System Engineering: Amphibious Car
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1 Statement of work
In 20th century, system engineering has been developed for human beings in order satisfy their needs in transportation services by implementing multipurpose vehicle. The aim of inventing amphibious automobile is to travel on the road as well as operate in water as water vehicle.
The objective of our team is to produce an energy efficient, environmentally friendly consumer vehicle which can compete Richard Branson's record set in the Gibbs Aquada implemented on 2004.To develop the conceptual new generation of amphicar, the team has to research on the first generation model manufactured in 1961-1968. As described on the above, to beat in performance as well as in energy efficiency, team need to be digested in the ideas of Gibbs Aquada.
To meet the above requirements, amphicar should be assembled with jet engine using Supersonic Amphibious (SSA) Technology to increase the acceleration compare with the last generation. The vehicle will have the maximum capacity of 4 persons, which average body weight of 80KG. The amphicar should have minimum operation hour of 2 hours in the water.
The expected project duration for the whole project will be 30 days with reserved one week for any delay. The project can be divided into 4 major chapters, which are Systems Engineering Management Plan, System Requirement Specification, Functional Analysis and Allocation and System Specification. Each chapter will have 2 days for preparation, 3 days for research and 2 days for final report.
2 Work breakdown structure
2.1 Gantt Chart
Functional Analysis & Allocation
Expected Cost (US$)
1 Statement of Work
2 Work Breakdown Structure
2.3 Product Testing Method
3 Program Management
4 Risk Management
5 Resources Required
7 Organization Structure
8 Operational Concept
System Requirements Specification
9.1 System overview
9.2 Document overview
10 Referenced Document
12.1 General Requirements
12.2/3 Priority Table & Method Table
12.4 System Capability or Mode
Functional Analysis and Allocation
14 Referenced Documents
15 Functional analysis
16.1 Physical Overview
16.2 Component details
System test specification
Final system specification
Final analysis & Documentation
Total cost for the whole project
2.4 Product testing method
Testing is a kind of demonstration the abilities of the product in terms of performance characteristics, advantages and limitations that have been adequately determined for a specific purpose. Reliability is an objective measurement of method reproducibility. If the test is not sufficiently reliable, that product is not qualified for using on intended purposes.
In order to achieve the relevant outcomes of our amphicar's objectives, there is some common stages of testing method will be gone through as listed below;
Risk Assessment Methods - identify new methods in testing methods and strategies
Research - investigate mechanisms and other resources that can be applied in design and test activities
Development - incorporate strategies into standardized test methods
Validation - make sure the accuracy and reproducibility are 100% granted
Acceptance - determine acceptability for users
Implementation - ensure effective ways of method for operators and users
3 Program management
Project manager will look after the entire project, call for meeting two times a week for progress checking and review whenever issues arise during the period. Project engineer will work out on design specification to be developed and tested accordingly. Risk officer will report risk resolution status to management team. Technical and sale engineers will control the quality assurances and functionality of entire project.
Individual will have second plan for the case of emergency if first plan is failed to implement. Each and everyone will communicate and discuss the progress of the project via phone, online instant messages and email.
4 Risk management
This document describes how we perform the job of managing risk for Amphicar II project. It defines roles and responsibilities for participants in risk processes, risk management activities that will be carried out, schedule and budget for risk management activities including any tools and technique that will be used.
4.1.1 Project Manager
The project manager will assign a Risk Officer to the project for identifying purposes on the project's organization chart. Project Manager, Risk Officer and all project engineers should have videoconference biweekly to review the status of the risk mitigation efforts, review the exposure assessments for any new risk items.
4.1.2 Risk Officer
Coordination of risk identification and analysis activities, maintenance of the project's risk list, notification of project management of new risk items and submission of the report in risk resolution status to management.
4.1.3 Project Engineers/Sale/Technical Engineer
Officer will assign each newly identified risk to a Project Engineer, who will assess the exposure and probability for the risk factor and report the results of that analysis back to the Risk Officer. All Project Engineers are also responsible for performing the steps of the mitigation plan and reporting progress to the Risk Officer biweekly.
4.2 Risk Documentation
1. Man Power - From individuals or organizations, illness, death, resignation.
2. Project - Job taking too long, unable to complete within deadline.
3. Financial - Over spent project budget, no enough fund to complete the project.
4. System Failure - Sever or PC down or crash.
5. Communication Break Down - Failure to pass down information.
6. Technical - Individual weakness of technical skill and knowledge
7. Procedural - Failure of accountability internal system and control.
8. Health & Safety - Injuries staff in the course of project.
9. Security - Loss of data through unauthorized access.
10. Confidential - Improper used of data by the staff
4.3 Analysis of Risk and Risk Rating Matrix
4.3.1 Risk Likelihood Assessment Table
1 in 10 Chance
Likely To Occur
1 in 100 Chance
Will Probably Occur
1 in 1000 Chance
May Occur Occasionally
1 in 10,000 Chance
Do Not Expect To Happen
1 in 100,000 Chance
Do Not Believe Will Ever Happen
4.3.2 Risk Rating Matrix Table
4.3.3 Risk Action Level Table
Department / Team
Project Manager / Department
4.4 Risk response
1. Man Power - For individuals or organization, illness, death, resignation, personal matter.
Lack of manpower could have caused the direct impact on the whole project progress, such as delaying on the deliverable of the project within given time.
