Improving Youth Livelihood through Institutional Support
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Strengthening Technical, Vocational Education and Training Institutions for Improved Livelihood Skills
ANDP Activists Network for Disabled People
AYODA Africa Youth Development Association
CLHE Candle Light for Health and Education
CSS Central and South Somalia
DFID Department for International Development
DRC Danish Refugee council
DRP Disaster Recovery Plan
EBT Enterprise- Based Training
EC European Commission
IAS International Aid Service
ICRA Islamic Children's Rescue agency
IBT Institution Based Training
IDPs Internally Displaced Persons
IICO International Islamic Charitable Organization
ILO International Labour Organization
IOM International Office of Migration
MOE Ministry of Education
NFE Non Formal Education
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
PEER Regional Programme for Education in Emergencies
PIDAM Puntland Institute of Development Administration and Management
SCD Save the Children, Denmark
SIDA Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
SOSTA Somali Skills Training Association
STEO Skills Training Employment Opportunity
TVE Technical and Vocational Education
TVET Technical and Vocational Education Training
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
VTC Vocational Training Centre
WFL Water for Life
WFP World Food Programme
WHO World Health Organization
US AID US Agency for International Development
Fact Sheet - Somalia
Somalia is situated in a place where most of the bordering countries are unstable except Kenya which has also observed post election violence in December 2007. It has border with Djibouti,Kenya, YemenandEthiopia. It has been in midst of a civil war since early nineties, the civil war has disrupted livestock breeding and agriculture which are the main stay of local economy. The major reason of civil war is due to the hidden interests of business community which is benefitting from the prevailing situation and other reason is clan based conflicts which are also at large. There are three main clans “Daroud, Hawaya and Issak “.Somalia had an invasion from Ethiopian forces in December 2006 but now they have also evacuated but the fight is still going on between Al-Shabab and government forces. Puntland and Somaliland regions have declared themselves to be autonomous of the federal government at Mogadishu. Important statistics are as under:
Area 637,667 sq km 246,201 sq miles, semi arid, 2% arable, 1.6% water
Total irrigated land 2000 sq km in 2003
Population 9,558,666 (85th)
Density 13/sq km (198th) 100% population belongs to Sunni Muslim branch of Islam.
GDP-PPP US $ 5.575 Billion (153rd)
GDP Per Capita US $ 600 (222nd)
Livestock and Agriculture 65 %, Industrial Sector 10% Services Sector 25 %
Exports 65% Livestock, remaining fish, hides/leather frankincense (aromatic gum)) etc
Foreign Remittances US $ 2 billion/year
Internet usage increased 44900% from year 2000 to 2007, highest in Africa
Urbanization 8% increase per year, one of the highest in Africa, currently
34 % population lives in cities.
Literacy Male: 24%, Female : 36%, 14%, 22% of Somali children are enrolled in Primary schools
There had been number of stakeholders working in the field of TVET in Somalia resulting in different policies and guidelines given by the state governments, different organizations and donor agencies according to their own mandate. There was no uniform approach being followed by different organizations working in the field of income generation and TVET activities. I felt the need to have a standardized approach for better delivery in the TVET sector.
An in-depth analysis was carried out on Overview of TVET management in Somalia, study of TVET institutions, Management model, a content analysis of UNESCO PEER assisted syllabuses and review of economic sectors and recommendations made after each part of this thesis report on each of these thesis components. ,
For this purpose I remained in Somalia from 12 Dec 2009 till 23 Dec 2009.Detailed meetings were held to discuss, evaluate and consolidate its finding after interaction with MOE officials, VTC managers, trainers, donors and experts from relevant technical and vocational education sectors.
The thesis also discussed in detail valuable contribution made in the TVET field by other stakeholders in Somalia. The existing management system of VTCs was analyzed. A workable management model for a VTC has been worked out for uniform implementation.
The TVET curriculum designed by UNESCO-PEER with the help of Italian Government has been recommended to all stakeholders to be adopted as standard syllabi for entire Somalia.
Finally overall analyses of the TVET situation in Somalia have been carried out to give recommendations for best possible way for improvement in this field. The need to have overall coordination between all stakeholders for TVET has been highlighted to make any intervention meaningful and effective.
It is expected that based on the thesis and the recommendations Somali Education Authorities and key implementation partners regarding the appropriate strategies to be implemented for addressing the most important areas in the field of TVET.
1. BACKGROUND TO THE THESIS AND VISITS TO TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING CENTRES
1.1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in conflict and post conflict areas is a critical component of the socio-economic development programmes as well as a fundamental component of reintegration. Acquisition of livelihood skills results in battling poverty and social exclusion in favour of self-employment. This helps to reduce unemployment, among marginalized population in conflict and post conflict countries. TVET acts for creation of skilled manpower that becomes self-employed and thereafter creates employment opportunities within their enterprises for others. It is within this framework that UNESCO PEER and other stakeholders like Diakonia and SCD has been implementing TVET projects in Somalia with the financial support of partners mainly the EC, SCIDA, Italian and Norwegian Governments. TVET curriculum/syllabi according to the market demand, training of centre managers, instructors and provision of support materials and textbooks to vocational training centres (VTCs) and initiation of standardized assessment and certification are examples of activities undertaken by UNESCO-PEER in Somalia. The syllabi and support materials so far developed have been popular with the users and a number of countries have shown interest to adapt them through the assistance of UNESCO-PEER.
Prior to the civil war that culminated in the collapse of the government in 1991, Somalia had functioning technical and vocational institutions in Mogadishu, Merka, Biadoa, Galkayo, Wajid, Kismayu, Bossaso, Burao and Hargeisa that specialized in a range of technical courses and traditional trades at craft and artisan levels. These courses were properly managed by government and the youth joined these institutions and specialized in various courses that enabled them to earn a living. Most of these institutions were, however destroyed or run down during the civil war period. Consequently, the youth who dropped out of school or were never enrolled in schools at all, found themselves helpless without any livelihood skills. This problem was aggravated by returnees who also had no skills.
