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Light Emitting Diode | Dissertation

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Published: Wed, 21 Feb 2018

Introduction

Alight-emitting diode(LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across thevisible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.

When a light-emitting diodeis forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is calledelectroluminescenceand thecolorof the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is often small in area (less than 1mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern.LEDs present manyadvantagesover incandescent light sources includinglower energy consumption, longerlifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current andheat managementthan compactfluorescent lampsources of comparable output.

Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements foraviation lighting,automotive lighting(particularly brake lamps, turn signals and indicators) as well as intraffic signals. The compact size, the possibility of narrow bandwidth, switching speed, and extreme reliability of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology.InfraredLEDs are also used in theremote controlunits of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players, and other domestic appliances.

History

Discoveries and early devices

Green electroluminescence from a point contact on a crystal ofSiCrecreatesH. J. Round’s original experiment from 1907.

Electroluminescenceas a phenomenon was discovered in 1907 by the British experimenterH. J. RoundofMarconi Labs, using a crystal ofsilicon carbideand acat’s-whisker detector.RussianOleg Vladimirovich Losevreported on the creation of a first LED in 1927.His research was distributed in Russian, German and British scientific journals, but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades. Rubin Braunstein of theRadio Corporation of Americareported on infrared emission fromgallium arsenide(GaAs) and other semiconductor alloys in 1955.Braunstein observed infrared emission generated by simple diode structures usinggallium antimonide(GaSb), GaAs,indium phosphide(InP), andsilicon-germanium(SiGe) alloys at room temperature and at 77kelvin.

In 1961, American experimenters Robert Biard and Gary Pittman working atTexas Instruments,found that GaAs emitted infrared radiation when electric current was applied and received the patent for the infrared LED.

The first practical visible-spectrum (red) LED was developed in 1962 byNick Holonyak Jr., while working atGeneral Electric Company.Holonyak is seen as the “father of the light-emitting diode”.M. George Craford,a former graduate student of Holonyak, invented the first yellow LED and improved the brightness of red and red-orange LEDs by a factor of ten in 1972. In 1976, T.P. Pearsall created the first high-brightness, high efficiency LEDs for optical fiber telecommunications by inventing new semiconductor materials specifically adapted to optical fiber transmission wavelengths.

Until 1968, visible and infrared LEDs were extremely costly, on the order of US $200 per unit, and so had little practical use.TheMonsanto Companywas the first organization to mass-produce visible LEDs, using gallium arsenide phosphide in 1968 to produce red LEDs suitable for indicators. Hewlett Packard(HP) introduced LEDs in 1968, initially using GaAsP supplied by Monsanto. The technology proved to have major uses for alphanumeric displays and was integrated into HP’s early handheld calculators. In the 1970s commercially successful LED devices at fewer than five cents each were produced by Fairchild Optoelectronics. These devices employed compound semiconductor chips fabricated with theplanar processinvented by Dr. Jean Hoerni atFairchild Semiconductor.The combination of planar processing for chip fabrication and innovative packaging methods enabled the team at Fairchild led by optoelectronics pioneer Thomas Brandt to achieve the needed cost reductions. These methods continue to be used by LED producers.

History Of LEDs and LED Technology

Light Emitting Diode (LED)

Light Emitting Diode (LED) is essentially a PN junction semiconductor diode that emits a monochromatic (single color) light when operated in a forward biased direction. The basic structure of an LED consists of the die or light emitting semiconductor material, a lead frame where the die is actually placed, and the encapsulation epoxy which surrounds and protects the die (Figure 1).

The first commercially usable LEDs were developed in the 1960’s by combining three primary elements: gallium, arsenic and phosphorus (GaAsP) to obtain a 655nm red light source. Although the luminous intensity was very low with brightness levels of approximately 1-10mcd @ 20mA, they still found use in a variety of applications, primarily as indicators. Following GaAsP, GaP, or gallium phosphide, red LEDs were developed. These devices were found to exhibit very high quantum efficiencies, however, they played only a minor role in the growth of new applications for LEDs. This was due to two reasons: First, the 700nm wavelength emission is in a spectral region where the sensitivity level of the human eye is very low (Figure 2) and therefore, it does not “appear” to be very bright even though the efficiency is high (the human eye is most responsive to yellow-green light). Second, this high efficiency is only achieved at low currents. As the current increases, the efficiency decreases. This proves to be a disadvantage to users such as outdoor message sign manufacturers who typically multiplex their LEDs at high currents to achieve brightness levels similar to that of DC continuous operation. As a result, GaP red LEDs are currently used in only a limited number of applications.

