Democratic Government: School System of Haiti
About the paper
The given discussion paper is based on the topic ‘Democratic Government and School System of Haiti’. In the given paper, the main focus point is the education system of Haiti, which is an island of West Indies. Due to the adverse condition of the Republic of Haiti, since the independence of the nations, the education system is very ineffective and is the main cause of poverty and lower economic level of the country. In this paper, it is evaluated that with the democratic structure of the education system of Haiti, how can effective measures be taken for a positive impact on the social and intellectual development of the people over there; especially, the youth and the adult populace.
The given learning paper is divided into three parts namely the breadth, the depth and the application. All the three parts of this learning paper are interconnected with each other and the discussion of these three parts have a flow of information. In the first part of the discussion paper namely the ‘breadth’, the theories related to education and democracy and are analyzed. The theories suggested in the given paper are given by Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey and Jean Piaget. The concept of these theories is based on the formation of the organizational structure of Haiti. In addition to this, the Historical perspective of Haiti and its struggle for the imposition of the educational practices and values of the western countries is also described in the same section of the paper. With the use of the given theoretical framework, interlink between the race, education and democratic governance is also analyzed in the same segment of the discussion paper (Investing in Instruction for Higher Student Achievement, 2003).
The next segment of the learning paper is the ‘depth’. In this part of the paper, the annotated bibliography of a series of the current scholarly articles is made. The articles selected are related to the subject of democratic governance in Caribbean, especially, in context with Haiti. In addition to this, the current political events occurred in Haiti are also discussed in the same section of the paper. Also, the impact of the outside consequences on the governance of Haiti and Caribbean is also evaluated in the same paper and the effect of these governances on the poverty rates of these regions is also being explored in the same section of paper.
The third and last section of the paper, which is the ‘application section’; the theories of democratic governance are analyzed with the foreign and economic affairs of the United States on the education sector of Haiti. In addition to this, the societal and economical indexes of the Haiti and Caribbean and the effect of internal governance factors or the pressure of the global business organizations of the United States on these indexes, is also included. The several other alternatives for the democratic governance are also investigated in the series, which were given by the three theorists in the first section of the discussion paper.
Haiti, which is an island situated in the West Indies. The official name of Haiti is the ‘Republic of Haiti’. This is a Caribbean country, which is considered as a French speaking nation or Creole is also followed by the citizens of Haiti. This republican nation is located in the west side of the island of Hispaniola. The country was not independent, since its origin and got recognition as an independent nation in 1804 from France. In that period, this island was considered as the lowest country on the literacy level and the most deficient country among the entire hemisphere of west side. During the 1990s, Haiti was aimed for the establishment of the democracy by the international community (Haiti, 2009).
From the population point of view, Haiti is counted among the highly populated nations of the world. Of the modern times, Haiti is figured as the ‘first independent nation of blacks’. During the period of nineteenth and twentieth century, several numbers of struggles were experienced in Haiti. Among the major struggles, the struggle for gaining more power by the several classes of the nations and struggle for the negligence of the advancements in the filed of social and economic aspects.
These efforts gave birth to the several types of occupations in the military of the United States. The occupations were mainly promoted during the period of 1915 and lasted till the year 1934. At the end of the twentieth century, the Republic of Haiti restored democracy. This was executed in the year 1987, when a new ‘Constitution’ was ratified and a Bicameral Parliament was elected in Haiti. In this governmental system, the head of the states were the Prime Minister and the President. The President used to appoint a Supreme Court (Florén-Romero, 2008).
The governmental system of Haiti is categorized into three sections namely the Executive, Legislative and Judicial Government. There is one ‘Senate’ consisting of 30 seats and a ‘Chamber of Deputies’ comprising of 99 seats in the legislative section of the government. The term of these two sections of the legislative governments, is for six years and four years. The other section of the government, which is the executive power, is headed by the President of the Republic. The President is considered the head of the state and the head of the government is the Prime Minister. The third section of the government, which is the judicial power, is coordinated by the Supreme Court.
The Democratic government had a great impact on the school system of Haiti. In the earlier period in Haiti, there were no uniform schedules for the schools. This is because in those times, the school system of Haiti was aided by the privately run schools. During that period, the population of the students rose with a great speed. Moreover, there were no arrangements of faculties in the schools and the schools lacked the equipments used for the educational purpose. The school timings were also shortened due to the ineffective system of education. The school systems of Haiti in the past periods had to serve the different groups of pupils.
As periodic changes, schools were firstly developed in Haiti in the year 1905, after the emerging of the Constitution. The Constitution prescribed for the ‘compulsory primary education’ that was free of cost. The primary schools of the rural areas were created with several limitations; specifically, agricultural degree program with the introduction of the ‘Education Act’ of the year 1848. Later, the educational system was encouraged by the leaders of post colonial period of the Haiti; but the development of a comprehensive and convenient school system was not possible. Still, there are no means for education, as there are no provisions of the formal educations for the majority of Haitians. On the other hand, the primary school education is given to the small minority groups (Haitians— Their History and Culture, 2004).
The Democratic government of Haiti made sincere and continuous efforts for the provision of better education to its people. Though, the efforts of the Haitian Government were much effective, yet, the results of the efforts, of the government were not according to the desired level. There was a great requirement of the initiation of a sincere reform and through the establishment of that reform; the country could utilize ‘education’ as an instrument for the enhanced growth of the nation. There were no clear signs to show the education as a focused point for the basic requirements of the country. In that period, the preferences of the Haiti population were not towards the public education governance; this was because, in those years, the Haitians were only interested to send the upper class children to the schools. And for the purpose of study, they used to go France and they were recognized as French people (Haiti - Educational System-Overview, 2009).
The entire education system of Haitians was fully based on ‘Racialism’. There was an in-depth tendency among the Haitian Communities regarding the education of the society. The formal system of the education in Haiti was fully designed in such a way, that there were two classes of the community namely the urban elites and others. The urban elites were very few of the total population, about 20% and only they were supposed to have education; while the other 80% population in the countryside, was fully neglected from such kinds of right of education. This error in the Haitian education system was required to be reformed by the administrative affairs. The students were required to given education through proper system with the provision of classrooms (Hanus, 1997).
There was a completely formal system of education. In that system, the kids of age group of 4 to 6 years were sent to the private schools for getting the primary education. This system was traditionally considered by only those families, which were capable to afford the payment of the education. There were no changes in the scenario due to the decree held in the year 1982. The decree put stress on the democratic principles of the government accessible at the universal level.
There were no effective facilities in the public schools for the children. The classrooms in the public schools were overcrowded, which are still in the same position. There were no means of security, comfort and hygiene facilities for the children. In the schools, there were no provision of drinking water for the children, no electricity facilities and no space for the recreational purpose of the students. The schools were far away from the localities; due to that the students had to walk several miles for acquiring education. The faculties were not sincere towards their work due to ‘absenteeism’ or were late from their duties, as they had to face the same problem, as was faced by the children.
For the reformation of the educational system of Haiti, there have been made several efforts in the recent years (Rotberg, 1997). The aim of these reforms is to make the system of education easily accessible to the poor, in order to fulfill their needs and making changes in their social structures (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1990). But these reforms could not be successful at the optimum level and as a consequence, most of the parts of Haiti remained having the old system of education.
The main efforts to make changes in the educational system were brought in 1970s. An effective change was made in the year 1978, when the urban and rural primary schools were united and their provisions were protected by the DEN (National Department of Education). After this period, the whole education system was restructured. In the new system of education, the basic education for ten years became essential in addition to the secondary education of three years. Several effective changes were made in the educational materials and the course of study. The major change made in this period was the adoption of the ‘Haitian Creole’ as a basic language for the instructional purpose.
In such condition of ineffective education system, the democratic governance is required to have some effective measures, in order to make amendments in the situation of the educational practices. For the purpose of sustainable developments in the long run and for the reduction of the poverty, the democratic governance is the most important and essential measure. In the foreign policy of Canada, the democratic governance is considered as a pillar. The CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency) does several works for the purpose of handling the problem of poverty, by the provision of education to all the people equally and make the improvements in the sources of livelihood of the general people.
The concept of democratic governance was also applied by CIDA in Haiti. CIDA established about 9000 centers for voting and gave registration to about more than 3.5 million of people for voting in the election of the year 2006. In the strengthening of the democratic institutions also, CIDA played an important role in Haiti. It established Haitian Parliament and other several Ministries in the form of democratic institution for the advancement of the educational level in Haiti. For the increasing level of access in the scope of primary education in Haiti, CIDA provided a great support. These efforts were made by CIDA for the development of the socially excluded children, in order to improve and protect them from the child labor and other risky activities (Democratic Governance in the Americas: Canada’s Role, 2007).
