What is vehicle tracking system?

Vehicle tracking system is to track the vehicle's location and it's kind of electronic device and need to install in the vehicle. There are many kind of vehicle tracking system like GPS, RFID, fleet tracking system, VTU, satellite tracking, etc. Among them, I would like to introduce the GPS vehicle tracking system, RFID vehicle tracking system and VTU vehicle tracking unit. There are two tracking system, active and passive. Passive tracking is only record the movement of the vehicle and do not transmit data. But the active tracking is record the location and transmits this to the central control.

GPS 1. tracking method

The most popular and famous method is Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS can show the accurate location of vehicle and when combine with other communication media like cellular or satellite transmitters. It can provide the electronic maps use internet or special software.

2. accuracy of the tracking method

Not all, but certain atmospheric factors and some sources of errors can affect the accuracy of GPS receivers. GPS receivers can perform accurately within 15 meters. Today's GPS are extremely accurate because of the parallel multi-channel design. The accuracy of position determined with receiver types. Receiver use Differential GPS, obtains higher accuracy.

3. information given by tracking system

Once the user's position has been determined, a vehicle tracking system using GPS takes the location, speed, direction and time data provided. The GPS unit can calculate other information, such as speed, bearing, track, trip distance, distance to destination, sunrise and sunset time and more.

4. how often information is transmitted form vehicle to central control

The information updated automatically every couple of minutes. The system will update the location of your vehicle every five minutes 24/7/365.

5. method of data transmission to center

When GPS is set up in the cars, the position of the vehicle is provided based on satellite information and this can constantly update the location. The GPS receiver receives the information from the satellite signal. All the messages sent between vehicle and central control are using mobile network and this can be captured by the central control. Transmitter power is only 50 watts or less.

6. cost per day

There are no subscription fees or setup charges to use GPS. The average cost for using GPS per vehicle for a day is about $1.50. All vehicles can reduce at least 25 miles per week using GPS tracking system. Thus we can reduce $37.50 for a week and $1950 for annual.

7. additional services that system provided

GPS vehicle tracking system can provide a range of features meaning you can find the ideal system for any situation. In coming days, GPS will be process more readily available not only as a tracking chip, but also as functional software in the cell phone or handheld. However, as the process become efficient, users will be able to access maps and other useful information directly through their phones and handhelds. When taxi drivers are driving to the customers, GPS will be at their side to advise them as to the most direct or fastest route.

8. Limitations of the system

GPS can operate in any weather conditions and everywhere, also time is not limited.

The signals travel by line of sight, meaning they will pass through clouds, glass and plastic but will not go through most solid objects such as buildings and mountains. Thus GPS can't do indoor tracking. When you need outdoor tracking, GPS will need to combine with RFID. GPS can't work underground, underwater and indoors. Noise, clouds and other atmospheric phenomena can affect the accuracy of GPS between 1 to 10 meters and up to 30 meters. To overcome interferences, other technology, AGPS, DGPS, and WAAS, has been developed to aid in determining an accurate location.

Recommendation

The GPS vehicle tracking system can provide best vehicle tracking with secure data transmission. It also can work in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world and anytime. With GPS tracking system, your company can provide two main services you whish to provide to customers with best services. With the use of GPS, you can also check the customer is arrived to the destination or not and that vehicle is available to hire, from the controller. GPS can give not only route information to driver but also other additional features. GPS can estimate time when the taxi will arrive to the customer and show the exact location of vehicle anytime. If the taxi is late, using GPS can find out the problem of why it is. GPS function doesn't have limited number of vehicle that can use. The extension of vehicle is allowed. Using GPS, we can know the actual location of the vehicle and it's actually work. Controller can also easy to inform to driver, the nearest location of customer. GPS is the cost effective method with faster and reliable tracking system that you should be used.

2. RFID

RFID is the Radio Frequency Identification system that can use for tracking various kinds of things.Radio Frequency Identification is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called tags. In RFID, uses radio waves to capture data from tags. Also use to track vehicles and give high identification accuracy.

1. The tracking method

RFID system needs the tag (may be active or passive), reader (antenna or integrator) and software. The RFID reader transmits the information to the tag and the tag accepts this data. The data collected from tags is passing the communication wireless media and give this data to the computer. Thus, you can view the status and location of mobile resources from anywhere over the internet.

2. Accuracy of the tracking method

The RFID reader has a read range 5m to 30m according to the reader type and the technology used, active or passive. It can perform accurately in the given distance with fast reading speed. Automotives can be real-time tracked and data of vehicles can be written at long distance.

3. Information delivered by the tracking system

With this RFID vehicle tracking system, car information can be automated gathered to enable vehicle management to be more efficient and safe. This can provide accurate data updated in up-to-minute. The system give tracked vehicle location, speed, and heading in real-time 24/7. And show the location and status of objects on maps, lists or indoor plans.

4. How often the information is transmitted from the vehicle to the central control system

Transmission method is totally depend on the wave signal type. Transmission of data can be difficult in the places of wireless connections and network. The wave signal is difficult to download in every minute and thus, data is transmitted to the control centre 5 times in an hour. Data sent to servers on a regular basis, or when the object moves or upon request.

5. Method of data transmission from vehicle to centre

The tag on the vehicle reflects a small part of this RF energy back to the antenna. The reflected radio waves denote the tag's unique identification code and other stored data. To become perfect tracking system, RFID a completely wireless system using WiFi or Ethernet TCP/IP or a combination of the two to send positional data back to the central system with the lowest implementation costs. The antenna relays the signal to the reader, which can add information and stores it in a buffer. The reader can transmit the tag's identification code to the customer's information management system. And the entire process takes only milliseconds.