According to our Gantt chart, to lessen the impact or to overcome for above risk, we have targets for each section to complete one day before the dead line and also as we have split up our project, everyone has to be submitted to the project manager advanced in two days before the dead line. So that, in case someone leaves in an unexpected condition, we still have time slot to cope the job within the given time.
2. Project - Job taking too long, unable to complete within deadline.
There could be many reasons for the delay. It is very important and we could face the liability for the delay period.
To overcome this risk, we have reserved some tolerance period and fund. Keep track on the project progress with the Gantt chart schedule.
3. Financial - After spending more on low priorities, there is not enough funds to complete the project.
There are a lot of factors that could cause the financial over spent. The major cost consuming factors are labor cost during the test process to improve the functionality due to unexpected time delay and longer period to done the test. Improper budget plan may cause the project failure.
To overcome the risk, we have allocated the budget accordingly and set aside some fund, so that in case of financial crisis or in the worst scenario, we still have some budget to work out. To minimize the test cost without jeopardizing the quality of the product, we implemented all the test procedure and specification carefully.
4. System Failure - Sever / PC down or crash.
Equipment break down could cause the major issue as well. In the event of server or computer which important information stored was crashed or unable to operate, there will be a delay. We need to re-do all the work and it might cause project failure.
To overcome and lessen the impact from this risk, everyone had kept their project information not only in the computer but also at external hard drive and thumb drive. After sending out to project manager at the given date, the project manager had compiled all the individual work and saved it in his external hard drive as well.
5. Communication Break Down - Failure to pass down information.
The breakdown in communication could cause the total destruction of the entire project. To overcome this risk, we have a schedule to meet one week 2 times, the first meeting of the week will be conducted by video conference.
6. Technical Skills- Weakness of knowledge in technical skill could prolong the employee is handling and maybe even impose the danger or damage to himself or the whole project. To overcome this risk, each one of us has to monitor closely and updates each other. Anyone finds out some important information on the web or book that could improve our knowledge and skill for this project, we had to share by mail or scan the page and attach it.
7. Procedure - Failure of accountability, internal system and control.
Failure of accountability, internal system and control could cause the whole organization structure collapsed.
To lessen this risk, we had already implemented the role and responsibility for each one of us and organization chart. This will ensure each one of remain still on the track while doing project. Moreover by having flexible organization chart (rotation of duty) will ensure that everyone is involved.
8. Health & Safety - Injuries staff in the course of project.
Health and safety always has been the highest priority in every organization. Lacking of safety requirement could cause paralyze the whole organization and goal.
To overcome this risk, we had been oriented with safety requirement and regulation issued by WHS (Work place Safety and Health).
9. Security - Loss of data through unauthorized access.
Loss of data through unauthorized access could have more than unexpected impact on the progress of the project.
To overcome the risk, we had implemented all the security access code to our equipments and facility, which contains the information's of the entire project.
10. Confidential - Improper used of data by the staff.
Improper used of confidential data may cause in leak aging of information to the third party as well as there can be bad reputation in Society.
To lessen the risk, we had been brief all the staffs regarding about how to take precaution on this issue.
4.5 Risk Assessment
Back up man power
Set target earlier date
Overrun dead line
Closely monitor with schedule time line
Over spent on budget
Set aside some fund
Back up system
Communication break down
Twice a week meeting
Lack of skill and knowledge
May danger to other
Failure of accountability
Role & responsibility
Health & safety
Sick or Injury
Brief on WHS
Lack of security
Implement access code
Leakage of confidential
Brief on the rule
5 Resources required
Defining the resource requirement is dividing the responsibilities of the people who involved. To do this, initially, listing roles and responsibilities for the project then start with the ideal way in which the project should be organized. It is often useful to refer back to the previous project that the people done before which kind of roles and responsibilities exhibited.
Also review the resources available such as software, PCs, budgets limitation for the project and the individual member skill that they possess. Lastly, it is required to arrange the responsibilities, which is suited for every team member.
The projects are monitored from planning to operations. In accordance with the customers' needs, wants and expectations, the project should have to plan towards delivering. The purposes are to complete on time, within budget, with the highest degree of quality, etc. Following are some facts of deliverables -
Procurement and Contract Management
The decisions are to be made including selection of contractors and the types of contracts to be utilized.
This should be a clear and concise summary of the current status of the project such as budget, schedule, quality etc…
Project Activities and Deliverables
This is to highlight the deliverables occurring the previous month and planning for the next one to report in meeting, audits and other reviews, design packages submitted etc.
Action Items/Outstanding Issues
The action items/ outstanding issues may be dropped from this section upon full implementation of the remedial and upon no further monitoring anticipated.