For the improvement of the worsened condition of Haiti, education can prove to be a corner stone. For the development of the democratic way of life in the nation, transformation and advancement of the Haitian education system in the government, as well as, the general public of Haiti is essential. It is clear now, that for the improvement in the situation of the human rights in Haiti, there is a great requirement of the acquisition of the democratic government.
As a step in this field, a development of the US policy is made for the strengthening and nurturing the democracy in governance. This also helps in the improvement in the illiteracy level and alleviation of the poverty. This policy provides assistance to the citizens of Haiti by the provision of effective services in the filed of health and education.
This is the first and the most important section of the discussion paper. In this section, the main focus is given to the theories of the democratic governance. The concept of these theories is focusing on the democracy and education system. The theories discussed here, are given by Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey and Jean Piaget. All these three are the great philosophers of their own time. All these have given several views on the issue of democratic governance and the education system. The views of these theorists have a great implication in the school system of Haiti, to structure the education system, with the full integration of the aspects of democracy, given by all these three creative theorists and the interaction of both these aspects with each other.
Theories of Democratic Governance & Education
The democratic governance has a great integration with the consensus of the society, as it is a long extent of procedures, which assists the society in the implementation of the better social and regulatory decisions such as government policies and laws, social justice, social welfare, human rights, protection of different sources of environment etc. For this purpose, several institutions or organizations are developed in different nations. In this series, the governing bodies included are the legislature, executive bodies, judiciary, private organizations, political parties, educational institutes and several other major bodies. In short, it can be summarized that the democratic governance is an essential provision to bring equality and fairness for the entire mass of the citizens in the matters of social aspects, education, livelihood and other social and economic aspects.
The education and role of democratic governance in education are the two important aspects, which are viewed by the several numbers of theorists in the world. The concept of democratic education is a very composite philosophy for the purpose of learning and governance of the educational institutes such as the primary and secondary schools. In democratic education, there is a provision of the free participation of the school students and the faculty members in the democracy of the schools on an equal level. In these kind of educational centers, there is found a decision making process, which is based on decision sharing. The decision making is shared by the school students and the faculty members. In the democratic education, the decisions made are related to the working environment of the schools, way of teaching and learning of the students and several other concerning issues.
Though, the contribution of all the theorists in this field has equal importance; yet, there are three theorists, who have contributed a lot in the field of democratic education. These theorists are:
Jean Jacques Rousseau
John Dewey and
The theories of these theorists are being given for the education system and democracy. The theories given by them have a great implication for the development of the democratic education in the Republic of Haiti.
Theory of Rousseau
Jean Jacques Rousseau was a great Philosopher of his own time. Rousseau composed several articles, philosophies and theories on politics and education. He emphasized on the thoughts of the modern aspects of politics and education. A great contribution was given by Rousseau for the support of the various educational methods, which put emphasis on the separation of the children from the society. The purpose of this implementation by Rousseau was to make the children capable of handling the adverse conditions of the environment by making them enable to handle them, to a great extent.
According to Rousseau, the problems recognized by him were very unusual, as this was recognized that in the field of teaching and education, there was a problem of legitimation. Rousseau suggested in this theory of democratic education, that there is a great requirement for the adults to be honest with their children. The adults according to Rousseau were required not to conceal the realities that they have the power to make their children forced for education, as they have this as a physical compulsion. According to him, when the children grow up till a certain age group, they themselves become engaged in the activities of their own processes.
According to Rousseau, human beings are born in free conditions; but after being a part of this society, they are bound with the chains of social regulations. At some points, where a requirement of the executive bodies is essential to accomplish a law, both the theories of Rousseau namely ‘Educational Theory’ and the ‘Political Theory’ appear to be integrated. According to Rousseau, in all the human beings, there exists a congenital capacity to grow. This capacity of development resides in our internal body organs and the faculties of the schools and learning institutions help in the further development of these capacities. Rousseau stated that if the natural tendencies of the humans are permitted to develop without any kind of limitations, the individuals can reach to a state of exemption and happiness. This is given a particular term by Rousseau namely ‘Education of nature’. In contrast to his own statement, Rousseau proclaims that without the provision of the freeness and happiness the human kinds can not have moral excellence. Without virtue, the man can have only happiness; but he will lack his worthiness. According to him, the man gives a great importance to virtue. The capacity of the man for worthiness is the special trait of human beings, which makes him distinguished from the creatures. The animals are free to live in their natural habitats and they are happy; but they do not have virtues of their own (Dewey, 2005).
Rousseau is an educational reformer, who prescribed that there are three sources through which, we can get education. These three sources are the nature, other human beings and the non- living things. With the education, which we acquire from the nature, the human being can develop his internal organs, as well as, the inner capabilities. With the education acquired by the human beings, we come to know, the ways to implement the education acquired by the nature. From the things, which are found in the surroundings of the human beings, they have several kinds of personal experiences through which, they make developments in their personalities. There is a state at which the man can achieve this real goal. This is the state, when all the three types of education gained by man, becomes harmonized and aims for the same target. For the complete growth of a man, the aggregation of the above three kinds of education, is a very essential aspect according to Rousseau. The statements given by Rousseau constitute the underlying truths about the education in alignment with some developments (Snauwaert, 1993).
Rousseau stated that the educative development is based on the three important factors namely:
The operative natural process and the structure of the internal body organs of the human beings.
The application of the activities performed by the internal organs of the human beings, which are influenced by the behavior of the other persons.
The interaction of the human beings with the environment in a direct way.
Theory of Dewey
The next theory related to education and democracy is given by John Dewey. He was also a great Philosopher of his own time. He gained popularity due to his contribution as an ‘Educational Reformer’ in America. The thoughts and ideas given by John Dewey influenced the standards of education in the United States of America and the other parts of the world; such as Haiti. The inner qualities of Dewey made him enthusiastic democrat and he stated that the success of the democracy is only possible, when, the people of a particular region, are well developed on the basis of the educational abilities
These are the democratic thoughts, which include the ideas about the interaction of the education and democracy. In the first half of the twentieth century, a great influence of the ‘Educational Theory’ of John Dewey was seen. The democracy does not have a single meaning. According to Dewey, the democracy has a different meaning, which he stated in the report of the mission started by him, as a part of the educative mission. This aim to provide this new definition of the democracy was to present the new ideas of the education in concern with the democracy.
According to Dewey, Democracy is not a kind of faith; rather it has a very simple meaning. In this sense, the energies of men can be tuned, when; they have the full fledged permission to show their varying qualities. According to him, Democracy does not have a faraway goal for human beings; but is a very easy way to have a spirit of freedom, among all the individuals. The essence of this kind of freedom is the individuals’ responsibility for the every aspect of their development.
In the same report, the views of Dewey about the nature of democratic education are also included. According to this report, in a democracy, the development of an educational system for the development and sustaining of life depends on the actual worth and the dignity of the individuals and the proper identification of these two traits of the individuals. This is organized in such a way, that the entire individuals can have equal opportunities of gaining education according to their own abilities and knowledge level of having the education. For the critical analysis, the democracy provides the freedom of inquiry to the individuals and special training to them for the purpose of the critical analysis.
The democratic education has the capability to promote the broad and conceptual discussion of all the information, based on facts that in the educational environment of great competence, the students have varying development stages. Such kind of broad discussion are not possible to be promoted in an educational environment; where the students are given only a limited prescribed syllabus for the basic studies and only some particular course materials are given for the study purpose. It is also stated by Dewey, that the uniformity and the standardization are not only two aspects on the basis of which, the degree of success of education in a democracy can be measured. This should be the obligation of the education that through its provision, all the individuals become cooperative and responsible for the society.
The abstract of the democratic education is to promote the development of the democratic citizens, who can have the feeling of regarding the rights of other individuals in accordance with the fulfillment of their own obligations, towards the society by the observation of the different rationales of the democracy including equivalence of equals, rule of majority and different ideas of individuals. On this basis, the individuals can demand for the provision of their own rights and positive results of their efforts, for the perfection in the personality of the individuals.
The democratic education has a very effective objective of the establishment of the perfection in the personality of the individual regarding their character and the development of more and more members in the society, who are much responsible for the well- being of the society.
There were considered two important factors in the theory of democratic education by Dewey. These two factors are the civil society and the schools. These are the two important areas, which need special attention for the promotion of the intelligence on the basis of experimental studies. According to Dewey, to construct the civil society again in a different form, there is a keen requirement of the complete democracy. This level of complete democracy can’t be gained only by the extension of the rights of voting for the individuals, but it also needs the assurance that, there should be an equal opinion of all the individuals for the policies framed in the democracy in any field of human development.
