0115 966 7955 Today's Opening Times 10:00 - 20:00 (BST)
Place an Order
Instant price

Struggling with your work?

Get it right the first time & learn smarter today

Place an Order
Banner ad for Viper plagiarism checker

Effect of Brand Loyalty on Advertising

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional academic writers. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Published: Wed, 21 Feb 2018

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background and context:

Each business has a product, whether they have deliberately urbanized it or not. A brand is merely anticipation or a guarantee of an understanding. Whether that anticipation is gullible, reliable, pioneering, or enjoyable, trademarks are short-hand for relating the approach a trade, cluster, artefact, service, superstar or other body narrates to its shareholders (for instance., shoppers, benefits, issues, workers, sponsors, helpers, dealers, etc.). A strapping brand influences all as of the aptitude to employ top flair plus to prospect to cultivate the base line. Modest doubt that further and further notice is being paid to measuring and manage brands as advantages. The approach to fabricate a strapping brand is to set shoppers plus their requirements at the hub of each judgment the business formulates. In excess of instance, “shopper-centric” recital form delineation in the souk place as well as build exciting associations by means of shoppers. This separated tie, known as “brand fairness”, is an authentic plus priceless advantage by means of concrete proceeds in provisions of shopper devotion, productivity, as well as lagging as of unenthusiastic advertising or spirited act. (Bajarin, 2005)

1.1.1 Brand Fairness:

Brand fairness is the summation entirety of knowledge regarding the brand by all shareholders, counting shoppers, stakeholders plus workers. It comprises all that persons sense as well as believe regarding the trademark as a result of straight understanding, gossip; moments-of-truth by means of the brand plus the brands’ advertising recital. It comprises a store of prospect cash flow plus proceeds. High-quality evaluates of brand fairness can offer signs as to the outlook income inclinations. If brand impartiality is declining, this is a pointer of piling up problem. If brand fairness is growing, one is devoting in prospect presentation, albeit it’s not screening through in proceeds at present. (De Freitas, 2005)

The aim of the brand management concept is to build strapping brands – though what is a strapping brand, besides? In overseeing Brand fairness, brand fairness was described as the brand possessions (or charges) related to a brand’s identity plus sign that adjoin to (or take away as of) an artefact or service. These possessions can be clustered into four measurements: brand consciousness, apparent excellence, brand links, as well as brand faithfulness. These four measurements show brand expansion, organization plus dimension. (Thurrott, 2004)

* Brand consciousnessis a frequently underrated advantage; though, alertness has been exposed to influence insights as well as even flavour. Public like the recognizable plus are ready to assign all kinds of high-quality approaches to substance that are recognizable to them. The Intel Inside promotion has radically transported consciousness into insights of technical advantage and souk reception.

* Perceived excellenceis a particular kind of alliance, partially for the reason that it sways brand relations in some situations plus partially for the reason that it has been empirically exposed to shape productivity (as deliberate by equally ROI plus supply return).

* Brand linkscan be something that joins the shopper to the product. It can comprise customer metaphors, artefact description; employ conditions, organisational relations, brand character as well as signs. Much of product organization engages formative what relations to expand plus then creating methods that will bond the relations to the product.

* Brand faithfulnessis at the spirit of any product’s worth. The notion is to reinforce the dimension as well as strength of each fidelity section. A product by means of a little though extremely faithful shopper support can have major fairness. (Thurrott, 2004)

Brand fairness decides a product’s strength plus might as well as its economic worth. Reliable evaluates of product fairness can assist recognize a brand’s development in the direction of its objectives. Even though these channels require to be customized to an exacting trade viewpoint as well as reproduce the brands planned landmarks, this study advocates a blend of the subsequent advancements:

* Inputs: The sum of promotion plus communication pays outs as a proportion of trades. For some businesses this is a major obligor of product fairness. This cluster can in addition comprise other interior determines, such as ‘novelty hold up’ plus other cultural characteristics.

* Midway measures: these attempts to unearth the shareholders’ consciousness with insight of the product as well as their outlook in the direction of it, virtual to rivals. Revealing concerns, such as shopper contentment or apparent excellence, throughout qualitative study can assist the trademark proprietor appreciate shopper incentives (or be short of thereof) to buy.

