Piezoelectric Energy Home Analysis

1.0 Introduction

In Malaysia, each house using electricity at Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB). With the use of electricity, the family in each house to do the activities and generate electrical appliances such as air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines and others. Basically when using a lot of electricity, home users should pay a lot of bills.

Some homes also have alternative energy like solar, water and wind, but it has disadvantages because of the use of solar energy they generate during the day camp only. While water and wind requires strategic places to generate electricity.

Piezoelectric Energy Home more aimed at people always use a lot energy. Nornally piezoelectric energy home is a useful the future alternative energy. In the United States, China and Japan the consumer use this piezoelectric energy home as an alternative energy.

At firstly, this piezoelectric is difficult owned alternative energy but in the future, people will easily get and use piezoelectric to help with the saving of energy costs and also a particularly safe environment.

1.1 Problem Statement

By using the kinetic energy, consumers can reduce electricity use from Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB). In addition, it is the best alternative energy because it will be produced day and night. In addition, it can generate anywhere and can be used on anyone. The kinetic energy function using the piezoelectric system [1]. It is a very easy method to tread plates, electrical energy will be generated and stored in the bank energy (battery) [3]. Bank staff will show the amount of time and energy to live and then send the electricity to electrical equipment (air conditioning) [2] is determined by the user. 

1.2 Project Objective

The objective of this project is to design a piezoelectric energy home with the following features:

To design piezoelectric system to generate electricity from vibrations. 

To apply the electrical energy produced to any electrical appliances.

To evaluate the voltage produced varies with level and value.

1.3 Project Scope

These following scopes are listed to ensured to ensure the project is heading the right direction and achieve the objectives:

The board size is 27cm wide and 45cm long will convert the mechanical energy in electrical energy (piezoelectric system).

Use the preteus 7 professional software and mikoelektromika software for C language programmers to LCD display (16x2) the level and value voltage at the battery charging.

Can supply electrical appliances which has a capacity 100-220V 50-60Hz for example notebook adapter, hair dryer, curling iron and other things.

Chapter 2

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Overview

This chapter describes the literature review which is related to this piezoelectric energy home project. Information about the piezoelectric energy home has been studied from different resources to perform this project. This chapter also carried out the whole project to gain knowledge and skills needed to complete this project. Those sources from thesis and journals will help to identify problems as well as giving ideas for analysis and decision making in this project. The technology that involved or already produced is studied. Study of the PIC, piezoelectric and other circuit used are conducted by referring the previous project that had been done.

2.2 Description of previous project system

2.2.1 Third Order Longitudinal Mode Piezoelectric ceramic transformer and its

application to high-voltage power inverter

Journal authors [1] pointed out that Figure 2.2.1.1 shows the structure of the in investigated piezoelectric transformer which can operate in the third order longitudinal vibration mode. Triple Stacked tranformer which elements are thin piezoelectric ceramic esare available in the transformer. The transformer has symmetrical secondary electrodes trip at the center of it and a primary electrodes at both ends of the transformer.

Figure 2.2.1.1: Structure of triple-layered piezoelectric transformer operating in the third order longitudinal vibration mode.

New PZT Actuator Using Piezoelectric Thin Film on Parallel Plate Structure

Journals authors [2] display from the Figure 2.2.2.1 shows parallel beam structure. Square hole is mode through the rectangular solid. Then the thin parallel beam structure is constructed. Section modulus of parallel beam is decreased by square hole. Parallel beam structure has many significant features as such:

Piling up the the basic structures, we can increase displacement.

We can increase rigidity by changing parallel beam thickness.

Tip moves in parallel at the end and stiffness to the vertical direction is large.

When displacement of the tips is small, stress of the structure is big.

Figure 2.2.2.1: Parallel Beam Structure

2.2.3 Vibration Active Control of Fluid Pulsation Based Piezoelectric valve

In Figure 2.2.3.1 the journal author [3] describes about structure of the piezoelectric direct drive servovalve is illustrated. It mainly consists of piezoelectric stacks, sleeve, spool and displacement sensor. The annulus piezoelectric stacks, which have holes in the center at drive the spool. When voltage whose amplitudes are equivalent but inverse phases are applied in the two piezoelectric stacks is a elongates and the other simultaneously shortens. Next the spool will move to the special direction the displacement sensor in the hollow of the piezoelectric stack can measure the displacement of the spool.

