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Occupational Health and Safety Management System Development

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Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.


1.1 Background

In recent years, there have high number of occupational death and injury to occur in warehouse. This number of occupational accident not only damage for worker. This also is a greatly affect the productivity of society. Follow the Government statistics result in 2005, there have HK$ 1.02 billion compensation to injury worker and their family.

This table are show the number of accident are decrease from 35,986 to 33,652 is decreasing compare with one year.

Furthermore in economic way, after accident are also affect team morale, feeling and productivity. Under the statistics result to find that about 1.7 million sick leave day after occupational accident to lead the economic loss. In individual way, not only physically damage for worker. In psychology way, are also needs to pay more time to recovery and step by step to build up their working feeling to improve the productivity.

To reduced the number of occupational accident and injury in warehouse and workplace. Need to evaluate and analyses more detail before setup the workplace. So that why we need to depend on Occupational safety and health management systems.

Apply technical simulation, research and analysis the normally cause of injury and accident from unsafe workplace, environment, insufficient safety facility, unsafety working behavior with worker. In Fig 2 are separate to three main industry field to make more easily to evaluate and make technical comparison and convenience to analysis the data to make some decision

Before to analysis and evaluate the cause of occupational accident. Firstly to study occupational guideline and review cause to evaluate the potential hazards in the existing or in progress workplace environment. In Fig 3 are show the potential hazards in site are damage to the worker. Cause the accident are the mild steel board are pressing to his leg.

Then organize the good safety and occupational management specific system for specific work place. This mean not all-occupational management system can fully satisfy for all warehouse and workplace.

But following the previous case, In real condition to analysis their right safety attitude and his working method from worker and operator is very difficult to know. So need to really understand specific workplace for different condition and different ways. For example: Occupational accident involves human, tools or machine and workplace. In human way, require knowing worker or employee working background, enough safety aware knowledge and operation experience for employer reference. Furthermore in external ways are also become factor to affect the employee working performance. It can include working duration; temperature, actual workplace, and rest time are really enough provide for employee to reduce mental fatigue. Try to study those following factors to establish for the occupational safety and health system for different working area.

Then to use this effective human and environment data to redesign or rearrange to reduce or prevent the occupational accident and improve the confident for their job.

Our goals have been try to really know the main cause depends on operator's perspective and his working experience. Furthermore can apply this knowledge or experience to establish solid know base to prevent or reduce the occupational accidents in warehouse or industry field and improve to high standard of occupational and health in Hong Kong.

1.2 AIMS

These aims of the final year project are introduce the occupational and management system in warehouse and to analyze this management system for some simulation approach.


1. To develop and set up a safety and health management system.

2. To determine the major cause of occupational accident in warehouse.


To satisfy the objectives, this report can divide into two parts. The first part is collect major data from our warehouse. The second part is using the result to improve the safety and health management for warehouse.

In the first part, we step by step to collect and research some data from the working location. We need to record the working behavior and observe their working process to analyze their working sequence. And then base on their working process to find out which working process will cause occupational accident. That following data I will collect from my part time job location in the garment warehouse. And I will develop the safety and management system to help for this warehouse to reduce number of accident.

This following data for case study will show into next part, such as causes of accident, working environment. For these case studies, warehouse supervisors and staffs are interview from survey Questionnaire. From this questionnaire will list number of possible cause can lead the occupational accident. The survey result will show in the following chapter.

1.5 Organization

This case study is divided into eight chapters and following the sequence to satisfy the project objective. Then will list the introduction of content.

Chapter One - Introduction

Chapter One is introduces the background, objective, aims and methodology of the case study in the listed chapter.

Chapter Two - Literature Review

Chapter Two will separate into six sections, in the first part will overview different type of stages of safety and health management system. System structure, simulation, and implementation.

Chapter Three - System Design

In chapter three will show my possible system design. Firstly to collect the real data, make some case analysis and use simulation software to simulate the cause of accident. The method will show in this following chapter.

Furthermore, the format of the survey questionnaire is shown in the below. Then the possible cause of accident will also list in the literature review. This purpose can fulfill the achievement for the objective. Which criteria of accident cause will choose more detail in this chapter and fulfill objective 1.

Chapter Four - Result Survey Questionnaire

Chapter four will list the following result and problem finding from the questionnaire. Depend on the serious mistake and then analysis the result. Then will present the survey result into this chapter. From the analysis result to calculate the mark and using statistical method to present which condition will easily to have occupational accident. This following result can satisfy the objective 2.

Chapter Five - Discussion

In Chapter five, It will group some similar data from each survey. According the relevant result or pattern of warehouse accident cause. After that to following the average to arrange the importance level from worker's feedback. Next part of this chapter

Chapter Six - Conclusion

Chapter Six is the final chapter for evaluates the analyzing result. Depend on the result and develop the suitable occupational and safety management system for this warehouse to prevent accident to make worker injury.

Chapter 2

Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This following aim for this chapter are show the literature review related for the occupational and safety health management system, cause of occupational accident for real case. Firstly to divide into two part. One part is Cause of warehouse occupational accident and next part is safety and health system.

As the cases are depend on various components and different situation will make different warehouse accident occurrence,

Moreover are included some tasks with workplace design, implementation, and outcome will be discussed.

In the next part, these purposes for make a summary for different types and possible accident in the warehouse and notice in the different literatures. Then will classify this possible cause, and make details revision for different cause to find out the cause of accident in warehouse.