* Presentation: How shareholders essentially perform? “Deals” is a major metric here, down with of souk split, shopper withholding, faithfulness plus incidence of acquire.

Evaluating the product’s fairness is vital to defining competent as well as successful:

  • Shopper strategies which souks offer mainly latent?
  • Marketing strategies Which facet of the advertising mix requirements further spotlight?
  • Budget shareHow much to spend moreover in what?
  • Recitals tracking how the trade is performing in excess of time plus in relation to rivals?

By accepting the power of the shopper association by means of the product, one can begin to estimate how susceptible the product is to novel applicants or to temporary endorsements, as well as how much can be malformed devoid of ‘disaffecting’ faithful shoppers. Brand fairness comprises of constituents such as the product organizations, souk essentials in addition to advertising possessions that discriminate one product as of another plus that sway a shopper’s acuities of or information regarding a trademark. When brand rudiments are positive in a shopper’s intellect, brand fairness is measured to be optimistic. When they are not constructive, the brand fairness is unenthusiastic. Optimistic relations of a brand in a shopper’s intellect are usually strapping plus further maintainable than those of an artefact, supposing that enough speculations are being prepared in suitable product administration. Brands by means of optimistic fairness will constantly produce, exploit as well as cultivate cash flows. They attain this by directing a cost payment, permitting for make expansions plus certifications, making fences of admission, drawing as well as keeping further precious purchasers, plus dipping the outlay of shopper attainment. Optimistic brand fairness impels shopper importance, which consecutively impels investor importance. To influence optimistic brand fairness, dealers have to obtain a calculated advance to recognizing, budding as well as overseeing brand rudiments pertinent to the business plus its artefacts. (De Freitas, 2005)

1.1.2 Advantages of brand fairness:

What are the advantages of strapping trademark fairness? Well, strapping brand fairness directs to, inter alia, strapping souk split, shopper faithfulness, further positive reply to outlay augments, less susceptibility to rival commotion, brand conservatory prospects, plus message communications which arrive at the shopper. In reaching these advantages, strapping brand fairness will guarantee that an artefact is of a lasting temperament. Eventually, strapping brand fairness will advance productivity. To construct a captivating brand, consequently, is to appreciate the association flanked by brand fairness plus souk split, as well as to influence together to their full latent. In so achievement, a trademark will be flourishing moreover maintainable in the extended period. It have to be kept in intellect that rising souk split does not augment brand fairness, while escalating brand fairness always directs to augmented souk split. (De Freitas, 2005)

Modern era point to vital transforms in the advertising approaches engaged by trades looking presumptuous to uphold spirited advantage; the fiscal strength of these businesses is so far relying on the amount of data that is composed in views to shopper purchasing actions. These trades have routed to the receipt of presentation plus sociological researches for the motive to build up this pertinent information as well as to further the business accommodating the shopper of purchasing approach. The research in these areas are an endeavour to set up a association flanked by purchaser expenditure as well as the major constituents engaged in shopper favourites in terms of advance, cognition, insight plus knowledge. (Thurrott, 2004)

Associations shifting their spotlight as of an artefact/souk ambitious technique to shopper focused publicity actions reflect this development of advertising. As a straight outcome of this move, trades are currently typifying much further worth on the response shopper show in regards to the 4Ps (price, product, place and promotion) as well as have further implemented three added Ps, physical layout, process as well as people (Kotler, 1999).

Existing souk propensity demonstrates that the homogeneity of artefact has augmented; meaning that a small number of practical differences flanked by chief rivals at present subsists in generally extremely spirited souks. This demur in artefact demarcation is calculated to be the straight outcome of elevated stages of rivalry that is found inside today’s souks, as well as the technical proceeds of manufacturing plus allotment methods. For the reason that these advances have abridged the ability of technical modernisms to current maintainable spirited advantage as well as have prepared artefact isolation dreadfully complicated (Levitt, 1983; Kotler, 2000)

Shoppers are usually classified into clusters by similar demographic features or artefact trade approach. Precedent study regarding this subject has determined on the readiness of shoppers to pay for exact artefacts, the authority of shopper fears, plus demographic account of the shopper in association by means of their meat purchasing tendencies. Several of these learning can be hard to attain shopper alliance, ensuing in a controlled sum of statistics. By means of a restricted number of shopper participants, facts assessment might be mathematical unacceptable or usually impetuous. Yet still, there is verification that shoppers are eager to disburse a first-class rate for stable, enjoyable artefacts which are up to their expectations. (Bajarin, 2005)