The Ministries of Education in Puntland, Somaliland and Central South Somalia in collaboration with international agencies have played significant rolls in catering for the training needs of the youth and other vulnerable groups.
The main purpose is to identify and propose the best options in terms of training of youth for improving their livelihood skills through institutional development and income generation activities. The needs assessment of the VTCs was carried out to propose new skills according to the market demand.
i. To review the current approach to delivery of TVET and provide policy advice;
ii. Conduct baseline study;
iii. To Conduct needs assessment and skills gap analysis;
iv. Review existing syllabuses developed by various stakeholders
v. To study the management of the one Technical and Vocational Education Centre and on the basis of the findings recommend, the model to be applied to other TVET institutions.
I planned to cover the whole of Somalia for my thesis but due to insecurity in the Central South Somalia, I was not cleared to go there. The research took place in the Puntland State of Somalia (PSS) and Somaliland. The research targeted the Non Formal and technical and vocational Education sub-sector using the IDPS, Refugees, Returnees, pastoral communities and ex militia as research subjects.
i. It will act as a catalyst for streamlining the TVET sector in Somalia.
ii. The need to have better understanding of the ground realities was brought out in the study for better decision making.
iii. The requirement to have a coordinated strategy in TVET field has been highlighted. Better coordination between various stakeholders will contribute to optimum utilization of available resources.
iv. Will act for capacity building of MOE, VTCs and other stakeholders.
A number of meetings and visits were held with different stakeholders, NGOs and UN agencies working in the field of TVET. This was done in close collaboration with the Somali Ministries of Education at various levels, and other stakeholders involved in Vocational Education. Vocational Training Centers were visited and interaction was carried with their managers, students and trainers to find out their potential, weaknesses and requirement for upgrading and other Livelihood Skills opportunities An assessment of the job market was carried out to find out the livelihood skills required in Somalia.
1.7 VISITS TO TRAINING CENTRES AND MEETINGS WITH STAKE HOLDERS
Site visits were arranged by the field staff of UNESCO PEER in consultation with the Ministries of Education in both Somaliland and Puntland. My movement was however, hampered by the adverse security environment, making it difficult to visit such places as Galkayo, in Puntland and Berbera and Burao in Somaliland. Movement in Central South Somalia remained restricted.
Site visits were conducted in Bossasso, Hargeisa and Borama as shown in the table below;
VISITS AND MEETINGS WITH STAKEHOLDERS
13-15 Dec 2009
Ministry of Education
16-18 Dec 2009
1. PIDAM- Puntland Institute of Development, Administration and Management
2. Dan Door VTC
3. Bossasso College of Health Sciences
4.East Africa Fishing Factory, Tannery, Radio and Electronic repair shops
5. Telecommunications offices
6. Puntland Hospital
18-20 Dec 2009
1. Hargeisa Training Institute
5. Save the Children Denmark
6.ANDP( Activist Network for Disabled People)
7.ICRA( Islamic Children Refugee Agency
20-22 Dec 2009
8.AYODA (AfricaYouth Development Association
9.SOSTA( Somaliland Skills Training Association)
10 Dalphis Furniture Workshop
Due to security constraints the following institutions which offer technical and vocational courses could not be visited:
i. SIITCO(Scientific Institute and Information Technology College)
ii. BVTC( Burao Vocational Training Centre)
iii. Candlelight for Health Education and Environment,
iv. GAVO NGO Berbera
The meeting, which took place with Director of Non Formal Education (NFE) and other officials from the Ministry of Education in Puntland to discuss the TVE, was very productive. The key issues like selection criteria for the trainers and trainees, adoption of standardized curriculum developed by UNESCO-PEER through out Puntland were discussed at length. It was apparent that the government was committed to getting the TVET Policy in place, it had commissioned Save the Children Denmark which had developed a TVET policy for Puntland and Somaliland and once established, future funding by donors would need to be channeled through the MOE for effective planning and quality control by the governments.
A similar visit and discussion with the senior management of the Ministry of Education in Somaliland covered the strategy, policy and future planning. Unlike in Puntland, the management of TVET was being managed within institutional framework.
In the course of these visits and meetings with other stakeholders, I gained detailed prevailing knowledge about the TVET and Livelihood skills among other aspects of the TVET
Outcome of Field Visits to Puntland and Somaliland.
· It was felt that the MOE officials need more capacity building before they can effectively handle or deliver.
· Similarly the VTC managers and trainers though very keen would benefit from additional training and upgrading courses.
· The VTCs need to be improved in every manner, from repairs of buildings to provision of training equipment.
· The trainee students particularly the girls are very keen to proceed with TVET and would like diploma and degree courses to begin as soon as possible.
· The UNESCO-PEER worked curriculum has been adopted by Somaliland with Puntland taking time to implement it due to various constraints.
Trainees eager to learn new skills
2 OVERVIEW OF THE MANAGEMENT AND DELIVERY OF TVET
2.1 DEFINITION OF TVET AND BENEFICIARIES
According to the Guidelines issued jointly by UNESCO and ILO and adopted by UNESCO General Conference at its 31 Session in 2001 and recommended for implementation by countries according to their socio-economic status, TVET (Technical and vocational education and training) is defined accordingly as “a study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes related to occupation in various sectors of economic and social life.”
It approaches the target beneficiaries to gain quality training which can bring stability and prosperity in their lives through income generation activities.