As LED technology progressed through the 1970’s, additional colors and wavelengths became available. The most common materials were GaP green and red, GaAsP orange or high efficiency red and GaAsP yellow, all of which are still used today (Table3). The trend towards more practical applications was also beginning to develop. LEDs were found in such products as calculators, digital watches and test equipment. Although the reliability of LEDs has always been superior to that of incandescent, neon etc., the failure rate of early devices was much higher than current technology now achieves. This was due in part to the actual component assembly that was primarily manual in nature. Individual operators performed such tasks as dispensing epoxy, placing the die into position, and mixing epoxy all by hand. This resulted in defects such as “epoxy slop” which caused VF (forward voltage) and VR (reverse voltage) leakage or even shorting of the PN junction. In addition, the growth methods and materials used were not as refined as they are today. High numbers of defects in the crystal, substrate and epitaxial layers resulted in reduced efficiency and shorter device lifetimes.

Gallium Aluminum Arsenide

It wasn’t until the 1980’s when a new material, GaAlAs (gallium aluminum arsenide) was developed, that a rapid growth in the use ofLEDsbegan to occur. GaAlAs technology provided superior performance over previously availableLEDs. The brightness was over 10 times greater than standardLEDsdue to increased efficiency and multi-layer, heterojunction type structures. The voltage required for operation was lower resulting in a total power savings. TheLEDscould also be easily pulsed or multiplexed. This allowed their use in variable message and outdoor signs.LEDswere also designed into such applications as bar code scanners, fiber optic data transmission systems, and medical equipment. Although this was a major breakthrough inLEDtechnology, there were still significant drawbacks to GaAlAs material. First, it was only available in a red 660nm wavelength. Second, the light output degradation of GaAlAs is greater than that of standard technology. It has long been a misconception withLEDsthat light output will decrease by 50% after 100,000 hours of operation. In fact, some GaAlAsLEDsmay decrease by 50% after only 50,000 -70,000 hours of operation. This is especially true in high temperature and/or high humidity environments. Also during this time, yellow, green and orange saw only a minor improvement in brightness and efficiency which was primarily due to improvements in crystal growth and optics design. The basic structure of the material remained relatively unchanged.

Wavelength

LED Color

Material and structure of LEDs

Production method

700

red leds

GaP: Zn-O/GaP

LPE

660

red leds

GaAI0.35 As/GaAs

LPE

630

red leds

GaAs0.35PO.65: N/GaP

VPE + diffusion

610

orange leds

GaAs0.25Po.75: N/GaP

VPE + diffusion

590

yellow leds

GaAs0.15PO.85: N/GaP

VPE + diffusion

565

green leds

Gap: N/GaP

LPE

555

green leds

GaP/GaP

LPE

To overcome these difficult issues new technology was needed.LEDdesigners turned to laser diode technology for solutions. In parallel with the rapid developments inLEDtechnology, laser diode technology had also been making progress. In the late 1980’s laser diodes with output in the visible spectrum began to be commercially produced for applications such as bar code readers, measurement and alignment systems and next generation storage systems.LEDdesigners looked to using similar techniques to produce high brightness and high reliabilityLEDs. This led to the development of InGaAlP (Indium Gallium Aluminum Phosphide) visibleLEDs. The use of InGaAlP as the luminescent material allowed flexibility in the design ofLEDoutput color simply by adjusting the size of the energy band gap. Thus, green, yellow, orange and redLEDsall could be produced using the same basic technology. Additionally, light output degradation of InGaAlP material is significantly improved even at elevated temperature and humidity.

Current Developments of LED Technology

InGaAlPLEDstook a further leap in brightness with a new development by Toshiba, a leading manufacturer ofLEDs. Toshiba, using the MOCVD (Metal Oxide Chemical Vapor Deposition) growth process, was able to produce a device structure that reflected 90% or more of the generated light traveling from the active layer to the substrate back as useful light output (Figure 4). This allowed for an almost two-fold increase in theLEDluminance over conventional devices.LEDperformance was further improved by introducing a current blocking layer into theLEDstructure (Figure 5). This blocking layer essentially channels the current through the device to achieve better device efficiency.