6. Cost per vehicle par day of using the system

RFID equipment, reader cost about $450 for the whole system according to the use of device. Price of passive tag cost 10 cents and $1 and the active cost more than $20. RFID cost about $6 par day per vehicle. The daily cost is expensive and less effective. Thus, RFID is more expensive and also less functions than GPS. To track the vehicle too far from the country or within the country, we need many work stations.

7. Additional services that the system provided

And most of RFID tags can customized to match user requirement function like prevent with appropriate password security authorized staff. In active system, the tags can support additional features such temperature sensing. An active RFID system is viable where the objects to be tracked are higher value, mission critical, have a consequential impact if not quickly located, or there is an additional security, regulatory or health and safety requirement for such information.

8. Limitations of the system

And with a read range of up to 15 feet, RFID tag has a unique ID cater for the secure operation of this RFID vehicle tracking system. The distance that a tag can be read by the reading device is a function of the relative strength of the signals. Signal strength depends on the strength of the energy field, the efficiency of the tags to change the energy wave into the RF wave, conditions that can block or interfere with the energy waves (i.e., metal, water) and the sensitivity of the antennas attached to the tag and the reading device.

Automatic Vehicle Tacking Unit (AVT)1. The tracking method

The Automatic Vehicle Tracking System (AVTS) consists of Vehicle Tracking Units (VTU) mounted on vehicles, Fleet Management System (FMS) at Network Center and a communication network between VTU and the Network Center. The VTU has inbuilt GPS card and necessary firmware for automatic operation. The VTU retrieves the position information of the vehicle at predefined regular intervals and forwards it to the NMS at network center through the communication network. The position data is automatically saved to a database server at network center. The user can view position of vehicles on a map in real-time or in playback modes.

2. Accuracy of the tracking method

By using the latest GPS andGSM technology to protect and monitor your vehicle, virtually anywhere and then locate it to within a few meters. The tracking centre operator monitors your vehicle 24 hours. The network of ATU has ample capability to handle over million of vehicles at a time and ensure the safety of data even in NON-GSM areas for several months. Data accuracy is about 25-30 feet or better.

3. The information delivered by the tracking system

The tracking system transmits detailed tabular trip report with date, time, route, location, speed, etc. Can also watch your vehicle moving in real-time on the map, route being traversed, distance covered and at what speed. PC in the vehicle can capture travel data such as direction, speed, duration of stops, and addresses along the route.

4. How often transmitted vehicle to central control

Data updating to central control is at intervals ranging from 1 second to 1 hour. Our optimum setting is 10 seconds updates. The data recorder can store over 2,400 hours (100-days) of recorded data.

5. Method of transmission form vehicle to centre

The communication network provides the connectivity between the VTU and the Network Center. Typically the VTU is provided with communication hardware based on GSM Technology. It also offer solutions based on Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) as well as MSS+GSM based hybrid solution.

6. Cost per vehicle par day

This system can be purchased for 6 months at $30.00 or 12 months at $60.00. Sign up for 12 months of this service for just $5 a month. Tracking hardware is about $200.

7. Additional services

The tracking centre operator monitors your vehicle 24 hours per day for unauthorised intrusion, theft, accident, breakdown, panic/assistance, vehicle movement or breach of a predefined "Geo -fence" boundary. The operator can then perform numerous tasks including; engine immobilisation, unlock doors, advise the police or dispatch security response. Command and control, speed limit, way-points and stoppages, etc can be available and some features like Geofencing Location Tracking, Speed Tracking, SMS alerts, Route Mapping, Way Points Management, vehicle snapshot, route replay can access. You can gather travel details for every city, every turn, and every stop can also display according to the recorder.

8. Limitations of the system

The vehicle tracking device VTU is the total security protection and fleet management solution. The device incorporates a covertly installed module (which works and communicates independently) but has the ability to run in conjunction with your local GSM network (DTMF, voice message, SMS, GPRS or GSM modem call).

2 way voice communication methods

There is several voice communication methods to communicate, using various types of signals such as radio frequencies, satellite signals. Among them, the most reasonable methods I want to advise you is General Packet Radio Services (GPRS), Public Access Mobile Radio (PAMR) and Private Mobile Radio (PMR).

General Packet Radio Services (GPRS)

1. How the method works

Among wireless data services General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is the most popular one. This provides users with packet data services using the GSM digital radio network. GPRS is hand over communication when GPRS connection travels from one base station to another. The GPRS service joins together multiple speech channels to provide higher bandwidth data connections for GPRS data users. GPRS service is 'dialed' in a similar manner to a standard data call at which point the user is 'attached' and an IP address is allocated and data can flow to and from the Internet until the network ‘unattached'. GPRS only uses the medium during times that data is being sent or received. Users have dedicated connections during their entire call (Half duplex). GPRS mobile station registers with the network and connected to voice networks by the mobile switching center, GPRS packets are sent from the base station to what is called a Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN).

2. legal requirement for operation system

The GSM association undertakes to give to the company

(a) Non-exclusive, royalty free license to use or deal with the [ x number of copies ] of the GPRS management agreement [numbered x to z] in accordance with the conditions prescribed in this agreement

(b) registered copies of the detailed specification of the confidentiality algorithm for protection of the information exchanged over the radio channels of a GSM GPRS system

License duration is five years and user is unauthorized to keep copies or photocopies of license agreement. The organization should be the one that manufacture equipment of GSM GPRS standards for use by public telecommunications and these has been tested. The company must be a member of the GSM Association.

3. cost of setting up operating system

The cost of GPRS recorder for 1 Unit is about $399 and the license fee is $37.99 per month. In GPRS, users will only pay for the amount of data they actually communicate. The cost of GPRS is $0.01160 per Kb (billed per 20Kb) for unencrypted data and encrypted data cost $0.0058 per kilobyte with no minimum session charge. Users can prepay at $1.20 / $1 per five minutes, $20 per month. A license is valid for five years and renewable.