2.2 Definition of Terms

2.2 Definition of Occupational Safety and Health Definitions

A definition of safety and health means in the working area with cross-disciplinary have safety facilities, protection, and health for the worker. The goal is provide the safe working environment for all occupational fields.

The purpose is protecting for the employer, employee, client, and worker's family, supplier, public and community work by the work place. Such as public health field, occupational medicine, ergonomics, industrial field in production factory, warehouse, construction site.

2.3 Definition of Safety and Health Management System

Occupational safety and health management system is integration management method to reduce risk in work place.

It followed safety guidelines and reassigns this process need to teamwork support and management leadership to monitor the status.

Depend on different business organization to form based conclusions and various results. And require higher usage rate of the safety and management system than type selected. It should be provide good atmosphere for implement the occupational safety and health to implement and practices.

2.4 Structure of Safety and Health Management System

Structure of Safety and Health Management System are divide into SIX main criteria is Planning, Developing, Organizing, Implementing, Measuring and Reviewing.

2.4.1 Planning

Planning is procedure to evaluate which criteria should be to complete. Firstly to classify which safety and health task should be suitable to apply in warehouse and use relevant Safety and Health Management Regulation. Then will accord sequence for the safety and health object to design and achieve that. Furthermore need accomplish this safety object may be lead to arise the financial and usage of resource.

Secondly, for the management team need to determine the initial stage to analysis for existing safety and health system to make are some lay outs. Then will make some estimation to define the priorities of working process for risk management control and hazard reduction. After will setup the standards for the system outcome. Later should be make regular status assessment to analysis for the safety and health system in the daily process.

Additionally, there are detail to show how to define the initial status analysis, regular analyses and risk estimation is shown as follows -

a) Initial status analysis

This is a measuring step to find out exist job location are focus the importance of the safety and health business for the initial in the warehousing in progress. It should be first time to setup done in the safety management system depend on the proprietor of the working process.

Furthermore, the employer should provide enough facility to worker for the Safety Management Regulation properly.

b) Regular status analyses

After operate initial status analysis, employer need to keep regularly applying the improving safety and health management system in warehouse continuously. The safety officer or supervisor should be classify the scope and regularly to apply assessment for analysis to be following:

~ The problem findings / safety and health management system revision

~ Introduce usage the new technology

~ Rearrange in management of organizational structure.

c) Risk Estimation

This aims for planning task, risk estimation is apply to test and establish the data file for overall risk in warehouse operation Then the problem findings will apply into the formula to create the risk reduce strategy, assign the safety and health object and set up the performance standards and object priorities.

Basic procedure in risk estimation include as follow:

1) Classify of potential hazards

This is procedures of classify all-important and potential hazards are related into working process and need to concern the damage of the user.

2) Evaluation for risk

This is the procedure of the evaluation for specific subject of risk with every potential hazard that suppose each facility are in control in workplace, and decide the effective task and the result of their failure.

Then need to concern if the risk assessment have some tolerance, if the tolerance occur, the supervisors need input into record which in or out of the statutory standard are also need to transform to international approve standards. If the risk can met or lower for the suitable level that will take it into tolerance counted.

After the potential risk evaluation, there is elimination and reduction task to classify and for control purpose:

i) Setup safety and health process and potential control standard

The safety and health process should be no tolerance during the developing.

ii) Maintenance and Carry out the safety and health process

It should be appropriately to support and implement the Safety and health process and risk control. In the other hand, risk management control should be kept in effective.

iii) Review of safety procedures and risk control measures

Regular review is necessary for safety process and risk control. Need to be keeping in suspect way check the system isn't in function. When the critical change occurs is also related.

After the risk assessment will discuss into next part.

3) Assign person for implementation

The safety officer or supervisor needs to select a reliable staff

or worker to implement analyses in progress and risk assessment.

This reliable person should have:

(a) Make sure this person should be keeping the system in progress.

(b) Provide a technical training course and practice to earn the management experience.

2.4.2 Developing

This is a process to how to achieve the safety and health management system

1) Following this status, the warehouse supervisor need to be clearly explain approval safety and health policy and document with specific objective in the initial planning status and make sure that policy involve this following agreement :

i) To accomplish a high quality standard of safety and health to promise to

met minimum requirements and regular to practice to keep in high


ii) The first line supervisor should be have primary responsibilities to create the occupational safety and health system to keep in progress.

iii) Offer enough resource to carry out the system

iv) Make sure acquaintance, maintenance the system, carry out the system for each level of management system.

v) Ensure each worker can provide sufficient safety knowledge and training to work for their job and responsibilities.

vi) Provide the regular review the management system.

2) Implement the safety and health system by the supervisors should be provides and arranges effective management planning for specific objective.

i) Distinctly direction to lead to supervisor and manager cooperate with worker to achieve the specific target of the safety and health management system.

This safety and health management system should be setup in the industrial and warehouse undertaking for first line management team, collect opinion and more helpfully for safety and health individually. All worker and different grade of manager should be participating for each stage of safety and health system. Not fixed format of the safety plan for how detail and pattern.

Furthermore, the plan should be describe the policy of the safety plan, specific objective and which level of standard can be accomplish, measuring level. Then the key point should be set it out:

a) Fully preparation for supervises the management plan to be success.

b) Apply the management system should be implement and well prepare each component into industrial field.

c) The responsibilities should be properly to assign into safety and health system.

For necessary use, it should be include safety guidebook, method statement, and safety manual. Every level of managers, supervisors and worker should clearly understand the plan and their duty and focus in implementation. Developing the effective sharing system in structure.