According to Dewey, the education does not only mean a formal education; but it calls that the people should have equal level of knowledge intelligence, for the generation of the beneficial laws and for the generation of the appropriate judgments. According to Dewey, the education gives the life effective growth and development without any formal element. In the reciprocal of this term, the democracy should be in the form of a social system based on education. In other words, a democratic society is the society, in which, there is an enormous role of education in the growth and development of the citizens. The inverse arrangement of this type of society is that, there should be provision of the education and the requirement of the further education by the means of self governance.
The desire of democracy is realized in the presence of several other factors. America as a good democratic nation, has realized the power of democracy with a great success. But Dewey did not have clear facts about the establishment of democracy in America. According to him, demarcates are the individuals, who consider that instead of giving any training for a particular task and turning the perception of the individuals for their growth and development, education is the better way to reach such goals. In education, the major role is played by the Educators. According to them, the democracy is a type of social system, in which the Educators greatly encourage the growth of the individuals and help the people to have an association of free and inducing behavior for others. According to Dewey, in such a social system, the individuals can have positive growth.
Dewey states that ‘Democracy’ cannot be considered only as a governmental structure, but is a social organizational system of a distributive nature. In such a system of democracy, all the individuals are free to combine their actions and thus, generate an induced mixture of the human interests with the inclusion of several cultural perspectives. In a democracy, all the values and aims of the different individuals challenge each other and they work for the achievement of some uncertain results. In this kind of system, the new approaches are generated for the attainment of these results. The life is a long and continuous process. In this process, the formal education acts an integral part. The formal education executes several works for us, as it directs the human beings to tread some constructive paths. In the views of Dewey, the philosophical methodology and the educational exercises; both are the two equivalent aspects.
In the educational institutions, it is learnt by the students that to have affection for any kind of subject matter or text matter is not important, but important is the process through which, the knowledge related to that particular area can be derived. In regards to the field of education and democracy, two other aspects can also be considered as equally important. The first aspect is linked with the communication philosophy given by Dewey and the other one is the consideration of the theory of education, quite similar to the communication theory. In this way, Dewey has proved that the concept of communication and education has dual interaction with each other. This is why; the concept of ‘Democratic education’ is specially focused in the theory of Dewey.
Both the concepts of the Dewey’s theory namely education and democracy has clear indication towards the concept of democracy. The concept of communication denotes the sharing of the common interests of the general people; but it puts emphasis on the identification of the co-relative interests of the people as an aspect of the administration. The concept of education focuses that; there should be organization of the social groups, which have free interaction among each other. These social groups can also make modifications in the habits of the social groups by the frequent readjustments according to the new situations, which are produced because of the changing conditions of the society. The social groups, which are constituted on the basis of the democracy, are mainly characterized by these two specific traits.
The democratic societies are more interested in the systematic education, rather than other social groups; because in such a society, the people have actualization of the way of life in which, the interests of the people are diffused with each other and they have positive attitude towards the re-adjustment and progress. In such social groups, the education seems to have a great devotion on the part of democracy. In regards with a democratic government, it is said that those governments, which stand upon the right of voting are not the fully successful governments, if the general citizens of a particular democracy are not well- educated. In the democratic societies, the explanations of the external authority are repudiated, if these are not created on the basis of the educational aspects.
Democracy is not only a type of government but, this can be considered as the affiliated system of living in which the people are linked with their transmitted experiences. Democracy is characterized by two aspects such as distributed pertains of people and attempting the larger varieties of the capabilities, of the individuals. These two characteristics of the democracy are not generated through the intended efforts of the individuals or their planning; but are considered to be developed by the intercommunication, immigration and business activity among the people, which are carried out by the facts of science over innate force.
In general terms, if the stratification of a society into two different classes is considered mortal, it should be analyzed then, that all the intellectual possibilities of the society are approachable by all the individual members of the society in a convenient way. The democratic societies, which are divided into different classes, are required to give the specific education to all its constituents incorporated in the ruling section. There are some social groups, which are completely mobile. In such societies, the member persons should be fully educated, so that, they can adapt the newer conditions easily. If they are not become able to adapt the newer situations, the new changes overcome the different areas of these societies, which were not comprehended by them.
Dewey also gave a philosophy of ‘Platonic education’. In this theory, the implication of the different ideas, of democracy in the education, is discussed (Campbell, 1996).
In the educational field, the most permanent inheritance of John Dewey was related to the curriculum. In the curriculum, he mainly focused on the some specific aspects of the education, which are given as under:
In a complex educative process, the personal experience of an individual is considered as a key aspect.
In the initial ages of education, the learning used to be based mainly on the activities, which were fully child centered.
The democratic education was considered the most important part of the curriculum.
Art was considered as a great aspect, which could give a great experience to a person and was the most important constituent of the education.
For the establishment of a reasonable democracy, the basic educational essentialities for the general citizens were considered an important key aspect and for this purpose, the people were required to be aware of the importance of the education given in public schools.
In the Dewey’ curriculum, the equilibrium between the theoretical aspects and practical aspects was considered as an essential element.
There was demanded, a movement for the assurance of an education system based on the experiences of the individuals. This was a quite separate aspect of the curriculum, as it was much far from the approaches of technocracy.
In the curriculum, it was focused that the schools should be structured in the form of the communities (Janesick, 2003).
Theory of Piaget
Piaget was a great Philosopher, who did a lot of theoretical work in the field of philosophy and education. The imperative focus of the Piaget’s study was the ‘developmental aspects of the children in an intellectual way’. Piaget made several observations. On the basis of his observations, he concluded that we can not consider the children less intelligent; but they only have different ways of thinking. The foremost theory developed by Piaget is the ‘Development Theory’. The main focus of the Piaget’s theory was on the qualitative development of the children. According to him, there is a great impact of qualitative development on the different aspects of development.
Piaget not only focused on the education in his theory; but also, he emphasized that the children should be given knowledge according to their mental development, for which they are prepared. In his theory, there was a great inclusion of the instructional strategies. The strategies suggested by Piaget include the provision of supportive environment for the children to have better education, proper utilization of the interaction level in the society and developing the thinking power of the children. He stated that there are the ‘sequential stages’ of development, of a child and the movement of the children in these stages is the automatic process with the maturity in their personality. In addition to this, Piaget also concluded that environmental factors also play an equivalent role in the development of the children’s educational level.
About Democracy, Jean Piaget described that democracy in education is essential; but the democracy is comprehensible by the people of the age group, which have crossed the age of pupils. According to him, school is the place, where the students come in contact with the general citizens, who are very much ambitious and who have not fully reached at the situation of self determination. There is no place for trust, for the future masters in the democracy.
After being adults; the students become a part of the society in which they contribute in the social reproduction. In the field of education, only the students, who study the politics as an ‘optional subject;’ only seems to be interested in the moral developmental aspects (Freire, Macedo, & Ramos, 2000). The development of the given political and moral characters in the children is a very complex process, sometimes, not possible at all. According to Piaget, the development of the moral capabilities in children is a continuous process. In this concern, the democracy is the only aspect, which is aimed to develop the time period of schooling in which the capacities of the moral development can be achieved by the students (Parry & Moran, 1994).
Piaget’s theory of ‘Genetic Epistemology’ also contributes equally in the aspect of the human development. According to him, the human development is continued through four specific stages. These stages are sensoriomotor phase, the pre-functional phase, phase of practical operations and phase of formal operations. According to him, the humans can have intelligence level by the ‘adaptation process’ and the ‘organizational process’. The adaptation according to him, is the process in which the familiar external aspects are easily understood by the humans; but the unknown aspects do not fit into the knowledge level of the human beings, at an appropriate level.
According to Piaget, the education and learning processes are transformative in nature, rather than additive process. In education, the children are not able to learn everything at a time, but they are able to learn, when, they understand an aspect, completely. There is a progressive reformation of the understanding because the acquisition of the new knowledge is a continuous process. The comprehending level of the children depends on the different situations. There is a great difference between the child, who develops reasoning, alone with his own working and the child, who develops his reasoning, while working within a competitive environment. In the aspects of learning and development, Piaget included the contribution of the idea of transformation. In contrast to this, Dewey asked for; that there should a contribution of the ideas and that the schools should include the events of real world as a part of learning in their educational curriculum as a part of their ‘development process’.
The development theory of Piaget has a central focus point. His theory of learning and development states that there is a great participation of the learner in the learning process. There is not only a verbal transfer of the knowledge among the human beings, but the learners can themselves, also construct the knowledge by their own observations and experiences. According to the statement of Piaget, for the construction of the knowledge about the world, it is essential for a child to work on the objects found in the world. Through the action of the children on those objects, the new knowledge is generated. In the action of the children on these objects, the mind plays the most important part.