Administrative fee costs 1000 EURO. (1 EURO=1.48$)

4. limitations of each method(interference, range)

Each voice circuit in GSM transmits the speech on a secure 14kbps digital radio link between the mobile phone and a nearby GSM transceiver station. Each 14kbps channel may be shared by multiple 'connected' GPRS users (many users will be connected to the network but transmitting very little data). A GPRS user may theoretically use all voice channels on one transceiver - (8 * 14 kbps) but radios to support this are not available and the operators will probably reserve at least some channels for voice circuits. As a user's data requirements grow, they will use more of the available capacity within that timeslot, and then more available timeslots up to the maximum available or the maximum supported by their device. The connection to the GPRS network is always on, but the device needs to connect to the data terminal. The connection times are of course much lower than dial up. GPRS connection to be ready to use in 7 seconds, while a dial up requires around 35 seconds becoming ready.

Public Transmission Mobile Radio

a) How each method works?

Public Access Mobile Radio (PAMR) is the method of two way radio communications and services are provided from a transmitter at a single site called common base station. To become the network that use in the regional, many transmitters are needed to link. Signals go 45 m from the station. PAMR network use channels every available channels from numbers of linked. No need to wait channel make less taking time and efficiency was improved. But PAMR is lack of privacy because all customers are share services with group use. It also don't have license to apply to assign the channels that will be used. But can add function like short interconnection to PSTN.

b) Details of legal requirements for operating the system in your country

There are no legal requirements for operating system.

c) Costs of setting up and operating the systems

This will only cost the equipment cost. Because this is not the secure communication, you will need to consider problems like eavesdropping and men-in-the-middle.

d) Limitations of each method

The highest point of any PAMR antenna must no be more than 60 feet above the ground or 20 feet above the highest point of the structure on which it is mounted.
The channels authorized to PAMR systems are available on a shared basis only and will not be assigned for the exclusive use of any entity. Those using PAMR transmitters must cooperate in the selection and use of channels in order to reduce interference and make the most effective use of authorized facilities.
Private Mobile Radio (PMR)

a) how each method works

Private Mobile Radio

(PMR) or as it is sometimes called Professional Mobile Radio is widely used for businesses as a very convenient way of communicating. It typically refers to sophisticated radio trucking services that provide two-way mobile radio communications for mobile users to connect to PMR voice telephony and data networks.This method is used the half-duplex system. A half-duplex system provides for communication in both directions, but only one direction at a time (not simultaneously). Typically, once a party begins receiving a signal, it must wait for the transmitter to stop transmitting, before replying. In automatically-run communications systems, such as two-way data-links, the time allocations for communications in a half-duplex system can be firmly controlled by the hardware. Thus, there is no waste of the channel for switching.The power of the radio is one of the main factors in determining range. Height is another important factor, as the higher the antenna, the further the radio waves can travel. Mobile & Marine Systems provide a comprehensive range of professional private mobile radio (pmr) and radio systems integration services for adding value to your portable communication needs.

b)details of legal requirements for operating the system in your country

  • Radio communication, such as PMR, is frequently used to provide the necessary communication between all the members of the scheme. All such systems using PMR must be licensed and associated legislation.
  • Licenses are allocated for operation on a particular channel or channels. The base station may be run by an operating company who will hire out channels to individual users.
  • PMR licenses can only be issued to a legal entity; namely an individual, partnership, limited company or incorporated association.
  • A license cannot be issued in the name of a body which does not have legal status, e.g. a group formed merely to provide funding for the purchase and running of a "Watch scheme".
  • It is common practice for a license to be held by an individual member of the group, however it should be noted that in such cases the license "belongs" to that individual, who is responsible for compliance with the terms of the license. Should they cease to be a member of the group, a new license will need to be applied for.
  • It is recommended that applicants do not purchase any equipment until a licence schedule has been issued, detailing the frequency and facilities the Agency is prepared to licence.

c) costs of setting up and operating the systems

1. A fee of $750 shall be payable for every fixed or base station on the issue or renewal of the licence.

2. A fee of $270 shall be payable for every mobile station on the issue or renewal of the licence.

3. If, during the period of 12 months following the grant or renewal of the licence,

(a) new fixed or base stations are added to the licence, there shall be

payable at the time of addition of every such station a further fee of

$62.5 for each whole month of the remaining term of the licence;

(b) new mobile stations are added to the licence, there shall be payable at

the time of addition of every such station a further fee of $22.5 for each whole month of the remaining term of the licence.

d) limitations of each method

CTCSS is the most common protection available and is a widespread technology inbuilt into the radio but may not have been activated. If believe you have interference, you should check with your radio supplier that you have CTCSS or a similar system activated on your radios before you contact ComReg. These two types of interference have very similar symptoms within an affected radio system. The most common symptom is reduced range, there are many other common faults that a system can develop that will also result in reduced range. There are many other causes of 'interference' to a PMR system, most of which are generally as a result of improper installation or dated equipment. It is important that you keep your equipment well maintained and serviced regularly. Old equipment should be replaced as some pieces of older equipment operate outside of the specifications laid down in the license conditions.

Recommendation

GPRS refers to a high-speed packet data technology with always-on connectivity. It can be highly cost effective to use the Internet instead of making long distance phone calls, and in the case of international connections, much more reliable. Although using only GPRS is not secure perfectly, you can add many features to protect your data. The cost is also most reasonable among all methods. GPRS recorders are not expensive as 3G does. License fee is also reasonable and the payment is varying with the use of our company. To set up GPRS in your vehicle and control centre is so easy. GPRS method is not complex to use and all the controllers can handle perfectly with in touch method. It can provide the most suitable features that need for your company. GPRS is the most popular method among all of the voice communication methods in nowadays.