The product is needed to plan corrective actions for deficient in quality.
Internal and Stakeholder Communications
It should have a discussion between the internal members and stakeholder.
The environmental permits may be obtained to specify additional requirements to be adhered.
Safety and Security
In order to complete the project, safety and security is required for all individuals working.
This should be the requirement for providing monitoring and oversight of day-to-day maintenance of traffic operations.
Project Communications (Media and Public Information)
A critical objective for the projects is to maintain the trust, support and confidence of the media and public throughout the project.
Human Resources Management
This includes how roles and responsibilities for the project. Any other project functions that the project sponsors feel would be beneficial to include in the project Management Plan to ultimately help in meeting the project Objectives.
7 Organisational structure
7.1 Roles And Responsibility
Project Manager will manage the entire project, assign right task to the right person, call up the meeting and always take note of the deadline.
Project Engineer will directly assist to project manager with majority in developing and testing the project.
Sale Engineer shall have responsibilities of marketing, budget control, banking and purchasing.
Technical Engineer manages the technical part and specification of the project.
Risk Officer will maintain the project's risk list, safety and security of the entire project.
8 Operational Concept
The project is about the design of the Amphicar-II which is the amphibious vehicle and able to operate as a recreational water vehicle and travel on the land. The aim of the project is to produce an energy efficient, environmentally friendly consumer vehicle and crossing in the English Channel to beat the record of Richard Branson set in the Gibbs Aquada (2004).
General description of the project
The project carried into 4 parts.
a. Draft systems engineering management plan (SEMP)
b. Draft system requirement specification (SRS)
c. Draft functional analysis and allocation (FAA)
d. Final system specification (SS)
Before we start the project, we formed the organizational group. Then we analyzed the work breakdown structure, such as schedule, cost and product testing method. First, we drew the gantt chat for schedule and estimated the cost. Then, we analyzed the program and risk management and defined resources and types of deliverables.
In the second stage, we defined needs and system requirement specifications. The needs include able to travel on road and water, environmentally friendly, energy efficient and cross the English Channel to beat Gibbs Aquada. The requirements are general, safety, user, environmental, security and privacy and legal requirements.
In the third stage, we sketched the functional analysis and allocation. We used the core software to produce the diagram. We sketched the physical designs and write the component details and matched them. And we drew the flow chart to analyze the system.
In the final stage, we performed the system testing and summarized the project. And, we made the modification according to the test result. Then, we prepared the report and handover to the customer.
System Requirements Specification (SRS)
The aim of amphicar-II project is to produce an energy efficient, environmentally friendly consumer vehicle that is capable of travelling on road and operating as a recreational water vehicle. Moreover to introduce the vehicle to public, the first prototype will be used in crossing in the English Channel, beating Richard Branson's record set in the Gibbs Aquada.
After years of ‘on the road' development, amphibious cars start to introduce to the public which can travel not only on the land also on the water. In this project, we are trying to pursue the new technologies to provide better innovative, efficient, affordable options for daily life. To concern about this, below will briefly describe what the system all about is according to purpose, operation and maintenance.
9.1 System Overview
9.1.1 Vehicle On The Road
Hybrid means any vehicle that combines two or more sources of power that can directly or indirectly provide propulsion power.  It uses the rechargeable energy storage system and uses as power source to drive the vehicle. As concerns increase over global warming, hybrid uses less fuel and causes less pollution to environment as well as easy mode of transportation and lessening.
Operation of hybrid system with engine
According to our needs, we should be using Gasoline-electric Hybrid Structure that can compatible to our aims. This structure includes the following parts to operate as hybrid system;
Gasoline engine - the gasoline engine using in our Amphicar II project will be smaller than other normal car engines but it can help to reduce emissions and increase efficiency
Fuel tank - the fuel tank in a hybrid acts as an energy storage device for gasoline engine
Electric motor - the technology of electric motor using at hybrid system is very advance and can be used not only as a motor also as a generator to supply power source to engine. Electric motor can pull energy from the batteries as well as will recharge again while the vehicle is moving.
Generator - the generator only produce electric power to the engine
Batteries - the batteries are the energy storage devices for the electric motor in a hybrid car.
As for energy efficiency and environmentally friendly, we have choose to use hybrid technology engine for our amphicar-II. Hybrid system is the wave of the future and there is more incentive to purchase one.
In our conceptual design for land, the standard production model of Amphicar II will be sport car design and power by larger V-6 engine and more powerful electric motor, with the combination of the concept of plug-in hybrid that will able to go from zero to 62 miles per hour (100 kilometers per hour) in 3.5 sec and will has a top speed of 187miles per hour (301 kilometer per hours) with CVTs continuously variable transmission 5 speed manual high performance close ratio transmission. It will be the first ever it's kind of in amphibian car, which can able to deliver the performance of sport car with maximum fuel efficiency.
