Gender Differences in Consumer Buying Behaviour towards Casual Shoes

Abstract

“You could tell an awful lot about a person by the kind of shoes they wear."

A phrase that our hearings often do come across there is always being a tendency towards buying the perfect, fashioned, unique and excellent sate of personality demonstrating pair of shoes among people mostly youngsters. The relation between dressing up and the idea of individual expression is complex. As a common approach to establish understanding of consumer attitude and buying preferences based on gender regarding casual shoes this research has been conducted after studying different kinds of consumer behavior models, literature and theories of consumer behavior This research will focuses on attitudes and behavior on the concept of gender differences in buying behavior of casual shoes also the decision making process differs from consumer to consumer based on demographic and psychographic factors.

As a convenient and accessible segment, university students have sampled to investigate the research objectives. For the purpose of investigating the research objectives, a combination of exploratory and descriptive research was used. A survey methodology using a self-administered questionnaire was justified to collect data, which sampled two groups (male=125 and Female=125) a total of 250 students at three different universities 1) Institute of Management Sciences 2) Qurtaba University 3) Cecos University of Science and Technology, clustered around Hayatabad Peshawar. Survey data was then analyzed and tested using specific hypotheses and measurements.

Also this research will prove to be beneficial for firms and stores to identify the differences and expectations from their shoe brands and also to leverage their promotion campaigns to satisfy what is expected from consumers.

Chapter 1. Introduction and Background of the study

Introduction and Importance of Study

Consumer behavior has a diversity of different study perceptions and functions as an interdisciplinary science. In this context, the understanding of consumer behaviour could appeals to a set of different areas of knowledge, such as psychological, cultural social psychological, physio-pyschological, genetics anthropology.” The main objective of this research is to study the consumer buying preferences with respect to gender differences in consumer buying behaviour of university Students in Peshawar when they go shopping to buy a pair shoe. To attain this objective a survey was developed and administered across Peshawar. This research with the presentation of the relevant literature in the area of buying behavior and then the research hypothesis is described. After that the methodology followed to develop the study is presented with a special reference to the sample method, data collection and statistics. Next, the results are presented and discussed and finally the conclusions are drawn.

Background

Research and studies regarding consumer attitude and behaviour are a common approach in post-war marketing contexts in order to establish or acquire insight knowledge to guide marketing activities regarding the consumption behaviours of particular groups of individuals (Nicosia, 1966; Howard and Sheth, 1969; Bettman, 1979; Engel, Blackwell and Miniard. 1986; Schiffman and Kanuk, 1991). Kotler, Armstrong, Saunders and Wong (2002) stress that understanding consumer buying behaviour is central to marketing management; moreover, marketing management must begin with insightful understanding of consumers. Consumer has been elated with the kind of reception; they are getting from various companies these days. The reason behind a drastic change in consumer behavior is because the consumer is no more treated as a hire purchaser but, he is treated as the decider of the company's fortune. Companies or marketers cannot hire any fortuneteller to guess the consumer's attitude. Guessing or measuring the consumers attitude is not a cake walk but this is because predicting consumers attitude is as tough as predicting consumer's mind (Bheri, 2004).

Consumers are continuously choosing among the various products though they are not aware of the products and usage, even though they are intentionally purchasing the various new brands without any knowledge about the new products, furthermore if new company enters into the market, for every consumer it is very difficult to understand the features of the news products and this makes confusion among the consumers to obtain the information. For example: If one local company enters into the market then to gain the knowledge about the features of the new product, it will take long time for the consumers to understand (Nelson, 1970).

The term ‘consumer' can be described as a person who acquires goods and services for self satisfaction and his often used to describe two different kinds of consuming entities: the personal consumers and organizational consumers. The personal consumers buy goods and services for his/her own use. In this context, the goods are bought for final use by individual, who are organizational consumers, they encompasses for profit and not for profit business, government agencies, institutions, all of them must buy products, equipment and services in order to run their organization (Hawkins, Best and Coney 1998).

The consumer will respond according to the product quality and reliability, the fundamental understanding of products is necessary to understand the product features, products reliability and product benefits (Baker, 2004). The consumer is the end user for the product; consumers buy the products in market; in order to perform successful sales operations in the market an effective distribution channel and networks are required for the organizations. Distribution channels and networks play an important role in the consumer goods industry. Consumer is the ultimate user of every product, without any consumer there is no market as such (Baker, 2004).

Every region wise the different consumers are using different kind of products. Every consumer has their own tastes and preferences. So, every consumer's opinions and preferences are different from one another. The local marketers have good idea about, what the local consumers are using (region wise). For example: The south Indian food habits and tastes and preferences are different, when compared to north Indian food habits (Thomas, 2004).

Based on above paragraph, direct marketing activities have big impact on every consumer, because through direct marketing every company knows about the behavior of every consumer in the market. Manufacturing companies, retailer and suppliers do not have an idea about the consumer behavior in the local market. So, author suggested that direct marketing activities should be left to the local market leaders, because the local market leaders have best idea of local market and local consumer behavior. This theory helps for the organization and sub-organizations to know the consumer behavior in different market environments, taste and preferences of the consumer behavior (Thomas, 2004).

McDonald's would not have made a big impact in the Indian market had it persisted with its U.S. product line that included beef products, moreover, McDonald's repositioned the brand as family-oriented and children-friendly, catering the traditional Indian middle-class segment that finds pride in its family culture and is especially conscious of childcare. So in this point of view Mc Donald's have approached differently, because they identified that, which they followed earlier that will not get good impact on their business so, they immediately changed the business line to achieve the targets, thus, this is one kind of business strategy to achieve the set goals in huge populated countries (Dash, 2005).

For perspective of globalization we can not change the system of tastes and preferences of Consumers. Another instance demonstrating the ignorance of local tastes in the wake of globalization features the multinational Casual shoes makers, Nokia had tasted success with its soap-bar designed phones and ceased producing the flip phones that consumers found irritating to use (Zaccai, 2005).