Topology with operation

In computer networking, topology refers to the layout of connected devices that arrange the links and nodes, etc. According to the topology used nodes distances, speed, interconnections for physical are different. The standard topologies of networking are

  • bus
  • ring
  • star
  • tree
  • mesh
  • Hybrid

Bus Topology

All nodes are connected to the common cable called backbone or trunk in Bus topology. The data are carried by the node to node and only two endpoint (use terminator) connected to the backbone. Distributed bus is has more than one node and formed as branches. When the backbone is damage the network is not usable.

Ring Topology

In Ring topology the node is connected to two other nodes at the end. Thus, the shape of nodes is formed as ring. Dual-ring is also ring topology formed the double ring and data can flow in opposite directions around two rings.

Star Topology

Star network topology has one central node connected with many nodes. All data is transmitted to this central node retransmits the data to other nodes. Thus it does not have central connection point. Extended star has repeaters between the hub and nodes. Distributed star is physical star topology connected together in a linear fashion.

Tree topology

Tree topology is that multiple star topologies together onto a bus and the simplest form is hub connected directly to the tree bus and each hub functions as the root of a tree. This topology is the expedition of network. Each node has fixed number connected to lower level like Hierarchy and have at least 3 levels.

Mash topology

Mesh topologies has two cable paths but the data travel in one direction. This topology is mostly use in WAN network. Each node is connected to other nodes in the network and transmits data from one node to another. Full mesh is costly and complex for practical networks. Partial mash is not complex and expensive as full mash.

Hybrid topology

The hybrid is used to create the complex networks when networks are connected more than one which based on the same physical topology.

2.Types of media

The common types of network media use in networking are twisted-pair cables, coaxial cables, fiber-optic cables, and wireless media. Actually, network media is used to travel radio signals or electronic signals from one place to another to form a network. But it can not work until you match this with appropriate topology.

Coaxial cable

Coaxial cable consists of the hollow outer conductor and this is surrounded by the single inner wire made up of two conducting elements where located in the center is the copper cable. Coaxial cable need less distance of cable than twisted-pair cable. Ethernet backbone called Thicknet use higher transmission. Thinnet is weak shield connection.

Twist-pair cable

Twisted-pair, use in Ethernet network, wires are twisted to protect crosstalk. This type is self-protected and canceling technique is used in this cable.

Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

The UTP cable is used in various networks and it include eight individual copper wires, twisted each other. UTP is use for LAN and Ethernets. This can provide the best speed in copper based wires in nowadays. Cable length is short although the transmitting is not fast.

Shielded twisted pair (UTP)

STP main function is reducing electrical noise of cable, shielding and cancellation by twisting wires. Although the cable is short, it is moderately expensive. But UTP is less expensive than STP.

Fiber optic cable

Fiber optic cable transmits information by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. Fiber optic network can transmit data with high speeds and have a large carrying capacity with great resistance and signals can go further without needing to refresh, lower attenuation and interference. It expensive to install and operate can connect short distance and low bandwidth applications.

Wireless communication

Wireless communication transmits data using the radio frequencies (RF). The main key controller is the wireless hub called access point. The PC or laptop must have wireless adapter card to receive distribute signal. The signals are electromagnetic waves and can travel through the vacuum of outer space and air. No other physical media is need for wireless signals to create a network. Wireless signals use portions of RF spectrum to transmit voice, video, and data.

1. Recommendation

I recommend the star topology with unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable. Star topology has high force tolerance. If a node is fail, the other nodes can be work until the server is available. It can extend easily. The extendibility of this topology provides the big help in extending new taxi for the company.

Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is one of the widely use and widely available media. Because of small size, the installation is easy. UTP cable is easy to install and is less expensive than other types of networking media. UTP costs less per meter than any other type of LAN cabling. Inexpensive and can get suitable services is also the good advantages for the company.

To create the in-house network (LAN) for taxi company, the star topology with UTP media is the best match and the most suitable.

I. Security issues relating to transmission of vehicle location data

For vehicle tracking system, I recommended the GPS vehicle tracking method. When we need the secure data transmission, we need to prevent the network that we will use. First of all, there are three main requirements to become a secure network. They are the privacy, integrity and availability. The privacy issue is means the un-authorized users are gaining access to the network. There are many problems that we should consider when we consider the network security for transmission of vehicle location data. They are eavesdropping, Man-in-the-Middle. They are the most effective problems for security of vehicle location data transmission. Eavesdropping is the main problem of radio-oriented networks. This is the manner of snooping of information carried by the network. This may be borrowing a terminal whilst the user is away or tapping into the cables that carry the signals. In wireless network, radio frequency can be easily intercepted outside the premises. Thus any unauthorized mobile device can be act as the receiver. Eavesdropping can enable from nearby premises. The hacker may remain undetected as there is no need to physically enter or connect to the premises.

Most of the GPS vehicles tracking system use Private Network in the case of transmission data. This is the making of another passageway to transmit data on the Internet as private network. Using private network, we can use encryption and encapsulation technologies. Because of this function, the possibility of problems is already reduced and can provide secure data transmission of vehicle data.

II. Voice communication transmission

For two way voice communication, I recommended the GPRS. Man-in-the-Middle is also important for security of the network when transmit data. In this case, the third party intercepts a two way conversation. Third party pretends to each party that he is the other party. Eavesdropping and the modification of messages can occur before they received.

If you need some secure information transmission, you should use the security protection like verbal instructions, queries can be used. Protection like adding software or system to protect the voice transmission security is need. The controllers respectively should use the password protection to use the central control. But this Internet-based technique does raise an issue of privacy from hackers without using private network. Thus security issues arise when data needs to leave the GPRS network to be delivered to either the Internet or a company LAN. Internet connectivity need to pay security charge by encrypting. Security features combine with GPRS, your company will get the best vehicle tracking system with 100% security.

What is vehicle tracking system?