In the acquisition of the knowledge, the activeness of the learner is a significant factor. The theory of learning by Piaget is a kind of facility approach. In the field of Genetic Psychology, there is a great role of the readiness approach. According to this approach, it is believed that with the attainment of some requirements, the children are not become able to learn particular things. The stage of the intellectual development is a determinant factor of the power to memorize any knowledge. There are different levels of studies, which can be given to the children of the different age groups. The children under a particular maturity stage cannot be given the education of their higher level.
There is a great implication of the Piaget’s theory in the field of education. The educational curriculum formulated from the Piagetian inspirations, mainly focus on the education philosophy which is ‘learner centered’. There were not any similarities between the teaching aspects of the American schools and the aspects of Piaget’s theory. In the American teaching methods, there is an involvement of the presentations of both audio and visual types, equipments of teaching, demonstrations, lectures, etc, while in the Piaget’s ideas of education, there was no scope of these things. Piaget focused on the adoption of the new environment of learning in the schools as a part of his active discovery. According to him, two main processes contribute in the growth and development of the education.
As an essential activity, the children are required to search, operate and analyze, in order to get answers of few of their questions. According to him, this concept does not mean that the children should have full freedom to do whatever they want. In this regard, the roles of the teacher are also considered as an important characteristic of the learning process. The cognitive level of the children is assessed by the teachers. All the children have different types of strengths and weaknesses. These strengths and weaknesses are assessed effectively by the teachers. For the better educational level, there should be a provision of the opportunities, for the children to have effective communication with each other and they should be allowed to take part in the arguments and debates by the teachers.
According to Piaget, the teachers are the providers of assistance in the field of knowledge and learning. The students are given effective guidance and stimulations by the teachers. The teachers should allow the students to make some mistakes; so that, they could learn some new things from their mistakes. According to him, the knowledge gained by the students is not much effective than the knowledge acquired by him through his own experiments and actions on the objects of the world. For the provision of the new learning, the students should be provided new materials of learning and new circumstances; so that, they can generate the new learning concepts. According to Piaget, the learning in which the faculties have full confidence on the students, that they have effective capabilities to learn many things, is considered as the ‘active learning’.
Piaget said that the main objective of the education in the educational institutes should be the development of the human beings with the capabilities of inventing new things. These inventions should not be identical, as the inventions are made by the preceding generations; but it should be entirely new concept from which the new ways of learning can be generated.
Comparing & Contrasting the Theories
The theories given by Rousseau, Dewey and Piaget in concern with the education and democracy, are effective in their own point of view and have a great implication in the development of the an effective educational system in such kind of the backward nations like Haiti, where there are not appropriate provisions even for the basic education of the children. As, the educational level of Haiti is very poor, so, there is a great need to make the significance of these theories known to the government of Haiti. The effectiveness of these theories can be analyzed with the comparing and contrasting of these theories. It is clear from the description of these theories that all these three theories are not quite similar in all aspects. There are several similar and different views of the three Philosophers regarding the education and democracy. In this regard, these theories are compared and contrasted on the basis of their similarities and differences.
Similarities of the Theories
In the field of education, lots of Philosophers have given their contribution in the form of their literary work. The literary work or theories given by these Philosophers or Theorists have some common points, which make the theories quite similar. About the concept of contemporary education and on the practices of education, the three main philosophers have caste a great influence. These theorists namely Rousseau, Dewey and Piaget have given a solid framework of the educational standards and the methods of teaching. These methods have affected the educational framework of the United States, as well as, the other countries of the world.
Today, the Christians have put several question marks about the models of modern learning and the validity of these models, in relation to the given views of the different theorists. The learning models of the education and learning are based on the suppositions made by the different theorists of education and democracy. During the period of enlightenment, all the thinkers of education namely Rousseau, Dewey and Piaget made the re-evaluation of all the thoughts, given for the best way of educating children. The trends resulted from the ‘Biblical Model’ were established by the other two Educationists namely; Dewey and Piaget. The models of the learning given by these three Philosophers are in the general practice of the British educational system.
There are several similarities in the literary work done by these three theorists, which is summarized under the given headings:
Education is a Basic Requirement: All the three Philosophers think that education and learning are the basic requirements of learning for overall human development. These three intellectuals state that without education; no differentiation can be done among the humans and animals. The education makes people ‘developed’ not only on mental level; but also contributes in the overall personality development of the children.
Value of Learning: According to a general proverb, all the pupils should have a great desire to learn and acquire knowledge, as the persons, who do not have positive attitude towards learning and teaching, are generally scolded. The three theorists also support this proverb, as they state, that the individuals, which do not have knowledge; have a great fear of threatening their life. It is also said that the aspects of discipline and scolding are full of positive values, as these two are the aspects related to education and learning and they make the pupils safe against any kind of danger or mishap.
Rousseau, Piaget and Dewey, all three put equal emphasis on the value of learning. All of them also support that the maximization of an individual’s potential is favorably possible through the process of learning. According to them, there are inner talents in all the children; but they cannot be released without the provision of learning for all the children. For the thoughts of scolding and discipline, the views of these Philosophers have some exceptions. According to the views of Piaget, the child’s correction in his individual personality is considered as a potential maltreat, this is because, it should be the right of the children to decide in which relevant filed, they are interested to take education and have assimilation of these educational areas.
The other two Philosophers Dewey and Rousseau also have the same collective approach in this regard. In contrast to these views, it is said in religious aspects that learning and education is not an aspect, which can be discovered by the pupils themselves; but it is a field to make them learn good things, which solely can give value to their personality.
Contribution of Wisdom is essential: In the proverbs learning are said as the models, which are prepared by the teachers. The knowledge and learning is contributed by the teachers, as they are the authoritative figures for this purpose. On the contrary, it can not be assumed that the students themselves cannot frame different conclusions and observations, but it is supposed that their observations and conclusions are derived through the learning given by the Educators and this, they did under their guidance.
For the provision of having a detailed understanding of the life process, the knowledge is acquired by us through the means of God. In this regard, the theory of Rousseau has some conflicts. This theory does not accept the belief of exposed actuality. According to the theory of Rousseau, the human beings can frame several actual facts on the basis of their personal feelings and emotions. The other theorist Dewey in his theory states the truth as a commodity having a flexible nature, which changes with the alternations in the needs of the individuals. In the theory of Dewey, there is no adjustment for the interminable dynamics in the field of education. Regardless of this, the theory also claims that for the holistic development of the human beings, there is a great necessity of the education and learning. In the theory of Dewey, there is no involvement of the spiritual aspects (Hunter).
Children are good by birth: All the three Philosophers fully support that the children with their birth have good ideas in their mind, and if they are provided a righteous environment, they would have good development of their personality. Rousseau in this regard, stressed its views by saying that the corrupting influences seen in children’s attitude are due to the religious aspects. According to him, the children, which are not influenced by the religious values have good learning habits, naturally. The two other theorists Piaget and Dewey also support the views of Rousseau that the children themselves have good quality innately and the moral development in their personality is due to the effects of the external environment. In the theory of education and learning of Dewey and Piaget, there is a small place for the religious concepts. According to the theory of Rousseau, God is not clearly known. Dewey also supports that God cannot be considered relevant to the teaching and learning, as he is not inherent in human. According to Piaget, God is an absolute idea, which can be adapted at the end of the cognitive development (Hunter).
Teaching Methodologies: In relation to the teaching methodologies, the theories given by Rousseau, Piaget and Dewey has some agreed views. In the theory of Piaget, the different phases of the human cognitive development were observed in relation to the children. He states that during the childhood, there is no proper understanding for the acceptance of the knowledge in the children and they assume the values and thoughts of the teaching according to their mental development. He states that through the provision of the education, the children can be carried away from the tendency of blind acceptance of the different learning aspects.
The Piaget views in this concern are fully agreed with. Rousseau supports that for the establishment of the truth, the observation of nature is a much helpful aspect. Dewey also states that for the purpose of problem solving and searching solutions for the problems, the hypothetical situations are very much applicable. All the three Philosophers, Rousseau, Dewey and Piaget have the same response for the rejection of the ‘Biblical Model’, which includes contributed and informative teaching. These three intellectual assert that at the primary level of education; the learning should be done on the basis of observation and experimentation. According to Dewey, the searching process is given more value in the field of learning, rather than deriving conclusion on the basis of existing knowledge.
In short, it can be said that the theories and views of Rousseau, Dewey and Piaget have several similarities in their theories, apart from the fundamental variations in their assumptions. The main theme of the theories given by these theorists is the education. The aspects of the education included in their theories are the inner capabilities of the students gain all the essential knowledge by themselves, the natural way of the children for distinguishing between right and wrong and the ways of teaching the students in an effective way.
