SANITATION STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

CHAPTER IV SANITATION STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SSOP)

4.1. Introduction

SSOP (Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures) should be specific to each food/fisheries plant. SSOP describe the plant's sanitary handling of raw material and hygiene of the processing area and it environment. SSOP contain a description of the procedures that an establishment will follow to address the elements of pre-operational and operational sanitation relating to the prevention of direct product contamination.

Fisheries plants are required to develop, maintain, and adhere to written SSOP. This requirement was established because the government concluded that SSOP were necessary. The objective of SSOP is to minimize contamination on product or adulteration. SSOP cover daily pre-operational and operational sanitation procedures. Establishments must identify the officials to monitor daily sanitation activities, evaluate whether the SSOP are effective, and take proper corrective action when its needed.

4.2. Definition

SSOP is an activity that related to cleanlines and health effort during procesing so products have good quality and be safe for consumption. Based on Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture regulation No.41/Kpts/IK.210/2/98 about PMMT, the SSOP objective is prevent pathogen bacteria growth which destroy product that danger to human.

According to Darwanto and Murniyati (2003), SSOP is one of prerequisite programs that is used for the environment sanitation surveillance, so the plant will produce safe product. The environment on plant comprises rooms, equipments, workers, water etc. Every product processing has different SSOP although in one factory.

On SSOP document, it explains the procedures of implementation and monitoring of SSOP on factory.

4.3. SSOP Scope

SSOP sections are based on eighth FDA key sanitation conditions. Those sections as follows:

1. Ice and water safety, used on fish processing. Water, used on fish processing, get from safe sources and it manage with good system.

2. Condition and cleanlines of equipments surface that are directly contact to product have to clean and sanitize, including gloves, work dress etc

3. Cross contamination control.

4. Hand washing (hand sink), sanitizer and toilet. Toilets have to complete with door and clean at the end of processing. Hand sink should complete with wáter, soap and towel.

5. Product protection from packaging materials.

6. Labeling, storing and material using based on instruction. Sanitizer, oil, and pesticide and toxic chemical have to complete with label and store on special room.

7. Worker health control. When the workers work on factory, they have to clean and healthy.

8. Pest controlling on factory environment using chemical substances, environment should be clean from pest.

4.4. SSOP Principles

4.4.1. Water safety

The water supply is one of the most factors when making products which are safe to eat and which meet the required microbiological standards. Water is the most important component on food processing. In food industries, water has function as part of product composition, cleaning the products, equipments and others, raw material of ice and glazing, and drinking (Winarno and Surono, 2002).

Before using on food processing, the water have to free from bacteria, suspended material, chemical pollutants, bacteria, viruses, etc. If water contains many bacteria, chlorine can remove and kill the bacteria, it makes the water free from microorganism.

Water that use on fish processing should have a good quality. It is free from pathogenic bacteria, dangerous substances, colorless, odorless, and transparent (Jenie, 1997). Based on Directorate of Food and Drinking Control (1996), the water requirements that use on food processing and directly contacting with food have to base on pure water requirement standard (Indonesian Health minister regulation No. 416/MenKes/Per/IX/1990 about water quality requirements and its controlling. In addition, criteria from WHO 1984, EEC 1980, and Gould 1994 can be used by the fish processor on their food processing.

There are two sources of water supply potable water and non-potable water. Both of them can be used on food processing, but the fish processor have to meet the water quality standard from health minister regulation, WHO, EEC and other organizations (Huss,1994).

1) Potable water

a) Potable water should be provided in all places of employment such as drinking, cooking, washing of the person, processing, washing of foods, washing of cooking or eating utensils, washing of food preparation or processing premises, washing equipments on food processing, and personal service room.

Table 4.1. Microbiological criteria (Guidelines) for drinking water quality

Organism in 100 ml 1)

Guideline value

Remarks

Piped water supplies

Treated water entering the distribution system

Fecal Coliform

0

Turbidity < 1 NTU; for disinfection with chlorine, pH preferably < 8.0, free chlorine residual 0.2 - 0.5 mg/l following 30 min (minimum) contact

Coliform Organism

0

Water in distribution system

Fecal coliforms

0

Coliform organisms

0

In 95% of samples examined throughout the year in the case of large supplies when sufficient samples are examined

Colifor Organisms

3

In an occasional sample but not in consecutive samples

Source: WHO, 1984 in Huss, (1994)

1) Multiple tube technique (MPN procedure) and the membrane filtration technique have been considered as capable yielding comparable information.

Table 4.2. Microbiological criteria (guidelines) for drinking water quality

Maximum admissible concentration (MAC)

Parameters

Results: volume of the sample (ml)

Guide level (GL)

Membrane filter method

Multiple tube method (MPN)

Total Coliforms

100

-

0

MPN < 1

Fecal Coliforms

100

-

0

MPN < 1

Fecal streptococci

100

-

0

MPN < 1

Sulphite-reducing clostridia

20

-

0

MPN < 1

Total bacteria counts1)

12)

13)

102)

1003)

Source: EEC, 1980 in Huss, (1994)

1) Water for human consumption 2) Incubation at 37oC 3) Incubation at 22oC

b) Drinking fountain surface which become wet during fountain operation shall be constructed of materials impervious to water and not subject to oxidation.

c) Ice in contact with products shall be made from potable water and maintained in a sanitary condition

d) Open water such as water barrels, pails, or tanks for drinking water from which the water must be dipped or poured, whether or not they are fitted with a cover, are prohibited.

2). Non-potable water:

a). Non-potable water such as water for industrial or firefighting purposes, is unsafe and not to be used for drinking, washing of the person, cooking, washing of foods, washing of cooking or eating utensils, washing of food preparation or processing premises or personal services rooms, washing food processing equipments or for washing clothes.

b) Construction of non-potable water systems or systems carrying any other non-potable substance shall be such as to prevent backflow or back syphonage into a potable water system.