Lastly, safety and health plan need to fixed period to revise or review to improve the system more effective.

2.4.3 Organizing

This is a communication and sharing procedure of the relationship between user and resources control in the working structure to complete their goal. The proprietor should be mention for relevant industrial is needed:

i) Fully synthesized in the industrial field and apply into each process by

different size of jobs.

ii) Appropriate to provide enough money and can suitable fit the company

size and characteristic for policy in progress should be suitable to

developing and maintaining the parts of the safety and health

management system.

iii) It should be organize by have industrial field experience staff to set up

and provide practice more efficient and effectively.

To from a similar industrial field

iv) To assigned responsibilities of safety and health for each staff.

iv) To assign the operation for the safety member, a safety

department/unit/group ("safety officer" means a person employed as a safety officer in an industrial undertaking under the Factories)

vii) Need to offer authority to implement their safety and health responsibilities

viii) Make a meeting to sharing the occupational and safety and health information more effectively.

2.4.4 Implementing

This is the process of carrying out or applying the practice and training into accomplish the specific purpose. Make sure that have enough manipulate and applicable control for the performance followed in the management plans.

Follow this step, the employer of a relevant industrial field is needed:

i) To evaluate and carry out the plan to classify the risk and then can fulfill

the legal standard as well to mention the safety management.

ii) Need to provide enough monitoring and make sure that plan can

effectively to carry out.

iii) Well prepare and keep providing adequate documentation work to

record and keep checking the management progress in the work place.

iv) Well design the emergency system plans for special situation and keep it

system into critical precedence.

2.4.5 Measuring

This is a process for checking the management system performance to against legal standard to let them know where has potential risk need to control and improve.

Furthermore to let them know which objective can fulfill the objective or not. In this measuring part, this part will derive the "feedback system" for this stage for system development and implementation and then to enhance ability of the system maintain to reduce the risk and continues keep it efficiency. Following this stage, the proprietor of an industrial field is needed:

i) to implement the monitoring review, such as, hardware inspections (for example : machine, plant and building) and software inspections (such as : human, working process and working system),

ii) Especially for supervisors, team leader have responsibilities to compactly monitor the performance of the safety and health management system

iii) To implement the monitoring of the potential hazard management control, such as supervise of occupational accident, health display demonstrator and near misses.

iv) To make decision for the immediate situation of performance and classify the potential causes and to involve for the system design and system operation of the safety and health management.

v) To correct whichever situation identified during in the monitoring and checking process.

vi) During the observation procedure to develop and carrying out status to continuously to get the opinion information to improve the safety and health management system in working operation.

2.4.6 Reviewing

These mean to implement to estimate performance in regular monitoring of safety and health management system. Auditing is construct the "feedback system"into planning stage which to enhance, maintain and establish more effectively to prevent the risk occurs.

In addition, the information sharing and flowing into the planning, developing implementing and maintenance stages. In the other hand, reviewing stage also can make sure that working process be correct of the safety and health management system.

Following this reviewing stage, the employer of warehouse field is needed:

i) To periodic a safety auditor or safety officer to regularly present safety audits review with sections 13 or 19 of the Safety Management Regulation.

ii) To setup facilities, safety information for the safety officer review proposes of safety regular evaluate according sections 14 or 20 of the Safety Management Regulation

iii) When safety review assessment hand-in to take the appropriate action, such as design the safety and management plan improvement and carrying out the management system in sections 16 and 22

iv) Regularly to receive the opinion information from the safety assessment and audit for modify the planning, developing, organizing and implementing stages to step by step to improve the safety and health management system in working procedure.

Safety and Health management system model can be diagram summarized for the following:

Management model

to develop, implement and maintain a safety management system

Fig.4 Safety and Health Management Structure Model


Information Link

Control Link

Chapter Three - System Design

In chapter three will show my possible system design. Firstly to collect the real data, make some case analysis and use simulation software to simulate the cause of accident. The method will show in this following chapter.


The purpose of this section to make a basic introduction of the safety system concept and indicate some methods by different potential hazard can be produce. This is very important for the system users and system maker of the safety simulation to clearly know the concept of safety and expect which type of risks are show in the simulation. As you know, there are no fully dependable way to prevent hazard during the working process of safety and health system.

Safety concepts difficult for each people fully understand. But we can also say liberty for working place situation can make body damage, death, tools and equipment damage. So we try to develop the safety system to make safe completely, but sometime design safety system is need to concede system performance and function for some design change.

If we following to apply the system into warehouse, the safety system to be effective, but the system are also have some remnants of risk can need accept. After that will be have more interrelate with external condition, then the remnants if risk will need to keep going to solve from safety system. It reminds that no any system can fully to prevent all the risk from safety system, no matter what the system is really outstanding can manage external condition and worker actions are also cannot perfectly to reduce all accident in warehouse.

On the other hand, if insert too many of safety characteristic into safety system may be affect the original goal for the warehouse. The level of safety function is needed to concede based on the level of accident.

The potential hazard caused by the people, tools and equipment and working condition are mixed together to make a possible to occur. Such as, a potential hazard apply in normal procedure, but the working area are existing a number of worker will cause high hazard for the worker.

3.2 System design lay out

Fig 5 The Safety System

In this warehouse environment, this is mixed system that includes people, working process, workplace, and product. There also are important criteria for this process. That complicated system is involving high frequency of interaction with external working environment.