The Chinese business people are giving importance to Chinese traditional, patriotic values; the business people are running their businesses by showing their traditional, patriotic advertisement and promotional campaigns to get the business from the Chinese people. The Chinese consumer's perspective, by assessing their preferences amongst a host of advertisements and promotional campaigns, later on the business people are started the global Advertisement campaigns with status and social appeal, they sought immense pride in clinging to the traditional, cultural and patriotic values through the local campaigns, with this theory helps by knowing the Chinese consumer behavior and also they are giving same importance to traditional and patriotic values in the name of advertisements. Finally, they want the advertisements with traditional and patriotic values of Chinese culture (Zhou and Belk, 2004).

The consumers mind is different from one another in this as author said in the definition that according to the human psychology, demographical differences, age & sex and to understand people needs. (Kotler, 2004), to assess the influences of every consumer approach is different, in theory explained that consumer is treated as decider of the company, what ever the product comes to the market, the consumer is the ultimate purchaser for every product, some times the consumers are choosing, selecting and going for family decision making to choose differently, in one point of time the consumers differentiated and explained that they are going for personal and some of the them are using products for profit. Demographical differences make new food habits for every consumer the choice of variation for every consumer (Kotler, 2004).

The example of above paragraph, two countries, therefore Chinese consumers are giving respect to traditional and patriotic values, where as Indian consumers are more religious when they are using the products. These are influences that make the consumer to purchase different products; mostly those influences are more related to the physiological, demographical, social, cultural, economic, family and business influences.

According to Kotler (1994), consumer behavior is the study of how people buy, what they buy, when they buy and why they buy. It is a subcategory of marketing that blends elements from psychology, sociology, socio psychology, anthropology and economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics, psychographics, and behavioral variables in an attempt to understand people needs. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from group such as family friends, reference groups, and society in general (Kotler, 1994) for example while consumers purchase the shoe, then they go for family decision, comfort, satisfaction, price and quality. Every family member doesn't have the same opinion to buy the same product; different family members have different choice to buy the product. So, in one family consumer behavior is different (Kotler, 1994).

Chapter 2. Purpose of the Study and Hypothesis formulation

The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to a better knowledge of consumer buying behavior towards purchasing the casual shoes.

The main objective of this research is to study the gender differences in consumer buying behavior of University students when they go shopping to buy casual shoe brands.

According to the literature and aimed at answering the research questions of this study (Which are the main differences in According to the literature and aimed at answering the research questions of this study (Which are the main differences in casual shoes consumer behavior between women and men?) the subsequent hypothesis (H1) is formulated: “There are differences in consumer behavior according to the Gender?”.

After testing this supposition, it follows a more detailed analysis of the main behavior differences between men and women according to: (i) what (what one buys, what one values the most in shoes); (ii) how Consumer behavior between women and men?) The subsequent hypothesis (H1) is formulated: “There are differences in consumer behavior according to the Gender based on Price, Quality, Branding, Comfort, style and Trend”.

Analysis model, variables and store identification and interdependency

For the purpose of gathering the important variables to this study a pilot test (see appendix) was prepared and floated before survey among the students and general consumers out side shoe stores in Peshawar. There were a number of attributes ranked five of the attributes were selected through highest frequency ranking.

The pilot testing also helped in store identifications for the interest of this study.

According to Pilot testing I selected variables 1) Price 2) Quality 3) Style 4) Comfort 5) Trend

From the Stores I had to select 1) Bata 2) Service 3) I-Shoes based from the Pilot test.

Secondary Objectives

The assessment of Store comparison of 1) Bata 2) Service 3) I-Shoes

To see for at what degree communication mediums Influences university students towards promoting their brands.

To study and identify the Demographic characteristics

Will university students be an effective segment shoe brand marketers

Research Question

The purpose of the study could be expressed by the following research question.

Q: Is there any Difference in buying preferences of Casual shoes because of Gender based on Price, Quality, Branding, Comfort, style and Trend?

Chapter 3. Literature review

The Definition: Consumer-buying behavior according to Kotler (2004, p.601) is defined as “The buying behavior consumers - individuals and house holds who buy goods and services for personal consumption.” the term ‘consumer' can be described as a person who acquires goods and services for self satisfaction is often used to describe two different kinds of consuming entities: the personal consumers and the organizational consumers. The personal consumers buy goods and services for his/her own use. In this context the goods are bought for final use by individual, who are organizational consumers, encompasses for profit and not for profit business, government agencies, institutions, all of them must buy products, equipment and services in order to run their organization (Kotler, 2004).

Peter and Olson, (1993) mention that interactions between the peoples emotions, moods, affection and specific feelings is called consumer behavior, in other words in environmental events which they exchange ideas and benefits each is called consumer behavior . Buying behavior of people, who purchase products for personal use and not for business purposes (Peter and Olson, 1993).

Fishbein's (1967) attitudinal model has also been widely used in the marketing context (Lilien et al., 1992), and this paradigm provides researchers with a useful lens for examining the factors explaining consumer purchasing intention and adoption. According to this model, behaviour is predominantly determined by intention. Other factors like attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control also are shown to be related to an appropriate set of salient behavioural, normative, and control beliefs about the behaviour. However, Fishbein's model stops at the adoption level and does not capture other important factors that explain and predict consumer continuance behaviour (repurchase). The expectation-confirmation model (Oliver, 1980), on the other hand, focuses on the post-purchase behaviour. It is a widely used model in the consumer behaviour literature, particularly in explaining consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase. Satisfaction is the central notion of this model, which is formed by the gap between expectation and perceived performance. The expectation-confirmation theory suggests that if the perceived performance meets one's expectation, confirmation is formed, and consumers are satisfied. Bhattacherjee (2001) stated that satisfied users are more likely to continue purchasing the same products.

The Physical actions of consumers that can directly observe and measured by others, by influencing behavior profit can be earned (kotler, Armstrong and Cunningham, 1989).