As a result of these developments, much of the growth forLEDsin the 1990’s will be concentrated in three main areas: The first is in traffic control devices such as stop lights, pedestrian signals, barricade lights and road hazard signs. The second is in variable message signs such as the one located in Times Square New York which displays commodities, news and other information. The third concentration would be in automotive applications.

The visibleLEDhas come a long way since its introduction almost 30 years ago and has yet to show any signs of slowing down. A BlueLED, which has only recently become available in production quantities, will result in an entire generation of new applications. BlueLEDsbecause of their high photon energies (>2.5eV) and relatively low eye sensitivity have always been difficult to manufacture. In addition the technology necessary to fabricate theseLEDsis very different and far less advanced than standardLEDmaterials. The blueLEDsavailable today consist of GaN (gallium nitride) and SiC (silicon carbide) construction with brightness levels in excess of 1000mcd @ 20mA for GaN devices. Since blue is one of the primary colors, (the other two being red and green), full color solid stateLEDsigns, TV’s etc. will soon become commercially available. Full colorLEDsigns have already been manufactured on a small prototype basis, however, due to the high price of blueLEDs, it is still not practical on a large scale. Other applications for blueLEDsinclude medical diagnostic equipment and photolithography.

LED Colors

It is also possible to produce other colors using the same basic GaN technology and growth processes. For example, a high brightness green (approximately 500nm)LEDhas been developed that is currently being evaluated for use as a replacement to the green bulb in traffic lights. Other colors including purple and white are also possible. With the recent introduction of blueLEDs, it is now possible to produce white by selectively combining the proper combination of red, green and blue light. This process however, requires sophisticated software and hardware design to implement. In addition, the brightness level is low and the overall light output of each RGB die being used degrades at a different rate resulting in an eventual color unbalance. Another approach being taken to achieve white light output, is to use a phosphor layer (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) on the surface of a blueLED.

In summary,LEDshave gone from infancy to adolescence and are experiencing some of the most rapid market growth of their lifetime. By using InGaAlP material with MOCVD as the growth process, combined with efficient delivery of generated light and efficient use of injected current, some of the brightest, most efficient and most reliableLEDsare now available. This technology together with other novelLEDstructures will ensure wide application ofLEDs. New developments in the blue spectrum and on white light output will also guarantee the continued increase in applications of these economical light sources.

Practical use

The first commercial LEDs were commonly used as replacements forincandescentandneonindicator lamps, and inseven-segment displays,first in expensive equipment such as laboratory and electronics test equipment, then later in such appliances as TVs, radios, telephones, calculators, and even watches (see list ofsignal uses). These red LEDs were bright enough only for use as indicators, as the light output was not enough to illuminate an area. Readouts in calculators were so small that plastic lenses were built over each digit to make them legible. Later, other colors grew widely available and also appeared in appliances and equipment. As LED materials technology grew more advanced, light output rose, while maintaining efficiency and reliability at acceptable levels. The invention and development of the high power white light LED led to use for illumination, which is fast replacing incandescent and fluorescent lighting. (see list ofillumination applications). Most LEDs were made in the very common 5mm T1¾ and 3mm T1 packages, but with rising power output, it has grown increasingly necessary to shed excess heat to maintain reliability,so more complex packages have been adapted for efficient heat dissipation. Packages for state-of-the-arthigh power LEDsbear little resemblance to early LEDs.

Continuing development

The first high-brightness blue LED was demonstrated byShuji NakamuraofNichia Corporationand was based onInGaNborrowing on critical developments inGaNnucleation on sapphire substrates and the demonstration of p-type doping of GaN which were developed byIsamu Akasakiand H. Amano inNagoya. In 1995,Alberto Barbieriat theCardiff UniversityLaboratory (GB) investigated the efficiency and reliability of high-brightness LEDs and demonstrated a very impressive result by using a transparent contact made ofindium tin oxide(ITO) on (AlGaInP/GaAs) LED. The existence of blue LEDs and high efficiency LEDs quickly led to the development of the firstwhite LED, which employed aY3Al5O12:Ce, or “YAG”, phosphor coating to mix yellow (down-converted) light with blue to produce light that appears white. Nakamura was awarded the 2006Millennium Technology Prizefor his invention.