Water quality factors

Several factors affect to water quality on fish plant. Microbes on water influence to water quality. Water that contains many microbes may have lack on quality. In addition, Organic matter may react and “consume” disinfectant such as chlorine and ozone and the presence will also interfere with UV light (Huss, 1994). Furthermore, pH is important in disinfection with chlorine and greater inactivation at high pH. In general, higher temperature result in increased inactivation rates (Huss, 1994).

Table 4.3. Water quality tolerances

Characteristic

Maximum limit in ppm

PHYSICAL

Turbidity (silica scale)

10

color (platinum scale)

10 - 20

Objectionable taste & color

0

CHEMICAL

Arsenic

0.05

Barium

1.0

Cadmium

0.01

Chromium

0.05

Copper

3.0

Iron and Manganese

0.3

Lead

0.05

Magnesium

125.0

Manganese

0.1

Mercury

0.002

Nitrate

10.0

Selenium

0.01

Silver

0.05

Zinc

15.0

Chloride

250.0

Fluoride

1.5

Sulfate

250.0

Phenolic compound

0.001

Total solid

500.0

Normal carbonate alkalinity

120.0

Source: Gould, 1994

Table 4.4. Water hardness quality

Quality

Ppm of Calcium Carbonate

Soft water

Less than 50

Slightly hard water

50 to 100

Hard water

100 to 200

Very hard water

Greater than 200

Source: Gould, 1994

Water quality in processing and cleaning

As a general rule, water used on food processing must meet drinking water standards. WHO guidelines, EEC, and Indonesian health minister regulation can be used by fisheries processor to make the water is proper for fish processing.

For making the water as a potable water, water have to check and free from disinfectant and bacteria. Turbidity, color, taste and odor are also easily monitored parameters. If there are local problems with chemical constituents (fluoride, iron) or contaminants from industry or agriculture (e.g. nitrate, pesticides, mining wastes) these should be monitored by the processor (Huss, 1994).

The chemicals are used as a disinfectants such as chlorine, chloramines, ozone or UV irradiation. Chlorination is the cheapest form of treatment and monitoring of chlorine is relatively easy. According to WHO (1984) the concentration of chlorine in water should be in the range 0.2-0.5 mg/l. For sanitation purposes, it may reach 200 mg/l, but in order to avoid corrosion lower concentrations are advised (50-100 mg/l).

Use of non-portable water in a plant

The use on non-portable water may be necessary for water conservation purposes or desirable because of cost, but non-portable water should do not use on food processing. The water e.g. be surface water, sea water or chlorinated water from can cooling. Chlorinated water may be used for washing cans after closing before heat treatment, for transporting raw materials before processing (after the water has cooled off), for initial washing of boxes, for cooling of compressor, for use the fire protection lines in non-food areas and for fuming of waste material. It is necessary that portable and non-portable water should be in separate distribution system that should be clearly identifiable (Huss, 1994).

Monitoring of water safety

Water qualities have to check before build the fish processing and during operation. During operation, water quality that used on fish processing unit should be check once 6 months. If the fish processors using sea water on their factories, they have to check the quality of water more often than used potable water. On monitoring inspection, they can use sensory test before check it with microbiological and physic test on laboratory. The processors have to use accredited laboratory for checking the water quality (Winarno and Surono, 2002).

The technical procedures describing the analyses for the common indicator organism are given in the standard textbook. The values used by the company should refer to specific method employed and the recommendation should include how to sample (tap flow, volume, sampling vessel, labeling, etc) and how to handle and examine the sample. Samples should be processed within 24 hours or less and be kept cool, but not frozen (preferably below 50C) and in the dark. The impact of sunlight can be very dramatic causing false negative results (Knochel, 1990 in Huss, 1994).

If chlorination is used for disinfection, monitoring of the free chlorine level is the simplest way of checking the water treatment and should be performed most often (e.g. on daily basis). The microbiological indicator may check less frequently. If disinfection systems leaving no residuals are being used, checking the equipment should be done regularly (Huss, 1994).

Corrective action

Corrective actions have to do as soon as possible if there are found a deviation to standard on processing. For example, if the quality of water in fish processing is low on quality, the processing activity have to stop temporary and recall the product processing with this water.

Record

Recording have to do on every monitoring action and corrective action. Fish processor used daily sanitation checking, periodic inspection monitoring, and periodic inspection plumbing (Winarno and Surono, 2002).

SANITATION STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

Table 4.5. Inactivation of microorganism by free chlorine

Organism

Water

Cl2 residues, mg/l

Temperature, oC

pH

Time, min

Reduction %

C*t 1)

E. coli

BDF2)

0.2

25

7.0

15

99.997

ND3)

E. coli

CDF4)

1.5

4

?

60

99.9

2.5

E. coli + GAC5)

CDF

1.5

4

?

60

<<10

>> 60

L. pneumophila (water grown)

Tap

0.25

20

7.7

58

99

15

L. pneumophila (media grown)

Tap

0.25

20

7.7

4

99

1.1

Acid-fast

Mycobacterium chelonei

BDF

0.3

25

7.0

60

40

>> 60

Virus

Hepatitis A

BDF

0.5

5

10.0

49.6

99.99

12.3

Hepatitis A

BDF

0.5

5

6.0

6.5

99.99

1.8

Parasites

G. lambia

BDF

0.2 - 0.3

5

6.0

-

99

54 - 87

G. lambia

BDF

0.2 - 0.3

5

7.0

-

99

83 - 133

G. lambia

BDF

0.2 - 0.3

5

8.0

-

99

119 - 192

Source: Huss, (1994).

1) C8t product of disinfectant concentration (c) in mg/l and contact time (t) in minutes for 99 % inactivation (mod.a. Sobsey, 1989)

2) BDF = Bufferd demand free

3) ND = no data

4) CDF = chlorine demand free

5) GAC = granular activated carbon.