The consideration of brand fairness has involved scholastics as well as consultants for further than a decade, mainly due to the insinuation in today’s souk place of building, maintaining plus with brands to reach deliberate gain. The initiative demotes to the original thought that an artefact’s worth to shoppers, the business plus the industry is one way or another improved when it is linked or recognized over time by means of a compilation of exclusive rudiments that describe the brand initiative. Evidently, such fairness contribution comes as of active or latent shopper knowledge which leans how the artefact is resolute as well as acted upon by shoppers. It rises to motive that such education is vivacious and wins over shopper option developments and results moreover straight or not directly by influencing the competence of the labelled relic’s advertising blend constituents. This thesis defies slotting in a number of the key fresh viewpoints on brand fairness plus contribution a plan for outlook brand fairness investigate in an atmosphere where the internet as well as stockpile brands indicate a novel genuineness.

Different definitions of product fairness have been proposed in the narrative. Aaker (1991) classified brand fairness as a cluster of brand controls plus accountabilities related to a trademark, its name plus image that add to or deduct as of the merit obtainable by an artefact or service to a corporation and/or to the business’s shoppers. Keller (1993) presented a cognitive psychology insight; illuminating shopper-based brand fairness as the degree of difference result that product at present projection has on shopper retort to the advertising of that brand. Assuming an information economic cross-section, Erdem and Swait (1998) disputes that shopper-based product fairness is the rate of a product as a likely sign of an artefact’s situation. Further in general, brand fairness is time plus again measured as the additional worth to the trade, the organization, or the shopper by means of which a product donates a artefact (Farquhar 1989); or improbable as the divergence flanked by the worth of the labelled item to the shopper as well as the significance of the artefact devoid of that branding (McQueen, 1991).

These descriptions split the notion that the worth of a product to a business is shaped during the brand’s authority on shoppers. Quite a few brand fairness conceptualizations are further concurrent to shoppers by prominence shopper-based information such as trademark unions (Aaker 1991), brand information (Keller 1993), obvious accuracy plus trustworthiness of the product information under defective as well as asymmetric information (Erdem and Swait 1998). It is understandable that brand fairness accrues in excess of time via shopper learning as well as choice making progressions. Consequently, there is a necessity to demonstrate how consumer knowledge as well as selection practices shape plus drive brand fairness formation.

The assessment of these dissimilar study flows demonstrates that the brand impartiality initiative might be documented well enough if scrutinized in an enlarged framework that measures the incremental consequence of the product at each of the dissimilar phases of the shopper’s selection course. Consequently, brand fairness might play a character in how information (e.g. characteristics) is knowledgeable as well as prearranged plus then improved in addition to engaged in decision and selection. These information dispensation consequences would influence part-worth appraisal and mixture regulations, alternative set production plus at last the choice system adopted in selection. This broad description broaden the collective conceptualization intrinsic in the “preservative brand sway thought of brand fairness (i.e. enhanced charisma confined in the usefulness purpose) to an added total idea that hubs on the brand’s liability athwart the multi-phase plus vivacious shopper selection practice. (Bajarin, 2005)

As a straight outcome, branding has emerged as a vital facet of modern advertising rules as well as is at present measured a key managerial advantage (Kotler, 2000). The representative principles associated by means of brand names have turn out to be the foundation for artefact division, by means of foremost strategies trying to duplicate key features that are conductive to key presentations related by means of consumer purchasing examples.

An occurrence of the outcome branding has on the consumer purchasing choice development, is how branding is associated to the Mobile handset industry. By means of almost hundreds of interesting features, functions and shapes, it is an extremely aggressive trade that is still growing at a livid swiftness. By means of  millions mobile handset bought online and in the shops in the initial phase of 2005 only, mobile handset giants such as Nokia, Samsung, Sony Ericson, are all rival for control in this telecommunication souk place. Simply one though, the Nokia, has attained near power by means of 80% souk split in the UK in 2005 (OCC, 2005).