Differences in Theories
Though, the theories given by these three Philosophers are based on the aspects of education; but in relation to the democracy, only Dewey’s theory considers the different aspects of democracy and implication of democracy in the field of education. Apart from this, the involvement of the nature in the field of learning is considered by the theory of Rousseau, which is not given emphasis in the theory of Dewey and Piaget. On the other hand, the theory of Piaget strives on the human development.
Rousseau focuses on the aspect of nature of education. According to Rousseau, no human beings are bad from birth; but they learn good or bad things during their upbringing and comprehending from the surrounding environment. According to him, the capability of sensation is found in the human beings since their births, and later, their sensations become more developed with the passage of time, as they have the influence of the varying objects and activities happing around them. He said that there should be no bounding on the students to search the different types of learning aspects of the surrounding.
Rousseau considers the education as a social aspect, according to which, the human beings are free from all the restrictions from their births and after being a part of the society, they feel delimited by the rules and regulations of the society. According to him, there should be an equal contribution of all the members of the society in the development of the civilization and this is only possible, when, all the people of a particular community acquire education at a basic level. On the contrary, John Dewey considers that education is an integral part of society. According to him, children are not the part of the education; but the education is the part of the life of children.
John Dewey contributed in the field of education and learning by the development of the theory of instrumentalism and pragmatism. According to the aspect of the instrumentalism, the humans have the capabilities to generate new actions through which they can solve the different individuals in their society. On the other hand, the theory of pragmatism states that there are various challenges and conflicts faced by the individuals in the generation of education and learning and this is only possible through democratic education.
According to Dewey, the reflection of the society can be seen in the schools and educational systems. Dewey states that for the establishment of the democracy in the governance system, there is a great need of education. With the contribution of the education, all the people have suffrage and they can participate to elect the best suitable people for their locality to govern it. On the other hand, the democratic governance is also considered equally significant in the theory of democracy, as it states that with in the democratic educational environment, all the individuals can have equal rights to get the basic level of education.
A great popularity is being enjoyed by the theories of Dewey; but they also have to face several difficulties in their implementation in the governance aspects.
The points of differences in the theories of these three Philosophers are summarized under the given points:
In the theory of Rousseau, the aspect of honesty is added in the education. According to him, the adults should follow honesty in the field of education, in context with their children. About the beliefs and thoughts, the concepts of children should be made clear by the adults. Also, Dewey states that the children themselves should have total freedom to select their preferable field of study. In this regard, Piaget states that the learning process is a sequential process, which depends on the development stages of a child. The adults should have a good understanding of the level of the education gained by the children in a particular age of time period.
The most important aspect, which makes these theories differentiated, is the ‘Democracy’. The main focus on the aspect of democracy in education is given by the theory of John Dewey. Dewey included both democracy and education in his literary work. According to him in democratic governance, the children feel freedom and happiness in the educational arena. This is contrasted by the theory of Rousseau according to whom, freedom in democracy, does not mean that children have full freedom to do anything because by this, they will loose their virtue and will become equivalent to the animals. As animals have full freedom to move and enjoy anywhere; but they do not have virtue. In this contrast, Piaget states that democracy is good in education; though, there is no meaning of democracy for the children. The democracy should be given at the adult level of education.
Dewey states that on the basis of democratic governance, the students can develop their capabilities in their related educational fields, as they would not have any kind of pressure and restriction by the society and the government, to have a higher level of education. According to him, the children developed through the democratic education system can prove to be much cooperative for the development of their respective community or society.
Dewey considers democracy as a social system, in which, all the individuals living in a society, are free to follow their related practices. In a democratic social system, there is a complete freedom for the children to have any level of educational degrees. In contrast to this, Rousseau does not have support for the democracy in governance because he considers that democracy removes the level of discipline from among the students and they do forget the favorable aspects of the society.
Rousseau in his theory considers that the learning process is a natural phenomenon under which, the children gain education from three important elements such as human beings, non- living things and nature. Human beings are the people with whom the children live or the people with whom the children have their interaction. The non- living things include the objects on which the individuals initiate their actions or activities. With the actions on the objects, the children get different types of new experiences, through which, new aspects of practical knowledge are gained by them. In contrast to this, these three sources of learning are not the points of consideration anywhere in the theories of Dewey and Piaget.
The theory of Piaget mainly focuses on the development of the children. The theory states that the human development is a sequential process. With the passage of the each stage of development, the children have new qualitative development in their personalities. No children should be given higher value knowledge before the age of the development, according to their capacity. In this regard, the same things is said in different ways by Rousseau as according to him, there should be inclusion of honesty in the educational and learning field for the children.
Piaget developed the theory of ‘Genetic Epistemology’. This theory is related to the aspects of human development. According to him, the human development depends on the adaptation process of the adults. With the acquisition of knowledge, the children develop new qualities and construct new knowledge. In contrast to this, Dewey includes the communication process in his theory. He states that communication is a significant aspect of the education field. With the provision of the effective communication process, the students can have a very good development in the learning. While in the theory of Piaget and Rousseau, there is no involvement of the aspect of communication in the field of education.
Dewey’s theory states that democracy does not only mean to provide formal education to the children; but it emphasizes on the overall development of the human kind. In this regard, among all the three given theories, the theory of Dewey is the best suited theory for the educational system of Haiti. This is because in the Republic of Haiti, there is not only the lack of basic formal education for the children; but also the overall aspects of the life are not developed up to the desired level.
Thus, on the basis of comparing and contrasting the theories of Dewey, Rousseau and Piaget, it can be concluded that for the educational and school system of Haiti, the most applicable theoretical aspects are included in the theory of John Dewey. There is a great need of democratic education in the Republic of Haiti for the overall development of the nation.
Historical Perspective of Haiti
Till the beginning of the nineteenth century (1804), Haiti could not become a fully independent nation from all the aspects. The western part of this island was fully administered by the French till this time. The level of education and democracy, which is seen in the present time in Haiti, can not be fully understood without having good knowledge of the historical perspective of the education and social system of Haiti.
There is great and complicated problem of literacy in the Republic of Haiti, as there is not a proper and formal education system for the general public. Even after its independence in the year 1804, Haiti could not be able to establish any formal institutions for the citizens to have the basic level of education. According to the people of Haiti, it was their fundamental right to have at least the basic level of education.
In the field of education, there is found exclusivity in the nation of Haiti. At the early period over there, a great development of the land was caused, due to the increasing efforts of the Haitians in the field of plantation and forestation. The economy of the country was completely based on the agriculture. Their impressive demands of the agro- based economy, impoverishing of the merchandise, cruelty existing in the colonial system, etc. made the interests of the Haitians in the structured education, restricted. Some of the fertile planters asserted for the average education and for this purpose, they selected their own country, while on the other hand, there was a prohibition on the African slaves, for the accessing, of even the average level of literacy.
Literacy and poverty are directly proportional to each other. This proportionality is found in Haiti. According to the reports of the Human Development, there is the 150th rank of the country among all the nations. In the aspects of the literacy and opportunities of getting education, Haiti is far behind and due to this deficiency, there is found a great deal of political corruption widespread and this has caused to a culture of dependency due to which, the country is facing obstructions in development (Haiti Lumiere).
With the achievement of the freedom by the Haitians in the period of 1804, the country had approached in the world with an inherited ignorance. In that period, there was not any kind of ‘formally structured’ system of education in Haiti. In addition to this, there was also not any kind of strategies for the struggle against the problem of illiteracy. The immediate Governor of Haiti at that time was also not interested to make any changes in the status of the education level. There were two most critical disabilities namely the ‘Political orientation’ and ‘French influence over the local cultural values’ of Haiti.
Revolution of Haiti: Haitian Revolution was leaded by Jean Jacques Dessalines, who was the first to be established as a ruling body in the free Haiti. The Revolution of French had a great contribution in the uprise of the social system of Haiti and the entire West Indies. Among all the contribution made in this revolution, the most important was the revolution of Saint-Domingue started by the slaves, which was initiated by them in the northern plains during the period of 1791. For the establishment of the proper control, several Commissioners were sent by the French Government for the purpose of alliance and in the period of 1793, there was a war between Britain and French, as a consequence of which, a great tension was created in the colonies of Haiti. As a result, there was an abolishing of the trend of slavery in the colonies. This abolition was endorsed by the national convention and later, it got extension over all the colonies of French.
There was a long period of war in opposition of the external invaders and the internal dissension and at last; peace was established in Saint-Domingue with the contribution of the Toussaint, who was a great leader of the salve revolt. He played a significant part as a commander of military and used his skills for the establishment of this kind peace. With the contribution of this leader, the interlopers of the British and the Spaniards were driven out with the contribution of the well- controlled and adaptable armed force, formed by him. With the help of his daring efforts, the Haitians got a good level of prosperity and stability. During his reign, the planters were freed to return and people were allowed to work on plantation, in order to generate increased revenues for Haiti. In the same ruling period, Haiti also associated with the United States and Britain for the trading purpose.