SANITATION STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

4.4.2. Condition and cleanlines of equipments surface that are directly contact to product

A great variety of utensils and equipments are used in the fish factories. There are an abundance of advice and regulation available concerning the requirements for equipment. All of them agree that the food equipments should be non-contaminating and easy to clean. Raw fish, for example, do not have the same standard of hygiene as a cooked or value added product. Criteria for hygienic design are particularly important for equipment that used in the following stages of processing and particularly after bacteria-eliminate by processing stages.

There are seven basic principles for hygienic design agreed by Food Manufacturers Federation (FMF) and Food Machinery Association FMA (FMA/FMF 1967) as quoted by Forsythe and Hayes (1998).

1. All surfaces in contact with food must be inert to the food and must not migrate to or be absorbed by the food.

2. All surfaces in contact with food must be smooth and non-porous so that tiny particles of food, bacteria, or insect eggs are not caught in microscopic surface crevices and become difficult to dislodged, thus becoming a potential source of contamination.

3. All surfaces in contact with the food must be visible for inspection or the equipment must be readily disassembled for inspection.

4. All surfaces in contact with food must be readily accessible for manual cleaning, or if not, the readily disassembled for manual cleaning, or if clean-in-place techniques are used, it must be demonstrated that the results achieved without disassembly are the equivalent of those obtained with disassembly and manual cleaning.

5. All interior surfaces in contact with food must be so arranged that the equipment is self-employing or self-draining.

6. Equipment must so designed as to protect the contents from external contamination.

7. The exterior or non-product contact surfaces should be arranged to prevent harboring of soils, bacteria, or pets in and on the equipment itself as well as in its contact with other equipment, floors, walls, or hanging supports.

The equipment in food plant is very specific for the type of food being processed. However, there are basic factors that must be considered essesntial in the design and in the installation of equipment to maintain a clean plant for the production and processing of food that is clean and safe (Gould, 1994)

According to Gould (1994), some of basic the fundamentals of design should include the following:

a. All surfaces in contact with food should be inert to the food under the condition of use and the food surface constituents must not migrate into the food or be adsorbed by or in the food.

b. All surfaces in contact with the food must be smooth and non-porous to the food or to bacteria, yeast and/or molds and be totally free from pits or crevices.

c. All product contact surfaces must be free of recesses, dead ends, open seams and gaps, crevices, protruding ledges, inside threads, insides shoulders, bolt and/or rivets.

d. All equipment should be designed so that all contact surfaces can be readily and thoroughly cleaned and sanitized.

e. All food equipments should be available for inspection and cleaning.

f. All food equipments should be designed to protect the foods from external contamination.

g. All food equipments should be designed so as to eliminate dead ends and dead space or areas to harbor soil, bacteria, molds, yeasts, and other pests.

h. All food equipment should installed with three feet clear working area around the equipment.

i. All food equipment should be installed with a minimum of six inches off the floor.

j. All moving parts should have sealed or self-lubricating bearings.

k. Hoods, if necessary, must be installed for ease in cleaning and sanitizing when appropriate.

l. Wood and other impervious materials shall not be used in a food plant.

m. Stainless steel should be used for the manufacture of all food plant equipment, piping, and all food contact surfaces.

n. All food equipment should be acces for the service, preferably from above.

o. The food plant equipment should be designed for cleaning in place (CIP) in preference to clean out of place (COP).

p. All conveyor guides, splash guard, safety guards should be easily removed or easily opened to permit cleaning.

q. All water and steam valves should be designed to prevent any leakage and they should have no pockets or recess areas.

r. All food valves should be easily disassembled for cleaning and inspection.

s. All piping must be aligned and supported to prevent sagging or any impediment to product flow and it must be self-draining.

According to Shapton and Shapton (1991), the most common design faults which cause poor cleanability are:

a. poor accessibility (- equipment should be placed at least 1 m from wall, ceiling or nearest equipment;

b. inadequately rounded corners (minimum radius should be 1 cm, but 2 cm is regarded as optimum by the American Sanitary Standards Committee);

c. sharp angles;

d. dead ends (including poorly designed seal).

Materials commonly used on food processing equipments are stainless steels, iron and mild steel, copper and its alloy, miscellaneous metals, plastics, rubber, glass, and wood, antimicrobial work surface (triclosan produced by Ciba Geigy) (Forsythe and Hayes, 1998).

Monitoring action

On fish processing unit, there are several subjects that have to monitor on cleaning of all surfaces equipments that contact directly to food such as surfaces condition which directly contact with products, cleanliness, and sanitation of equipment surfaces that contact directly to food, type and concentration of sanitation material, cleanliness of gloves and worker cloth (Winarno and Surono, 2002).

This monitoring can do with visual inspection to surfaces cleanliness whether good or not, cleanliness and sanitation whether maintain by fish processor or not, gloves and worker cloth whether have a good or bad condition.

Besides, using visual test, the processor can use chemical test using test strips/kits and microbiological test can do on verification action.

Corrective action

Several objects have to observe on corrective action such as sanitizer concentration whether variation or not, if it happens management of fish processing have to maintain/change the equipments and trained the worker.

Recording

Record should be observe at every monitoring and corrective action. The example of record on fish processing are periodically monitoring record, periodically record of chemical concentrations and monthly sanitation monitoring records.

4.4.3. Cross contamination protection

Cross-contamination is defined as: any product that directly or indirectly becomes contaminated from contacting contaminants from another product, package, or area.

The environment at a seafood plant location can contribute to contamination, as well as contamination to the products. The processing equipment, containers, and work surfaces are other contamination sources. An effective sanitation program is necessary to reduce contamination and to monitor program effectiveness.