Vehicle tracking system is to track the vehicle's location and it's kind of electronic device and need to install in the vehicle. There are many kind of vehicle tracking system like GPS, RFID, fleet tracking system, VTU, satellite tracking, etc. Among them, I would like to introduce the GPS vehicle tracking system, RFID vehicle tracking system and VTU vehicle tracking unit. There are two tracking system, active and passive. Passive tracking is only record the movement of the vehicle and do not transmit data. But the active tracking is record the location and transmits this to the central control.

GPS

8. tracking method

The most popular and famous method is Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS can show the accurate location of vehicle and when combine with other communication media like cellular or satellite transmitters. It can provide the electronic maps use internet or special software.

9. accuracy of the tracking method

Not all, but certain atmospheric factors and some sources of errors can affect the accuracy of GPS receivers. GPS receivers can perform accurately within 15 meters. Today's GPS are extremely accurate because of the parallel multi-channel design. The accuracy of position determined with receiver types. Receiver use Differential GPS, obtains higher accuracy.

3. information given by tracking system

Once the user's position has been determined, a vehicle tracking system using GPS takes the location, speed, direction and time data provided. The GPS unit can calculate other information, such as speed, bearing, track, trip distance, distance to destination, sunrise and sunset time and more.

10. how often information is transmitted form vehicle to central control

The information updated automatically every couple of minutes. The system will update the location of your vehicle every five minutes 24/7/365.

11. method of data transmission to center

When GPS is set up in the cars, the position of the vehicle is provided based on satellite information and this can constantly update the location. The GPS receiver receives the information from the satellite signal. All the messages sent between vehicle and central control are using mobile network and this can be captured by the central control. Transmitter power is only 50 watts or less.

12. cost per day

There are no subscription fees or setup charges to use GPS. The average cost for using GPS per vehicle for a day is about $1.50. All vehicles can reduce at least 25 miles per week using GPS tracking system. Thus we can reduce $37.50 for a week and $1950 for annual.

13. additional services that system provided

GPS vehicle tracking system can provide a range of features meaning you can find the ideal system for any situation. In coming days, GPS will be process more readily available not only as a tracking chip, but also as functional software in the cell phone or handheld. However, as the process become efficient, users will be able to access maps and other useful information directly through their phones and handhelds. When taxi drivers are driving to the customers, GPS will be at their side to advise them as to the most direct or fastest route.

14. Limitations of the system

GPS can operate in any weather conditions and everywhere, also time is not limited.

The signals travel by line of sight, meaning they will pass through clouds, glass and plastic but will not go through most solid objects such as buildings and mountains. Thus GPS can't do indoor tracking. When you need outdoor tracking, GPS will need to combine with RFID. GPS can't work underground, underwater and indoors. Noise, clouds and other atmospheric phenomena can affect the accuracy of GPS between 1 to 10 meters and up to 30 meters. To overcome interferences, other technology, AGPS, DGPS, and WAAS, has been developed to aid in determining an accurate location.

Recommendation

The GPS vehicle tracking system can provide best vehicle tracking with secure data transmission. It also can work in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world and anytime. With GPS tracking system, your company can provide two main services you whish to provide to customers with best services. With the use of GPS, you can also check the customer is arrived to the destination or not and that vehicle is available to hire, from the controller. GPS can give not only route information to driver but also other additional features. GPS can estimate time when the taxi will arrive to the customer and show the exact location of vehicle anytime. If the taxi is late, using GPS can find out the problem of why it is. GPS function doesn't have limited number of vehicle that can use. The extension of vehicle is allowed. Using GPS, we can know the actual location of the vehicle and it's actually work. Controller can also easy to inform to driver, the nearest location of customer. GPS is the cost effective method with faster and reliable tracking system that you should be used.

2. RFID

RFID is the Radio Frequency Identification system that can use for tracking various kinds of things. Radio Frequency Identification is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called tags. In RFID, uses radio waves to capture data from tags. Also use to track vehicles and give high identification accuracy.

9. The tracking method

RFID system needs the tag (may be active or passive), reader (antenna or integrator) and software. The RFID reader transmits the information to the tag and the tag accepts this data. The data collected from tags is passing the communication wireless media and give this data to the computer. Thus, you can view the status and location of mobile resources from anywhere over the internet.

10. Accuracy of the tracking method

The RFID reader has a read range 5m to 30m according to the reader type and the technology used, active or passive. It can perform accurately in the given distance with fast reading speed. Automotives can be real-time tracked and data of vehicles can be written at long distance.

11. Information delivered by the tracking system

With this RFID vehicle tracking system, car information can be automated gathered to enable vehicle management to be more efficient and safe. This can provide accurate data updated in up-to-minute. The system give tracked vehicle location, speed, and heading in real-time 24/7. And show the location and status of objects on maps, lists or indoor plans.

12. How often the information is transmitted from the vehicle to the central control system

Transmission method is totally depend on the wave signal type. Transmission of data can be difficult in the places of wireless connections and network. The wave signal is difficult to download in every minute and thus, data is transmitted to the control centre 5 times in an hour. Data sent to servers on a regular basis, or when the object moves or upon request.

13. Method of data transmission from vehicle to centre

The tag on the vehicle reflects a small part of this RF energy back to the antenna. The reflected radio waves denote the tag's unique identification code and other stored data. To become perfect tracking system, RFID a completely wireless system using WiFi or Ethernet TCP/IP or a combination of the two to send positional data back to the central system with the lowest implementation costs. The antenna relays the signal to the reader, which can add information and stores it in a buffer. The reader can transmit the tag's identification code to the customer's information management system. And the entire process takes only milliseconds.

14. Cost per vehicle par day of using the system

RFID equipment, reader cost about $450 for the whole system according to the use of device. Price of passive tag cost 10 cents and $1 and the active cost more than $20. RFID cost about $6 par day per vehicle. The daily cost is expensive and less effective. Thus, RFID is more expensive and also less functions than GPS. To track the vehicle too far from the country or within the country, we need many work stations.