The development of LED technology has caused their efficiency and light output torise exponentially, with a doubling occurring about every 36 months since the 1960s, in a way similar toMoore’s law. The advances are generally attributed to the parallel development of other semiconductor technologies and advances in optics and material science. This trend is normally calledHaitz’s Lawafter Dr. Roland Haitz.

In February 2008, 300lumensof visible light per wattluminous efficacy(not per electrical watt) and warm-light emission was achieved by usingnanocrystals.

In 2009, a process for growing gallium nitride (GaN) LEDs on silicon has been reported.Epitaxycosts could be reduced by up to 90% using six-inch silicon wafers instead of two-inch sapphire wafers.

Illustration of Haitz’s Law. Light output per LED as a function of production year, note the logarithmic scale on the vertical axis

Technology

Physics

The LED consists of a chip of semiconducting materialdopedwith impurities to create ap-n junction. As in other diodes, current flows easily from the p-side, oranode, to the n-side, orcathode, but not in the reverse direction. Charge-carriers—electronsandholes—flow into the junction fromelectrodeswith different voltages. When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lowerenergy level, and releasesenergyin the form of a photon.

Thewavelengthof the light emitted, and thus its color depends on theband gapenergy of the materials forming thep-n junction. Insiliconor germaniumdiodes, the electrons and holes recombine by anon-radiative transitionwhich produces no optical emission, because these are indirect band gapmaterials. The materials used for the LED have adirect band gapwith energies corresponding to near-infrared, visible or near-ultraviolet light.

LED development began with infrared and red devices made withgallium arsenide. Advances inmaterials sciencehave enabled making devices with ever-shorter wavelengths, emitting light in a variety of colors.

LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate, with an electrode attached to the p-type layer deposited on its surface. P-type substrates, while less common, occur as well. Many commercial LEDs, especially GaN/InGaN, also usesapphiresubstrate.

Most materials used for LED production have very highrefractive indices. This means that much light will be reflected back into the material at the material/air surface interface. Thus,light extraction in LEDsis an important aspect of LED production, subject to much research and development.

The inner workings of an LED I-V diagram for adiode. An LED will begin to emit light when the on-voltageis exceeded. Typical on voltages are 2-3volts.

Refractive Index

Idealized example of light emission cones in a semiconductor, for a single point-source emission zone. The left illustration is for a fully translucent wafer, while the right illustration shows the half-cones formed when the bottom layer is fully opaque. The light is actually emitted equally in all directions from the point-source, so the areas between the cones shows the large amount of trapped light energy that is wasted as heat.

The light emission cones of a real LED wafer are far more complex than a single point-source light emission. Typically the light emission zone is a 2D plane between the wafers. Across this 2D plane, there is effectively a separate set of emission cones for every atom.
Drawing the billions of overlapping cones is impossible, so this is a simplified diagram showing the extents of all the emission cones combined. The larger side cones are clipped to show the interior features and reduce image complexity; they would extend to the opposite edges of the 2D emission plane.

Bare uncoated semiconductors such assiliconexhibit a very highrefractive indexrelative to open air, which prevents passage of photons at sharp angles relative to the air-contacting surface of the semiconductor. This property affects both the light-emission efficiency of LEDs as well as the light-absorption efficiency ofphotovoltaic cells. The refractive index of silicon is 4.24, while air is 1.00002926.

Generally a flat-surfaced uncoated LED semiconductor chip will only emit light perpendicular to the semiconductor’s surface, and a few degrees to the side, in a cone shape referred to as thelight cone,cone of light,or theescape cone.The maximumangle of incidenceis referred to as thecritical angle. When this angle is exceeded photons no longer penetrate the semiconductor, but are instead reflected both internally inside the semiconductor crystal, and externally off the surface of the crystal as if it were amirror.