By means of the arrival of the newest as well as the most excellent class plus features, Nokia has turn out to be one of the mainly pursued companies of the 21st century. Kari Kairamo CEO of Nokia has seen as being a chief role player to Nokia achievement narrative, by transforming as well as further budding Nokia’s brand representation, by making it further reachable to a wider customer markets plus expanding the Nokia make into the mobile handset trade. Nokia initiated the trade of handsets on the Internet, through their Nokia site as well as other associated sites plus different outlets and franchises all over the globe. This has earned Nokia million dollars in proceeds as of Nokia mobile handset deals in the second quarter of 2005 only and has escorted to the trade of an estimated 300 million newest handsets. (Smith 2005)

The following thesis aims to determine the hypothetical authority of branding on the purchaser decision-making development as well look at its sway in real-life, via a vital assessment of Nokia’s employ of branding to affect the consumer decision-making course of purchasers in the Mobile handset industry in the United Kingdom. (De Freitas, 2005)

1.2 Project Aims and Objectives

As the researcher as established, the significance of understanding branding plus its influence on contemporary day souks is vital to the health as well as growth of most industries. The aim of this dissertation is to put into viewpoint the functional values of branding as well as assess its role in the shopper purchase decision-making process. In order to further understand shopper recital by means of regards to branding, this study paper aims to add an exhaustively accepting of the procedure plus description that guide to the purchasers’ assessment of brands as well as the key drivers to building brand loyalty. This will be brought into focal point by a significant assessment of how Nokia has adopted this development to protect an 80% souk share in the Mobile phone division in the United Kingdom. In order to convene these outcomes, the researcher has set the following study question:

“Choose the sway branding has on the purchaser purchasing choice-making enjoyed by measuring its utilization by Nokia Mobile handsets, Inc. to affect the purchase decision-making procedure of purchasers in the Mobile handset industry in the United Kingdom.”

In order to fully respond this study question, the following goals have been set:

  • Set a suitable plus maintainable investigate question in order to attain a non-bias plus precise considerate on the theme in question;
  • Present the core ideas behind branding, its worth’s as well as its practice in modern day advertising movements by reconsidering present literature pertaining to the topic substance;
  • Choose whether a association flanked by purchaser identities as well as apparent brand identities is there;
  • Choose the sway of branding on the shopper acquire executive procedure;
  • Assess Nokia’s Nokia UK’s current situation by conducting both outside as well as internal study;
  • Critically measure the sway of branding via an assessment of Nokia’s practice of branding to protect its souk attendance in the Mobile phone business in the United Kingdom.

1.3 Background of the learning:

This topic of brand loyalty is not one extremely vast but at the same time hold a great potential of richness in information and facts that majority of the people may not yet be aware of. This research will therefore provide in detail information about the topic and different strategies and relevant issues in order to enable the reader to understand the different issues that may or may not be involved in the success of advertising and trade promotions due to brand loyalty.

1.4 Statement of the problem:

The topic “Effect of Brand loyalty on advertising and trade promotions” holds the key to the different sets of information that may be unveiled in this research. And that purely is the aim of the researcher. A lot has be written and said in the past about the topic, however the researcher still feels that there is further room for research which may make the research a complete resource for the reader and a fruitful resource when it comes to learn about the different aspect of brand loyalty, advertising and trade promotion and the different roles that are played by these issues in the success of a artefact or a trade.

1.5 Purpose of the study:

The purpose of the study is to explore the world of branding and the influence that it plays in a shopper’s approach toward the purchase of particular artefact and explore different strategies that are adopted by trades in order to attract these shoppers.

1.6 Research questions:

Following is the research survey questions. Their responses are recorded in the appendices section:

1.6.1 Survey questions for Nokia Users:

  1. Gender
  2. Age Cluster
  3. Select your purchasing recital
  4. When deciding whether or not to decide Nokia was it vital to you that it have a trustworthy brand name?
  5. Would you articulate that being connected to a well-known brand is major to you?
  6. Were practical characteristics important to one when deciding to acquire on Nokia?
  7. Was the functional excellence of the handsets being better than alternatives a deciding feature in you choosing to purchase on Nokia?
  8. Do you believe the Nokia brand representation expresses fineness in terms of excellence?
  9. Would purchasing Nokia offer you an aspect of joy, as contrasting to purchasing any other brand?
  10. When choosing whether to use Nokia for the first time, did you thought about any previous information you had heard regarding Nokia?
  11. Do you recognize the Nokia brand representation to match your own individuality?
  12. Would purchasing Nokia make you feel further illustrious as individual than if you were to buy or sell any other make?