In the Somalia context, the beneficiaries of training for occupational fields, alleviation of poverty and empowerment include; out of school youth due to drop out, demobilized soldiers, returnees, disabled persons, young adults of 18-24 years, girls and women heads of households whose husbands have either fled the country or killed in civil strive, refugees and secondary school leavers. These categories of Somali nationals benefit from interventions organized by international and local non governmental organizations, UN agencies and donor communities
2.2 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TVET
Organizationally, in both Somaliland and Puntland, TVET is regarded as part and parcel of Non Formal Education and is headed by a Director of Non Formal Education in the same way Formal Education is headed by a Director. It was not possible for me to establish whether similar arrangement exists in Central South Somalia. The TVET institutions in both Somaliland and Puntland are understaffed.
Through National and Regional Councils for technical and vocational education training, the units are expected to:
i) Plan and coordinate TVE Programmes, monitor supply and demand for goods and services, knowledge and skills in demand and approve new TVE Programmes,
ii) Provide a sound financial framework in which TVE costs are shared among the government, industry, community and the trainees;
iii) Establish a quality assurance mechanism that should enable the units to direct the following aspects of the TVET programme:
Ø Quality admission criteria and standards which should be reviewed and evaluated periodically
Ø Acceptable quality of curriculum and teaching materials
Ø Acceptable ratio of teaching and training staff to learners
Ø Staff qualifications
Ø Physical facilities and layout
Ø Quality and type of equipment
Ø Trainee qualification requirement
A theoretical organizational frame work is reflected in the organizational chart below
Source; MINISTRY OF EDUCATION IN SOMALILAND
The units are constrained by the following factors:
* Understaffing of the units makes implementation of the above functions difficult
* Management and implementation of TVET is decentralized and left in the hands of various stakeholders including UN agencies, NGOs and Government institutions. The State Governments do not have the resources to run these institutions in an efficient manner. This state of affairs makes the management and control of standards difficult in a situation where implementation may be determined by donor interest. The institutions lack strategies for sustainability.
2.3 INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
From the discussions held between me and the Ministries of Education, some UN agencies and international and local NGOs, the following intervention strategies in Somalia were mentioned:
Programme proposals are developed by UN agencies and other stakeholders and their viability discussed with the local authorities who sign letters of agreement with the stakeholders defining their respective responsibilities;
Multi-sectoral approach, where organizations form themselves into a consortium to implement certain programme activities or UN agencies in strategic partnerships
Area-based approach in which local administrators are beneficiaries and act as beneficiaries and implementing partners at the same time
Specific capacity building activities with local institutions
During the various meetings and discussions, it was observed that no home grown interventions initiated by local authorities and implemented jointly with willing donors.
2.4 TVET DELIVERY STRATEGIES
The methods of delivery of TVE in Somaliland and Puntland are still predominantly either IBT, Institutional based training, through full time training in establishments or EBT, Enterprise based training, in business establishments. The main differences being as shown in the table below
TABLE 3 COMPARISON OF IBT AND EBT TRAINING MODELS
Centre-Based Training Mode
Enterprise-Based Training Mode
1. Recruitment of Trainees
2. Training in theory, practical and entrepreneurship (6 Months)
3.Industrial attachment (2 months) and contracts
4.Assessment of skills and products
1. Conducting Training needs assessment
2.Designing appropriate syllabus
3. Recruitment and selection of trainees
4. Identification & recruitment of host trainers
5. Training (8 Months)
6. Work-based self employment programmes
7. Enterprise-Based Assessment and Certification
Source: Summarized from discussions with training management
Discussions with some stakeholders and previous studies by UNDP cited the following constraints in the EBT mode of training
* It takes too long to conduct needs assessment and design tailor made courses for enterprise-based training
* Limited resources and lack of program sustainability on the part of EBT due high cost of machines
* Conflict between trainee needs and customer needs, the latter tend to command priority
* Limited training capacity in the both personnel and learning space by trainee
While institutional based training organized on full time basis requires a lot of resources and may ensure quality training, EBT comes in handy due to tailor made course. Full time institutional training may lock out young adults and working populations that need to study part time.
I. As a matter of policy , it is recommended that training institutions and the governments in Somalia consider adopting flexible modes of delivery based on part time participation, involving work and training as follows:
a) Day release system-in which workers attend an educational or training establishment for agreed period in a week
b) Sandwich system where learners-alternate between educational institution and firm, factory or other establishment
c) Block release workers are released to attend a specific programme for a specified period.
d) Open and distance education programme by correspondence
1. Local authorities in Somalia should be actively involved in designing home grown projects that address local need.
2. The governments and other agencies should work closely with host trainers for better standard of training through financial and material support including training and certification personnel.
3. Due to possible conflict of interest, local personnel who are identified beneficiaries should not act as implementing partners at the same time.
3.0 STUDY OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING CENTRES
In order to conduct a base line study of the institutions visited and those which were not visited, a questionnaire was used and covered the following aspects. There was another detailed questioner of 15 pages which was used to collect the data and was sent to Prof Kim for review
Name of the institution
Number of trainees enrolled in each course
Number of instructors in each course
Qualification of instructors in each course.
Training aids available
New trades in demand
New training aids / machines required?
Trainees ending the course
The employment status of former trainees
Overall environment of education within the institutions
Political stability, law & order and other conditions required for education
The majority of TVET centres did not provide the information required partly due to the limited time available to me necessitating obtaining some of the information online. Most of the information requested was not available online from most of the TVET centres but it was possible to obtain the information in the table below on the trades offered in the following institutions;
TABLE 3 TVET COURSES OFFERED
NGO-Horn of Africa Voluntary Youth Committee formed in 1992 (Havoyoco)
Centre- Based Vocational skills training in
i) Woodwork (joinery and fitting)
iii) Metal work
v) Computer Studies
vi) Garment making
vii) Office Management
Basic Literacy and Numeracy
Enterprise-Based Vocational Training.