The vehicle type will be front engine, front wheel drive with 3.73-1 axle ratio, 2-doors, 4-passengers, convertible top, fitted with four wheel independent suspension and brake with stainless steel rotor. The amphicar-II will be approximately weighs 3,300lbs(1500 kg) and the weigh will be split up 53-47%, with 53% on the drive tires on the front
The controls and operation will be completely carlike on the land. On water the accelerator can be use as a throttle and the steering remains as the same.
126.96.36.199 Vehicle Style
The styling of the amphicar-II body structure will be look a bit like Lamborghini. The dimension of the vehicle is 4 meter in length, 2 meter in width and 1.5 meter in height.
188.8.131.52 General Feature Of The Vehicle
There will be climate-control system, 4- air bags, tachometer, driver's & passenger's electric seat, driver's seat memory, speedometer for land and water, cruise control mode, oil pressure, engine temperature, voltage meter, gasoline fume detector, bilge ventilation blower, compass, clock, navigation (GPS), auto pilot system in water mode and AM/FM stereo.
9.1.2 Vehicle On Water
To provide faster speed with better performance, we decided to use jet engine with lightweight and compact design while driving on the water. Though there are different types with varies sizes in jet engines, the technology used in jet engine is all the same. The fact is they depend on the high-pressure column of water pushed out of the engine to propel the boat.
To travel on the water our Amphicar-II will be power by Berkeley Marine Jet with power trim package and it will has capable of speed up to 40mph (65 km/h) on water. It will able to pull a water skier easily. The Berkeley Marine jet will be design to be lighter and more compact. It will have half a length and one-third the weight, compare to most other water jet. The impeller will be installing and contain inside the body of the jet, therefore it will be very safe for swimmers. The amphicar-II will have a low speed reversing capability by running the water jet in reverse direction. The steering will be mounted on the back of the stator nozzle and will connect to the car steering wheel.
184.108.40.206 Main Body Materials
Another great thing about this amphicar-II will be durable and attractive. The lower part of the amphicar-II will be lightweight component the 5052-alloy aluminum single piece hull. The upper part of the amphicar-II body will use lightweight fiberglass to minimize the overall weight of the amphicar-II.
220.127.116.11 Feature On The Lower Part Of The Body
The hull will be design to be aerodynamic in road mode and hydrodynamic in water mode. It will provide over 1750kg of hydrodynamic lift. It will also provide a stable planning surface allowing the amphicar-II to skin/plane over the surface of the water when given sufficient from the jet. The hull will have a keel fin that will give s directional stability and provide grip for high speed handling performance on water. There will be a spray rails and chin either side of the body, it will prevent the water spray to the cockpit and ensure the occupants remain dry. Also it will provide grip to give exceptional maneuverability.
18.104.22.168 Special Feature
The hull will be pack with floatation foam and the amphicar-II will not sink if it knocked at the bottom part of the body. It will only float on the water in the worst scenario, but it would not sink.
22.214.171.124 Special Feature Of Suspension
This amphicar-II will have retractable 4 points independent front and rear suspension system. By retracting its four wheels up to within the wheels housing, it will prevent from the wheel dragging to the water and will increase its water performance, and better manoeuvre ability. Also it will automatically decouple when the engine no longer drives them. The hydraulic rams that move the control arm suspended corner up and down, also serve as automatic ride height control.
9.1.3 Mode Transition
There will be mode selection switch, to change either water mode or land mode. The mode selection switch will interlock with water sensor, to prevent from changing to water mode while driving on the road. So that to change from land to water mode, the water sensor has to detect enough water depth in order to retract the four wheels. The switch will also have a cover to prevent from accidentally switching of mode select switch.
By pressing the mode selector button to marine mode, it will drops the clutch, disengages the road drive, shifts the transmission into aquatic duty, retract the wheels, the jet drive kick in and take off in water. All this process will take place within 10 sec.
The retraction of the wheel will be as same as what AQUADA used but only difference is that the wheels are retracted upwardly and aluminum plates will be occupied firmly without leak aging at the place of the wheels. So the entire Amphicar looks like totally as a boat floating on the water surface confidently. In order to prevent leaks, this Amphicar-II has covered with a single frame using aluminum metal.
It will be like a sport car on the road and speedboat on the water.
Frequent hull inspections at panel seams and joints are essential. The user should check and clean after cruising in salt or brackish water is a thorough hosing with fresh water for the entire hull and all exposed suspension and nautical propulsion components.