1.6.2 Survey questions for NON Nokia Users:

  1. Gender
  2. Age Cluster
  3. Choose you trade presentation (Refer to Page 2)
  4. When deciding whether or not to select Nokia, was it considerable to you that it has a decent brand identity?
  5. Would you articulate that being linked to a well-known trademark is vital to you?
  6. Where useful characteristics vital to you when planning to buy Nokia handset?
  7. Was the quality of the handset better than alternative similar products a deciding issue in you going for Nokia?
  8. Do you believe the Nokia UK brand representation expresses fineness in terms of excellence?
  9. Would purchasing Nokia give you a component of joy, as opposed to purchasing any other brand?
  10. When selecting whether to utilize Nokia for the first time, did you consider any previous information you had heard related to Nokia?
  11. Do you observe the Nokia trademark representation to match your own individuality?
  12. Would purchasing Nokia make you feel further illustrious as person than if you were to buy or sell substitute brands?

1.7Significance of study:

The study holds great significance as it enables the reader to understand the different strategies applied by Nokia which has resulted in great success. And the shopper loyalty ratio has been improved with the help of these strategies. The study in addition uses different analytical tools in order to measure the importance of brand loyalty.

1.8 Organisation of the remainder of the study:

The research will be divided in six main chapters. Chapter one will provide a detail introduction to the topic followed by chapter two that is the literature review. This chapter will discuss different researches that are carried out by researchers in the past. Chapter three will be the research methodology that will discuss various different techniques adopted by the researcher in order to complete the research. Chapter four is the discussion, findings and analysis where data will be analysed and discussion in detail in order to clear any existing doubts about the topic. Chapter five will be the concluding chapter of the research while chapter six will provide the different resources like, books, journals and articles that were used in order to carry out this research followed by appendices. 

Chapter2 Literature Review:

2.1 Introduction

In this section, the researcher seeks to launch an intellectual base as of which both further researches will be built upon. Its rationale will be to improve the readers indulgent of the different designs that branding engrosses, as well as its hypothetical sway on the purchaser purchasing choice-making course. The section is written under Murphy’s (1992) research that specify that as distinguishing features of artefacts turn out to be less perceptible, the probability of shoppers using branding associated prompts increases. Offerings,

2.2 Accepting Branding

To attain a clear insight into the denotation of “branding”, one has to primarily elucidate what this mythical review demotes to as “artefacts”. Referring to Baker (2000), one can believe an artefact as being anything that can please the financial, emotional or useful requirements of a likely shopper. Baker (2000) furthers this definition by stating that the degree of which an “artefact” meets the above-mentioned requirements is chooses the artefact’s “worth”.

The frequently-intricate development of branding is a requirement that has been stimulated as of the extremely spirited temperament of mainly modern day industries. This rivalry has guide to artefact contributions that have turn out to be highly hard to distinguish for causes shaped in the previous chapter. In order to attend to this predicament, branding has turn out to be an extensive instrument worn by trades to emphasize their artefacts in highly soaked souks. In undertaking so, trades allow themselves to showcase their centre skills that they sense are required by shoppers (Hamel plus Prahalad, 1994).

In modern day marketing, it has at present turn out to be the make itself that discriminates a trade’s artefacts obtainable for buy (Levitt, 1983). If one glances at Nokia Mobile handsets as an instance, several maintain that a move in the direction of brand orientated marketing methods have authorized them to split into the mobile handset souk plus further their existence in the IT souk. However others suppose that this is by no means a novel “move” however, somewhat the competent furthering of an already effectual brand representation. Allowing for that Nokia has at all times been at the front of original promotion as well as brand associative methods, by means of advertising feats such as the “1984”1 advertisement, the “Think different. Think Nokia” promotion movement or the further new “newest handsets” trades linking superstar supports.