Amoud Vocational Centre for Agricultural Technology and Environment (AVOCATE)
Government- Ministry of Education
i) General agriculture
ii) Animal Husbandry
iii) Food Processing
Burao Vocational Training Centre
NGO-Candle Light for Health and Education (CLHE)
ii) Computer Studies
iv) Secretarial Studies
vi) Basic Literacy and Numeracy
Berbera Port Vocational Training Centre
Government-Port Authority/ UNDP
Port Related Technical Skills
i) Cargo handling equipment
ii) Power supply and illumination
iii) Diesel mechanic
iv) Machinist course
Other Technical courses
i) Motor vehicle mechanic
ii) Plumbing and pipe fitting/welding
iii) Auto Mobile electrician course
iv) General Electrician (house wiring)
vi) Computer hardware and maintenance
i) Secretarial Studies
ii) Personnel Management
iii) Business Accounting
iv) Cost Accounting
v) Business Management
vi) Computer Applications
Dan Dor Vocational Training Centre
NGO-Dan Dor (Direct Aid to Nature Development Organization)
iii) Metal work
iv) Garment making
v) Auto Mechanics
Bossasso Port Training Centre
Government in conjunction with Bossasso Port Authority
i) Financial Accounting I
ii) Financial Accounting II
iii) Cost accounting II
iv) Management Accounting
v) Business Mathematics and Statistics
vi) Business Law
vii) Basic Economics IV
viii) Computer Application
ix) Management Principles
Source: Information gathered from the field
The trades offered in the following established training centres are analyzed to illustrate vocational demand for some of the courses offered.
TABLE 3.1 SKILLS OFFERED IN HARGEISA AND BOSSASO TECHNICAL INSTITUTES
HARGEISA T I
Syllabuses developed by UNESCO
Automobile repair training
Electricity and cooling system
Nursing and Midwifery
Metal work fabrication
Basic Accounting II
Electronic equipment repair
Basic Accounting I
Computer Studies II
painting and Art
Computer Studies I
Building and construction
Carpentry and Joinery
Logistics and Storekeeping
Hospitality Operations II
Source: Data collected during the field visits
UNESCO PEER developed syllabuses to meet demand but the following can be observed from this table:
1. According to the need of the market following subjects were developed in the two training institution not covered by UNESCO
a) Automobile repair
c) Electricity and cooling system
e) Painting and Art
2. There is demand which has not been met in the following fields:
a) Nursing and midwifery
b) Beauty Salooning
3. In the UNESCO PEER study of 2002 demand was expressed for the following fields:
a) Business adminstration
b) Import Export management
d) Well Engineering
f) Natural resources management
4. Demand is determined by the following factors:
a) Environment activity; pastorists need vetrinary services, communities near the sea and river valleys require fishing techniques and those in dry and arid areas require well engineering while farming communities will go for Agriculture.
b) Skills in the market for formal employment
c) Skills for self employment.
d) Traditional trades such as carpentry, masonry,electrical installation and garment making seem to enjoy popularity but the new ones are yet to have a foothold in livelihood skills.
5. From the baseline study information received and discussions with stakeholders analyzed, the following situation still prevails in the Sub-sector:
a) Somalia is fit for intervention in almost all fields of livelihood and skills development. The best way to intervene is through development of skills through TVET. This is the shortest way to both becoming self earning or getting a job opportunity.
b) The TVET centres still lack qualified trainers, training equipment and text books in relevant TVET programmes Some of the available text books are still written in English and due to the low academic level of trainees, they cannot use books effectively while Somali translation versions do not exist
c) The standard curriculum developed by UNESCO-PEER needs to be adopted in all VTCs in order to have a common syllabi. It will also help to determine a common grading system and the quality of the grading system will improve.
1. Planning for higher levels courses needs to be done for enhancing management, administrative and technical skills of the VTC managers and business executives by stakeholders.
The following subjects which have been identified as creating skill gaps and which by their very nature should be used in regular full time training institutions be developed by UNESCO PEER which has accumulated experience in this area:
a) Business Administration
b) Import Export Management
d) Natural Resources Management
e) Well Engineering
f) Automobile repair
3. Issues related to management and inadequate facilities are taken up by institutional managers, who should develop master plans for these institutions with a view to making them sustainable.
4. TVET managers should work out a mechanism for getting some of the textbooks in specified courses translated to facilitate their use by trainees
4. INVOLVEMENT OF STAKEHOLDERS IN CAPACITY BUILING AND OTHER ACTIVITIES IN SOMALIA.
A number of donor organizations, UN agencies and local and international non governmental organizations are active in supporting capacity building and other activities in Somalia. The information summarizes interventions and achievements. Some of the agencies may wish to partner with others for implementation of programmes.
Due to time constraint, and insecurity mainly in Central south Somalia, this information was obtained partly online in order to ensure accuracy of what is reported. These activities for these organizations are summarized in the table below and reported in detail after the table.
TABLE 4 ORGANIZATIONS ACTIVE IN TVET IN SOMALIA
Recovery and sustainable livelihood program- agriculture based skills
CSS in middle Shabelle
3300 trained in Agriculture and book keeping skill
1350 are in gainful employment
Consortium headed by SCD
Youth, girls, women and other vulnerable groups
5500 trained in various vocational skills
TVET and Computer assisted teacher Education
Somaliland, Puntland and Merka,
Youth, Primary teacher and IDPS
Urban and rural water rehabilitation
Norther and Central South Somalia
Rural and urban poor
Water and Storage facilities provided to 250,000
Community is benefitted from this activity
DANISH REFUGE COUNCIL
Infrastructure rehabilitation and support to livelihood
Rehabilitation for 10,000
Primary Education, Agriculture training and youth vocational training
Youth and orphaned children
I A SWEDEN
Relief to draught affected area
Somaliland- Togdheer, Sool and Sanag
Training in water rehabilitation skills
Source: The tracer studies conducted by EC/UNESCO and other stake holders.