Internal reflectionscan escape through other crystalline faces, if the incidence angle is low enough and the crystal is sufficiently transparent to not re-absorb the photon emission. But for a simple square LED with 90-degree angled surfaces on all sides, the faces all act as equal angle mirrors. In this case the light cannot escape and is lost as waste heat in the crystal.

A convoluted chip surface with angledfacetssimilar to a jewel orfresnel lenscan increase light output by allowing light to be emitted perpendicular to the chip surface while far to the sides of the photon emission point.

The ideal shape of a semiconductor with maximum light output would be amicrospherewith the photon emission occurring at the exact center, with electrodes penetrating to the center to contact at the emission point. All light rays emanating from the center would be perpendicular to the entire surface of the sphere, resulting in no internal reflections. A hemispherical semiconductor would also work, with the flat back-surface serving as a mirror to back-scattered photons.

Transition coatings

Many LED semiconductor chips arepottedin clear or colored molded plastic shells. The plastic shell has three purposes:

1. Mounting the semiconductor chip in devices is easier to accomplish.

2. The tiny fragile electrical wiring is physically supported and protected from damage

3. The plastic acts as a refractive intermediary between the relatively high-index semiconductor and low-index open air.

The third feature helps to boost the light emission from the semiconductor by acting as a diffusing lens, allowing light to be emitted at a much higher angle of incidence from the light cone, than the bare chip is able to emit alone.

Efficiency and operational parameters

Typical indicator LEDs are designed to operate with no more than 30-60mWof electrical power. Around 1999,Philips Lumiledsintroduced power LEDs capable of continuous use at oneW. These LEDs used much larger semiconductor die sizes to handle the large power inputs. Also, the semiconductor dies were mounted onto metal slugs to allow for heat removal from the LED die.

One of the key advantages of LED-based lighting is its high efficacy,[dubious-discuss]as measured by its light output per unit power input. White LEDs quickly matched and overtook the efficacy of standard incandescent lighting systems. In 2002, Lumileds made five-watt LEDs available with aluminous efficacyof 18-22 lumens per watt (lm/W). For comparison, a conventional 60-100 Wincandescent light bulbemits around 15 lm/W, and standardfluorescent lightsemit up to 100 lm/W. A recurring problem is that efficacy falls sharply with rising current. This effect is known asdroopand effectively limits the light output of a given LED, raising heating more than light output for higher current.

In September 2003, a new type of blue LED was demonstrated by the companyCree Inc.to provide 24mW at 20milliamperes(mA). This produced a commercially packaged white light giving 65 lm/W at 20 mA, becoming the brightest white LED commercially available at the time, and more than four times as efficient as standard incandescents. In 2006, they demonstrated a prototype with a record white LED luminous efficacy of 131 lm/W at 20 mA. Also,Seoul Semiconductorplans for 135 lm/W by 2007 and 145 lm/W by 2008,which would be nearing an order of magnitude improvement over standard incandescents and better than even standard fluorescents.Nichia Corporationhas developed a white LED with luminous efficacy of 150 lm/W at a forward current of 20 mA.

Practical general lighting needs high-power LEDs, of one watt or more. Typical operating currents for such devices begin at 350 mA.

Note that these efficiencies are for the LED chip only, held at low temperature in a lab. Lighting works at higher temperature and with drive circuit losses, so efficiencies are much lower.United States Department of Energy(DOE) testing of commercial LED lamps designed to replace incandescent lamps orCFLsshowed that average efficacy was still about 46 lm/W in 2009 (tested performance ranged from 17lm/W to 79lm/W).

Cree issued a press release on February 3, 2010 about a laboratory prototype LED achieving 208 lumens per watt at room temperature. The correlatedcolor temperaturewas reported to be 4579K.

Lifetime and failure

Main article:List of LED failure modes

Solid state devices such as LEDs are subject to very limitedwear and tearif operated at low currents and at low temperatures. Many of the LEDs made in the 1970s and 1980s are still in service today. Typical lifetimes quoted are 25,000 to 100,000 hours but heat and current settings can extend or shorten this time significantly.

The most common symptom of LED (anddiode laser) failure is the gradual lowering of light output and loss of efficiency. Sudden failures, although rare, can occur as well. Early red LEDs were notable for their short lifetime. With the development of high-power LEDs the devices are subjected to higherjunction temperaturesand higher current densities than traditional devices. This causes stress on the material and may cause early light-output degradation. To quantitatively classify lifetime in a standardized manner it has been suggested to use the terms L75 and L50 which is the time it will take a given LED to reach 75% and 50% light output respectively.