Cross contamination is easy to occur from raw materials. Many pathogenic bacteria are naturally present in aquatic environments Clostridium botulinum type E, pathogenic Vibrio sp., Aeromonas) and the general environment (C.botulinum type A and B, Listeria monocytogenes) (Huss et al. 2000). Other microorganisms are of the animal/human reservoir (Salmonella, Shigella, E.coli, enteric virus) (Huss et al. 2000). Although this pathogen is destroyed through pasteurization and thermal processing, it often enters cooked, ready-to-eat products as a post-processing contaminant.

The pathogenic bacteria may live in fish, these microorganisms may be passed on the raw materials during production and processing. In general, when a fish is caught, the flesh is sterile whereas after death the fish's immune system collapses allowing easy access of microorganisms into the flesh (Huss 1995).

Some microorganisms have been found on the entire outer surface (skin and gills) and in the intestines of live and newly healthy caught fish (Huss 1995).

If these microorganism move to other materials on processing area, it will cause contamination on products or equipment. It can be affect to product quality.

Processing equipments

Processing equipments can be as a source of contamination on fish manufacture. It is therefore necessary that equipment in the processing establishment, coming in contact with food, be constructed in such a way as to ensure adequate cleaning, disinfection and proper maintenance to avoid the contamination (CAC 1997). To avoid cross contamination, processing equipments are have specific color for specific area, e.g. blue for raw materials products, white for processing area, and yellow for toilet and general plant cleaning.

Personnel

Personnel are one of vital component on cross contamination during fish processing. Transfer of microorganisms by personnel particularly from hands, is of vital importance (Chen et al. 2001; Bloomfield 2003). During fish handling and processing, bacteria may transfer from contaminated worker hands to raw materials or product and equipments surfaces. Low infectious doses of organisms such as Shigella and pathogenic Escherichia coli have been linked to hands as a source of contamination (Snyder 1998). Proper hand washing and disinfection has been recognized as one of the most effective measures to control the spread of pathogens, especially when considered along with the restriction of ill workers (Adler, 1999). To avoid cross contamination the employee should have received basic food sanitation training and employee do not result in food contamination.

Water

Water is important factor on fish processing, there are not fish processing without water. Water is a vehicle for the transmission of many agents of disease and continues to cause significant outbreaks of disease in developed and developing countries world-wide (Kirby et al., 2003).

It is therefore important that potable water is used throughout the production process, for cleaning equipment, washing food, as well as ice making (Kirby et al., 2003).

According to www.seafoodfromvietnam.com, stated that the main methods to avoid cross-contamination referring to the design and the technological installations of the factory are:

· the production line should be installed in straight line with no overlapping steps;

· ceiling, wall, equipment, machines in the factory must be always maintained;

· floor, walls, sewerage surfaces must be smooth to easy to clean;

· floor, walls, sewerage must be sanitized after each shift;

· all gates to the factories interior and to the different production rooms must kept closed tight best by doors. they should have in addition plastic curtains installed inside after the doors that protect against insects and contamination from outside;

· ventilation systems should be arranged close to the ceilings and must be protected against contamination from outside and always found in good operating condition;

· processing water and waste water drainage system should be constructed under the principles of flowing from area of high hygiene risk to low risk;

· drainage holes and ways must be constructed to not allow harmful animals to enter and must prevent a back flow of waste water during production.

Monitoring

Monitoring program on this section is starting from the source, through treatment, distribution and storage within the factory, to ensure that the water complies with internal or legislative standards (Kirby et al., 2003).

According to Winarno and Surono (2002), there are several monitoring actions on cross contamination protection, namely:

1. Managers have to separate different activities such as between handling/processing of raw material with products.

2. Separating different products on storage

3. Cleanliness and area sanitation and handling equipments and food processing

4. Practice on Personal hygiene, cloth and hand washing

5. Practice to personal and equipments on product handling.

6. Personal flow on factory

Several incorrect actions do by workers during processing:

a. handing raw materials, then handle products;

b. work close to or on the floor, then handle product;

c. handling materials of can, then handle product;

d. back from toilet did not wash hands;

e. the shovel to handle waste on the floor, is also used for handle products;

f. scratching face then handle the product;

g. holding the unclean door handle, then handle the product.

Corrective action

According to Winarno and Surono (2002), quality assurance team have to do several corrective actions when there is a discrepancy monitoring that cause cross contamination.

a. stop the activities till normally;

b. take the preventive action;

c. safety product evaluation, if it is necessary disposition to other products, re-process, and disposed to contaminated product.

4.4.4. Preserving hand washing facilities, sanitation, and toilet Washing facilities

A hand washing facility should be ideally be provided in the factory entrance so that it can be used every time somebody enters. It should have hand hot (40-50oC) running water; pedal operated taps are best. Soap and single-use towels should be provided and/or hot air hand dries. No towels are needed for a wet process room. If paper towels are used, a bin must be provided; the contents of the bin must be burned at intervals, well away from the processing area.

There are a number of the requirements on washing facilities:

· Have adequate washing facilities e.g. 1 washing facility for 10 workers

· Be located on appropriate place e.g. in front of entrance door on fish processing.

· Should be have flow water sources and dryer, and also bin. In addition, fish plant should have washing hand rooms, hygienic bathrooms and replacement rooms for changing clothes and boots.

Table 4.6. Minimum number of lavatories in food processing

Type of employment

Number of employees

Minimum number of lavatories

Non industrial - office buildings, public buildings, and similar establishments

1 - 15

1

16 - 35

2

36 - 60

3

61 - 90

4

91 - 125

5

Over 125

Additional fixture for each additional 45 employees

Industrial factories, warehouses, loft building, and similar establishment

1 - 10

1 fixture for each 10 employees

Over 100

1 fixture for each 15 additional employees

Source: Gould (1994)

Cleaning systems

The most comprehensive procedure for manual cleaning and disinfection of Clean Out of Place (COP). It is suitable for modern plants. For cleaning liquid handling plants like breweries and dairies Clean In Place (CIP) system will be used, based on circulation by pumping of water, cleaning agents and disinfectants. In principle, the two systems will be similar.