Items need to be check by service engineers are lists down below,
1. Road test
2. Wash oil filter cap and breather
3. Wash air filter and carburetor
4. Renew filter
5. Wash out the petrol pump
6. Clean petrol gauge of three way cock
7. Check fan belt tension and dynamo mounting bolts
8. Check cooling and heating system
9. Clean sparking plugs
10. Renew sparking plugs
11. Check and clean dynamo and starter motor
12. Check and tighten cylinder head nuts
13. Check valve clearance (cold) adjust if necessary
14. Check ignition clean and adjust contact points
15. Check engine, gearbox, radiator and exhaust mountings
16. Check brake and clutch pedal travel, also handbrake
17. Check the gear shift mechanism
18. Check play of steering, adjust if necessary
19. Check tightness of steering mounting bolts and linkage
20. Check play of stub axle bolts, re tighten if necessary
21. Check steering knuckle arm play, re tighten if necessary
22. Check brake hoses for condition and leaks
23. Check front and rear hub bearing adjustment
24. Check shock absorber mounting and coil springs
25. Check function of door hinges and locks
26. Check weather-strips and sealers for condition. Apply talc powder to door sealers
27. Check the vehicle for water tightness
28. Check function of all Bowden cables
29. Check tightness of exhaust flange to manifold
30. Check all bolts, screws and nuts of body, retighten
31.Check wheel studs for tightness, retighten if necessary
32.Check tire pressures
33.Interchange road wheels to balance wear
34.Check toe-in align if necessary
35.Wash Bilge pump and strainer
36.Check operation of all electrical components, adjust headlamps
37.Wipe clean door handles, gear shift, and steering wheel
38.Test run, final inspection, check idling of engine, adjust if necessary
Items to be service during maintenance.
1. Grease castor rods
2. Grease steering universal joints
2a. Check steering box oil level
3. Grease stub axle
4. Grease axles tubes
5. Pock front and rear wheel hubs with grease
6. Grease track rods
7. Check water transmission oil level
8.Check gearbox oil level
8a. Change gearbox oil
9. Grease inside joints
10. Grease universal joints
11. Check battery electrolyte
12. Grease propeller shafts
13. Generator a few drops of oil
14. Smear distributor cam with oil
15. Check radiator water level
16. Grease water pump (8 hand stokes)
17. Check engine oil level
18. Oil filter cap
19. Change engine oil
20. Grease outside joint
21. Grease axles tubes
22. Change water transmission oil
23. Lubricate hinges and door locks
24. Check and top up brake fluid
9.1.6 Sponsor and Developer
Project sponsor is AdSing and the developer for conceptual design is New Generation Pte Ltd. AdSing will put forward to independent sub-contractors for further iterations of the SDLC (System Development Lifecycle).
9.1.7 Operating Site
Current operating site is in Marina Bay, Singapore and future will be all over the world, which has resort beach.
9.2 Document overview
This document comprises the detail in the allocation of the functional statements and physical elements of the Amphicar-II project system, which are decompose from the information gathered in the early phases. It incorporated with diagrams of the physical elements and functions breakdown in the form of Functional flow Block diagram. This will provide clearer view and presenting on the sequences and the interfaces between the main and the sub-categories. Detail descriptions on the functions and components attributes will mentions to provide information on each element performances.
The purpose is to draw out all the requirements needed to be met and also identify the systems effectiveness and its performance at all levels.
These documents are highly classified serves several important roles in the process for the development. Therefore, only with the given authorized project manager, Sithu Aung, would be allowed to access. Validation for referencing is needed at all times. Legal action will be taken for reviewing of contents and copyrights.
10 Referenced documents
10.1. Amphicar Website, 20 January 2010, Detail technical spec, viewed 20 & 21 January 2010 http://www.amphicars.com/acteng.htm
10.2. Youtube, 20 January 2010, Amphicar technical Video, viewed 20 & 21 January 2010 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kS_QW-Iw_eQ
10.3. Gibbstech Website, 20 January 2010, HSA Technology, viewed 20 & 21 January 2010 http://www.gibbstech.com/downloads/HSA_technology.pdf
10.4. Wikipedia, 20 January 2010, Environmental issues, viewed 20 & 21 January 2010 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/hybrid_vehicle#Environmental_issues
10.5. Eartheasy, 20 January 2010, Hybrid cars, viewed 19 & 20 January 2010 http://www.eartheasy.com/live_hybrid_cars.htm
10.6. Powerofh-asia, 20 January 2010, Lexus Hybrid Portal, viewed 19 & 20 January 2010 http://www.powerofh-asia.com/#/TheExperience
10.7. Howstuffworks, 20 January 2010, Hybrid-car, viewed 19 & 20 January 2010 http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htm
10.8. Amphibiouscar, 20 January 2010, Amphibiouscar, viewed 19 & 20 January 2010 http://www.amphibiouscar.net/
The customer's desires become the important to our project's needs and requirements. The surveys come from the customer feedbacks are our core objectives and the project aims. To meet this aspect, we made the outlines for the needs.
11.9 Engine and Fuel
11.10 Maintenance (Warranty)
11.11 Environmental friendly
11.11.1 Using Hybrid Engine for nature friendly and to go green
11.11.2 Recycle the vehicle when it ends the service life
Hybrid engine will be assembled for nature friendly and to go green.