Independence of Haiti: In the colonies, after the altering of the French Government, there was a matter of concern over the decision of the concept of ‘slavery’. After this period, a Separatist Constitution was framed in Haiti. To take over Haiti, about 30,000 men were sent by Napoleon as an army. The mission of this action was to restore the slavery. Several victories were made by the French. The French were defeated by Louverture. At the end, on the 1st January 1804, the demand of the free Haiti was proclaimed by the former slaves. Thus, the independent Haiti originated as the result of the slave report. The whites were exiled after that and the country got divided in two parts ‘North Kingdom’ and the ‘South Kingdom’.
Independent Haiti: After United States, Haiti is considered as the 2nd most former Republic in the Western Hemisphere. It is the earliest ‘Black Republic’ among the whole world. Haiti organized its first meeting in 1826, after independence. Till the period of 1862, the diplomatic acknowledgement of the United States was not accepted by Haiti. In the constitution of 1804, Haiti, got freedom in several social aspects such as:
Religious Freedom all over the state
Elimination of the racial hierarchy based on color of the skin
The dominance of white people over Haiti was prohibited.
Even after its independence, about three fourth of the population of Haiti, was under poverty line. Even today, the country is counted among the poorest nations of the world. The export- orineted business are flourishing in Haiti; but then too the counrty is facing the problem of poverty and illteracy. The basic needs of the gerneral public of the coutnry are still not fulfilled at the adequate level. The chidlren of the country are suffering from the problems of deficiency diseases and lack of pure drinking water. The main cause of such a condition of Haiti is due to the ineffective democratic governance and lower economic condition. Since its independence, Haiti was governed by the military governments (Mossige, 2009).
From the early era, the educational system of Haiti is facing a great crisis. The educational system of Haiti can not become an executale entity because of the low level of literacy. As per the report of the World Bank, presently, the rate of illteracy of Haiti is 52%. About 47% of the childern are allowed to go schools, only till the primary level. The level of education at secondary stage is only about 22%.
The poor families of Haiti have not been capableof affording the heavy charges of educational facilities, since its indepedence. In the rural areas, the standard of eduction is comparitively much low. The reasons for this much of illetracy, are given as:
Deficiency of Educators or Teachers
Ineffective Educational policies of the government
Agro- based economic level
Increased level of child labor
Absence of demographic conditons for the establishment of educational centers
Thus, the historical perspective of Haiti shows that the country has a very low level of educaion, due to the ineffective governance system. There is a great need of proper establishment of the demorcratic governance in the Republic of Haiti.
Haiti’s Struggle Against Western Values
The main problem in the Haiti’s democratic system was the ‘color complex’. This aspect was greatly affected by the western values and practices. The values and practices of the Haitaians are also derived from the western culture. The cultural impact of the western values is a great challenge for the Haitians. This problem of color has caused various conflicts between the communities of the Haiti. This discrimination on the basis of color has invoked various problems in the governmental system of the nation (Gregory & Sanjek, 1994). For the avoidance of this level of racial discrimination, in the Haitian democracy, the country struggled greatly.
Amongst the entire America, Haiti is well- known for its struggle against the black rule, which got independence through this struggle. This struggle brought the end of salvery in the Republic of Haiti. This struggle of Haiti symbolises its struggle for the equality and human rights. This struggle of the nation against western values casues great inspiration in Southern part of America and Caribbean for the revolutions. The Haitains against the slavery system showed their resistance in different ways. Some of the Haitians reached on mountains to attack the Chief promoter of this slavery system. Due to this struggle, various sacred leaders came forward and they formulated ‘slave army’ for the purpose of terrrorising the exploiters of France. Under the leadership of these leaders like Toussanit, the Haitian slaves got a strong determination to fight against this slavery system affected by western values and practices.
French arrested and imprisoned Toussanit in the year 1802 and he died there; but this did not disheartened the Haitian revolutionaries . After this, under the leadership of Dessalines, Haiti became the first nation, to get freedom from the problem of discrimination on the basis of color. Finally, it became an idependent territory in the year 1984. Following the commands of Dessalines, Haitians continued killing the French people. This act of Haitians, infuriated all the international communities. The Western Europe and the United States were the main communities, which took it negatively and they did not support the government of Haiti.
Between the period of 1986 and 1990, the conditional governments ruled in Haiti and several amendments were made in the Constitution by this administrative system. In the history of Haiti, this was the first time, when, the elections were organized in a ‘free and fair’ way (The Place of Haiti in the Pan-African Imagination and the Imperatives of Engagement, 2009). The struggle of the Republic of Haiti continued till about more than tweleve years and this struggle ultimately, resulted into a ‘free country’. In the matter of colonial dominaiton and slavery, this struggle of Haiti is worth glorifying. This struggle resulted into the mutual understanding and coordination between the the citizens of Haiti from Africa and the former people of Europe and Africa, who demanded for the estabilshment of the human rights for the citizens, equally.
The importance of the independence of the Haiti was recognized by the colonial powers. In this way, the efforts of Haiti against the values and practices of westerns were very effective. All the Haitians participated in the struggle with full enthusiasm. As a consequence of this struggle, the country got established as a democratic governnance. In such a system, people got the right to vote according to their choice. They were free to present their views to the governing body. The Republic of Haiti also got an identificaiton as the first independent black country in the entire American region, to acquire freedom, just after the independence of America. This struggle of Haiti is a memorble incident in the history of the country, as the development of the country started only after its independence.
Relationship between Democratic Governance, Race & Education in Haiti
In the Republic of Haiti, there are three most critical issues namely the democratic governance, race and education. There is a great relationship between these three issues related to the administration of the Haiti. Three of the most popular theorists of the times, also have given their views related to these three issues. The theories of John Dewey, Piaget and Rousseau in relation to these three issues are discussed to show the relationship between democratic governance, race and education in Haiti.
According to these theories, the overall human development is possible by making the people educated without any kind of discrimination based on the race, gender, color or any kind of personal aspect of human beings. The overall development of the human beings is only possible in presence of democratic governance. There are several aspects included in the human development, which are as under:
People should be given their fundamental rights and their dignity should be respected by all means.
The responsibilities of the decision makers should be held by the people.
There should not be any kind of discrimination with the people on the basis of gender, race, class, etc.
There should be a clear picture of the requirements, of the coming generations, in the present policies of the government.
Both the private and public life processes, should be equally shared by both the males and females.
The human requirements and ambitions should be responsible by the economic and social policies.
All the people should have equal rights of acquiring, education and employment.
Thus, it is clear from the different aspects of these theories that there is a great relationship between the aspects of education, democratic governance and race. This relationship among the three issues is seen the Republic of Haiti.
The racial ideology of the Republic of Haiti is distinctive in nature. In the colonial period, several changes were made in the class structure of Haiti. The structure of the class in that period was repositioned not on the basis of economic level; but it was based on the racial divisions. In this series, the earlier African Communities, recognized as ‘Elites’, faced ignorance, due to the racial stereotypes. The evolution of the Haitian Revolution was due to this regression. The main reason of this regression was the voice raised by the Africans against the founders of white colonization.
In the United States, the immigrants of the United States experienced great discrimination on the racial basis. The main effect of this racial discrimination was seen in the Haitian Republic. In the United States, the better educational facilities were available for the white immigrants; while, there were no educational provisions or primary education only to the privileged rich people, was allowed in Haiti.
This treatment was followed by the higher authorities too. The effect of racism was also seen in the certificatory system. The certificatory system enabled the people to approve that they had any particular academic or professional qualification. The approval of certification was given by the state from which the qualification has been received. In this series, the racial discrimination made the Haitian students to get any kind of certificatory approval by the states of the United States.
The theories given by theorists are linked with such relationship between race and education. According to Rousseau, there should not be any kind of racism in any of the human aspect. He stated in his theory that humans are born free; but after coming in this social system, they are encircled with several rules or regulations. On the basis of the race and color, there should not be any kind of rules and regulations, which divide the people. He stated that the capacity of growing is resisted in all the human beings and this capacity is an integral part of their internal body organs. The race or color does not have any link with such kind of growth capacities of human beings. According to him, if such kind of limitations based on wealth, cast, race, color, etc. is removed, the human beings can attain the highest level of learning and development.
In the same concern, the theory of John Dewey mainly focused on the concept of democracy in education. According to him, democracy is essential for learning aspects. In democratic nations, all the individuals have equal rights. Education is related to the development of the human beings and the learning capacities of the human beings depend on their actual worth. The worth of the human beings cannot be assessed on the basis of their race or other personal aspects. In a democratic educational system, all the individuals have equal rights to learn. The education level of the individuals depends on their personal traits and capabilities. In a democracy, there resides an equal freedom for all the individuals to get education, health facilities, voting rights, etc. racism cannot not hinder the mankind, from getting, such facilities.