The study of consumer behavior has evolved in early emphasis on rational choice (microeconomics and classical decision theory) to focus on apparently irrational buying needs (some motivation research) and the use of logical flow models of bounded rationality (Howard and Sheth 1989). The latter approach has depended into what is often called the ‘information processing model' (Bettman 1979). The information processing model regards the consumer as a logical thinker who solves problem to make purchasing decision (Holbrook and Hirschman 1980).

Compares the four major approaches to create successful inter-organizational relationships and integrates them into a single prescription for managing important inter -firm relationships (Palmatier, Dant and Grewal, 2007). Service fails, in satisfying the customers and developing customer loyalty over time in business to business markets.

Cyert (1956) may have been the first to observe that a number of managers in addition to the purchasing agents are involved in buying process, and the concept was labeled ‘buying behavior' and popularized by Robinson (Faris and Win 1967). Webster and Wind (1972) famously identified five buying roles, they are: 1. users 2. Influencer 3.buyer 4. decider and 5 Gatekeeper (Webster and wind, 1972). Further categories have been suggested as the ‘initiator' (Bonoma, 1981), and the ‘analyst' and spectator by Wilson (Wilson, 1998).

The product purchase decision is not always done by the user. The buyer necessarily purchases the product. Marketers must decide at whom to direct their promotional efforts, the buyer or the user. They must identify the person who is most likely to influence the decision. If the marketers understand consumer behavior, they are able to predict how consumers are likely to react to various informational and environmental cues, and are able to shape their marketing strategies accordingly (kotler, 1994).

The consumer behavior influences are follows:

The consumer behavior influences in 3 aspects, they are acquiring, using and disposing. The acquiring means that how the consumer spends money on the products, such as leasing, trading and borrowing. Using means some of the consumers use the high price products and some of the consumer sees the quality. Disposing is nothing but distribution, order or places a particular product (Hoyer, Deborah, 2001).

By understanding consumer behavior deeply, different authors have given different information about the consumer behavior, how consumer buys the products, it involves four steps they are: need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision and post purchase behavior, the marketer can pick up many clues as and how to meet the buyer need and develop an effective program to support an attractive offer to the target market (Kanuk, 1990).

Another area of knowledge that has been used to a better understanding of consumer behaviour is the physio-pyschological one. Physiological psychology is the study of the interaction of the body with the mind. It is the study of the extent to which behaviour is caused by physical and chemical phenomena in the body (Morris 1996). Kroeber-Riel (1980) pointed out that cognitive and psychological processes originate from physiological ones. This field holds many promises for explaining consumer behaviour. For instance, the hypothalamus is that center of the brain which mainly controls consumption (Zimbardo and Gerrig 1996). The chemical changes due to the use/eat of the first product results in a blood borne input to the brain to activate further consumption. Thus, the individual would order one more product to use/eat. Such a behaviour is explained based on the research findings on the functions of the hypothalamus and other related areas of the brain (Valenstein, et al., 1970; Zhang et al. 1994). Physio-psychology provides fascinating ways to help understand consumer behaviour without looking into the consumer's "black box" for hypothetically based variable explanations.

To explain consumer behaviour further, new frontiers in science were introduced such as genetics and anthropology (Demirdjian, and Senguder, 2004). According to genetics approach our genes direct our consumption behaviour. Perhaps humans are all programmed to act in certain ways in their consumptive and consumer-related behaviour. Is the presence of certain genes that compel us to consume certain kind of products. Genetic science may very well come up with definite findings to explain consumer behaviour and thus we may strike a vein of truth in finding explanations and laws of consumer behaviour (Feder, 1977). Business anthropology and its implementation in consumer behaviour studies have demonstrated to the business world that anthropological approach as new perspective will bring a new era for the consumer science. The applied anthropologists will become the hottest candidates for business related research jobs given the fact that anthropological methods are becoming more widely acceptable in the business world in general and in consumer studies particular (Demirdjian and Senguder, 2004). According to the literature and aimed at answering the

According to Kotler (1994), the Consumers buying decision process is influenced by four steps those are as follows:

Types of consumer buying decision behavior:

Consumer buying behavior decision-making varies with the type buying decision.

There are different types of buying behavior decisions.

* Complex buying behavior: Consumers undertake complex buying behavior when they are highly involved in purchase and complex buying behavior and perceive significant difference among the brands. Consumers may be highly involved when the product are expensive, risky, purchased in frequently and are highly expensive (Kotler, 1994).

* Dissonance - Reducing buying behavior occurs when consumers are highly involved with an expensive, infrequent or risky purchase, but sees little difference among various brands (Kotler, 1994).

* Variety - Consumers undertake variety seeking buying behavior in situations characterized by low consumer involvement, but significant perceived brand difference. In such cases, consumers often do a lot brand scrutiny (Kotler, 1994).

The buying Decision Process

Introduction of buying decision process

Consumers make many buying decisions every day. Mostly large companies do extensive research on consumer buying decision, to answer questions like what does consumer buy, where they buy, how they buy, how much they buy, when they buy and why do they buy a product, for this question to reorganize the decision different stages needed they are, information search, and evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision and post purchase decision etc., The consumer passes through all five stages with every purchase, but in more routine purchases, consumers often skip or reverse some of these stages (Hawkins, Coney, 1998).

The buying decision process: The buying process starts with need recognition, where as buyer recognize the need. The buyer's decision is depending on his/her internal & external stimuli of consumer behavior. The internal and external stimuli of consumer behavior means that the consumer, which product should purchase, how much wants to purchase and externally which products are more reliable and usable. According to this internal and external stimuli's the buyer will take the decision (Hawkins, Coney, 1998). The consumers are searching the information from the various sources those are information search, personal source, commercial sources, public sources and experimental sources; this is also process of the buying decision process before purchase of the product (Hawkins, Coney, 1998). The decision process model in the consumer market contains five stages since consumer decision was suggested as a response to a problem (Solomon, 1991), and in most cases consumers facing more than two or more alternatives in the market place which requires evaluations (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1978). During the evaluation process, information will be collected to assist consumers to make the purchase decision. Finally, consumer will take further action according to the level of satisfaction of the purchase decision as post-purchase evaluation. Moreover, Sproles and Kendall (1986) identified characteristics of eight decisionmaking styles as follow:

Characteristics of eight decision-making styles

1. Price/value consciousness: decision style that is concerned with getting lower prices. The presence of this trait means that the consumer is conscious of sale prices and aims to get the best value for their money

2. Perfectionism: decision style that is concerned with quality. Consumers with this decision-making style will not compromise with products classified as ‘good enough'

3. Brand consciousness: decision style that is concerned with getting expensive, well-known brands. Consumers with this style believe that the higher the price of a product, the better the quality. These consumers also prefer best selling advertised brands

4. Novelty/fashion consciousness: decision style for seeking out new things. This trait reflects a liking of innovative products and a motivation to keep up to date with new styles and fashion trends

5. Habitual/brand-loyal : decision style for shopping at the same stores and tendency to buy the same brands each time

6. Recreational shopping consciousness: decision style that views shopping as being enjoyable per se. Shoppers with this trait enjoy the stimulation of looking for and choosing products

7. Impulsive/careless: decision style that describes a shopper who does not plan their shopping and appears unconcerned with how much he or she spends. Consumers with this style can regret their decisions later

8. Confused by over choice: decision style that reflects a lack of confidence and an inability to manage the number of choices available. Consumers with this trait experience information overload.

However, it is worthwhile to point out that consumer decision process can take many stages, however, in low involvement purchase, consumer may skip or reserve stages (Kotler, 1994). For example, in low involvement conditions, consumer decision making can be a learned response to environmental cues such as in store promotion or extrinsic cue such as packaging. It means that the main decision process occur at the point-of-purchase, where consumer recognise needs, evaluate products and then make purchase decisions. In many cases, the purchase of bottled water fits into such description.

Information search: The consumer can obtain information from any of several sources, which includes:

Personal source: family, friends, neighbors, acquaintance etc.

Commercial sources: advertising, sales people, dealers, packaging, displays.

Public sources: mass media, consumer-rating organizations etc.

Experimental sources: handling, examining, using of the product.

Consumers receive most of the information about a product from commercial sources, which are controlled by the marketer. The most effective source however tend to be personal. Personal sources appear to be even more important in influencing the purchase.

Evaluation of Alternatives: The consumer evaluates all the alternatives available to him/her to arrive at a brand choice. The consumer will see the product as a bundle of attributes with varying capacities, which satisfies his or her needs. The consumer will pay more attention to those attributes connected with their needs. The consumer is likely to develop a set of brand beliefs about, where each brand stands on each attribute. These of beliefs held about the particular brand is known as brand image, according to the beliefs and preferences of the consumer, evaluates the alternative products instead of using existing products (Kotler, 2004).

Purchase decision: In the evaluation stage, the consumer ranks all the brands and makes a purchase intention. Generally the consumer purchase decision is to buy the most preferred brand, when purchasing a products, consumer will think about two things, which can be, purchase decision and purchase intention. The attitude of others and unexpected situation factors both directly or indirectly effects the consumer's final decision to buy a particular brand. (Kotler, 2004).

Post purchase behavior: The buyers' job does not end when the product is brought. After purchasing the product, the consumer will be satisfied or dissatisfied and will be engaged in post purchase behavior. The satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the purchase of a particular product depends on the relationship between the consumer expectation and the consumer disappointment, if it meets the consumer expectations, the consumer can get satisfied. And if it exceeds he/she is delighted (Gilly and Gelb, 1986).

Chapter 4. Theoretical Framework

Consumer Involvement Theory

The consumer involvement theory means that, how the consumer involving the purchase of various products in the market, after purchasing the product, how the consumer responding towards the products called consumer involvement theory.

The consumers get the information through advertising, for that they purchase, use, and react that they see and hear about the products that they buy (Barry, 1987).

Level of involvement an individual's intensity of interest in a product and the importance of the product for that person, those are enduring involvement and situational involvement (Homewood IL & Irwin, 1987). Routinized response behavior is that the process used when buying frequently purchased low-cost items that requires little search-and decision-effort (Homewood IL & Irwin, 1987).

The consumer involved in purchasing of products and usage and, also, various aspects like high involvement and low involvement in process of purchasing of products. The consumer some times involves high and low in purchasing products, so, theory of involvement is explaining that the consumer recognizes the importance of the purchase and it considers that the degree of perceived risk, moreover, it reflects on self image perhaps information processing may be different from one another (Ray, 1973). The low involvement theory is explaining that the consumer would accept wide range of products with positive attitude with do-feel-learn strategy, firstly the consumer select any kind of product, use the product, if they are not sure about how to use the product, and they learn how to use the product. To purchase a new computer in market and using of the computer, if they are not satisfied then they go for learning of how to use the computer. The low involvement of consumer will be in manner that do-feel-learn strategy (Ray, 1973). In one of the consumer article author explained about the consumers, are influenced by television commercials and their relationship effectiveness of advertisements (Krugman 1987).

High involvement theory is rational and emotional, and it is explaining about the consumer's participations in the context very actively without any hesitation, moreover, they look after extensive problem solving. In this theory of involvement the consumers learn about the product, use the product, if they are feeling that the product is comfortable to use it, and then they go for buying the product, so this is called high involvement because after usage, they definitely buy the products. The high involvement theory is reversible order to low involvement theory like learn-feel-do strategy (Debruicker, 1979).

How the involvement theory is useful, the emotions, specific feelings, learning of every product and involves when they want to use it and when they want to purchase it. So, this theory helps when the consumer purchasing any kind of product or after using the product.

Consumer behaviour models

i. Introduction & Intergradations of three models

There are three types of models, which will explain about consumer's process of basic needs to selecting one particular product, In order to process consumer behavior the following three models are important, the first and foremost model is that the Hierarchy model of consumer behavior, in this model the author said that, without any basic needs the consumer can not survive, so, the consumer should have some basic needs, which have been explained below, secondly the consumer behavior model. In this model author mentioned about research and planning, in this process, the researchers are taking samples from consumer before manufacturing the new products in the market. Finally, lens model has been explained that in order to choice/select a product by the consumer.