Every vehicle needs to recycle when it ends the service life
11.1.1 Able to drive at the maximum speed of 180 km/h on land
11.1.2 Able to drive at the maximum speed of 70 km/h on water
11.2.1 Equipped with enough air-bags for 4 persons
11.2.2 Equipped with water-leakage alarm
11.2.3 Equipped with over-load detection alarm
11.2.4 Equipped with 4 life-jackets
11.2.5 Equipped with built-in paddles in case of emergency of engine breakdown
11.2.6 Equipped with the button to trigger SOS signal to request the help from the coast guard
11.2.7 Equipped with fire-extinguisher to kill fire
11.2.8 Equipped with first-aid kit
11.3.1 The body of the car is hull type to be able to float on seawater as well as on fresh water
11.3.2 The material shall be tough enough to resist the weather
11.3.3 The engine shall be long-life span
11.4.1 Auto transmission system using user control switch (land/water)
11.4.2 Gear box using the auto mode and manual mode
11.4.3 Power steering wheel
11.4.4 Easy handling with foldable roof under shine or wet
11.4.5 Equipped with hydraulic wheel retracting method to reduce hull drag in water mode
11.4.6 On the land, using V.6 or hybrid engine
11.4.7 On the water, using Berkeley Marine Jet
11.5.1 Using GPS to provide navigation
11.5.2 Able to view map location on LCD screen
11.6.1 Support remote control
11.6.2 Authorize lock with thumbprint control
11.6.3 Equipped with alarm system to detect of unauthorized personal
11.7.1 Cruise control for easy drive in land mode
11.7.2 Leather seats
11.8.1 In car entertainment system like radio or CD player
11.8.2 DVD player for land mode (optional)
11.9 Engines and Fuel
11.9.1top-up windscreen cleaning liquid when necessary
11.9.2 check air pressure of the wheel occasionally
11.9.3 refill the fuel before the empty fuel indicator light is on
11.10.1 Preventive maintenance in every 10,000 km or every 6 months
11.10.2 Servicing for Engine for both land and water
11.10.3 Maintenance service in wheel balancing and body alignment
11.10.4 Check regularly for hydraulic oil, engine oil and leakage checking
11.10.5 Preventive maintenance service in battery and electrical parts
12.1 General requirement
The general requirement of the system is able to drive on the land and water. It is also the energy efficient and environmentally friendly vehicle, which is easy to operate. Each requirement needs the following information:
12.1.1 Requirement Identifier: Required a unique requirement ID number
12.1.2 Requirement: Write requirement statement according to the needs
12.1.3 Traceability: Reference where the requirement came from
12.1.14 Priority: Levels of important of the requirements
12.2 Priority Table
Highest Priority, safe and efficient
Higher Priority, affordable and environmental
Moderate Priority, ease and convenience
Lower Priority, to meet personal requirement
Lowest Priority, to meet general requirement
12.3 Verification Method Table
Demonstrate and test to proof the performance.
Analysis & discuss the system which has not satisfied result.
Calculate especially for mechanical parts
Simulate the system before physically test
The speed of the vehicle shall not be less than 180 km/h with the maximum weight 1900kg on the land.
The speed of the vehicle shall not be less than 65 km/h with the maximum weight 1900kg on the water.
Air-bags protection system shall activate not more than 1 second for 4 persons.
Water-leakage alarm shall be sound not longer than 4 seconds where there is leakage.
Over-load alarm shall be triggered whenever the load more than 1900 kg.
Life jackets shall be provided for 4 persons whose average weight is not greater than 80 kg.
Two built-in paddles shall not be longer than 50 cm in folded and 150 cm in normal condition.
The driver not more than 0.5 m away from the seat in case of emergency shall access the SOS signal button.
Fire-extinguisher shall be installed not more than 0.5 m away from the driver seat.
The passenger not more than 0.5 m from the seat shall access the first-aid kit.
The body of the hull shall be made of alloy aluminum, which is able to float on water.
The outer layer of the vehicle shall be painted with coating which is able to resist the weather.
The engine of the vehicle shall be maintenance free engine, which has minimum life span of 10 years.
The transmission of the car shall be auto transmission system, which is control by user switch.
The gear box of the car shall be auto mode and manual mode.
The car shall be had power steering function which is able to turn 360 degree.
The vehicle shall be equipped with foldable roof, which can be operated not more than 5 seconds.
The vehicle shall be equipped with hydraulic wheel retracting system which is able to keep the wheel not more than 3 seconds.
On the land operation, the vehicle shall be used hybrid engine.
On the water operation, the vehicle shall be used Berkeley Marine Jet.
The vehicle shall be used GPS to provide navigation system.
The vehicle shall be equipped with LCD screen, which is not smaller than 10cmX8cm to view the map location.
The power of the vehicle shall be ‘ON' by user's remote control not more than 2 seconds delay.
The car operation shall be enabled by user thumb-print control.
The vehicle shall be equipped with alarm system whenever the car was driven by unauthorized personal.