The most factories, a combination of COP and CIP will be used. Use of CIP may be limited to part of the plants or even to a particular machine. However, regardless of the type and size of food production the general principles behind the complex.

The frequency of cleaning and disinfection will vary from several times during the working i.e. at every major break to once every day, at the end of production, or even less frequent.

Table 4.7. Steps cleaning on fish plant

Step

Kinds of cleaning

Purposes

1

Dry Clean

surfaces are wiped and floors swept

solid wastes (i.e. seafood scraps) are put into waste bins

2

Cold water wash (removes soluble waste & softens remaining materials)

Use cold water under pressure to wash walls, floors, and equipment. Hot water is not recommended as it causes food residues to set and become difficult to remove start from the corners and work towards the drain (top to bottom) to reduce the spread of contamination

3

Apply detergent &

Scrub (loosens and lifts soil and dirt)

apply an approved food grade detergent to all surfaces, moving upwards from the bottom to the top and observing manufacturers instructions (i.e. concentration, contact time, temperature)

scrub equipment and surfaces using cleaning pads or sponges

remove any build up of materials (e.g. around hand basins and equipment)

4

Warm water rinse (removes dissolved waste materials and cleaning chemicals)

rinse all detergent from the surfaces using warm potable

water under pressure from the top down

5

Apply sanitizer (kills any bacteria present)

very hot water (greater than 750C) or an approved food grade chemical sanitizer may be used

apply the sanitizer to all surfaces by moving upwards from the bottom to the top and observing manufacturers instructions (i.e. concentration, contact time, temperature)

6

Hot water rinse (removes sanitizer)

rinse all sanitizer from the surfaces using hot potable water (greater that 75°C) under pressure from the top down

7

Flush drainage system

flush the drainage system with high pressure water for several minutes to prevent a build up of food residues and the possible production of odors

8

Allow to air dry

ensure surfaces and equipment dry rapidly.

do not dry surfaces with tea towels as they may re-contaminate the surface (if a towel is needed, use a disposable paper towel)

9

Inspect

· inspect surfaces and equipment for cleaning effectiveness

· determine if they look, feel and smell clean? (i.e. look for streaks, feel for grease residues, wipe with a tissue to detect discolorization, run you finger under bench tops, move equipment, if you can smell fishy odors then there is a cleaning problem)

· may be performed as part of the ‘Pre-Operational Hygiene Inspection' or during hygiene audits

Source: Anonymous (2002)

Table 4.6 . Chemical Disinfectants

Chemicals groups

Range of activity

Examples of brands

Alcohols

Aldehydes

Ampholytes

Chlorhexidine

Chlorine compounds

Iodine compounds

Phenolics

Chloroxylenol

clear soluble

White

Pine fluids

Quaternary ammonium

compounds

wide

wide

narrow

narrow

wide

wide]

narrow

wide

wide

extra narrow

narrow

-

Cidex

Tego

Hibitane

Brobat Bleach, Domestos, Milton

Wescodyne, lodron (iodophors) Betadine (povidone-iodine)

Dettol

Clearsol, Hycolin

Izal Germicide

Jeypine

Shield

Savlon (includes chlorhexidine)

Source:

Table. 4.7. Inactivating material

Chemical groups

Foods

Inactivation by

* Synthetic products

** Natural products

Hard water

Alcohols

Ampholytes

Chlorhexidine

Chlorine compounds

Iodine compounds

Phenolics

chioroxylenol

clear soluble

white

Quaternary ammonium

compounds

Slight

Serious

Serious

Serious

Serious

Serious

Slight

Slight

Serious

Slight Serious

Serious

Slight

Slight

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Serious

Slight Serious

Serious

Slight

Slight

Moderate

Moderate Moderate

Serious

Slight Serious

Serious

Slight

Slight

Serious

Slight

Slight

Serious

* Synthetic products = plastics and nylon

**Natural products = rubber, wood, cork, cotton, paper, cellulose sponge

All surfaces, equipments, and utensils that come into contact with seafood should be cleaned and sanitized at least on a daily basis. This means it should be odorless, free of soil, and be almost entirely free of bacteria.

Food handlers who are asked to use chemical disinfectants must be instructed and supervised to ensure the fresh preparation, daily, of the disinfectant solutions. The containers for the fresh solutions must be not only clean but also disinfected by heat, as described earlier, to destroy any bacteria which may remain in the containers.

Toilets

Adequate and separate toilet facilities must be provided for male and female employees. The principle toilets should be sited at some distance from the production area. In larger factories additional toilets will supplement them and these should be sited close to but not opening directly onto processing and storage areas. Double self-closing tight fitting doors are required although automatically operated doors are preferable.

Toilets should conform to the same standards of hygiene demanded in food handling areas of the factory, and cleaning and disinfection should be carried out least once per day. Construction materials for ceiling, walls, floors and cubicle partitions should be durable and surface should be hard, impervious to water, smooth and easily cleaned. Junctions between walls and floors should be coved and wall angles rounded. Floors should slope towards drain and efficient ventilation to the outsides atmosphere, possibly aided by extraction fans, is vital. All toilet facilities must be well maintained and operating at all times, and in employees should be encouraged to play a part.

In total, water closets, preferably foot-operated, should be provided at the rate of 1 per 15 female employees whilst 1 urinal and 1 water closet per 25 males is necessary.

Employees should be reminded of the need to wash their hands when leaving the toilet by suitably worded notices but this should be reinforced by routine checks by supervisory staff.

Additional hand-washing facilities should be sited at all entrances to food handling areas. Here foot-or knee-operated rose head miser tape are preferable as splashing is reduced.