This system can apply into different way of workplace to define number of potential risk. Contrarily, we can apply the result and data to demonstrate and analysis the number of potential hazards. Then apply this system to prevent and reduce the high potential risk.

3.3 Basic Accident Mode

Accident is an unexpected event during in working process that also causes unexpectable damage for worker, destroy the production process, and may be loss the life during the process. Furthermore, we find that result basically in control mechanisms, potential hazards, working exposure and beginning of implementation, that following long chain criteria to from accident.

In unsophisticated way can define that has potential hazard situation, then to start implement the event, that following the event order to acquire the result form accident. In real situation, that potential risk is existing, but we can control by a number of confirmative control mechanisms.

Fig 6 Basic Accident Mode

In the accident model way the accident appears in accident model way, this means the control mechanisms are failure. The model of Basic Accident had shown in Fig 6.

Later will present more complicated model with number of accident chains with different potential risk situation to pass through and number of control mechanisms by passed when the accident appear.

There is the complicated model to show in basic accident mode and try to indicate the point during into the number of effect in accident control to analysis to prevent the chance of accident appearing.

Fig 7 Loop of Accident Feedback

Figure 7 present the loops of feedback and identify what is suitable way to manage the safety and health system. After we receiving this opinion and according this follows mechanisms to classify for the information system for safety purpose. And each criteria insert into accident chain and is a chance to indicated the potential risk, reported the accident details and apply the control mechanisms to reduce the unsafe and potential hazard.

The function of loop A is provide the minimum requisition for safety system and construct the accident reports to show the details and unwanted incidents. But this posting may not actually to prevent in the initial accident and not sometime to make a good effect to avoid the accidents occur in the future for insert into the statistical analysis to solve the system of safety and health management issue.

The loop B is normally lower frequency to carry out and open-heart and regularly to report of dangerous acts. There are the precursors for the accident, Loop B can assign for the safety control.

Loop C and Loop D are commonly more operative and apply for the proactive safety and health management and for classify potential hazard circumstances in the early status during in the chain. That following significant concept is suitable for simulation condition, and partly cause for technical accidents.

Two important fail identification applied in active and latent in the basic concept in this model. Beginning the design, establish and operate the safety and health simulation system.

A. There is meaning of the mistake or to contravene will have contrary effect immediately. These active failures are normally to relate into the worker activity during in the safety and health management system. These modes of active failures are not famous to apply into the system during into decision making in not approval.

B. On the other hand, there is some decision-making and some operation which to make the condition without immediate reaction. They create this condition will to hibernate in long period of time till to touch off the action when the accident to appear. These means the latent failures are famous able to apply for the system from the operator to take out from the operation immediately.

3.4 Potential Hazard management and control flow

When a number of risk and hazard occur can be to calculate for reduce, prevent and easily to control. Figure 8 plates in a risk identify method process. It clearly to show that can fully satisfy the requirement to reduce and prevent the hazard appears from the system design, but if cannot satisfy for different criteria to manage the potential hazard. There are following ways had be provide, provide the system training for the system users and setting the warning system for notice the users.

Fig 8 Hazard preventable Flowchart

However, if can classify the potential risk can be maximize to eliminated and to spread the possibility for long remain. These can transfer the remnant risk to safety and health system operator for control.

Fig 9 Change of Remnant and Unclassified hazard

As shown the diagram 9, the remnant risks are mixed into classified hazard which to consider that acceptable. Then the cognitive risks are transfer to users, they indicate for them to manage the document and link up to users.


This is a large size of safety and health guideline for applies into the simulation area.

a) The judgements and care the safety and health simulation by authorized people.

b) Provide safety support and safety advice in working place and other working area.

c) Through latent and active failures to introduce in the comprehensive condition.

d) Comprehensive working environments can advise their working area have owned potential risk as simulation the sickness and prevent the negative training.

e) Need to mention the software and resources to reapply for new system and other new working objective.

f) When issue the simulation need to concern the backgrounds of workers can select their different safety attitudes and standards, and safety technique level. It can prevent the hazards during the safety simulation system.

Fig 10 Life Cycle System

The capability system can operated and progress through the life cycle and therefore included five phases. This process in the beginning stage for classify from new capability and obtain from proceeds, services support.

Then the safety simulation needs to concern the life cycle for system complete. Under the safety and health system are need to prepare the life cycle of the simulation system.

3.6 Key of Safety control

The simulation life cycle are processing are involved a number of tasks. When processing the system is need to planning in the beginning stage for test and analysis activities. Apply this safety and health management system is demand to passing through all existing stage of simulation life cycle. Furthermore, also have number of safety and health management activities are also involve for different phase of a life cycle system are shown in Fig 10.

And detail define total safety and health management events are need to documented information, and involve a number of management activities are applying independently. Then will applied in unfailingly method is passing through to organization. Following the pre-determined planing of the safety and management activities to present the systematic format.