Most early psychologists studied people who had psychological problems, but Maslow Hierarchy needs tells us about the needs of consumer behavior.

ii. Hierarchy needs of consumer behavior model (Simons, Irwin and Drinnien, 1987)

Maslow believes that people seek to fulfill five categories of needs.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

The five levels of needs that humans are motivated to seek and satisfy (Simons, Irwin and Drinnien, 1987).

Physiological needs— for ex: food, water, sex, clothing, shelter

Safety needs— for ex: security, freedom

Social needs— for ex: love, affection, belongingness.

Esteem needs— for ex: respect, recognition, and self-worth.

Self-actualization needs— for ex: personal growth.

Maslow hierarchy needs model

(Simons, Irwin and Drinnien, 1987)

Maslow's given the hierarchy needs for consumer behavior, before starting about the consumer behavior, the consumer needs are important; usually every consumer have some hierarchy needs, they are; self actualization needs, esteem needs, belonging needs, safety and security needs and psychological needs (Simons, Irwin and Drinnien, 1987).

The self actualization needs: The term actualization means that the intrinsic growth of what is already in the organism, or more accurately, of what the organism is called self actualization needs. For example: one can play the music, he is called musician or artist, and one can paint the art is called painter, one can write the poems, is called poet. For surviving in competitive world one profession is important, this profession is not only for surviving, but also one kind of need for human being. In small words to understand simply one individual potentiality develop him by doing something; it is called the self actualization (Simons, Irwin and Drinnien, 1987).

The author suggests that the self actualization need is important when the consumer wants to survive, consumer came with new professions, and it is one kind of need, it will help the consumer to survive in this competitive world (Simons, Irwin and Drinnien, 1987).

Esteem needs: The term esteem means that need for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition, and accomplishment, for example one can travel in the bus, motor bike, and car respectively, depends on his/her financial position they can travel. In this case travel is a need, so, in smaller words, if one can economically sound, then he/she arranges the esteemed need according to their financial possession (Simons, Irwin and Drinnien, 1987). The author said that, if she/he needs the esteem needs, then they should have good economic possession, if not no necessary to maintain the car or motor bike, it is very easy to use the public bus or walk (Simons, Irwin and Drinnien, 1987).

Social needs: The social needs includes love of family or friends, for example, the boy loves his girl friend, the relationship between husband and wife, one child belongs to one family This is called belongingness or love (Simons, Irwin and Drinnien, 1987). This is one kind of need for every consumer, because every consumer has their personal belongingness and love.

Safety needs: The safety might includeliving in an area away from threats. This level is more likely to be found in children as they have a greater need to feel safe. For example one wants to live safe and secure life in the society. Finally, always consumer wants to live a life, which is safe and secured (Simons, Irwin and Drinnien, 1987).

Physiological needs: It includes the very basic need air, warmth, food, sleep, stimulation and activity. People can die due to lack of biological needsand equilibrium common needs like food, water, oxygen and other common minimum needs are wanted for every one to survive in the world. This is also a basic need of consumer (Simons, Irwin and Drinnien, 1987)

iii. Consumer behavior model

The concept of consumer behavior model is that, all the consumer minds are not the same, because every consumer thinks in different manner and purchasing of products also different.

The below is saying about the research and planning, now a days the products are many, the consumer is attracting towards new products and its features. The manufacturing companies are designing the products, before manufacturing of new products the researchers are taking the samples for research from the consumers, after taking the samples from the consumers, researchers are doing the research about the products, it encourages companies to constantly innovate better ways to serve the consumer needs (Yeowzah, 2003).

The research & planning depending on product design, insights and action. As author saying about the design, if products designs are good then every consumer attracted towards purchasing of new products, the product design is possible only by doing research. The insights is nothing but the product features, the product features are depend upon good research and planning, without any research and planning there is no product as such. In between these two aspects the action takes place to do good research and to get good results in the market (Yeowzah, 2003).

Consumer behavior model (Yeowzah, 2003)

http://www.yeowzah.com/consumer_behavior_model.htm

The significance of consumer behavior decision theory in some cases consumer has clear and strong choice or preference for particular product to purchase. According to the customer preference, companies can increase their sales to develop the 4 P's marketing to affect the customer preference and test. Company can design the product to attract the customer to make the better sales. To analyze the competitor activity and make the most battle plan to fight in to the market (Hauser, 1993).

Lens Model

Lens model (Hauser, 1993)

Description: The above lens model says that, the product features and perceptions are inter dependent, because the consumer see the product features before purchasing any product in the market, the product features arrow showing towards perception, the perception is nothing but understanding of the product, in this process consumer will understand about the product, after understanding the product, the perceptions is going to be preference of various products (Hauser, 1993).

In this process of preference product, the consumer prefers the products, after preferring the product, consumer select the particular product that is called choice. The final arrow showing towards choice, but this whole process depends on consumer psycho-social cues and availability & price of the products in the market (Hauser, 1993).

The second way is that the psycho-social cues and perceptions are also inter dependent with the help of these two terms the consumer prefers the product and finally choose/select the product (Hauser, 1993).

The third way is that the consumer chooses the product with the help of psycho-social cues, which means psychological influences, understanding of the product and availability & price of the products (Hauser, 1993).

Chapter 5. Analysis of the study

Introduction:

In the analysis part, first the cross-Tabular representation of different questionnaires and description after that presenting the empirical analysis of the study, the questionnaires the way is used more scientifically and very straight and deep questions, which are very easy to get the answers from the students, which are very positive and appropriate answers from the respondents.

Data analysis and discussion:

Following is the summarized result from analysis of data.