RECOVERY AND SUSTAINABLE LIVLIHOODS. This programme of UNDP focuses on the improvement of the livelihood and income generation opportunities for marginalized groups. It helps in attaining the Millennium Development Goals. The Employment Generation for Early Recovery project is one of the main goal and to achieve this several beneficiaries from all the regions of Somalia have benefitted. The programme was started in September 2005 to increase the level of literacy, skills, vocational education for employment to ex-militia target groups. The total so far 4,500 participants have benefited from this training. This project concluded in 2008.
2. EC's ASSISTANCE TO SOMALIA:
The European Commission is one of the key donors which have been supporting the TVET activities in Somalia. It has provided assistance to more than 6500 trainees in Puntland and Somaliland under the PETT and STEO projects. Diakonia and SCD are the main implementing partners of the EC for implementation of the TVET activities. In their new project approximately 5500 trainees will get benefit of training in Somalia including CSS. Currently EC and UNESCO-PEER are in coordination with each other for better planning and support to VTCs in Somalia. In this regard all the stakeholders had a TVE workshop in Nov 2009 in Somaliland for way forward and implementation of various activities.
USAID is the main donor which has been providing assistance in the form of food through WFP and also through other UN agencies for improved livelihood for the local population. So far they haves provided $500 million to the country since 1991. The current projects of USAID are being implemented through EDC and local NGOs. The have a target of training almost 10000 militias, youth, IDPs and vulnerable groups by the end of 2012.The major construction projects will involve the labour and skilled workers working on these projects requiring TVET intervention.
4. SAVE THE CHILDREN FUND DENMARK:
We have several International NGOs working in Somalia and among those who directly work in the field of TVET “Save the Children “is the leading NGO which has trained more than 5500 trainees through their PETT project. Currently under the STEO project they have a group of another 2000 trainees. The have a plan to start STAPE project from April 2010 which is again a 2 year project which will be able to train another batch of 3000 individuals. This time the major focus will be in Central and south Somalia.
5. DANISH REFUGEE COUNCIL.
The Nairobi based NGO which has a skeleton staff on ground in Puntland ans somaliland. The major focus of the NGO is on Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and asylum seekers from the neighboring countries.It started its operation startet in Bossaso in 2005 and now they have expanded it to Galkayo. The office in Hergisa is also operational at hte moment but still the major focus is in Bossaso and Galkayo where they are training these target beneficiaries in Galkayo and Bossaso VTCs. Besides this DRC has been providing SME training to the beneficiaries through local NGOs.
6. WATER FOR LIFE (ITALY)
The field of activities vary from Agricultural to education. The director of WFL Mr Elio has been working in Merka since 1988 before the civil war. Most of the boys who started as young orphans in his schools are now the teachers and employed youth. The total people trained in (1000 children), primary education (6500-7000 boys and girls), secondary education (an agricultural college with 200 students) and to vocational training (mechanics, metal work, joinery, masonry, women's crafts, with a total of 180 apprentices).
7. INTERNATIONAL AID SWEDEN (IAS) Activities. They are active in number of fields as given below:
IAS has opened an institution for mentally handicapped children in Somaliland. This was the first institution of its kind and before this there was no facility to treat such children. The people are really happy for this remarkable service provided by them.
Relief to the drought stricken part of Somaliland. IAS worked with the grant from Swedish Mission Council / Scida for a relief intervention in Somaliland in November 2006. It includes the construction of water barkers (reservoirs), arranged temporary accommodations. This construction work has provided opportunity to the young people who were graduated from the VTCs to convert their theoretical experience into practical value. I would appreciate the efforts of IAS who has actually given them this opportunity at the early stage due to which many masonry students were accommodated.
Construction of water reservoirs in Somaliland
8 INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF MIGRATION (IOM)
VOCATIONAL TRAINING TO COMBAT IRREGULAR MIGRATION. The aim of this organization is to provide border control assistance to IDPs, Refugees and returnees. IOM has been working in Puntland and Somaliland for last couple of years. They have established biometric system on the Hergisa and Bossaso airport. The local airport authorities were trained in making the electronic/computerized visas for the travelers. This is one of the key achievements besides other work of IOM. Currently they have a joint project with UNESCO under which they are supporting the vocational skills training of 250 trainees. Their support will also be given for provision of toolkits to the TVE graduates at the end of the training in March 2010. Besides this they have also started rehabilitation of few VTCs which is really vey beneficial for the stakeholders work in general and the community in particular.
Diakonia the 2nd biggest partner of EC in PETT and STEO project under which they have trained more than 3000 trainees in puntland state of Somalia. Besides EC funding Diakonia has been getting funds from Swedish government and implementing several projects including primary teachers training in Puntland. The “GTEC” Garowe Teachers Education College is the greatest achievement of Diakonia to date. The VTCs in puntland have been benefiting from the presence of this NGO. In Somalia they have been the key implementing partner in terms of training in Vocational skills to date. Their work is being appreciated by all. Now there is a need to improve on the existing structures available.
10 UN/INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES. UNHCR, UNDP, UNESCO, ILO, UNICEF AND ICRC
are supporting in many forms starting from vocational education, livelihood support for youth and women. A number of these can complement or add value to the proposed TVET intervention and coordination will be necessary. Similarly ICRC has been deeply involved in conflict prone areas. The potential of new emerging economic powers i.e. China, Korea, Taiwan needs to be harnessed.
11. INTERNATIONAL NGOs.
There are many international NGOs like DRC, NRC, Caritas international, GTZ, DIAKONIA, EDC, SCD, ADRA, CARE international and Islamic relief which are working in providing vocational and livelihood skills to the trainees.
12. PRIVATE TRAINING PROVIDERS.
There are many private institutions which are mostly providing EBT training for carpentry, aluminum works, and computer skills and even in cooling system and mobile repairs. Women are getting beauty saloon, garment making and computer training through these private institutions which are playing a pivotal role in the society
13. UNESCO PEER.
It has been one of the major stakeholders in provision of services in this field. Main initiatives undertaken by UNESCO-PEER are as under:
* Training of Centre Managers and Instructors. A number of workshops have been organized under the supervision of the qualified trainers for the capacity building of managers and trainers.