Fig 11 Safety Activity for each Life Cycle stage

Safety Activity to be involved the Life Cycle stage

Stage 0

Stage 1

Sage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Establish potential hazard

Need to build up project safety goal

Fine tune the safety system plan

Workplace management check

According the safety plan of essential condition used by verify method

Develop safety goal

Develop a board of safety and management system

Evaluate important system design review

Evaluate safety and health plan

Safety system generate the material of risk or pollution are need keep in database

Classify exterior examine duty

To draw up the safety and management system plan

Setup the system risk control standard

To keep safety and health system case

Continue to handle safety analysis

Identify safety equipment standards

Set up the Safety system manager

Prepare training system and information documentation

Manage safety system change of risk evaluate

Erase the safety equipment regularly

Setup the safety evaluation standards and structure

Fine tune the safety system and operating condition

First priority of Safety training to system manner

Keep safety training


Build up the safety training structure

Establish safety system case study


Update safety training program


Set the safety and health management structure

Construct preliminary system design review


Identify scheme manipulating condition and concepts


Build up risk investigating standards and structure


Chapter Four - Survey Questionnaire

4.1 Introduction

This survey report presents the results from warehouse worker, this concentrate in to different groups of potential hazard in warehouse and level of working process training with worker concern. This survey report also synthetically to present extra level findings, such as health and safety representation, occupational health and self-reported with working related injury rates. There will show in demographic and related variables in details.

Following this surveys for over 16 or over and worked in this warehouse in the previous 6 months. And this survey is distributed by paper from method. But unluckily just only one member was attending for interview. A total of 55 surveys were achieved. We find that some limitations are appearing from the survey. There are some members to provide the responses from the survey are not in serious.

Secondly, all surveys are estimates have error based. The width of margin error is based on the number of sample. So that estimation will decrease reliable from the respondents because they not focus in the particular question.

4.2 Potential hazards in workplace

Each of the potential hazards shown in the survey, accords the number of high consideration from the worker that may harm in workplace. Base on result, the main cause of risk is working stress. With the data analysis to have 22% to show in high concern may be harmful for the worker. Next of the most concern of potential hazard is lifting heavy loads, dust exposure, and slipping are also shown around in 9%of the potential hazards in working population. Other situation is using computer was show to 7.1%, chemical affect the skin, working in height position to 4.2%, noise affect the worker working performance to 4.8%, hand vibration using the tools to 2.1%, body vibration when using the machine to 1.6%.

There are some criteria are repeated, because the respondents are able to express more than one opinion. At last have 23% of respondents to express no safety concerns, and other have 30% have slightly concerns the safety. Furthermore have number of worker (7.1%) highly concern physically attacked during in working process.


Percentages of worker care the risks they are exposed by risk category (percentages of total working population)

The diagram shows in Fig12 to determine by the individuals potential hazards. Under the result to show that the worker make higher concern from this potential hazard it may be hurt them during the work.

The chart shows in Fig 12 are major criteria forming the total number of each potential hazard. In the other hand, there are the other particular risk are present as a data from all working people and indicate the potential hazard from the warehouse.

The hazards ranking will show in the Figure Y, Under the real working situation have one third of worker are need to handle the heavy thing and lifting, so the worker are also concern this cause can make them harmful.

Further more there are same of proportion of care are appear in the table of the worker opinion to indicate to dust harm the worker respiratory system. Because the warehouse is so many dusts and fumes are accumulate in the warehouse. Moreover, there are some of hazards are also aware are 11% computer users and 12% of the dermatosis cause forming the chemical.

Figure 13

Estimated percentage of workers concerned the hazard they are exposed to could cause them harm (percentages within risk categories)

Figure 14

Estimated percentage of workers indicating that the hazard could be realistically reduced/prevented in the future, by risk category

The Fig 14 to encapsulate the potential risks from the responses to find of the risk can be realistic to prevent or reduced in the warehouse. Slipping, manual handle heavy thing and dust exposure has high rating with worker about 45% or more can realistic to reduce the number of risk in the warehouse. Furthermore, there are three hazards can be prevent form warehouse and individual as less than 30%, there are vehicles working in the warehouse, computer use for long time of period and chemicals harmful.

Fig 15

Estimated net difference between the percentage of increases and decreases in risk in the last 12 months

For the each kind of potential risk, the worker ask and feel that some of the potential hazards are reducing, keeping in range and increasing during this 12 months. In the Fig 15 are present the net compare with the percentage to showing the risk has decreased and some the risk has increased.

This following compare is conspicuously in negative. This means to have reduction risk level during this following period.

The following potential risk is reducing, as show in below is work in the dust situation, slipping and working in high working platform. But just only the working stresses in statically result are increasing and show in the table.

Estimate the data to show that to provide the professional training with guidance when the accidents appear is quite variable to save the worker life. (See Fig 16). In the warehouse common and mostly to use the hand to handle heavy carton boxes for packing together and move into truck.

There for 73% of these are exposed in the work place need to have training. The other three of hazards of the training rates are also in 60% or above, therefore chemical knowledge with skin contact, working in high position and computer usage. And the lowest training rate is dust exposure (42%), body vibration (41%) and noise affection (33%).

Fig 16

Estimated percentage of workers provide training and/or guidance

4.2.1 Computer usage

Under estimated data 62% of the worker to use the computer in job location every day. They also get the health and safety training, guideline or information in using the computer during in the warehouse. Most of the workers are also have the training, and information to prevent the health problem.

We find that 10% of worker using the laptop in the warehouse to show that the hazard are decreasing during the last few months, but 78% worker shown nothing change and 8.6% are increased.

But just only over 25% to felt the risk can be reduce and have 11% worker care the use of the computer can be harmful for the worker. (Representing an estimated 7.1% of the working population)

4.2.2 Handling and lifting

In the estimated data in 28% of worker need to handling and carrying the heavy boxes or loads using by their hand. In this handling manually about 73% to received health and safety courses and training and 86% have normally confident can be prevent their body and health in the working area.