Toilet rooms separate for each sex, shall be provided in all places of employment. The number of facilities to be provided for each sex for whom the facilities are furnished. Where toilet rooms will be occupied by no more than one person at a time, can be locked from the inside, and contain at least one water closet, separate toilet rooms for each sex need to be provided (Gould, 1994).

Flush toilet should be provided at the following ratios :

Table 4.8. Toilet should be provided on fish processing

Number of employees

Number of toilets

1 - 9

1

10 - 24

2

25 - 49

3

50 - 100

5

Clucas and Ward (1996)

An extra toilet is the requiret for every additional 30 employees.

4.4.5. Protection from contaminant materials

Monitoring

There is a number of monitoring action on this section, such as monitoring toxin materials and unsanitary water every 4 hours since starting production.

Corrective action

Corrective action is possible to do if there are deviation matters on monitoring action:

1. Vanishing contamination materials from surfaces

2. Repairing air flow to reduce condensation

3. Avoiding water puddle on the floor

4. Using water to wash foot and wheel before entrance to processing room

5. Training

6. Throwing un-labeling chemical materials.

Recording

Records that are needed on this point are sanitation periodic control record and daily sanitation control record.

4.4.6. Labeling and storage

Several types of printed labeling are common - pressure-sensitive plastic, paper and laminated aluminum foil labels. Sleeve labels are clipped or fixed with adhesive around pots and tubs. Such containers may require features, such as a recessed panel, in their design to facilitate the location of the label. Some packs are designed so that after use a paperboard label and plastic pot may be easily separated to meet waste management needs.

Another popular form of labeling of bottles and jars is the printed plastic shrink sleeve. These are supplied flat and printed in tubular form on reels. After automatic application, the container passes into a heated zone which causes the label to shrink tightly around the container.

Labels

Labels in the context of food packaging comprise the labels which are applied to:

* primary packaging in the form of cans, bottles, jars, pots, tubs, cartons, corrugated fiberboard cases, fiber drums and molded pulp containers;

* transit packs (secondary packaging) such as cases and stretch/shrink wrapped packs;

* palletized loads (tertiary packaging) the food product directly (promotional labels), e.g. fruit.

The products concerned and, where, for instance, a label is applied over a closure, provide security as a tamper evident feature.

Labels are characterized by their substrate, adhesion and method of application. The substrate may be paper, paperboard and laminates thereof to aluminum foil and plastic films. There is a wide choice of paper based substrate depending on the appearance and finish required. The paper may be uncoated, on-machine white mineral pigment coated in matte, satin or gloss finishes, or cast coated off-machine with white or colored mineral pigment coatings. Where laminates to aluminum foil are used, they are often embossed.

Labels may use any of the conventional print processes, the choice being influenced by the order quantity and finished appearance required. Digital printing is also used, as is ink jet printing, on the packing line. Varnishing is applied to provide protection, e.g. wet rub resistance, and gloss. Hot foil stamping is used to enhance appearance.

Products information on label are :

1. Lot/Batch identification

On labeling should be added producer name and no of batch. It is important for product recalling and stopping distribution of product.

2. Product information

It contains information about nutrition, ingredients, composition, how to choose, handle, store, process and consume of product with safety and the correct manner.

3. Labeling system

Food product should be have a good label which have good color, appropriate size, and different from the other products. In addition, labeling system should base on Indonesian Health ministry regulation No 79/Menkes/Per/III/1978 about Label and the advertising of food.

4. Training for consumer

Monitoring

The purpose of the monitoring this are to ensure that the labeling, storage, and use of toxins is true for protection of product from contamination. Some aspects that are monitored is the activity and labeling systems, storage and use of toxins. Some things to note is that the labeling should be mention:

· The name of the product in the packaging;

· The name and address of the distributor;

· The usage instructions

Labeling on packaging also mention:

a. The name of product in the packaging

b. The usage of instruction

The storage for materials that are toxin should be store in:

1. Storing the materials on limited access area;

2. The food grade material with non-food grade have to separate,

3. The materials have to throw away from the equipment and goods that are contact with the product.

Monitoring action should be conducted on sufficient frequency; it is recommended at least once a day, and the observation of conditions and activities throughout the day.

Corrective action

Corrective action should be conducted on labeling and storage are:

1. remove the toxin material that is untrue storage,

2. return the material that are not properly labeled to the supplier,

3. correction labels,

4. discard damaged containers,

5. check safety of product,

6. carry out training

Recording

Recording for monitoring and corrective action that should be done as follows:

1. Periodic control sanitation records,

2. Daily control sanitation record,

3. Daily log information,

4.4.7. Monitoring on Personal Hygiene

Many hygiene problems arise from the staff themselves. It is therefore important to ensure that they are healthy, and that they have a basic understanding of the need for good personal hygiene.

Good personal hygiene is essential for preventing bacterial contamination of seafood, and can be as simple as:

· washing hands frequently;

· wearing clean protective clothing; and

· keeping worker healthy and clean.

Staff should not be allowed to work in food processing area while suffering from intestinal infection as these may be transited to the food. Open cuts and boils on the hands may harbor pathogenic staphylococci, and any staff with such lesions should cover them with waterproof dressings. If possible, dressed cuts should not come into direct contact with food. If this is not possible, the member of staff affected should be transferred to areas where they do not come directly into contact with the food.

Staff should not be allowed to wear outdoor clothing within the processing area as the standards of hygiene outside the factory will invariably be lower. Cloakrooms will therefore need to be provided where outdoor clothing can be storage during the working day and where staff can change into clean overalls. Cloakrooms should include lockers for the safe keeping of valuables such as rings and watches which are not allowed on the factory floor. The factory should provide all workers with clean overalls, hats and, where appropriate, rubber gloves (Clucas & Ward, 1996).