Cross Tabular Analysis

Sample Characteristics:

Variables

Characteristics

Respondents

IM|Sciences

Qurtaba

Cecos

Total

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Age:

1. 18 to 25 Years

2. 26 to 32 Years

3. Over 32 Years

76

03

05

90.4%

3.5%

5.9%

79

02

02

95.2%

2.4%

2.4%

73

07

03

87.9%

8.4%

3.6%

228

012

010

91.2%

4.8%

4%

84

100%

83

100%

83

100%

250

100%

Gender:

1. Male

2. Female

38

46

45.2%

54.3%

57

26

68.6%

31.4%

30

53

36.5%

63.5%

125

125

50%

50%

84

100%

83

100%

83

100%

250

100%

Educational Qualification:

1. Under Graduate

2. Graduate

3. Post Graduate

4. Other

59

13

11

01

70.2%

15.4%

13.0%

1.19%

54

18

08

03

65%

21.6%

9.63%

3.61%

65

14

03

01

78.3%

16.8%

3.6%

1.2%

178

45

22

05

71.2%

18%

8.8%

2%

84

100%

83

100%

83

100%

250

100%

Family Income:

(Per Month)

1. Up to Rs. 5,000

2. Rs. 5,000 to Rs. 10,000

3. Rs. 10,000 and above

03

12

69

3.5%

14.3%

82.2%

02

18

63

2.4%

21.6%

75.9%

06

19

58

7.2%

22.9%

69.9%

11

49

190

4.4%

19.6%

76%

84

100%

83

100%

83

100%

250

100%

Term residence

1. University Hostel

2. Tenant

3. Sharing house/flat

4. Home stay

5. Live at home

12

03

07

16

05

05

04

10

06

04

06

06

22

12

17

32

167

8.9%

6.9%

4.9%

13.%

66%

84

100%

83

100%

83

100%

250

100%

Description

Demographic Profile:

* The demographic data (Table I) indicates that most of the university students fall in the age category of 18-25 (91.2%).

* The cumulative sample of male student=125 female students=125

* Educational profile indicates that around 71% of the respondents were from Under-graduate level

* 18% are graduate students and about 8.8% of the students are postgraduate

* Income profile says that mostly the university students has Family income more then 76%

* Mostly students reside at home (66%)

Respondent selection male=N1, Female=N2:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Female

125

50.0

50.0

50.0

Male

125

50.0

50.0

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

Interpretation

From Table-2 , According to random sample survey, I sampled two groups (male=125 and Female=125) a total of 250 students at three different universities 1) Institute of Management Sciences 2) Qurtaba University 3) Cecos Univerty of Science and Technology, clustered around Hayatabad Peshawar.. all students were randomly picked.

Use of casual shoes

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

Use of Casual Shoes

No

11

10

21

Yes

113

115

228

Total

124

125

249

Description

A Total of 228 respondents out of which 133 are Female and 115 male students use casual shoes. The proportion of male usage is slightly higher then female students by 2 counts.

Total of 21 students opted for other categories of shoes.

Sources of information

Sources of information * Respondents Cross tabulation

Count

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

Sources of information

News Paper

11

9

20

TV

8

28

36

Internet

4

6

10

Mobile

0

1

1

Shoe Retailer

24

14

38

Magazine

35

5

40

Friends

39

54

93

Other

4

8

12

Total

125

125

250

Description

The received information pertaining to Sources of information (table-4) indicates that most of the respondents both male and female use friend's opinion regarding purchase of a shoe pair. It is interesting to know that female respondents mostly use Fashion Magazines male respondents watch TV, More then females. Also female hear from shoe retailers more then males.

The results indicate that about 2 times male goes for other sources of information. Mobile Promotions are very rare as is only one male respondent opted for this option as source of information to purchase casual shoes.

Brand selection from stores

The purchase decision was limited from three stores (I-Shoes, Bata, Service, Selected through Pilot testing as discussed) to measure the study variables more precisely the respondents were asked if you would given the option to buy from these stores what attributes will affect on their purchase decision.

Also they were asked to rank the brand they like the most and grade the store also.

I-Shoes Brand likeness

I-Shoes * Respondents Cross tabulation

Count

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

I-Shoes

Hushpuppies

61

41

102

Female-sole

8

11

19

Woodstock

2

2

4

Epcot

3

3

6

Impact

11

10

21

Clarks

13

15

28

Other

1

3

4

Other then I-shoes or Multi-brands

26

40

66

Total

125

125

250

Description

Majority of the respondents like hushpuppies it is interesting to see the Females inclination towards hushpuppies is slightly more as compared to males.

The 2nd higher category of shoe likeness is Clarks mostly appreciated by male respondents.

Mostly male=40 go for Multi-brands or other then I-Shoes then females=26

The tendency for buying Multi-brands is about 26.4 % of the Total respondents.

Bata

Bata * Respondents Cross tabulation

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

Bata

Weigbrenner

11

13

24

Hushpuppies

40

26

66

Perecardian

0

1

1

Marie Claire

0

2

2

Bata

45

44

89

Other then Bata or Multi-brands

29

39

68

Total

125

125

250

Description

27.2 % of the total respondents opted for bands other then Bata or Multi Brands. 35% responded to purchase Bata brands. It is evident from the above table that most of the Female respondents prefer hushpuppies Over Bata.

Service

Service * Respondents Crosstabulation

Count

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

Service

Doncorlos

0

35

35

Service

10

20

30

N-Dure

3

0

3

Caterpillar

0

9

9

Liza

48

2

50

Export

0

8

8

Other then Service or Multibrands

64

51

115

Total

125

125

250

Description

Majority of the female=48/125 respondents Liked and opted for Liza as it's a female branding from Service turnover from this Store in females is maximum =64/125

35 out of 125 male respondents prefer Doncorlos Casual Shoes.12% of the Total respondents including 10 Female and 20 male students prefer to buy Service casual Shoes from Service.

Preference for multi-brands is 46% of the total of which Female frequency is more then male.

Only a total of 9 respondents (male) would buy Caterpillar

Brand rating

Brand grading * Respondents Cross tabulation

Respondents

Response

Female

Male

Total

Brand grading

Strongly unfavorable

4

10

14

Somewhat unfavorable

10

5

15

Undecided

27

29

56

Somewhat favorable

48

50

98

Strongly favorable

36

31

67

Total

125

125

250

Description

The respondents both male and female where asked to grade the brand they liked most 40% of the total respondents gave a highest “Somewhat favorable response”. 30% of total were highly in favor of their brand choice females are high in number then males they have a higher count over rating=5. Most of the male respondents has a slightly higher tendency over female in grading their brand of choice in a rating=4.