33% of manual carrying are also very concern able that may cause during handle the heavy thing. (Shown in 9.4% of the working population). Also have a pretty high of percentage (46%) of this situation to trust that the hazard can be prevent or reduce in warehouse and real situation in the future.

4.2.3 Hand vibration

Under the result about 8.1% of the worker need to use the tools or machines to transport the goods, roughly 1.5hours in average per each working day, this may cause the hand vibration to harmful the hand. Therefore about 47% of the worker to provide machines training to prevent injury their arm from the time of vibration.

Then after training have (85%) were have highly confident to prevent the accident appear in the warehouse. (Showing 2% in working population) 33% of the worker trust that this potential hazard can be reducing in real working situation.

4.2.4 Dusts or fumes that could cause respiratory


There are some workers ask that during this past 12 months, they always working in dusts in their job. Following this 12 months about 29% of worker need to working in warehouse and exposed to dusts situation.

Provide the training and chemical information during breathing the substance can damage and let them know how to protect their respiratory system.

After training there have assurance to prevent health problem. In the other hand, 33% of worker are also concerned can cause them damage, there are high proportion (45%) in real situation can be reduced.

4.2.5 Physical damage

There are potential risks of physical damage from working pressure during the work, such as threatening from the management level. They use many treated methods to let the worker do it faster.

Some worker also had the real threats attack experience from this 1 year. Under this survey to evaluate the physical attack, about 21% who also have attack experience. This means relatively high concern to be increase from last working previous.

About 37% of worker to think this hazard can really reduce in the warehouse.

4.2.6 Working in high position

During this one-year, about 15% of respondents during the job need to working in high position. For example: Some worker climbs the high level to check the carton box may be fall down during the checking process may cause body damage. There have (23%) of worker to concern this working situation can make them hurt.

Need to provide training and estimate that about 62% of worker need to have training and tech them method of usage equipment.

After the training about 97% of worker have highly confident can be reduce or prevent fall down accident from high position. About (31%) of worker think that can be reduce step by step during the work process.

4.2.7 Using vehicles working in warehouse

About 28% of workers use a manual vehicle to operate the goods for different position. After result just only have (51%) of are received training for using vehicle work in the warehouse.

Majority (96%) have fully confident after training can use the vehicles more safely and prevent the accident appear. In the other hands, after training and report from seven packing worker when they are packing the stock, they felt that more safety before without training.

After mixed these opinions only have 16% of worker to care the usage of vehicles to make them damage. Also about (25%) of worker to sure that should be reduce in the real situation.

4.3 Safety and health management

About 7.8% of worker report there are no Safety Officer or representative stay in warehouse. An estimated about 56% of worker are notice that need to have representative to handle and plan the emergency lay out when the accident occur, and the worker return to their job position. Have 17% of worker report that nobody in place. Over 33%of workers think will have more effective for their health.

4.4 Sick leave absence

In table All to provide analysis of the length of sick leave time. Following the data with 40% of worker have sick leave within this one year, about 27% take this lower than 2 week and about 2.5% to take 3 months or more in this one year.

Following the result to take the sick absence higher than working injury. Have work relate illness has 65% from the worker and injury from warehouse is also having 59% in this one year. Just only 36% without illness from the work place.

4.5 Safety and health atmosphere factors

There are three types of factors are risk handling behavior, organizational commitment management commitment are analysis form this survey. In the survey, we have normal response (or disagree or neither agree) for the statement, furthermore have 4 type of agreement is positive and negative.

Use of purpose of climate measurement for compare between scores by workplace size and work injury.

Show that scores for three climates sizes by working area. We find that there are no any differences for two commitments with working area. In additional, the lower ranking climate means the risk-handling behavior relative for workplace size become increase.

In fact, hazard handling between workers mostly in larger work area. But sometime they report from their favors from their behavior by partly members. Suppose that with low climate scores, poorer safety climate and work-related risk.

This is a great related and feel that of factors are affected from the presence of an result and not that poor atmosphere related with more possible of an injury. Later will show slightly to show the analysis.

The other research to present the main injury and trend to be improved than over-day risk. Under the different of main injury of report are greater from the survey than employer of opinion. Can be classifying from specific type of injury. Have other research to present the main injury trend to be better to report over three-day injury.

4.6 Type of main potential hazard in warehouse

Under the result to find out four of the main potential hazards in the warehouse to affect to workers in the packing process. Respectively is handing and lifting (33%), Dusts or fumes could cause respiratory (33%), Working in high position (23%), Using vehicles in warehouse (10%).

4.7 Reason for using this case

We chosen this warehouse for case study because my friend work in this warehouse and then can provide information for me to reference. In addition, this warehouse are also near to me can easily to get more and detail feedback and data support for me to better analysis the data.

4.8 Background - Garment Warehouse

This garment warehouse is serving for Spain garments group. And establish new goods and get it to store and warehouse, and set up about 10,000 new models for every year. It has resisted the industry-wide trend towards sending simple fashion production to low-cost area. There are the most unusual tactic was its policy without any advertising; this group wonder than invest more money to set up the new shop in each country.

Warehouse floor plan



Stock in carton Box Working perform

Clothes stand Plastic and Wood Hanger in carton Box

4.8 Working Process

Process 1: Courier Product arrived into warehouse

Process 2: Separate different product for each shop

Process 3: Open each carton box to separate each brand

4.8 Working Process

Process 4: Reorder sizes for each brand and place it on the clothes stand

Process 5: According each shop order to repack into carton box

Process 6: Pack together for the same shop and move it into vehicle to delivery to each shop

Package process diagram

4.9 Suggestion for prevent potential hazard

There are four main potential hazards are as following:

i) Handing and lifting

ii) Dusts or fumes could cause respiratory

iii) Working at high position

iv) Using vehicles in warehouse

4.9.1 Suggestion for Handing and lifting

Under our investigation, we find that in packing process, there are about 80% female worker. So they very concern hand the heavy carton. There are will show some suggestion and method to prevent cause of handling heavy load accident.