* Development of Curriculum/Syllabi. It has developed syllabi according to the market demand and total 11 syllabi have been written with the assistance of the MOE and other stakeholders. Currently UNESCO-PEER is in the process of developing the syllabi to grade 1 level in the fields of electrical installation and motor vehicle mechanic.
* Instructors Guide and Assessment Guides. They were prepared to help the trainers in teaching and assessing the performance of the students
* Provision of Support materials and textbooks. These were provided to VTCs besides miscellaneous training aids.
* Initiation of Standardized Assessment and Certification System. UNESCO-PEER has been helping these institutions to adopt a standardized assessment and certification system. All assessment papers have been developed in the recent years which will be adopted with the joint agreement of all the stakeholders.
* Application of Uniform Curriculum to all States. CSS and Somaliland have agreed to follow the curriculum developed through the assistance of UNESCO-PEER with slight modifications on the demand of different NGOs like Diakonia, SCD and Gotenberg Initiativet. Puntland government has also been in discussion with UNESCO-PEER and has also agreed to implement the same syllabi.
· Enterprise Based Training (EBT). To support this, UNESCO-PEER'S TVET Programme has made EBT compulsory in all trade/skill areas so that trainees graduating from the Programme may easily engage in self-employment rendering themselves as job creators rather than job seekers.
5. MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR GAROWE VOCATIONAL TRAINING CENTER
5.1 CURRENT PRACTICE
I visited Garowe Vocational Training Centre (GVTC), discussed with the Ministry of Education and the Administrator of “GVTC” and other stakeholders and studied the document availed. This enabled me to do a case study of the centre and recommend a management model that could apply to other training centres
5.1.1 HISTORY OF THE INSTITUTION
Garowe Vocational Training Centre (GVTC) was built by the Islamic Development Bank and funded by International Islamic Charitable Organization of Kuwait (IICO). The IICO had a plan to assist by providing materials, paying teachers and staff's salaries.
Unfortunately, after the September 11th terrorist attacks in New York the IICO ceased their funding to the institute. Fortunately all the machines, equipment and apparatus are intact and are fully operational under Somali Welfare Society (SWS), since 2006.
SWS is now committed to restoring, improving and sustaining this vital part of training and education.
5.1.2 LOCATION AND PHYSICAL FACILITIES
The TVET Training centre is located north of the dry river of Garowe town close to the main university of Garowe (PSU) and has an enclosed area of 50x50m.
It has 2 administrative offices, 3 lecture rooms, 3 practical workshop rooms and a large open area. The building is quite recent and generally in good condition.
5.1.3 M ANAGEMENT
1) Only one administrator is available without adequate administrative support staff except 4 watchmen and 2 cleaners and a generator operator
2) No management team
3) No policy making body in the institution
4) No Organizational Chart
5. 1.4 FUNDING
By a Diaspora Group named Gothenburg Community in Sweden and SWS at the rate of 25$ per trainee. 
1) No financial support from the community
2) No financial support from the private sector
3) No cost sharing from the trainees
4) No government contribution
5) No income generating activities
6) Income from sponsors at 25$ for 140 trainees is 3,500$
5.1.5 CURRICULUM AND TRAINEES
Electrical Applied Theory
Source: Ground observation
From this table the following can be inferred
1) The institution is conducting training without regular teachers in Welding, Cooling system, Book keeping and Garment making
2) Instructor trainee ratio is 1:20
1. Metal Working Lathe
2. Grinding Machine
4. Drilling Machine (Metal)
12SPD Sanchira, Taiwan
5. Welding Machine
Nordika 1800, EU
6. Portable Cutter Machine
7. Surface Gauge
8. Universal Machine (Clamp)
9. Drilling Machine (Wood)
11. Power/Speed Saw
12. Electrical Generator
Makita 4300BA, Japan
14. Electrical Tool Box
Source; Field observation
1) No Sewing machines for Garment making for trainees practical work
2) All machines are imported and no internal or local expertise is available for regular servicing and maintenance
The trainees have 2 days of practicals and 3 days of theory and tests are conducted internally and certificates issued
5.1.8 FUTURE PLANS
The primary objective of this project is aimed to strengthen peace and stability through education and training in technical skills to the Ex-security force personnel to be reintegrated in to the civilian life, and the unskilled youth especially those from militia backgrounds.
To equip the youth with skills which are currently lacking or scarce and consequently raise the youth workforce. In order to achieve this aim, the VTC will provide high quality training to the target group in the field of TVET. The expatriate trainers from the neighboring countries will assist in TOT and also in strengthening the TVET institutions for Somalia.
5.2 PROPOSED INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR TVET MANAGEMENT MODEL
For Planning and policy direction it is recommended that mechanism be as shown in organizational chart:
5.2.1 It is
5.2.2 It was felt that a top down approach should be adopted to create a standard management model for all VTCs. The MOE assisted by A Technical and Vocational Education Board (TVETB) should be the forum to lay down all policy matters and guidelines pertaining to TVET. The study recommends a three tier system. Composition and responsibilities are as under:
5.2.2. POLICY MAKING BODY. A Technical and Vocational Education Board (TVETB) is recommended.
5.2.3 SUPERVISION AND MONITORING BODY. A Board of Governors may be formed to oversee the execution of policy guidelines and monitor day to day activities of the VTC on regular basis.
5.2.4 ADVISORY BODY. A Parent Teacher Association is visualized to play an advisory role to achieve better interaction, improve and develop harmonious working environment at the VTC.