Branding

Does a shoe co brand name reflect its product quality * Respondents Cross tabulation

Count

Respondents

Response

Female

Male

Total

No

11

18

29

Yes

114

107

221

Total

125

125

250

Description

About 90% of the respondents believes and link the Product's brand name with its Quality.

The brand image has to be strictly positive and the brand should be popular. Mostly consumers go for popular brands many of them often link it with status symbol.

Aspects lack in shoes

Aspects lacking in shoe * Respondents Crosstabulation

Count

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

Aspects lacking in shoe

Style

85

35

120

Durability

22

55

77

Finishing

10

19

29

Other

8

16

24

Total

125

125

250

Description

Female Respondents are more style conscious then male there is about 37% difference over male respondents. Female respondents want more and more styles and varieties in the product.

Male respondents are more conscious about durability in there shoe pair.

Store selection

Store bought from * Respondents Cross tabulation

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

Store bought from

I-Shoes

26

17

43

Bata

24

22

46

Service

4

22

26

Mix of all Three

60

53

113

Others

11

11

22

Total

125

125

250

Description

From the above table it is noticed that about 45% of the total respondents not strictly buy from one particular store females mostly shop from I-Shoes and Bata

Aspects that the consumer appreciates when he goes to a store

Store Characteristics * Respondents Cross tabulation

Count

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

Store Characteristics

Price

17

24

41

Product Quality

57

55

112

Product Variety

13

22

35

Store Atmosphere

11

5

16

Shop Window

2

3

5

Brand Pictures seen on Store's website

3

3

6

Shoe exposed on the store's manikin

9

4

13

Store's Decoration

13

5

18

Catalogue Products

0

2

2

Total

125

123

248

Description

From the above reading it's mostly the Quality of a Store's Products which put influence on consumers for buying Shoes Products. About 45% of the respondents looks for Quality (Somewhat in Equal proportion male~55, Female~57) when they go shopping.

Another very common aspect in confederation while shopping is Price=16% where male respondents are more conscious about Pricing than female. Product variety is also an important factor both for male and female in a store behind shopping of causal Shoes.

Lastly female are affected Store Atmosphere and decoration on a quite large proportion

Purchase Decision

Purchase decision * Respondents Cross tabulation

Count

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

Purchase decision

Self-Decision only

53

68

121

Friends

28

43

71

Family

28

9

37

Shoe Brand Retailer

8

3

11

Other

7

2

9

Total

124

125

249

Description

Mostly the decision is self based 50% almost. Many of the male respondents 35% base their purchase decision either by a friend's recommendations/ advice or through impression.

25% of the female respondents base their decision from Family male respondents has a 7% family recommended decision.

Purchase Decision regarding whether shoe attractiveness itself or Store/Brand name

Purchase Decision whether shoe attractiveness itself or Store/Brand name * Respondents Cross tabulation

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

Purchase Decision whether shoe attractiveness itself or Store/Brand name

True

72

86

158

Not Exactly

53

39

92

Total

125

125

250

Description

63% of the respondents are in favor but branding and brand image could not be neglected. as it is evident from previous Question analysis the style and variety are extremely crucial that may compel consumers to ignore brand name but not Quality. The attractiveness maybe because of Price, style, comfort, cut, composition, of Shoes Etc

Consumer satisfaction:

Customer satisfaction * Respondents Cross tabulation

Count

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

Customer satisfaction

No

12

15

27

Yes

113

110

223

Total

125

125

250

Description

Respondents are asked whether they recommend their shoe brand to a friend it is assumed that positive answer (yes) will indicate satisfaction (it is to note there are many other factors causing satisfaction and dissatisfaction). Most the respondents are satisfied (Male-88%, Female-90%)

Yet a few are dissatisfied though the reasons are not known.

Factors that Exert influence on the Purchase Decision

Price of Shoes

Price of Shoes * Respondents Cross tabulation

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

Price of Shoes

Unimportant

7

4

11

Some-what Unimportant

17

5

22

Neither-important nor Unimportant

19

32

51

Some-what important

45

48

93

Extremely Important

37

36

73

Total

125

125

250

Quality of Shoes

Quality of Shoes * Respodents Crosstabulation

Count

Respodents

Female

Male

Total

Quality of Shoes

Neither-important nor Unimportant

9

12

21

Some-what important

37

31

68

Extremely Important

79

82

161

Total

125

125

250

Style of Shoes

Style of Shoes * Respodents Crosstabulation

Count

Respodents

Female

Male

Total

Style of Shoes

Some-what Unimportant

2

3

5

Neither-important nor Unimportant

9

4

13

Some-what important

25

35

60

Extremely Important

89

83

172

Total

125

125

250

Comfort of Shoes

Comfort of Shoes * Respodents Crosstabulation

Count

Respodents

Female

Male

Total

Comfort of Shoes

Some-what Unimportant

2

3

5

Neither-important nor Unimportant

16

25

41

Some-what important

31

25

56

Extremely Important

76

72

148

Total

125

125

250

Trend for Shoes

Trend for Shoes * Respodents Crosstabulation

Count

Respodents

Female

Male

Total

Trend for Shoes

Unimportant

0

2

2

Some-what Unimportant

8

18

26

Neither-important nor Unimportant

31

23

54

Some-what important

26

48

74

Extremely Important

60

34

94

Total

125

125

250

Individual Means By Gender and variables

Price of Shoes

Quality of Shoes

Style of Shoes

Respondents

Respondents

Respondents

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

N

125

125

125

125

125

Mean

3.86

3.70

4.56

4.56

4.58

Std. Deviation

.989

1.192

.665

.627

.674

Std. Error Mean

.089

.107

.059

.056

.060

Individual Frequencies By Gender and variables (continued)

