system development, will develop several documents & that include all the importance issues regarding to  the development but sometime these document may need to be changed due to various reasons, when doing this changers it has to be done by stranded procedures it's called ChangeControl .

The change control document is the formal way into this projects any enquiry of a complaint or request, it can be raised by anyone associated with hotel project & about anything such as:-

  • A new function occurrence
  • A frailer of a product
  • In meeting some aspect of the user requirement
  • Because of a possible misunderstand
  • A problem with the planning
  • A frailer of communication

The change control mainly it has recharge control document such as:-

Question document (when a question occurs about a change)

It will be submitted to the configuration library and the configuration librarian will log about this and will allocate a unique identity. Then he will pass a copy to the originator and it will sound the change control document is ‘open'. Unresolved change control documents are revealed at regular meetings. The project manager will be leading these meetings & the users & other representatives will be joined to that. In these meetings, all documents will be evaluated & focused to making recommendations for solutions.

Actually, the considered things and effect will be the following:-

  • If the problem has been raised due to a misunderstanding by the creator, then the creator must be explaining what the misunderstandings are? Then problem will be closed.
  • If the problem is proposing a change to a configuration item, then it should be prepared the request for change.
  • If the project doesn't meet its specification, then it should prepare an off specification.
  • To prepare those documents extra evaluations are required.

Ø Request for change document

The things to be considered In the Request for change document stage

Proposed changers as per the user requirements what are the user requests for change document must go through the analyst. Then analyst to be decided how much work is involved & how many senior members & appropriate skill are wants to do this work. The configuration librarian will help to identifying the any other procedures or configuration item will be affected. Request for change has to be awarded a prioritization. This can be one of the following

  • High - the system will not function without this change.
  • Medium - although the system can work without this change, it would be inconvenient without it.
  • Low - this does not affect the major functionality of the system. It is possible to work around the lack of this change without it being a major inconvenience.
  • Cosmetic - this only affects the appearance of an output or screen, not the data or functionality. It should be the job of the customer representative to provide the priority and canvas the other members of the steering committee.
  • If the steering committee is taking the decision of the change, that decision may be to-Implement the change, Defer a decision until a later meeting, Ask for more information, cancel the request.
  • These decisions should be documented on the change of control document. Whenever it states a change, a copy should be sent to the originator.

Ø off specification document stage

  • An off specification is used to document any situation where the system fails to meet its specification in some respect. The configuration librarian allocates the next unique change control identifier and will send a copy of the document to its author.
  • Senior team members with the help of the configuration librarian will carry out an impact analysis to discover which products are affected by the off specification.
  • The decisions are taken by the project manager or the steering committee. When the steering committee is taking decisions, they may be to-Correct the fault, Delay the correction to an enhancement project after the current one is finished, Defer the decision for a later meeting, Ask for more information.

Task 4

“The team members who work most effectively, it seems, never say "I", and that's not because they have trained themselves not to say "I".  They don't think "I", they think "we"; they think "team."

Considering the above statement, appraise the role of the project manager when composing, developing and managing ‘the team'.

Composing, developing and managing a team is not an easy task. It needs lots of talent, hard work and responsibility. A project manager does this.

The project manager's prime responsibilities are to deliver the project on time, on budget and to an agreed standard. This means managing the production of the required product. It also means planning and monitoring the project, managing business and project risks, and being responsible for change control. Also, they must report the true progress of the project and the stage assessment to the steering committee. They are also responsible for preparing the end project report and for project administration.

To complete all these tasks and to make the project a success, people are involved in all aspects of the project, and the importance of people in getting the job done cannot be overlooked. The project manager is dependent on people. That's why the most important thing is the team. A team is all about the people. Because of the greater difficulty of tasks and the division of labor, team work is more important nowadays then ever before.

The project manager is the person responsible person for preparing the plan for team work and forming and educating the team members. The project manager is also responsible for teaching the team members what is needed and whatever they don't know. This will improve the team members' confidence level. The project manager also needs to monitor the employees' work as they're going along.

The project manger will maintain the quality of teamwork at a high level by maintaining effective communication, coordination, and balancing the contributions, mutual support, effort and cohesion.

Also, the project manger will ensure that the specific tasks are performed as a team. They will plan out the assigned activities in more detail if needed, completing the assigned project within the budget, timeline and quality expectations. They will also update others with the latest issues, and scope changes. They also need to look out for any risk or quality concerns throughout the project. They must also proactively and punctually communicate the status and manage the expectations of the project.

The benefits of teamwork will definitely have a positive effect on the project. The project team carries a huge responsibility on its shoulders: the success or the failure of the project. Its members are the ones who execute the project and who give reports to the project manager. They also make changes and corrections when needed. Each member of this team has their own task, which represents a part of the whole project. So it's extremely important that everyone understands and respects what they must do, in order to ensure a good final result.

The characteristics of a good team member should be the following: be a productive member of the team and be able to be a team player. They should also have the knowledge and skills necessary to complete their allocated part of the work task. After completion of their part, each team member should be willing to assist other team members with completion of all work tasks until the project is completed.

In conclusion, these characteristics of a team member will make the team more productive and the project a success. This is how and why a team and teamwork is important for a project. Without a doubt, the project manager plays a critical role in the completion of any project.

Self Criticism Report

This project could have been a better one if I had started it earlier, but due to the lack of importance that I gave to this assignment some aspects which I was hoping to include in this documentation were lost.