Like other lighting devices, LED performance is temperature dependent. Most manufacturers’ published ratings of LEDs are for an operating temperature of 25°C. LEDs used outdoors, such as traffic signals or in-pavement signal lights, and that are utilized in climates where the temperature within the luminaire gets very hot, could result in low signal intensities or even failure.

LED light output actually rises at colder temperatures (leveling off depending on type at around −30C). Consequently, LED technology may be a good replacement in uses such as supermarket freezer lightingand will last longer than other technologies. Because LEDs emit less heat than incandescent bulbs, they are an energy-efficient technology for uses such as freezers. However, because they emit little heat, ice and snow may build up on the LED luminaire in colder climates.This lack of waste heat generation has been observed to cause sometimes significant problems with street traffic signals and airport runway lighting in snow-prone areas, although some research has been done to try to develop heat sink technologies to transfer heat to other areas of the luminaire.

Ultraviolet and blue LEDs

BlueLEDs.

Blue LEDs are based on the wideband gapsemiconductors GaN (gallium nitride) andInGaN(indium gallium nitride). They can be added to existing red and green LEDs to produce the impression of white light, though white LEDs today rarely use this principle.

The first blue LEDs were made in 1971 by Jacques Pankove (inventor of the gallium nitride LED) atRCA Laboratories.These devices had too little light output to be of much practical use. In August of 1989, Cree Inc. introduced the first commercially available blue LED.In the late 1980s, key breakthroughs in GaNepitaxialgrowth andp-typedoping ushered in the modern era of GaN-based optoelectronic devices. Building upon this foundation, in 1993 high brightness blue LEDs were demonstrated.

By the late 1990s, blue LEDs had become widely available. They have an active region consisting of one or more InGaNquantum wellssandwiched between thicker layers of GaN, called cladding layers. By varying the relative InN-GaN fraction in the InGaN quantum wells, the light emission can be varied from violet to amber. AlGaNaluminium gallium nitrideof varying AlN fraction can be used to manufacture the cladding and quantum well layers for ultraviolet LEDs, but these devices have not yet reached the level of efficiency and technological maturity of the InGaN-GaN blue/green devices. If the active quantum well layers are GaN, instead of alloyed InGaN or AlGaN, the device will emit near-ultraviolet light with wavelengths around 350-370nm. Green LEDs manufactured from the InGaN-GaN system are far more efficient and brighter than green LEDs produced with non-nitride material systems.

With nitrides containing aluminium, most oftenAlGaNandAlGaInN, even shorter wavelengths are achievable. Ultraviolet LEDs in a range of wavelengths are becoming available on the market. Near-UV emitters at wavelengths around 375-395nm are already cheap and often encountered, for example, asblack lightlamp replacements for inspection of anti-counterfeitingUV watermarks in some documents and paper currencies. Shorter wavelength diodes, while substantially more expensive, are commercially available for wavelengths down to 247nm.As the photosensitivity of microorganisms approximately matches the absorption spectrum ofDNA, with a peak at about 260nm, UV LED emitting at 250-270nm are to be expected in prospective disinfection and sterilization devices. Recent research has shown that commercially available UVA LEDs (365nm) are already effective disinfection and sterilization devices.

Deep-UV wavelengths were obtained in laboratories usingaluminium nitride(210nm),boron nitride(215nm)anddiamond(235nm).

White light

There are two primary ways of producing high intensity white-light using LEDs. One is to use individual LEDs that emit threeprimary colors—red, green, and blue—and then mix all the colors to form white light. The other is to use a phosphor material to convert monochromatic light from a blue or UV LED to broad-spectrum white light, much in the same way a fluorescent light bulb works.

Due tometamerism, it is possible to have quite different spectra that appear white.

RGB systems

Combined spectral curves for blue, yellow-green, and high brightness red solid-state semiconductor LEDs.FWHMspectral bandwidth is approximately 24-27 nm for all three colors.

White lightcan be formed by mixing differently colored lights, the most common method is to usered, green and blue(RGB). Hence the


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