4.9.2 Change the weight of the carton box or the size of the object

The load should be redesign the size or separate into smaller size of carton box to reduce the weight. And the carton box should be provide the good holder or grip for the worker easily to handle it.

4.9.3 Redesign the warehouse layout

The warehouse layout should be redesign to offer more area for worker to manual handling and lifting. In the other hand are also can modify the position of the cloth stand, furniture and equipment are also can improve for working in handling operations. This following design can prevent the manual handling accident occur.

4.9.4 Modify the incoming good process

Try to reduce the moving sequence when goods are coming. Minimize the moving distance. For example: Placing the suitable height and suitable distance for the carton box to minimize the rate of accident.

4.9.5 Redesign task methods

a) Apply the appropriate manpower and movement

Seek for different method in manual handling and lifting task to be show for different method, different ways and force. And using team lifting method to reduce the excessive exertion in individual way.

b) Rearrange the work process

This packing and storing processes are need for repetitive transporting will make the worker muscle fatigues, job alternation and sufficient rest time. These are good methods for prevent the accident occur.

Handling loads use the body trunk from a distance

In the packing process most of the worker need to holding loads form a distance to use the body trunk the carton box. The best protective way to minimize the holding force with the distance from worker body.

a) Redesign the carton box size

b) Minimize the handling time

c) Reduce weight of the object

d) Need to reassign the workplace and working process can closely to body trunk for handling load.

e) Apply the correct handling method

Unsatisfactory boy postures

Need to twist the body

Under the repackaging process are need repetitively to twist the body, we find that should be redesign working to reduce the number of time.

a) All of the material position need to set in front of the worker to over twist the body and over extend the body to use the tools from two side of the body.

b) May be applying the one direction flow tools to transport the goods. Such as conveyors, slides.

c) Re-modify the workplace to provide the sufficient area for worker to twist their body.

4.9.6 Over loads movement

Over handling

We investigate that most of the worker is also need to handling goods for excessive distances, the following hazard can be prevented by :

a) Applying the sliding to replace lifting.

b) Use the forklifts to reduce number of time for manual lifting.

c) Balance the weight of each carton box

d) Eliminate the handling time

e) Provide the flat area for support handling

Over pulling or pushing of object

When finish repackaging process need to pulling or pushing the object, it can prevent by:

a) Apply the conveyor board with suitable size trolleys to move or pull the object to suitable area.

b) Consider the weight of load can afford or not, it should be reduce the weight of object

c) Prevent to move on the rough and uneven floors

d) Eliminate the pulling or pushing distance

Potential risk of sudden movement of object

Unbalance to load object can cause sudden movement of object

Then the trolley will speed up when the floor uneven. This follow potential risk can be prevent:

a) Firstly to make a research and analysis when the load suddenly to move can be forecasted, then can make some solution to prevent the accident occur.

b) Appropriate to apply the tools

c) With co-workers to help

4.9.7 Difficult to handle heavy object

Under the following suggestions more safety to handle the large, smooth or heavy object.

a) Redesign the size and shape of the load to let worker easily to handle

b) Modify the carton box to add the hand grips

c) Put the heavy object in to open container for easily to handle

4.9.8 Suggestion for heavy object

a) Separate or reduce the weight of heavy object

b) According different class of weight to attach the precaution worker to handle it

c) Team lifting when carton box are overload

d) Apply the mechanical tools to help for handling

4.9.9 Provide handling training

Must be provide enough handling training and information for worker, then can be safety to manual handling in operation and prevent to harmful their body. Such as,

a) Provide each weight of carton box for worker to consider can be handles it or not.

b) Provide manual handle training for each new worker, and after period of time to provide re-training for exist worker for remind their safety concept.

c) When new equipment and new environment occur are also should be provide training for introduce process and practices for worker.

d) Should be review the training information when learn the new skill or technology.

Training Category

Two category of training course for lifting and manual handling.

Under the normal training and working process for manual lifting and handling should be set task orientation during the process.

This following of training need to provide for each person who involved managing and performs dangerous operations, furthermore includes supervisors, management level people and worker.

Handling training course contents

This following contents can be suggest into the training course:

a) Introduce basic knowledge of body postures, handling principles

b) Regulations of manual lifting and handling

c) Classify the risk of manual handling

d) Preview and make the risk assessment

e) Right principle of lifting and handling operation

f) Potential risk of manual lifting and handling in the workplace

g) Protect and prevent method for manual handling

h) Potential hazard management of handling operations

4.9.1 Suggestion for improve warehouse air quality

We find there are so many carton box are very dirty and so many dust stick on carton box surface. And when there are so many workers are works together. Then air quality is become poor and poor. So worker very concern air quality during in the working process. There are will show some suggestion to improve air quality.

Ventilation System improvement

Need to redesign and rebalancing the air-conditioner location to adjust the exhaust level and pollutants sources and heat sources.

a) Increase the rate of air supply

b) Remove useless carton box to create more area to refill fresh air

c) Well design the air distribution system

d) Re-modify the air supply location and exhaust air location

Use filtration technique

In the warehouse ventilation system we find without any filter within the ventilation system to improve air quality.