15. Additional services that the system provided

And most of RFID tags can customized to match user requirement function like prevent with appropriate password security authorized staff. In active system, the tags can support additional features such temperature sensing. An active RFID system is viable where the objects to be tracked are higher value, mission critical, have a consequential impact if not quickly located, or there is an additional security, regulatory or health and safety requirement for such information.

16. Limitations of the system

And with a read range of up to 15 feet, RFID tag has a unique ID cater for the secure operation of this RFID vehicle tracking system. The distance that a tag can be read by the reading device is a function of the relative strength of the signals. Signal strength depends on the strength of the energy field, the efficiency of the tags to change the energy wave into the RF wave, conditions that can block or interfere with the energy waves (i.e., metal, water) and the sensitivity of the antennas attached to the tag and the reading device.

Automatic Vehicle Tacking Unit (AVT)

1. The tracking method

The Automatic Vehicle Tracking System (AVTS) consists of Vehicle Tracking Units (VTU) mounted on vehicles, Fleet Management System (FMS) at Network Center and a communication network between VTU and the Network Center. The VTU has inbuilt GPS card and necessary firmware for automatic operation. The VTU retrieves the position information of the vehicle at predefined regular intervals and forwards it to the NMS at network center through the communication network. The position data is automatically saved to a database server at network center. The user can view position of vehicles on a map in real-time or in playback modes.

2. Accuracy of the tracking method

By using the latest GPS andGSM technology to protect and monitor your vehicle, virtually anywhere and then locate it to within a few meters. The tracking centre operator monitors your vehicle 24 hours. The network of ATU has ample capability to handle over million of vehicles at a time and ensure the safety of data even in NON-GSM areas for several months. Data accuracy is about 25-30 feet or better.

3. The information delivered by the tracking system

The tracking system transmits detailed tabular trip report with date, time, route, location, speed, etc. Can also watch your vehicle moving in real-time on the map, route being traversed, distance covered and at what speed. PC in the vehicle can capture travel data such as direction, speed, duration of stops, and addresses along the route.

4. How often transmitted vehicle to central control

Data updating to central control is at intervals ranging from 1 second to 1 hour. Our optimum setting is 10 seconds updates. The data recorder can store over 2,400 hours (100-days) of recorded data.

5. Method of transmission form vehicle to centre

The communication network provides the connectivity between the VTU and the Network Center. Typically the VTU is provided with communication hardware based on GSM Technology. It also offer solutions based on Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) as well as MSS+GSM based hybrid solution.

6. Cost per vehicle par day

This system can be purchased for 6 months at $30.00 or 12 months at $60.00. Sign up for 12 months of this service for just $5 a month. Tracking hardware is about $200.

7. Additional services

The tracking centre operator monitors your vehicle 24 hours per day for unauthorised intrusion, theft, accident, breakdown, panic/assistance, vehicle movement or breach of a predefined "Geo -fence" boundary. The operator can then perform numerous tasks including; engine immobilisation, unlock doors, advise the police or dispatch security response. Command and control, speed limit, way-points and stoppages, etc can be available and some features like Geofencing Location Tracking, Speed Tracking, SMS alerts, Route Mapping, Way Points Management, vehicle snapshot, route replay can access. You can gather travel details for every city, every turn, and every stop can also display according to the recorder.

8. Limitations of the system

The vehicle tracking device VTU is the total security protection and fleet management solution. The device incorporates a covertly installed module (which works and communicates independently) but has the ability to run in conjunction with your local GSM network (DTMF, voice message, SMS, GPRS or GSM modem call).

Two way voice communication

There is several voice communication methods to communicate, using various types of signals such as radio frequencies, satellite signals. Among them, the most reasonable methods I want to advise you is General Packet Radio Services (GPRS), Public Access Mobile Radio (PAMR) and Private Mobile Radio (PMR).

General Packet Radio Services (GPRS)

5. How the method works

Among wireless data services General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is the most popular one. This provides users with packet data services using the GSM digital radio network. GPRS is hand over communication when GPRS connection travels from one base station to another. The GPRS service joins together multiple speech channels to provide higher bandwidth data connections for GPRS data users. GPRS service is 'dialed' in a similar manner to a standard data call at which point the user is 'attached' and an IP address is allocated and data can flow to and from the Internet until the network ‘unattached'. GPRS only uses the medium during times that data is being sent or received. Users have dedicated connections during their entire call (Half duplex). GPRS mobile station registers with the network and connected to voice networks by the mobile switching center, GPRS packets are sent from the base station to what is called a Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN).

6. legal requirement for operation system

The GSM association undertakes to give to the company

(a) Non-exclusive, royalty free license to use or deal with the [ x number of copies ] of the GPRS management agreement [numbered x to z] in accordance with the conditions prescribed in this agreement

(c) registered copies of the detailed specification of the confidentiality algorithm for protection of the information exchanged over the radio channels of a GSM GPRS system

License duration is five years and user is unauthorized to keep copies or photocopies of license agreement. The organization should be the one that manufacture equipment of GSM GPRS standards for use by public telecommunications and these has been tested. The company must be a member of the GSM Association.

7. cost of setting up operating system

The cost of GPRS recorder for 1 Unit is about $399 and the license fee is $37.99 per month. In GPRS, users will only pay for the amount of data they actually communicate. The cost of GPRS is $0.01160 per Kb (billed per 20Kb) for unencrypted data and encrypted data cost $0.0058 per kilobyte with no minimum session charge. Users can prepay at $1.20 / $1 per five minutes, $20 per month. A license is valid for five years and renewable.