The vehicle will be equipped with cruise control for easy drive in land mode
Leather seats is essential to be comfortable when drive in both land and water
In car entertainment system will definitely attract the user for listening music or news on radio or CD player
User can watch movie from 7" screen of DVD player for land mode (optional)
Engines and Fuel
User need to top-up windscreen cleaning liquid when necessary
User must check air pressure of the wheel occasionally
User need to refill the fuel before the empty fuel indicator light is on
Service engineer have to do preventive maintenance in every 10,000 km or every 6 months according to PM checklist
Technical engineer needs to service the engine for both land and water
Wheel balancing and body alignment have to be performed by technical engineer
Service engineer will check regularly for hydraulic oil, engine oil and leakage checking
12.4 System capability or mode
Amphi-car is able to hold the capacity of 4 persons including driver. Amphibious vehicle can speed up to 180km/h on land and 70km/h in water. There is user control switch, which will be computerised to change land and water mode. User will change from land mode to water mode once the vehicle hull touch the water and it will take less than 12 seconds to operate in water. After 12 seconds the vehicle will run with jet engine and can ride up to 70km/h as user desire. In the other hand, the vehicle will change from water mode to land mode once user switch it to and will take less than 12 seconds to drive on the road too.
Functional Analysis and Allocation (FAA)
13.1 System Overview
The purpose of this assignment is to analyse the functional design, physical design and components details of the Amphicar-II project. After assigned the needs and requirements from the previous assignment, we will continue the design process, which includes function and physical design. The purpose of the vehicle is able to operate on land and water, so that we will build the vehicle according to our requirements.
13.2 Document Overview
This document includes of 4 major parts, namely scope, referenced documents, functional analysis and physical design. In the scope, we describe system overview and document overview. In the second part, referenced documents what we made. Then the main body of the documents are functional analysis design and physical design. In the functional analysis, we separate into 7 subsystems, performance, operation, design, safety, security, maintenance and personal requirements. In the physical design, we will mention physical overview and component details.
14 Referenced Documents
1. System Engineering lecture notes prepared by Mr. Bill Daniels
2. Core Tutorial taught by Mr. Bill Daniels
15 Functional Analysis
15.1 Amphicar-II System
15.1.1 Performance System
15.1.2 Operation System Design
15.1.3 Design System
15.1.4 Safety System
15.1.5 Security System
15.1.6 Maintenance System
15.1.7 Personal Requirement System
16 Physical Design
16.1 Physical Overview
Amphicar II System
16.2 Component Details
16.2.1 Amphicar-II Design System
As for the design system, the amphicar II mainly composed with below accessories.
There will be four seats made up of high quality leather that can be used on the land and water without damages.
The hull part of the vehicle is used 5052 alloy aluminum single piece in order to prevent from water leak aging and provides buoyancy in order to floating on the water.
The whole body of the vehicle is covered with alloy aluminum, which provides lightweight and proportional to the balance of the capacity.
In order to increase the acceleration in water mode, we used compact design of Berkeley Marine Jet engine which capable in increasing speed up to 40mph (65 km/h).
As concerns increase over global warming, we used hybrid system to develop Amphicar II. Also this system allows our V6 engine brings up speed to 62 mph (100 km/h).
16.2.2 Amphicar-II Maintenance System
Brake is critical safety system of the vehicle. The brake system should be checked at every service and not to be interfered with by anybody who does not have the appropriate skill and experience.
* Check disc brake and or drum shoe wear levels.
* Replace front and rear pad/shoes if necessary.
* Inspect brake fluid levels and check braking system components.
* Road test vehicle to check that brakes are operating correctly.
126.96.36.199 Car Battery
A car battery is the center of power supply for innovative car components. The battery must be check and test regularly.
* Clean the battery terminals.
* Measure the specific gravity with a hydrometer.
* Ensure all the individual cell is in good condition.
* Every 3-year replace all the batteries.
188.8.131.52 Car Body
For amphicar-II, frequent hull inspections at panel seams and joints are essential. After cruising in salt or brackish water, a through hosing with fresh water for the entire hull and all exposed suspension and nautical propulsion components is required. Check and ensure that there is no corrosion, no damage, no crack at the lower part of the body the hull and upper part of the aluminum amphicar-II body.
The filter for oil, fuel, cabin and air filters need to check and clean accordingly. If needed, replacement must be done immediately. Changing of car filter regular basic can have a significant impact on engine life and performance.
184.108.40.206 Gear Box
Gearbox fluid protects the amphicar-II against the heat and contaminants by lubricating gears, bearings, and shafts. Every service need to be carry out as shown below,
* Remove the old gearbox fluid.
* Inspect check plug and drain plug.
* Refill a new fluid.
220.127.116.11 Hybrid V6 Engine
The amphicar-II hybrid V6 engine must be check and service regularly.
* Check engine oil level, oil condition. Top up or refill the oil, if necessary.
* Check automatic transmission fluid. Change after 5,0000 miles.
* Check and inspect the engine coolant level.
* Check the electric motor's coil, rotor and all the wiring.
* Check the gasoline tank.
18.104.22.168 Jet Engine
Need to check and inspect the jet engine regularly before and after use. At least one a year recommends to carry out thorough diagnosis.
* Check the impeller and all the axles.
* Check and inspect the thrust bearing.
* Check on the water seal.
All the electrical wiring and sensor, computerize pre-program sensor and alarm sensor are need to check and test regularly.