So what precisely is branding? Kotler (1999), describes branding as a “name, word, symbol, sign or devise, or a blend of these, aimed to recognize the merchandise or services of one vendor or cluster of suppliers plus to distinguish them as of those of contestants.” Feldwick (1995) furthers the proposal of demarcation that Kotler (1999) handles on, by comparing a make to “a familiar plus dependable brooch of derivation as well as a guarantee of appearance.” His study highlights the association flanked by the artefact plus the shopper as being involved to the branding procedure plus the spotting of offerings inside the communal background. He considers that a make replicates a business’s insubstantial declaration that the artefact will set up shoppers’ anticipations. Hitherto, the above-mentioned literature limits the results of branding to a shopper’s understanding of how an exact make reports to his or her character based mannerisms. Macrae (1996) though, obscured by introducing the supplementary ingredient of “Brand spirit”, which he illustrates as being the spirit or extremely basis for being of a business. Macrae (1996) furthers this description, by explaining that a business has to believe its own employees by means of the same implication as its aimed shoppers, for the reason that equally is of identical worth. He justifies this by flaking light on the detail that it is the workers that endorse the artefacts or services in straight deals conditions, not the business. This thought of branding founds an obvious link flanked by a business’s interior working by means of the exterior world of shoppers, through their make.

If one observes Nokia Mobile handsets, one can simply view Macrae’s (1996) meaning in practise. The notably unperturbed plus friendly ambience of the “Nokia Outlets” is shaped by the skilled personnel, which has to all be capable in the employee-preparation guidebook which strengthens the meaning of employees sharing the similar stage of make promise as shoppers. This permits purchasers as well as workers to interrelate flawlessly plus has twisted Nokia Stores into together a place of trade as well as an edifying hotspot for the 16 – 35 year old souk division (Bajarin, 2005).

In modern day branding, the formation of touchable worth as well as insubstantial worth is typical in letting shopper the means to discriminate one make as of another (Hankinson as well as Cowing, 1993). The reader will value that it is this aptitude in exacting that divides a “make” as of a meagre “artefact”. King (1991) imprisons this by defining an artefact as an issue made tangible that can readily be copied by competitors. King (1991) continues by means of his distinction by clarifying that a brand is an intangible asset that is unique as well as timeless. This simple yet powerful definition insinuates that a brand is the core identity of an artefact. Kotler (1999) develops on the thought of individuality by stating that a brand is talented of expressing up to six different heights of sense to a targeted audience. This is there as the “Six measurements of the make” (De Freitas, 2005)

Kotler’s (1999) wide effort on the considerate of branding can be seen as the centre position flanked by Macrae (1996) as well as Feldwick’s (1995) schools of thought. Despite Kotler’s first description seeming openly unsophisticated, his prolonged meanings plus views on the various measurements of makes, offer a deeper accepting of how branding can be so much further than just symbols, plans as well as memorable mottos. Kotler institutes that branding as the formation of a profound link flanked by the business plus the shopper.

As of the shoppers’ viewpoint, brand names are as primary as the artefact itself in the intelligence that they abridge the purchasing development, guarantee excellence plus at times shape as a foundation of articulacy therefore, have to a business souk a make name as nothing further than “just a name”, it would be missing the entire reason of artefact branding. The confront lies in initial a profound set of meanings for the brand. Once an aim souk division can imagine all six measurements of the brand, it will have instituted a strapping relationship inside the shoppers’ purchasing choice-making procedure. (Bajarin, 2005)

2.3 Learning Theories as of Cognitive Psychology:

Keller (1993) outlooks brand acquaintance as a make joint that is concurrent to its individual organizations: artefact characteristics plus benefits, user imagery, as well as sentimental unions. The learning in addition proposes the requirement to centre on how brand responsiveness is shaped in excess of time. A number of researchers (e.g. Hoch as well as Deighton 1989) idealize knowledge as a premise testing procedure whereby narrative information is measured in terms of living ideas. The assertion is that live beliefs shape a working supposition that prejudices the experience, encoding as well as addition of novel information. Reliable by means of this vision of knowledge, assenting partialities might direct early brand principles to wield a leading sway on outlook brand knowledge plus persuade reliable brand presentation in excess of time.

Premise trying hypothesis proposes that shoppers do not sustain generating novel supposition if not there is irresistible as well


To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Request Removal

If you are the original writer of this dissertation and no longer wish to have the dissertation published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal:


More from UK Essays