Food handlers are required to maintain clean protective clothing that prevents food from coming into contact with any portion of their ordinary clothing. The upper and lower torso is to be covered when handling or preparing un-packaged seafood.

According to Anonymous (2002), protective clothing is used to protect the food from contamination and may include:

· hair covering (caps or hair nets),

· apron,

· gloves, and

· enclosed footwear or boots.

Hair is a common cause of physical and bacterial contamination of foods. To prevent hair from coming into contact with food or food contact surfaces, food handlers are required to wear clean hair covering when in food preparation, packing and services areas.

Personal Hygiene

Personal hygiene is a most important element of health quality assurance in a fish processing plant. According to Thorpe (1992), the essential requirements for personnel working in production area and stores are those mentioned below:

1. protective clothing, footwear and headgear issued by the company must be worn and must be changed regularly. When considered appropriate by management, a fine hairnet must be worn in addition to the protective headgear provided. Hair clips and grips should not be worn. Visitors and contractors must comply with this regulation;

2. protective clothing must not be worn off the site and must be kept in good condition. If it is in poor condition, the supervisor should be informed immediately;

3. beards must be kept short and trimmed, and a protective cover worn when considered appropriate by management;

4. nail varnish, false nails, and make up must not be worn in production areas;'

5. false eyelashes, wrist watches and jewelry (except wedding rings or the national equivalent, and sleeper earrings) must not be worn;

6. hands must be washed regularly and kept clean at all times;

7. personal items must not be taken into production areas unless carried in inside overall pockets (handbags, shopping bags must be left in the locker provided);

8. food and drink must not be taken into or consumed in areas other than the tea bars and the staff restaurant;

9. sweets and chewing gum must not be consumed in production areas;

10. smoking or taking snuff is forbidden in food production, warehouse, and distribution areas where 'No Smoking' notices are displayed;

11. spitting is forbidden in all areas of the site;

12. superficial injuries (cuts, grazes, boils, sores and skin infections) must be reported to the medical unit or nurse via the supervisor and clearance obtained before entering production areas;

13. dressings must be waterproof and contain a metal strip as approved by the medical unit;

14. infectious diseases (including stomach disorders, diarrhea, skin conditions and discharge from eyes, nose or ears) must be reported to the medical unit or nurse via the supervisor. This also applies to staff returning from travel abroad where there could be a risk of infection;

15. all staff must report to medical unit on return from both certified and uncertified sickness.

According to Anonymous (2002), staff should wash their hands with soap and warm water:

* before handling seafood,

* after handling raw seafood and before handling cooked seafood,

* immediately after using toilet,

* after eating or smoking,

* after performing cleaning duties,

* after handling any waste materials, and

* immediately after coughing or sneezing into hands, wiping nose, scratching head, face or body under protective outer clothing.

In addition, according to Anonymous (2002), following is a list of some other recommended personal hygiene requirements:

* Cover cuts, burns, rashes or other injuries. Use brightly colored, waterproof bandages & wear a disposable glove over the top;

* Remove all jewelry as it prevents effective hand washing and poses a risk of physical contamination;

* Remove nail polish, heavily scented hand creams or other cosmetics that could contaminate the seafood;

* Do not eat or drink in food preparation or storage areas;

* Do not smoke in food preparation or storage areas.

As is required by the Food safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulation 1995 in Forsythe and Hayes (1998), all cuts, sores and other skin abrasions must be covered with approved waterproof dressing which prevent the transmission of skin bacteria on to other surfaces. Dressing must be replaced regularly and not allowed to become dirty.

Health of worker

Occupational health services are available in industry. Most large departmental stores and factories possess well-equipped medical departments including a surgery and waiting room. When an identified outbreak of food poisoning or other disease occurs in a factory or in the community arising from factory procedure, the first people to be involved are the on-site doctor and nurse. It is then the responsibility of the medical staff to inform the management and the offices of the Medical Environmental Health departments (Betty & Diane, 1987).

According Anonymous (2002), staffs are required to tell management if they are suffering from:

1. Severe cold or ‘flu symptoms.

2. Stomach cramps, vomiting, and/or diarrhea.

3. Contagious or infectious diseases.

4. Infected wounds, sores, or boils.

5. Dermatitis, rashes, or skin irritations.

They are not permitted to perform any activity where there is direct contact with seafood, and should only work in areas where there is no risk of contamination.

Medical examination

Physical examination is usually required at the beginning of employment, to establish freedom from tubercle infection, intestinal pathogens and skin infection. Also a medical certificate should state freedom from past typhoid- like illnesses and skin diseases. Periodic examination of stools from healthy food handlers is not recommended. Amongst meat and poultry workers salmonellae may be excreted for a short time only, the serotypes changing according to the pattern of serotypes in the animals and birds and in the carcass and poultry meat (Betty & Diane, 1987).

All applicants seeking employment in the food industry processing, who are likely to come direct or indirect contact with foods, should be examined medically to ensure fitness or work (Forsythe and Hayes, 1998).

Obviously, the rationale of the medical examination and questionnaire for applicants should be applied to existing employees on continuous basis. It is essential that management is informed immediately of any such complaints so that the correct remedial action may be initiated (Forsythe and Hayes, 1998).

Monitoring

Monitoring is intended to control health condition of worker that can cause microbiological contamination on food, packaging materials, and food contact surfaces.

Some symptoms of worker are needed to get attention during monitoring such as diarrhea, fever, vomiting, jaundice, sore throat, skin lesions, ulcers, and dark urine.

Corrective action

Some action that taken by management are:

· repatriating the personnel,

· covering the wound with impermeable bandage, then repatriate personnel.

Recording

The management should be record the data health examination and records regular corrective action when a deviation occurs.