Check the tire pressure and the condition regularly, at least once a month.
Check on the wheel balance and alignment.
Note: Due to many components are cannot be inspected visually. It is recommend having amphicar-II inspected, check and test regularly, at least one a year, by a mechanic.
16.2.3 Amphicar-II Operational System
22.214.171.124 Hydraulic Wheels
Amphicar II is using the hydraulic wheel lift method, which can be easily aligned with the vehicle to be towed without helping an operator, as well as it could not be damaged to the bumper or vehicle frame since retracting style is in an upward position.
Amphicar II is equipped with the powerful 12V battery type (High quality Calcium) in order to maintain the acceleration and performance as well as can operate properly when dealing with water.
16.2.4 Personnel Requirement
In order to convenient in navigation system, the vehicle had used GPS system to navigate user as well as user can be made sure that he is still on the right track and heading to the right destination.
126.96.36.199 CD/DVD Player
To provide entertainment, we built in LCD DVD player prevent the user from drowsiness and keep awake while driving.
The vehicle implemented with cruise mode for user that can be loafing when Amphicar-II drives on the water. This system is fully compatible with the GPS system and it will stay on the right track after the user announced the exact location in the system.
16.2.5 Amphicar-II Safety
In modern time, one of the most important aspects of the vehicles is the safety feature they contain. So our amphicar-II will be equip with safety feature as shown below.
188.8.131.52 Pre-Collision System
The amphicar-II will be equipped with Pre-Collision System. This technology system sense and prepare for a collision. When a sensor signals an impending crash, the system will takes preemptive action such as pre-tensioning the seat belts, preloading the brake and aligning air bag to better protect occupants.
184.108.40.206 Brake control
The amphicar-II will be equipped with Brake Control. In emergency situation, when the sensor detect ‘panic” braking, brake assist applies maximum brake boost and therefore decreases stopping distance.
220.127.116.11 Tire pressure monitor
The amphicar-II will be equipped with Tire Pressure Monitor. Tire pressure-monitoring systems, which use sensor to provide information on tire inflation to a display instrument panel. It will show pressure in individual tires.
18.104.22.168 Navigation System
The amphicar-II will be equipped with GPS navigation system. GPS navigation system will guide through the destination and very much safer than reading a map behind the wheel. They issue turn-by-turn guidance and will reroute if they miss a turn.
22.214.171.124 Electronic Stability Control
The amphicar-II will equipped with Electronic Stability Control. Electronic stability control works by using a computer program, which can detect and effectively prevent skids. It does this by detecting loss of steering control and applying individual brakes to help keep the driver in some control of the vehicle. It can also reduce engine power until it deems that enough control has been regained.
126.96.36.199 Air Bags
The amphicar-II will equipped with 4-air bags. When collision occurs, the air bag suddenly expand and stopping the heads from crashing into the steering wheel or dashboard and saved a person from serious head injuries.
188.8.131.52 Seat Belt Pretensioners
The amphicar-II will be equipped with Seat Belt Pre-tensioners. Seatbelt tensioners are component of the seatbelt system, which locks the seatbelt in place during a crash.
184.108.40.206 VHF-FM Radio (S.O.S Signal)
The amphicar-II will be equipped with VHF-FM Radio. This marine VHF-FM radio is the most critical pieces of safety equipment for the Amphi car. This VHF-FM radio have a new feature called digital selective calling DSC. With a press of a button, the radio sends distress alerting signal and the location to the coast guard using GPS.
220.127.116.11 Life Jacket (or) Personal Floating Device (PFD)
The amphicar-II will have life jacket. There will be 4-adult and 1-child sizes life jacket in the amphicar-II, for emergency used. Children younger than 13 year old must wear a life jacket while under way.
18.104.22.168 First Aid Kit
There will be first aid kit box for emergency use in the amphicar-II.
22.214.171.124 Fire Extinguisher
There will be 1 Kg CO2 fire extinguisher at the back of amphicar-II.
126.96.36.199 Water Leakage Sensor
Water leakage sensor will be install to monitor water leakage to the lower parts of the amphicar-II.
188.8.131.52 Over Load Detection Alarm
The amphicar-II will be equipped with over load detection alarm system if the overall weight of 1900kg exceed.
The amphicar-II will be equipped with 2 paddles for emergency use , incase of engine break down.
16.2.6 Amphicar-II Security System
184.108.40.206 Motion Sensor
Amphicar-II will be equipped with motion sensor. The sensor will sense the movement within the vehicle. This is perfect for amphicar-II with foldable roof.
220.127.116.11 Thumb Scanner
Amphicar-II will be equipped with finger scanner to start the engine. Its can be stored up to 10-persons authorized fingerprint.
18.104.22.168 Two-Way Communication Remote
These amphicar-II will come with two-way communication remote. It will provide visual or auditory confirmation of alarm status right on the key fob.
The amphicar-II will be equipped with engine immobilizer using transponder operation. High security code is transferred b an automated signal. Transponder tag is active only when in close proximity to the ignition switch.
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