5.3.0 MANAGEMENT AT INSTITUTIONAL LEVEL
At institutional level the management structures should be in place but the nature of organization chart will depend on the complexity of the institution but the basic minimum provision should be as proposed in the organizational chart below
5.3.2 INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT BOARD
COMPOSITION OF BOARD OF GOVERNORS: It is recommended as follows:
Chairman appointed by Director General of Education
Representative of the TVE project Sponsor
Representative of MOE (NFE)
Representative of the private sector
Representative of training institutions
Representative of the community
Principal as ex-officio.
Head of relevant Department
5.3.3 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TVETB
i. Responsibility for development of National TVET policy
ii. Responsibility for implementation strategies of TVE.
iii. Responsibility for monitoring training quality and control.
iv. Responsibility for Assessment and certification of TVET
5.3.4 RESPONSIBILITY OF INSTITUTIONAL BOARDS OF GOVERNORS.
Implementation of TVE Programmes at institutional levels.
5.4 ISSUES THAT SHOULD APPLY TO TVET TRAINING CENTRES IN SOMALIA
5.4.1 INSTITUTIONAL SUSTAINABILITY
Programmes sponsored by the donors are subject to donor withdrawal .Training institutions must avoid dependency syndrome and plan for a viable exit strategy through arrangements such as
1nstitutional income generating strategies to supplement donor funding
Cost recovery through charging user fees instead of relying exclusively on donor contributions
Operating in partnership with the private sector for cost sharing and community involvement
Government contributions to offset institutional expenditure.
5.4.2 INTRODUCTION OF NEW COURSES ACCORDING TO DEMAND
Training centres should not start new training courses without addressing the issue of teacher supply and other institutional facilities-
5.4.3. SUPPLY OF EQUIPMENT
Where machines and tools are to be supplied by the donor and other agency institutions should specify actual needs to avoid getting irrelevant equipment and must address the issue of service and repairs and any training required
5.4.4 SKILL-BASED CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND REVIEW
Training institutions should respond to demand by periodically reviewing skill-based curricula and developing new curricula where demand is greatest .In doing so attention should be paid to identification and inclusion of core skills and entrepreneurial competences.
5.4.5 MONITORING PROGRAM PERFORMANCE
TVET Centers should occasionally evaluate on-going programmes-drop out rates in part time and full time courses, placement in wage and self employment, staff turnover and trainee achievement and performance
5.4 6 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROPOSED MANAGEMENT MODEL
Besides addressing the above concerns it is felt that with relative peace in Puntland and Somaliland a common model can be adopted with necessary adjustment by the end users.
The remaining parts of Somalia may adopt this model when the situation permits.
6. REVIEW OF THE SYLLABUSES DEVELOPED BY UNESCO- PEER AND ENTRY QUALIFICATIONS
To review the syllabuses developed by UNESCO I considered the rationale, for format and content of sample Syllabuses as well as support materials. Due to time constraint it was not possible to obtain feedback from the users in the field due to other research activities
6.1 Development of Curriculum/Syllabi. The curriculum was developed with the joint consultation of all the stakeholders and UNESCO-PEER took the lead in this field. So far total of 11 skill areas have been worked out keeping in view the demand of the market. These are more demand based rather supply based curriculum
Table 4 DISTRIBUTION OF THE SYLLABUSES DEVELOPED BY PEER WITH SOMALI SUBJECT EXPERTS
Carpentry and joinery
Source: Support to employment study by EC 2004
Other syllabuses developed by UNESCO PEER WERE:
1) Secretarial Studies I and II
2) Basic Accounting I and II
3) Computer Studies I and II
4) Hospitality operations I and II
5) Plumbing II and III
Table 4.1 MAIN FEATURES OF THE SYLLABUSES DEVELOPED BY UNESCO PEER
* Ability to read and write Somali language
* Elementary primary Education
* Basic computing skills
* Basic knowledge of skill 10%
* Skills cum product 80% -864 hrs
* Placement by heads, parents and trainees
* 1 year theory 9 months
* Practical 2 months
* 1 month vacation
* Proficiency certificates awarded by MOE after completing duration and passing continuous Assessment
* Spiral; topics are repeated in levels III and II
6.2 Instructors Guide and Assessment Guides. They were prepared to help the trainers in teaching the students
TABLE 4.2, MAIN FEATURES OF INSTRUCTOR GUIDES
* Help instructor interpret syllabus content
* Select teaching and learning activities
* Basic Knowledge and skills
* Skills cum product
* Tools and equipment
* Finished products
* Text books
Source; Instructors guides
TABLE 4.3 MAIN FEATURES OF ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Designed to help teachers assess trainees and fill the gap created by shortage of text books
Identify carpentry and joinery products
Carpentry and joinery
Identify joinery and carpentry products
* Flush door
* Panel door
* Battened door
Source: Assessment Criteria
6.3 CRITERIA FOR SELECTION TO TRAINING CENTRES
Besides the entry requirements stipulated in Syllabuses as pass at basic grade III being a prerequisite for entry to Grade II training managers take into account the following
* Affirmative action
Priority to orphaned children
Sponsorship by Somali in Diaspora
* Those who pass institutional conducted entry examinations
* Grade 8 Certificate of Primary Education
* Pass in School certificate of Secondary Education examinations
Since UNESCO PEER developed these syllabuses long time ago a thesis should be conducted to establish the current practice with regard to the following
i. Course duration
ii. Attachment practices
iv. Use of stipulated resources
v. Training quality
7. GENERAL DIRECTION
7.1 CAPACITY BUILDING. The most important part of up-grading the TVET is the capacity building. New training equipment or machines/material should not be lying unutilized or repairable for want of minor repairs. Capacity building to utilize any new piece of equipment to optimum should be given due priority. Future assistance should be granted in direct proportion to the ability of the user to utilize it to the optimum. It is very strongly recommended that the emphasis should shift to provisioning along with capacity building. UNESCO-PEER needs to have detailed interaction with the State Governments to assist them in all fields particularly for their capacity building.