Piaget, the third Philosopher, who gave concept of human development, also relates his theory with the concept of race and education. The educational aspects of the human beings are based on their mental development. As the mental development is generally good in all the human beings; so they all have equal rights to reach a certain educational level. The consideration of the racism in the learning and educational field does not mean anything for Piaget. He emphasizes democracy in education. There should be essential primary education for all the individuals and after the primary level of education; there should be democracy for the students to have any level of education according to their interested areas. There is no provision for ‘racism’ in the field of education, according to the theory of Piaget.
In regards to democracy, the Haitian people struggled strongly for the attainment of the democracy. Haitians have made a demand to move away from the western values, in which, they only prefer the Whites for all the community benefits. This is because, the racism on the basis of color, has separated the people from the practices of democracy. They are not allowed to suffrage and to get education even at primary level. Lots of discriminations have delimited the democratic governance in Haiti. Due to this aspect, only a small portion of Haitians has gained a basic level of education.
This is also analyzed in the theories of the given theorists. According to the views of such theories, there should be equal human rights for all the individuals and this is a part of democracy. If the humans do not have equal rights for education or other basic areas, they can never progress.
Depth is the second part of the entire discussion paper. This section is also divided into three sections. In the first section of the Depth part, the deep analysis of democratic governance of Caribbean in relation to the Haiti is done with the help of the fifteen articles, based on the same topic. In the next section of the discussion, the social and political events happening in Haiti in the current business scenario are being discussed in detail. In the next section of the discussion paper, the impact of the external influence on the democratic governance of Haiti and Caribbean is discussed. In the same series of the discussion, the poverty level of Haiti and the effect of governance on the poverty level are discussed in detail.
Franck, T.M. (1992). The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance. The American Journal of International Law 86 (1), 46-91.
In the journal article “The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance” the democratic set up of the government in Haiti is analyzed by the author. He has explained that the leaders in Haiti and Soviet Union believe that it is only democracy that validates the rule of government. He has explained how the democratic leaders in both the countries were illegally removed and then, regained their power due to the demand by the assembly. The democratic set up in Haiti is not so effective and the Author has explained by giving an example of the country in validation of government. The article has helped in getting an idea of the democratic set up that existed in Haiti in the year 1991. The article is useful for the subject of study, as it throws light on the democratic governance of the country and the need for making changes in the democratic set up of the country.
The World Conference on ‘Higher Education’ (1998) Journal of Dominica 5
This article is based on the approaches that with the help of ‘community participation’ the democracy of Caribbean region can be strengthened. There is a description of the Caribbean intellect and the Caribbean imagination. There are some specific qualities that are discussed in the article for Caribbean persons like their personal values for the family, respect for the life of human beings and respect for culture. Values and principles of Caribbean society are also elucidated in the article effectively. A brief discussion of the citizens of Caribbean region has also been focused. Impact of globalization on the economy of Caribbean government has also been elucidated.
Assessment of the ‘Educational Programs’ of the Caribbean government has also been performed. Goals and objectives of the democratic governance of the Caribbean to transform the society into learning societies have also been discussed in the article, in an effective manner. There are also a brief discussion of the practices that are aimed to increase the knowledge base and critical thinking of a Caribbean person. Importance of the nurtured society for Caribbean community has also given an outlook in this article. Apart from this, it also discussed the means that assist the Caribbean people to live together, to learn and how to live in the society with dignity.
Wucker, M. (2004). Haiti: So many missteps World Policy Journal 21 (1).
This article is related to the background and struggle of Haiti. There is a brief description of the conditions faced by the citizens of Haiti due to the failure of the democratic governance. There is a discussion of the activities performed by the democratic government. Assistance provided by other nations to Haiti for the management of the country operations has also discussed in the article in an effective manner. There is a discussion of the election period and its activities during the time period of year 2000. Capital provided by the US to the country has also discussed in the article effectively.
This paper has discussed about the requirements that should be fulfilled during the period of elections in Haiti. Assessment of the political environment of Haiti is also performed in this article that is effective. Practices that should be performed by the government of Haiti in order to improve the conditions of the country are also discussed in the paper. Strategies that are important to strengthen the political condition of Haiti are also discussed in the article in an effective manner. Apart from this, this article also discussed about the steps that should be taken by the U.S to improve the condition of Haiti.
Soudriette, R and Vemillion, J. (2006). The Right Time for Re-engagement Journal of IFES 2(3).
This article discusses about the civil unrest and mass demonstration that have occurred in Haiti and other similar counties, where democratic governance is in the current situations. In this article, the meeting of IFES that was held to discus about the political uncertainties is also discussed that is further significant to improve the political conditions of Haiti. Steps that should be taken by the U.S for assisting countries like Haiti are also discussed in the article. Investment portfolio of Haiti is also explained in the article that is of vital importance for assessing the strategies of this country that are taken to support the democracy.
Support provided by the government of the U.S to Haiti too has been focused upon. Steps that should be taken by the government of Haiti to make the existing economy more energetic are also discussed in the article. Consequences of the war and terror attacks on Haiti are also discussed in the article. What are the steps that should be taken by the government of Haiti to strengthen democracy is also discussed in the article in an effective manner. Importance of credible elections for Haiti is also discussed that is effective for the country to improve its conditions.
Illegal people: Haitians And Dominico-Haitians In The Dominican Republic (2002). Dominican Republic 14(1).
This article is related to the Haitians and their activities that are important for the democratic government of this country. There is a discussion of deportations that is performed on a regular basis in Haiti. Acts taken by the government of Haiti for the suspected citizens are also explained in the article, along with their basis. Detention practices executed by the authorities of Haiti are also discussed in the article in an appropriate manner. Discrimination of the races in Haiti is also discussed. There is a section that covers recommendations for the Dominican republic that are aimed to suggest the government of Haiti for deportations.
These recommendations are given for some specific factors that are discussed in this article such as education, Haitian government, international treaty and citizens of Haiti. In this document, the population and the History of Haiti are also elucidated. Activities like racial prejudice, anti-haitianism and international human rights standards are also emphasized. Apart from this, in this paper, evaluation under different laws such as International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, American Convention on Human Rights and Specific Failures of Dominican Practice is also discussed in the article effectively that is important for the democratic government of Haiti. The piece of writing also discusses about the deportation in an in-depth manner.
Carlo, D. (2007). Canada, the Americas and the Caribbean Canadian Foundation for the Americas 6(6).
This article discusses about the relations of Canada with the Caribbean democratic government. In this article, the support provided by the government of Canada is also being focused upon. The business activities performed by Canadian banks in Caribbean are also discussed in the article that is important for the Caribbean democratic government of. Developmental role played by Canada in regards to Caribbean region is also discussed in the article; which is significant for gaining an overview of the functions performed by Canada in the Caribbean development.
This article has discussed all of those facts and figures that are of vital importance for the Caribbean region. Different forms of programs taken by the government of Canada to improve the condition of Caribbean are discussed in the article, effectively. The diverse challenges like economic challenges faced by the democratic government of Caribbean are also discussed effectively; also the economic environment of Caribbean is also highlighted in the article.
Security issues prevailing in Caribbean state are also explained in the article that is important for the Country. This article also discuses about the relationship of Canadian government and the democratic government of Haiti. Future of the relationship of Canada with Haiti is also focused. Concentration of Haiti in the U.S is also discussed. Economic conditions of Haiti are also explained in the article effectively. Apart from this, activities and initiatives taken by Canada for the development of Haiti are also highlighted in the article.
Noriega, R.F. (2002). The Organization of American States and The Democratic Charter The DISAM Journal, 99-103.
This article is related to the democratic government of Haiti. There is a brief discussion of the key steps that should be taken by the democratic government of Haiti; in order to improve its existing conditions that are of pivotal importance for the nation. The resolution taken by the government of Haiti is also discussed. The article has also elucidated about the commission of inquiry, effectively, that is also important for the country. Events of violent nature, occurred in Haiti, are also discussed that play an important role in gaining knowledge about the incidence in an effective manner.
There is also a discussion of the mission of Haiti for improving the conditions of the country. Community reactions in Haiti are also emphasized in the paper effectively. Activities and contributions of the members of OAS for Haiti are also discussed in the article, which are important for assessing the initiatives taken by these members. Future actions of OAS members are also highlighted in the article. Democratic charter of Haiti is also discussed in the document. Recommendations that should be taken by the democratic government of Haiti are also discussed in the article effectively.
Ward, M. T. (2008). The Case for International Trusteeship in Haiti. Canadian Military Journal.