Group Statistics

Style of Shoes

Comfort of Shoes

Trend for Shoes

Respondents

Respondents

Respondents

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

N

125

125

125

125

125

Mean

4.61

4.33

4.45

3.75

4.10

Std. Deviation

.694

.878

.777

1.060

.990

Std. Error Mean

.062

.079

.070

.095

.089

Characteristics/Attributes of shoes appreciated by consumers

Respondents

Female

Male

Total

Motivational Factors

Mean

Std. Deviation

Mean

Std. Deviation

Mean

Std. Deviation

Price of Shoes

3.70

1.192

3.86

.989

3.78

1.096

Quality of Shoes

4.56

.627

4.56

.665

4.56

.645

Style of Shoes

4.61

.694

4.58

.674

4.60

.683

Comfort of Shoes

4.45

.777

4.33

.878

4.39

.830

Trend for Shoes

4.10

.990

3.75

1.060

3.93

1.039

Calculated t values

Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

Price of Shoes

**EVA

6.669

.010

1.097

248

.274

.152

.139

***EVNA

1.097

239.905

.274

.152

.139

Quality of Shoes

**EVA

.297

.586

.000

248

1.000

.000

.082

***EVNA

.000

247.171

1.000

.000

.082

Style of Shoes

**EVA

.013

.909

-.277

248

.782

-.024

.087

***EVNA

-.277

247.785

.782

-.024

.087

Comfort of Shoes

**EVA

4.184

.042

-1.144

248

.254

-.120

.105

***EVNA

-1.144

244.417

.254

-.120

.105

Trend for Shoes

**EVA

.018

.894

-2.713

248

.007*

-.352

.130

***EVNA

-2.713

246.869

.007

-.352

.130

*Significant according to Level of Significance at 5 %

**Equal Variance Assumed ***Equal Variance not Assumed

Description

Motivational Factors:

The calculated value of t - Test statistics at 5% level of significance indicates the following findings:

* The difference between Price consciousness of male and female sample for purchase of Casual shoes in Peshawar is not significant.

* The difference between Quality consciousness of male and female sample for purchase of Casual shoes in Peshawar is not significant.

* The difference between Style consciousness of male and female sample for purchase of Casual shoes in Peshawar is not significant.

* The difference between Comfort consciousness of male and female sample for purchase of Casual shoes in Peshawar is not significant.

* The difference between Trend consciousness of male and female sample for purchase of Casual shoes in Peshawar is significant.

The present study indicates that there is no significant difference of price, style, Quality and comfort consciousness for purchase of Casual shoes between male and female consumers but there is significant difference of Trend consciousness for purchase of Casual shoes between male and female consumers.

Over all analysis of the study

In literature review author said that the consumer having two types of buying decision processes one is complex, it is nothing but highly involved (Kotler, 1994). When the consumer is highly involving then it will be very risky so, this point has matched with the literature review and empirical implication. Even in high price and highly involved in particular product. In literature review author said that the buying process starts with need recognition, where as buyer recognize the need. The buyer will take decision is depends on his or her internal stimuli, according to the internal and external stimuli the buyer will take the decision (Hawkins, Coney, 1998). At the same time in the empirical findings they will purchase for their own personal use and also it is depends on his/her internal and external stimuli to buy the products.

More over the literature is saying about the consumer are different type demographically, gender wise, tastes and preference wise, buyers having different opinion when they will purchase any kind of product in the market. Some times they will go for family decision and sometimes they will take the decision individually. Depends on the buyers behavior product will be chosen. (Dash, 2005) In empirical findings the students are satisfying at the same time they are using the branded shoes, but not always, some times they are going for others shoes also family decisions. Ultimately the student or consumer is giving preference to brand. This point is matched with literature review. Finally, the brand makes the real difference. In empirical findings the buyer will take the decision, when he/she need, so in one point of view the consumer's are using Nike product often, so what ever reasons are, so it depends on internal and external stimuli.

The Consumers are different types so in literature review when categorized the Complex buying behavior of consumers will react about the products like the consumer feels expensive, risky to purchase frequently and are highly expensive. The dissonance consumers always think that reduces the risk of buying. The variety seeking consumers will behave differently and their involvements reference to context (Kotler, 1994) in empirical findings students are thinking in different way that they responded the price of Nike shoe are high, so, they are purchasing infrequently, finally they are saying to decrease the cost.

The Consumers take the decision while they purchase the product, this decision process differs from consumer to consumer, first they recognize the need or want then they search for information in the existing market to purchase more effective product, While purchasing the product they use the personal and public sources to purchase the product, finally evaluate the alternative product to purchase. The consumer's behavior will be different when they purchase the product and after purchasing the product (Gily and Gelb, 1986) in empirical analysis the students are saying that before purchasing the shoe they are looking for the personal (friends & family) and public (media) sources, if it is not available in the market they go for alternative shoe products.

Conclusion

Concerning the investigation question arisen in the research: “What are the main differences on casual shoes consumer buying behaviour according to gender?” and, since it was rejected for Style Quality pricing and Comfort the hypothesis of investigation that did not defended the existence of differences on the consumer buying behaviour according to gender, it is noticed, in what concerns “what one buys”, that both men and women mostly prefer shoes that may highlight their physical attributes. Women and men appreciate first of all style and Quality, followed by comfort, As for “how one buys”, women go shopping mostly by impulse and bring someone (Family), while men do it by necessity and almost always alone. Respecting the question “where one buys”, he prefers to buy his Shoes in stores that display an appealing and pleasant atmosphere, where low prices, quality and variety are highlighted both by women and men, although in a different order.

The conclusion is based on empirical data and whole research, over all there are no differences in attitudes among the respondent's on buying behavior towards casual shoes. There is similar type of answers given by male and female students, after performing the study the result shows that the opinion only differs in Trend between male and female students. Majority of the female students are strongly in favor for trendy shoes.

In order to achieve profitability both for stores and firms, the quality of the service have to outperform that of the regular shopping experience. Since university students want Quality and Style more as compared to prices there is a need to provide and communicate the optimum level of satisfaction. The store ranking is because the variety, quality and atmosphere of Store.