7.2. IDENTIFICATION NEW DONORS. It is apparent that TVET Intervention will require major sources of new resources and funding if required to be carried out at a scale big enough to make substantial difference in general public's life in Somalia. Newly emerging economic powers i.e. China, South Korea, India etc are increasing their presence and influence in East Africa. They may be targeted to spend part of their aid/assistance through UN agencies for overall uplift of livelihood skills.
7.3. INTERNATIONAL NGOs. INGO could be made responsible for implementing components of the TVET projects. There are two main INGOs namely Diakonia and Save the children Denmark who has been implementing major TVET activities but they can still make a consortium to help new international NGOs to work for the joint cause.
7.4. ADDITIONAL COURSES AND DURATION. It has already been highlighted that courses of duration of 5 to 6 months need to be started to give an early opening to promising youth capable of learning fast and fine tuning their skills at EBT. Their curriculum needs to worked out now for courses to start in time.
7.5 CONSTANT UP-GRADITION OF TRAINING MODULE. All training in TVE field being carried out is subject to certain requirements. Some of these factors are changing constantly due to change in job market requirements. In order to keep the TVET abreast with the needs of job market, regular sample surveys are required to be carried out. This should be a regular feature at least every alternate year to determine exact demand in various trades. The students can also participate in such surveys. Other stakeholders e.g. ILO etc may also join in these surveys of job market. The present quality of trainers needs major up gradation. Most of qualified ones have gone abroad for better jobs and security. This shortage can not be overcome overnight. Courses abroad for promising trainers and utilization of expatriate trainers may be considered during the interim period.
7.6 MICRO CREDITS. Liberal micro credits should be given at all levels in almost all sectors. A Grameem Bank type strategy may be worked out to give micro credits particularly to small house holds in Somalia.
The NGOs in general and UN organizations in particular have to give a special attention to bring Somali population out of prevailing chaos. Major areas for contribution have been identified and it is expected that all efforts will be undertaken to ensure that with whole hearted support of all stakeholders the people of Somalia will be able to come out of present state of affairs with dignity and honour.
One of the best method to take people of Somalia out of a cycle of poverty and deprivation is through provision of TVET skills. These will enable the people to learn and earn their livelihoods on their own. The desire for peace is directly related to a large number of people working in different sectors or self employed. They would prefer an environment where they could work and earn their livelihoods in a secure manner.
Constant up-gradation of TVET facilities besides creation of new ones will a long way for ameliorating the vicious poverty cycle in Somalia.
BOSSASO TECHINAL INSTIUTE (BTI)
1. Background After the out break of civil war in Somalia a lot of people moved away from Mogadishu to Puntland state of Somalia particularly to the main city of Bossaso, the need of training technical persons become an important requirement for the new state. To fulfill the requirement of skilled manpower this institute was built in 1995 by the Islamic Development Bank and funded by International Islamic Charitable Organization of Kuwait (IICO). The IICO assisted with materials and paying teachers and staff's salaries. Unfortunately, shortly after the September 11th terrorist attacks in New York the IICO ceased their funding. The HTI occupies 120m x 110m space, i t contains 18 rooms, one mosque and 2 toilets the details are:
1.1. 12 of them are classes
1.2. 4 are practical wholes (work shop)
1.3. 1 is generator room
1.4. 1 is staff room
2. The institute is located at seaside, close to the main port and The Islamic Development Bank provided funds for material, equipment, machines, tools that were needed for technical and vocational training. This could be regarded as a model institution in Puntland for expending vocational educational system in order to train skilled people capable of working for the Puntland's ambitious development plans.
3. 1997 -2002 The IICO organized different vocational training activities of the institute and was paying all general expanses such as salaries of the all staff, material and maintenance and etc. Fortunately all the machines, equipment and apparatus are all-intact and are fully operational thanks to a caretaker who maintained it so far. The building and all the materials used by BVTC have been bestowed to Star Academy, in 2005. Star Academy is now committed to restoring, improving and sustaining this vital part of training and education. During these four years 420 students (60 of them are female while 360 are male), were trained and found jobs, some were working while studying.
4. 2006. Another international development organization DIAKONIA Sweden, gave the institute an opportunity to reopen. DIAKONIA provided BTI promotion employment through training (PETT) project founded by EU, BTI was implemented the project as partner. The over all objective of PETT was to provide skills training for employment to IDPs, youth and disadvantaged groups of the society.
5. 2008. Another project called Skills Training Employment Opportunity (STEO) which is a similar to PETT project was started at the institute and is still on hands at institute but the project has limited time frame and will finish at beginning of 2010. During the period of PETT and STEO project funded by the EU and implement by Diakonia, 245 students (64 female while 180 male) were trained at BTI. Most are gainfully employed now.
6. Objectives and Goals of BTI. The objectives of BTI are to acquire and enhance the technical skills required for future development of Puntland. The institute has set the following objectives
6.1. Organize and offer quality trainings and skills development.
6.2. Training youth in different technical fields to help themselves.
6.3. Encourage people of all age and spectrum for learning technical skills and technology
6.4. Eradicating the fighting by the weapons and substituting it by education and knowledge
6.5. Encouraging peace and cohesion between Somali people and train work conduct and ethics that can help the coming generation to establish a bright future
6.6. To assist poor people who need skills in order to support themselves
6.7. To encourage nation wide acquisition of literacy innumeracy and live skills
7. Mission of BTI. To offer quality education in acquiring technical skills such as:
7.1. General Mechanic (Metal-Fabrication and Auto-Mechanic)
7.2. Electricity and Cooling system
7.4. Painting and Arts
7.7. Secretarial Study
7.8. Logistic and Store keeping
7.9. Information Commutation Technology (ICT)
7.11. Garment making
7.12. Beauty saloons
8. Vision of BTI. Promote advanced modern technical studies for the young generation and other groups i.e. IDPs, ex Militias etc with out any kind of discrimination in Puntland.
9. Beneficiaries. The basic a
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