Administrative fee costs 1000 EURO. (1 EURO=1.48$)

8. limitations of each method(interference, range)

Each voice circuit in GSM transmits the speech on a secure 14kbps digital radio link between the mobile phone and a nearby GSM transceiver station. Each 14kbps channel may be shared by multiple 'connected' GPRS users (many users will be connected to the network but transmitting very little data). A GPRS user may theoretically use all voice channels on one transceiver - (8 * 14 kbps) but radios to support this are not available and the operators will probably reserve at least some channels for voice circuits. As a user's data requirements grow, they will use more of the available capacity within that timeslot, and then more available timeslots up to the maximum available or the maximum supported by their device. The connection to the GPRS network is always on, but the device needs to connect to the data terminal. The connection times are of course much lower than dial up. GPRS connection to be ready to use in 7 seconds, while a dial up requires around 35 seconds becoming ready.

Public Transmission Mobile Radio

a) How each method works?

Public Access Mobile Radio (PAMR) is the method of two way radio communications and services are provided from a transmitter at a single site called common base station. To become the network that use in the regional, many transmitters are needed to link. Signals go 45 m from the station. PAMR network use channels every available channels from numbers of linked. No need to wait channel make less taking time and efficiency was improved. But PAMR is lack of privacy because all customers are share services with group use. It also don't have license to apply to assign the channels that will be used. But can add function like short interconnection to PSTN.

b) Details of legal requirements for operating the system in your country

There are no legal requirements for operating system.

c) Costs of setting up and operating the systems

This will only cost the equipment cost. Because this is not the secure communication, you will need to consider problems like eavesdropping and men-in-the-middle.

d) Limitations of each method

The highest point of any PAMR antenna must no be more than 60 feet above the ground or 20 feet above the highest point of the structure on which it is mounted.
The channels authorized to PAMR systems are available on a shared basis only and will not be assigned for the exclusive use of any entity. Those using PAMR transmitters must cooperate in the selection and use of channels in order to reduce interference and make the most effective use of authorized facilities.
Private Mobile Radio (PMR)

a) how each method works

Private Mobile Radio

(PMR) or as it is sometimes called Professional Mobile Radio is widely used for businesses as a very convenient way of communicating. It typically refers to sophisticated radio trucking services that provide two-way mobile radio communications for mobile users to connect to PMR voice telephony and data networks.This method is used the half-duplex system. A half-duplex system provides for communication in both directions, but only one direction at a time (not simultaneously). Typically, once a party begins receiving a signal, it must wait for the transmitter to stop transmitting, before replying. In automatically-run communications systems, such as two-way data-links, the time allocations for communications in a half-duplex system can be firmly controlled by the hardware. Thus, there is no waste of the channel for switching.The power of the radio is one of the main factors in determining range. Height is another important factor, as the higher the antenna, the further the radio waves can travel. Mobile & Marine Systems provide a comprehensive range of professional private mobile radio (pmr) and radio systems integration services for adding value to your portable communication needs.

b) Details of legal requirements for operating the system in your country

  • Radio communication, such as PMR, is frequently used to provide the necessary communication between all the members of the scheme. All such systems using PMR must be licensed and associated legislation.
  • Licenses are allocated for operation on a particular channel or channels. The base station may be run by an operating company who will hire out channels to individual users.
  • PMR licenses can only be issued to a legal entity; namely an individual, partnership, limited company or incorporated association.

  • A license cannot be issued in the name of a body which does not have legal status, e.g. a group formed merely to provide funding for the purchase and running of a "Watch scheme".
  • It is common practice for a license to be held by an individual member of the group, however it should be noted that in such cases the license "belongs" to that individual, who is responsible for compliance with the terms of the license. Should they cease to be a member of the group, a new license will need to be applied for.
  • It is recommended that applicants do not purchase any equipment until a licence schedule has been issued, detailing the frequency and facilities the Agency is prepared to licence.

c) costs of setting up and operating the systems

1. A fee of $750 shall be payable for every fixed or base station on the issue

or renewal of the licence.

2. A fee of $270 shall be payable for every mobile station on the issue or

renewal of the licence.

3. If, during the period of 12 months following the grant or renewal of the

licence,

(a) new fixed or base stations are added to the licence, there shall be

payable at the time of addition of every such station a further fee of

$62.5 for each whole month of the remaining term of the licence;

(b) new mobile stations are added to the licence, there shall be payable at

the time of addition of every such station a further fee of $22.5 for each whole month of the remaining term of the licence.

d) limitations of each method

CTCSS is the most common protection available and is a widespread technology inbuilt into the radio but may not have been activated. If believe you have interference, you should check with your radio supplier that you have CTCSS or a similar system activated on your radios before you contact ComReg. These two types of interference have very similar symptoms within an affected radio system. The most common symptom is reduced range, there are many other common faults that a system can develop that will also result in reduced range. There are many other causes of 'interference' to a PMR system, most of which are generally as a result of improper installation or dated equipment. It is important that you keep your equipment well maintained and serviced regularly. Old equipment should be replaced as some pieces of older equipment operate outside of the specifications laid down in the license conditions.

Recommendation

GPRS refers to a high-speed packet data technology with always-on connectivity. It can be highly cost effective to use the Internet instead of making long distance phone calls, and in the case of international connections, much more reliable. Although using only GPRS is not secure perfectly, you can add many features to protect your data. The cost is also most reasonable among all methods. GPRS recorders are not expensive as 3G does. License fee is also reasonable and the payment is varying with the use of our company. To set up GPRS in your vehicle and control centre is so easy. GPRS method is not complex to use and all the controllers can handle perfectly with in touch method. It can provide the most suitable features that need for your company. GPRS is the most popular method among all of the voice communication methods in nowadays.

What is vehicle tracking system?