4.4.8. Pest Control

The possible entry of insects, birds, and vermin such as rats and mice, must be prevented at the construction stage. There should be no trees, gardens, cultivated area, etc. inside the side compound as these provide habitats for vermin and insects. The buildings should be surrounded by an area of concrete or tarmac. Flies, which are notorious for carrying disease, should be excluded from the processing area. Devices which used ultraviolet light to attract flies appear to be ineffective in tropical areas, possibly because the sun shining through open windows is a brighter source of ultraviolet light than the trap itself. It is therefore probably more effective to exclude the flies than to try to catch them. Domestic animals such as dogs, cats, chicken, ducks, etc. should never be allowed to wander around in the processing area and should be banned from the site altogether. All these warm-blooded animals can carry pathogenic organisms. Water traps at the points where drainage chabbels pass through the walls to the outside should prevent the entry of rats, mice, and cockroaches.

Pests are a potential source of contamination. Flies, cockroaches, mice, birds, and animals all carry bacteria and, if not controlled, they can bring food poisoning bacteria into a premises.

According to Wrzesien et al., (2005) There are many pests which danger to fish processing plant namely:

a. ZOONOSIS

Zoonosis are defined as those infections which are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man (W.H.O. Committee on Zoonosis, 1969). Zoonosis as we know are infectious diseases, and are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa or by parasites, may infect the body through the respiratory tract, mucous membranes, the mouth or the skin, scrapes or wound. Zoonosis can be transmitted from animals to man by several methods. Direct Transmission; direct or immediate contact with a diseased animal. (e.g. Rabies, ringworm). Indirect Transmission; exposure to disease by being in contact with objects or materials which have been contaminated by a diseased animal. (i.e. Amoebiasis, hookworm).

b. RODENTS

Rodents include rats, mice and voles, both those common to human habitations as well as local and naturally occurring wild rodent populations. Rodents can be disease vectors as well as freeloaders on a Site's food supplies, and rodents can also cause physical damage to material and to other animals.

c. BIRDS

Birds such as pigeons, sparrows, starlings, raptors and various waterfowl can compete for food with site animals, foul food and water and be vectors and reservoirs for disease.

d. INSECTS AND ARACHNIDS

Cockroaches, flies, ants, ticks, fleas and lice all cause various problems, they contaminate food supplies (their larvae), spread disease and are parasitic on (or annoy) site animals. Cockroaches can carry several infectious agents and parasites. Spiders are generally beneficial but centipedes can bite.

e. INDIGENOUS AND FERAL CARNIVORES

Predators can cause much damage in sanctuaries by killing and injuring animals spreading disease such as rabies, and generally stressing animals.

f. PLANTS

Poisonous plants, thorny brush, trees and weeds can also be annoying/dangerous to animals, staff, and visitors. Many factors contribute to the presence of pests in the site today and much can be done to eliminate them or reduce them to manageable proportions.

The best cleaning and sanitizing procedure can be destroyed if cockroaches or mice are active during the night. Good personal hygiene and food handling practices can also be in vain if flies have access to food processing areas or seafood is not protected from flies.

According Anonymous (2002), to control pests, two possible approaches that can be used:

* preventive measures, and

* elimination measures.

Furthermore, according to Anonymous (2002), preventive measures are the most effective approach and often the cheapest. They aim to:

* prevent pest entry to the premises, and

* remove the food supply (e.g. starve them out).

Elimination methods are used to control pests that gain access to premises. These types of pest control methods are usually more expensive but may be required under certain circumstances.

The location of baits and the application of chemical sprays are particularly important because baits and sprays could contaminate seafood. Baits must be located away from foods. Foods and packaging materials must be protected from chemical sprays. You may need to seek professional advice when deciding what pest control measures to use.

Effective pest control also requires routine premises inspections to look for signs of pest activity (such as smears, droppings, gnaw marks). This could be done weekly as part of the cleaning program. Look in the places where activity may be expected, such as inside cupboards, underneath refrigerators, and in drains.

Table 4.11. Two approaches on pest control

Preventive Measures

Elimination Measures

Fly screens, plastic strips, air blowers Internal

Fly traps & zappers

Sealing access points (e.g. cracks)

Rodent or coakroach traps & baits

Eliminating harbourage sites

The application o chemical sprays

Contralling waste materials

Effective cleaning

Cover foods or store in lidded containers

Source: Anonymous (2002)

Rodents should be controlled in and around a food plant for three basic reasons, that is, (1) the economic of lost products consumed by them and the damage to other product causing their destruction, (2) the aesthetics standpoint, that is, rodents and their filth is repugnant, and (3) from the standpoint that rodents are carries and transmitter of disease (Gould, 1994).

The most important step in control of mice and rats is to remove all harborages, including hollow structural and storage areas within the plant. Bait boxes with anticoagulant type baits may be effective for rats. Bait boxes must be located on the entrance and around the perimeter of buildings (Gould, 1994).

Birds are a nuisance in and around a food establishment. They may contaminate raw material, product or material in food processing or storage, and outgoing materials. They cause objectionable odors, deface property and they may be the cause of disease. The most trouble bird are pigeons, house sparrows, and starlings (Gould, 1994).

Monitoring

The aim of pest monitoring is to confirm that the pest has been removed from the processing area.

Monitoring action can be done by visual inspection, use a flashlight to hide and animals trap, to keep the area clean and facilitate supervision.

Corrective action

In the example when the observation was made, in fact, after using of pesticides and traps, flies back to entering the processing room, then the corrective actions that can be done is to add a air curtain on the above of outer door and remove the waste out of the container.

Recording

The control records in this point are periodic sanitation controls record and daily sanitation control record.

4.5. Summary

SSOPs were necessary in the definition of each establishment's responsibility to consistently follow effective sanitation procedures and to minimize the risk of direct product contamination or adulteration. SSOPs are sets of a specific sanitation and hygiene principles procedures and practices to ensure cleanliness/safety of food products during production. SSOP is an prerequisite program, before fish processing implement of HACCP.