Figure 2.2.3.1: Schematic configuration of the piezoelectric direct drive servivalve

2.2.4 Analysis of Active Vibration Control for Piezoelectric Intelligent Structures by ANSYS and MATLAB

Journals authors [4] describes the start of the piezoelctric actuator is operating vibration response containing the revocation of an object used to activate piezoelektric vibration control method. As shown in Figure 2.2.4.1 the output controller will be control the output signals to the actuators and control subjects in the under control. It also use a sensor that can see vibration of the piezoelectric plate or other structure to move the intelligent actuator controller in accordance with the output. In addition, if the actuator’s output is equal to the vibration response of the structure, least be suppressed or vibration of the structures should be controlled.

Figure 2.2.1.1 : Schematic diagram of active vibration control system

2.2.5 Wireless Drive of a Piezoelectric Plate by Dipole antenna

Journals authors [5] states piezoelectric plate to the electric field plate shaped transmit he live and ground electrodes are used to form a dipole antenna like structure like live and ground electrodes of the dipole antenna from the piezoelectric plate is placed in a plane perpendicular to the electrodes and equidistant. Figure 2.2.5.1 shows the mode of operation to determine the thickness of the piezoelectric wireless configuration. The material in the plates of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectricu (PZT) ceramic and poled along the thickness direction. The silver electrode on the plate at the top and bottom surfaces. Vibration the applied electricity field direction and both are parallel to the poling direction. The real power at the plate and delivers a load is measuring resistor connected across the two electrodes.

Figure 2.2.2.1: Configuration of wirelessly driven piezoelectric plate operating in the thickness mode.

2.2.6 A Research on the Piezoelectric Vibration Actuator for Mobile Phone

Journals authors [6] states used in the horizontal diplacement of piezoelctric vibration device. The best way to get elestic body goes through polarized piezoelectric ceramaic plate and the piezoelectric ceramic is a good structure, design and type of parallel bimorph. The piezoelectric vibration device compasition to make the piezoelectric actuator is 0.1 Pb(Ni1/3Nb1/3Sb1/3)O3 to 0.9 Pb(Ni1/3Nb1/3Sb1/3)O3. A vibration device joined piezoelectrictric ceramic two plate plates sized by 25x12x0.1mm3 and phosphor-bronzer size by 28x12x0.1mm3 to two liquid types of epoxy.

Figure 2.2.6.1: Running principle.

Inverter

Inverter circuit serves to convert DC to AC voltage. The inverter circuit to produce a stable output as a integrated circuit CD4047. Astable multivibrator output is due to produce 4.40 RC (pulse width) and the monostable multivibrator output will be produce 2.48 RC (pulse width). After that, the signal will be go to the transistor used as amplifiers. This alows the signal to rise and generate the appropriate signals to produce a stable voltage when arrives the transformer.

Battery

A battery or voltaic cell is a combination of one or more electrochemical Galvanic cells which store chemical energy that can be converted into electric potential energy, creating electricity. The battery is the primary “source? of electrical energy. It stores chemicals, not electricity. Two different types of lead in an acid mixture react to procude an electrical pressure. This electrochemical reaction changes chemical energy to electrical energy.

Chapter 3

3.0 Methodology

3.1 Introduction

This chapter describes how the project developed and what methods will be used and describes the methodology and approach taken in the project. This project consists hardware designing, circuit and of software development. A number of support tools such as PICkit and USB programmer will be used to assist on software and hardware development. Research and literature review which are related must be made before starting this project. Information from similar projects, theory about the microcontroller, piezoelectric and inverter circuit that intended to be used in this project need to be studied. By doing research from the previous works, relevant idea could be generated in order to implement this project.

3.2 Project development

Project development consists of two parts hardware and software designs.

3.2.1 Hardware design

For hardware design, the circuit is divided into several units based on its functionality. The units are piezoelectric unit, microcontroller unit, power supply unit, inverter unit and interface unit. The piezoelectric unit function for produces mechanical power to electric power and moving the battery. The microcontroller circuit functions as the processor of this battery to show the level and value voltage in interface unit. The power supply unit, it plays major rules in distributing the power to the other unit according to the requirement of the system such as if the microcontroller unit requires 5V voltage, the power supply unit will provide 5V supply to the microcontroller unit. Finally, the electric moving the inverter unit to convert from DC to AC for user can used the electrical appliances.

3.2.2 Software development

Microcontroller functions is important as a brain of this system. Microcontroller will show the level and value voltage at battery. Microcontroller build used the c language to MicroC and burning the PIC16F877A at PICkit 2 v2.55. Specifically, these are the tasks that microcontroller performs for this interface battery example level and value voltage. For this project, a familiar microcontroller will be used.

3.2.2.1 PIC microcontroller

The PIC16F877A is from the PIC16 microcontroller family, with the some advantages is a high computational performance at an economical price and the addition of high endurance and Enhanced Flash Memory. Then added features include eight additional instructions that augment indirect and indexed addressing operations and the implementation of Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode for many of the standard PIC16 instructions. In addition to these features, the PIC16F877A introduces design enhancements that make power sensitive applications to project and can build microcontroller a logical device for many high-performance.The PIC16F877A make use of NanoWatt technology that incorporates a range of features that can significantly reduce power and voltage consumption during operation includes:

Alternate Run Modes.