Vehicle tracking system is to track the vehicle's location and it's kind of electronic device and need to install in the vehicle. There are many kind of vehicle tracking system like

the links and nodes, etc. According to the topology used nodes distances, speed, interconnections for physical are different. The standard topologies of networking are

  • bus
  • ring
  • star
  • tree
  • mesh
  • Hybrid

Bus Topology

All nodes are connected to the common cable called backbone or trunk in Bus topology. The data are carried by the node to node and only two endpoint (use terminator) connected to the backbone. Distributed bus is has more than one node and formed as branches. When the backbone is damage the network is not usable.

Ring Topology

In Ring topology the node is connected to two other nodes at the end. Thus, the shape of nodes is formed as ring. Dual-ring is also ring topology formed the double ring and data can flow in opposite directions around two rings.

Star Topology

Star network topology has one central node connected with many nodes. All data is transmitted to this central node retransmits the data to other nodes. Thus it does not have central connection point. Extended star has repeaters between the hub and nodes. Distributed star is physical star topology connected together in a linear fashion.

Tree topology

Tree topology is that multiple star topologies together onto a bus and the simplest form is hub connected directly to the tree bus and each hub functions as the root of a tree. This topology is the expedition of network. Each node has fixed number connected to lower level like Hierarchy and have at least 3 levels.

Mash topology

Mesh topologies has two cable paths but the data travel in one direction. This topology is mostly use in WAN network. Each node is connected to other nodes in the network and transmits data from one node to another. Full mesh is costly and complex for practical networks. Partial mash is not complex and expensive as full mash.

Hybrid topology

The hybrid is used to create the complex networks when networks are connected more than one which based on the same physical topology.

2.Types of media

The common types of network media use in networking are twisted-pair cables, coaxial cables, fiber-optic cables, and wireless media. Actually, network media is used to travel radio signals or electronic signals from one place to another to form a network. But it can not work until you match this with appropriate topology.

Coaxial cable

Coaxial cable consists of the hollow outer conductor and this is surrounded by the single inner wire made up of two conducting elements where located in the center is the copper cable. Coaxial cable need less distance of cable than twisted-pair cable. Ethernet backbone called Thicknet use higher transmission. Thinnet is weak shield connection.

Twist-pair cable

Twisted-pair, use in Ethernet network, wires are twisted to protect crosstalk. This type is self-protected and canceling technique is used in this cable.

Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

The UTP cable is used in various networks and it include eight individual copper wires, twisted each other. UTP is use for LAN and Ethernets. This can provide the best speed in copper based wires in nowadays. Cable length is short although the transmitting is not fast.

Shielded twisted pair (UTP)

STP main function is reducing electrical noise of cable, shielding and cancellation by twisting wires. Although the cable is short, it is moderately expensive. But UTP is less expensive than STP.

Fiber optic cable

Fiber optic cable transmits information by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. Fiber optic network can transmit data with high speeds and have a large carrying capacity with great resistance and signals can go further without needing to refresh, lower attenuation and interference. It expensive to install and operate can connect short distance and low bandwidth applications.

Wireless communication

Wireless communication transmits data using the radio frequencies (RF). The main key controller is the wireless hub called access point. The PC or laptop must have wireless adapter card to receive distribute signal. The signals are electromagnetic waves and can travel through the vacuum of outer space and air. No other physical media is need for wireless signals to create a network. Wireless signals use portions of RF spectrum to transmit voice, video, and data.

2. Recommendation

I recommend the star topology with unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable. Star topology has high force tolerance. If a node is fail, the other nodes can be work until the server is available. It can extend easily. The extendibility of this topology provides the big help in extending new taxi for the company.

Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is one of the widely use and widely available media. Because of small size, the installation is easy. UTP cable is easy to install and is less expensive than other types of networking media. UTP costs less per meter than any other type of LAN cabling. Inexpensive and can get suitable services is also the good advantages for the company.

To create the in-house network (LAN) for taxi company, the star topology with UTP media is the best match and the most suitable.

I. Security issues relating to transmission of vehicle location data

For vehicle tracking system, I recommended the GPS vehicle tracking method. When we need the secure data transmission, we need to prevent the network that we will use. First of all, there are three main requirements to become a secure network. They are the privacy, integrity and availability. The privacy issue is means the un-authorized users are gaining access to the network. There are many problems that we should consider when we consider the network security for transmission of vehicle location data. They are eavesdropping, Man-in-the-Middle. They are the most effective problems for security of vehicle location data transmission. Eavesdropping is the main problem of radio-oriented networks. This is the manner of snooping of information carried by the network. This may be borrowing a terminal whilst the user is away or tapping into the cables that carry the signals. In wireless network, radio frequency can be easily intercepted outside the premises. Thus any unauthorized mobile device can be act as the receiver. Eavesdropping can enable from nearby premises. The hacker may remain undetected as there is no need to physically enter or connect to the premises.

Most of the GPS vehicles tracking system use Private Network in the case of transmission data. This is the making of another passageway to transmit data on the Internet as private network. Using private network, we can use encryption and encapsulation technologies. Because of this function, the possibility of problems is already reduced and can provide secure data transmission of vehicle data.

II. Voice communication transmission

For two way voice communication, I recommended the GPRS. Man-in-the-Middle is also important for security of the network when transmit data. In this case, the third party intercepts a two way conversation. Third party pretends to each party that he is the other party. Eavesdropping and the modification of messages can occur before they received.

If you need some secure information transmission, you should use the security protection like verbal instructions, queries can be used. Protection like adding software or system to protect the voice transmission security is need. The controllers respectively should use the password protection to use the central control. But this Internet-based technique does raise an issue of privacy from hackers without using private network. Thus security issues arise when data needs to leave the GPRS network to be delivered to either the Internet or a company LAN. Internet connectivity needs to pay security charge by encrypting. Security features combine with GPRS, your company will get the best vehicle tracking system with 100% security.