Install filters into fan-coil to collect the contaminants are mostly starch powder and paper dust suspended in the air.

There is usage process as shown in the diagram

Airflow control

Redesign the duct location to apply clean to relative less clean airflow control to manage the airflow. It should be form more clean workplace to less clean area step by step. For example: computer usage area to repackaging process area

This mean clean air supply to worker during the process and then emissions exhaust air.

Contaminants Control

Most of the warehouse is use the forklifts to transport the goods from load area to process area to reduce worker handling. We find that forklifts commonly use gasoline or LPG to control it. But the combustion gas will emits to make poor indoor quality. So the better suggestion to improve poor air is change to use the electric forklifts to reduce combustion of air to improve warehouse air quality.

Regular Cleaning

Regular Maintenance

The regular maintenance are necessary for well performs air quality to worker during the in the repackaging. This maintenance flow involves inspection and cleaning workplace and material, modify and replacing the old equipment if necessary. The worker needs to have well training for the maintenance operation, and following the right instruction form the manufacturer.

This monthly duty should be keep going on

a) Regular check the air intake to make sure fresh air supply

b) Using air filters and cooling coils

c) Condensate drains and water traps

Quarter services should be continue

a) Provide maintence for fresh air controller

Annual services should be in proceed

a) Keep checking accessible parts of the air pipe

b) Need to replace the fans

c) Keep monitoring air supply and air returning system

Air duct cleaning

Duct cleaning process mostly to use acidic solvent to make loosen particles. This process propose for eliminate high usage of air filters, carry on maintenance of filters and for other ventilation system component, keeping to check air flow rate and make a good housekeeping. Depend of need to make decision for duct cleaning work. For example: if find leak aged of duct or damaged will lead to biological growth, furthermore will make the duct coming out form the duct, the following observation when damaged occur

a) Should be proceeds by cleaning experienced to make cleaning schedule

b) Switch off at all time when using air handling unit

c) In duct area should be maintain the negative air pressure

d) Should be solve the causes of contamination to prevent problem occur

e) When using the vacuum machine to prevent the duct dispersing into the warehouse area

Regular cleaning and housekeeping

We find that the housekeeping are very important to improve indoor air quality, maintain dust level in lower level. Need to arrange cleaning schedule with following reference to occupancy patterns and activity levels. Regular cleaning of carton box surface and use vacuum machine to clean floor everyday. These also include office area and public area. When using chemical base agent will emitting vapour should be avoided for a period of time. Then manager should be making sure that chemical fully disappear before working process. Ensure product and worker safety.

Prepare documentation checklist

For long run propose to prepare maintenance checklist for reduce the risk and save time. This checklist can classify every routine maintenance activity and frequencies for worker perform, and for them to follow the instruction to proceed each task. Furthermore, depend on extend of equipment usage and building environment to setup maintenance routine. The checklist should be record the results of the each time inspections, the name of the worker who follow inspection and the detail of the maintenance and save the record for further reference. If have any change such as redesign of the system, re-balance the operate instruction, redesign usage of space, this follow operation should be attach into follow documents. These documents should be kept in an accessible location for the lifetime

Suggestion for work at height position

According from the result to know those have 25% of the worker are concern work at height position during in working process. There are following suggestion for work at height position

It should be provide equipment and make sure that is safe and already maintain. Ensure that arranged equipment to be handled, stored and transported without any risk to lead the employee's injury.

a) Provide update information, correct instruction and handling at height training to use the equipment safely.

b) Maintaining a safe working environment where the equipment will be used.

c) Apply to use mobile safety steps

Mobile Safety step can make sure that employees have enough time and safety to perform the working process and that are suitable equipment available for employees to use all the times.

d) Apply to use ladder

Provide correct instruction to place ladder correctly, at an angle of one in four, (one unit of measurement out for every four units up) it for to make a acceptable coefficient of friction and strength to support the ladder when ladder is using.

Have a good handhold

- Consider the condition and prevent to use ladder when the floor is slipping

- Make a risk assessment before use the ladder

- Apply the effective ladder stability device and ladder make sure that to against a appropriate fixed support

The suitable way of footing on the ladder and face on the ladder with both of feet and on the step, each foot as far apart as possible on the step, and both hands are hold the stiles. The user should be keep in the position and until the user using the ladder to descend to at least the halfway point.

And make sure that user and footer should not overload the ladder.

e) Should be according supplier instruction for use

Need to rest against solid surface at the topside

Up to enough height above the landing point

Users do not overreach or over climb.

The task only need for one hand to handling it

The ladder should be at an angle of 1 metre out for every 4 metres up.

Ladder checking procedure

1) Regular check the stiles and rungs in good condition. Make sure that ladder are not damage crack and missing screw from the ladder

2) Do not use home made ladder for temporary repair to damage ladder

3) Avoid to use the DIY ladder, may be not strong and stable for users

Suggestion for safety using vehicles in warehouse

Under the result to find that have 10% of workers concern when repacking will damage by vehicles. There are the following suggestions to prevent damage to worker during control the vehicles.

a) It should be provide the training course to let worker know how to safety control vehicles to prevent damage the workers.

The following training topics for worker to have concept to control the truck

Forklift-Related Concept:

- Only authorized operator can process procedure, control instructions,

- Precaution and warnings related for trucks operation

- Controls instruction (load area, what they process, how they control)

- Engine processing and

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