Multiple Idle Modes.

On the Fly Mode Switching.

Lower Consumption in Key Modules .

Extended Instruction Set.

3.3 Part integration

After all harware and software implementation is already finish and testing, all the part need to be integrate. The hardware must place at right location then the program is load into the microcontroller in order to test whether the piezoelectric can running and function to suitable for user.

3.4 Project Block Diagram

Figure 3.4.1 : Project Block Diagram

Component

Description

Piezoelectric plate

Generate the energy from mechanical power to electric power

Piezo regulator

The voltage regulator to support 12V DC only and moving the battery to changer.

Battery

Storage and supply the voltage to give the inverter circuit.

PIC and LCD Display

The microcontroller use C language to show level and value voltage at LCD Display.

Inverter

Convert from DC to AC voltage.

Electric appliances

Electric appliances used by the user which features the 220v supply.

Table 1: Component and Description

Chapter 4

4.0 Expected Result

The user stepping on the floor (piezoelectric plate) it will be generate from mechanical power to electric power because the plate can happen vibration. After that, the generate of electricity, it go in the piezoelectric voltage regulator to stabilize voltage so that it entered into the battery with a constant voltage. Later the battery will be to keep the voltage and go in the inverter to convert from DC to AC voltage1 for user can used the electrical appliances. In addition, the batter also display the level and value voltage by using PIC16F877A and LCD display.

Figure 4.0.1: Flow chart Piezoelectric Energy Home.

Chapter 5

5.0 Conclusion

The project outlines were discussed with briefly. Piezoelectric Energy Home very easily function and safe to use by user. This project is the best alternative energy in a future. Then the user can saving in a payments for use electric. In addition, this project so easier for user to see the level and value voltage stored in the battery. The voltage in this project is stability and can used on all types of electric appliances.

5.1 Reference

[1] S.Kawashima1, O.Ohnishi1, H.Hakamata1, S.Tagami1, A.Fukuoka1, T.Inoue1 and S.Hirose2, “Third Order Longitudinal Mode Piezoelectric ceramic transformer and its application to high-voltage power inverter?, 1NEC Corporation Kawasaki 211, 2Yamagata University Yonezawa 992, Japan,2002.

[2] Sato.H , Arai.F, Ishihara.H, Fukuda.T, Iwata.H, Itogawa.K, “New PZT Actuator Using Piezoelectric Thin Film on Parallel Plate Structure? Department Of Micro. Sys.tem Engineering nagoya University, Japan, 2002.

[3] Hongmei Liu2, Pingchao Ouyang2, Yunlong Cai1, Chen Lu1, Jiahui Luan1, “Vibration Active Control of Fluid Pulsation Based Piezoelectric valve?, 1Department of System Engineering of Engineering Technologi Beihang University, 2501 research institute China Academy of Space Technology Haidian, Beijing, China, 2009.

[4] Zhu Xiaojin, Zhao Miao, Gao Zhiyuan, Chen Zhiyan, “Analysis of Active Vibration Control for Piezoelectric Intelligent Structures by ANSYS and MATLAB?, School of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation Shanghai University, Shanghai, China, 2010.

[5] Satyanarayan Bhuyan and Junhui Hu, “Wireless Drive of a Piezoelectric Plate by Dipole antenna?, School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 2009.

[6] O.D. Kwon1, J.S. Yoo1, Y.J.Yun1, J.S. Lee3, S.H. Kang2, K.J. Lim1, “A Research on the Piezoelectric Vibration Actuator for Mobile Phone?, 1School of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 1I2 Gaeshin-dong, Heungduk-gu, Chongju, Korea, 2Dept. of fire prevention engineering, chungcheomg University, Korea, 3R&D Center, EMD Co., Ltd., Cheonan, Korea, 2005.

[7] Jing-yu Yang,Guo-ping Chen, “Actuator Placement And Configuration Direction Optimation In Plate Structure Vibration Control System?, Nanjing University Of Aeronautics And Astronautics , Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, 2010.

[8] B. J. G. Vautier and S . 0. R. Moheimani, “Avoiding Hysteresis in Vibration Control Using Piezoelectric Laminates?, The School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Newcastle, Callaghan , Australia, 2003.

[9] Takuro Ikeda, “Fundamentals of Piezoelectricity?, Oxford University, England ,2002.

[10] The Jiashi, "The Mechanics Of piezoelectric Structure", World scientific New York, 2006.