According to this article, the conditions of Haiti have improved up to a certain extent. The new government has brought a successful environment in Haiti. According to the article, the United Nations has started a mission for taking some international responsibilities to develop the communities like Haiti on international level. The mission of the UN for Haiti supported the provision of free and fair elections over there for the social and economic development of the country. It is also analyzed in the article that what are the targets, which the international community aimed to achieve for the development of Haiti.
The main aim of the community is to render the feeling of independence to all the Haitians in an equivalent manner. The current facts about the status of Haiti regarding its political social and economic conditions are also discussed in the same journal article. Some of the aspects, which are very essential for Haiti, but are not accessible in an adequate amount are also analyzed in the given article. Haiti is currently, facing conflicts with several nations, which are also highlighted in the same period. The trusteeship aspect of Haiti is also analyzed in the paper in detail.
Hall, A. L. (2005). The Plague of Haitian Refugees in the Caribbean. The iPINIONS Journal.
The given article is based upon the migration of the Haitians as refugees to the Caribbean region. The Caribbean democracy is being exasperated due to the Haitian migration to the Caribbean region. Consequently, the social and political system of Caribbean is getting impacted to a great deal. Poverty and hunger are negatively affecting the Caribbean area. Some of the Caribbean countries are supporting this migration, as Haitians have contributed a lot in their economic development. This is not considered as a crisis by the entire Caribbean region. The problem which has been faced by the Caribbean is also being confronted by the several other nations like Germany, England and many more. In this regard, to manage the Haitians, Caribbean is focusing on the approval of funds by the US congress.
Georges, A. & Furiol, (1998). Haiti Renewed: Political and Economic Prospects. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs.
The given article is based on the economic and political Haitian perspective. The political power of Haiti is much controlled, as well as, it has a limited number of economic resources. In the last few years, there have occurred several transformations in the economic and political conditions of Haiti. This was due to Aristide’s diplomacy over there. The Policy makers also consider it a great challenge to make new policies for Haiti. The Haitian state lacks accountability. Due to this; Haiti has wasted a lot not on creation, rather on the damage. Thus, it is analyzed that the country is facing difficult political and social conditions, since its origin and still it is trying to reform its condition.
Kamugisha, A. (2007). The coloniality of citizenship in the contemporary Anglophone Caribbean. SAGE Journals.
The given article is based on the Colonial concept of citizenship in the Caribbean region. In the state itself, several citizens are prohibited from being given the entire citizenship of the country in both the legal and the political sense. This has become a complex issue of democracy for the state. Even after acquiring independence from the British rule, the problem of citizenship could not be solved. Political independence simplified the problem up to a certain degree. The elite domination is also a point of discussion of the given article. In the year 1960s, the Caribbean Federation was damaged and it became independent. During the similar period, decolonization emerged in the Caribbean state. In the matter of colonization, several aspects are included such as gender equality. The Post Colonial citizenship is also analyzed in the same paper.
Franck, T. M. (1992). The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance. The American Journal of International Law. 86 (1).
In the given article, the rights emerging in the democratic governance are discussed. The main focus is on the Haitian governance. In such rights, the respect for the opinions of all the citizens and the security of the inviolable rights of the human beings are focused upon. Under the governmental validation, the governance of the Haitian President Aristide is being reacted by the United States’ organizations and the UN General Assembly.
On the 11th October, Haitian human rights were completely considered and incorporated in the Constitution. In Haiti, several authorities were found to practice illegitimate powers. Also, it is stated by the leaders that governance can be validated through the democracy only. The government of Haiti considers that only through the process of free elections, the people of Haiti can express their views without restraint. In 1991, it was analyzed by the Secretary General that election is not the only solution for such a democracy.
Hermant, L. & Ashmore, K. (2008). A Million Trees for Haiti: Global South Partners Address Climate Change. Environmental Grant Makers (EGA) Journal.
The given article is written by the Executive Director of the Lambi Fund of Haiti (LFH). This is based on the ‘Reforestation Movement’ in Haiti. Agriculture is the main occupation over there, which is being damaged due to the adverse environmental conditions. LFH was mainly initiated by the Americans and the Haitians. The mission of such foundation was to establish a democratic movement in the Republic of Haiti. A determined plan for the natural development of Haiti is also included in the paper. In the new plan, funding for the next coming years for the economic development of Haiti is also analyzed.
Santiso, C. (2002). Promoting democratic governance and preventing the Recurrence of conflict. Journal of Latin American Studies.
The given article is based on the theme of promotion of the good governance system, with the inclusion of the democracy, in the governing aspect. The main focus of the article is on Latin America and Caribbean. The UNDP (United Nations Development Program) has played an enormous role in the development of the Caribbean democracy. The UNDP provided great political assistance for the establishment of the democracy in the Caribbean region. For the development of the democracy and governance, the UNDP provided about 50% of the assistance in the form of funding to the Caribbean state. Moreover, it also provided a kind of electoral assistance to the Caribbean.
O'grady, M. A. (2009). Haiti Starts over Again. The Wall Street Journal.
The given article is based on one of the poorest Caribbean nations namely; Haiti. Since many years, Haiti has been governed by the Autocratic kind of governmental system. Recently, the concept of democracy has begun in Haiti. In such a democratic system, the new economic opportunities are emerging for the people. The immediate government of Haiti was appealed to have the assistance of the foreign countries. In the Haitian democracy, there occurred a shot in the year 1990. It was during the reign of Aristide, who governed the country in a sturdy manner. The present PM Louis also considers it significant to have the support of the different nations such as the United States. The United States is the only nation, which wants that Haiti should become a good democratic country.
Current Social & Political Events in Haiti
The theories given by the three different Philosophers in regard to the problems of the Republic of Haiti include the issues of democracy, education and racism. All the three issues included in the theories, are related to the social and political aspects of the country. Democracy is a great requirement of the governance system in any territory, as required in the Republic of Haiti. The social issues discussed in the theories are the racism and lower rate of literacy and poverty. The same social issues are found in the Republic of Haiti.
The most ratio of the population of Haiti is below the poverty level. The main reason of this poverty level of the country is the worst educational system of the country. In the country about 80% of the population does not have even the basic level of primary education. This problem of the educational system is due to the race discrimination in the nation. Only the ‘whites’ are allowed to have higher education; while, ‘blacks’ are prohibited to gain their basic human right of education. Such issues can be made clearer with the help of current events happening on social and political level of the country.
Haiti is by the side of the island of Hispaniola. From the year of 1986, Haiti is striving to overcome the several social and political problems such as poverty, racism, lower income ratio, etc. (Taft-Morales, 2009). The social and political scenario of Haiti has always been full of new events. In Haiti, the events of violence have occurred several times. Recently, in the year 2001, some violent events have taken place in Haiti in July and December. These events have further worsened the social and political situation of the country. The country is very much concerned to solve the problem of the current situation of the political crisis, imbibing in the country (The Situation in Haiti/OAS, 2002).
Regarding such events in politics, the government of Haiti is taking into account, an inquiry about the event of December 2001. That was a very serious political event in the History of the country. In this event, the palace of the President was being attacked and the violence was caused at the political headquarters of the different parties and at the private residences. This caused terror among the entire political environment of the country.
Such events,that have occured in the Republic of Haiti, are attracting the attention of the government towards the urgent need of democracy in the country by the respresentatives of some well- established political institutions. Such requirements are asked to be implemented in Haiti, as there occured a great loss of the mankind and property in these violent attacks. For the abolishment of such kind of political violence, all the political parties and civil societies are making urge for the establishement of the democracy in the governement system.
In the year of 1990, there were democratic elections in Haiti. As the president of Haiti, Titid was selected. Under his ruling till the period of 1991 the Haitins enjoyed democracy. After that period most of the Haitians left Haiti as they were faced racism and racial discrimination in every aspect of life. In this event about 2324 Haitians were left for sea in the year 1993. Several activitst of political parties worked for the safety of the Haitians and for the protection of the various aspects of the refugees.
In Haiti there is no provision of government policies for the racial and other kinds of discrimination. The problem of racism in Haiti is very profound which is specially problemetic for the black people. In the societies of Haiti the racism has become an integral part of the social system. Till today in Haiti, the effect of slavery and colonisation is seen. In the Repbulic of Haiti black people do not have rights of education even today.
Recently in the year of 2006, the presidential period of Rene Preval was started in Haiti. In the initial years of his administration, Preval did several efforts for the establishmetn of the democratic institutions for the strengthinging of the stability of the political scenario of the country. He made efforts for the establishment of the creation of new jobs for the people and for this he did several investments in different areas of private and public facitlites. But in Haiti the political stability could not reatained for long period. Recently in the last year 2008, there caused a very worsen food crisis in Haiti which caused several social problems in Haiti. Due to such crisis the democraict government of Preval was replaced by Pierre-Louis.
In the year 1996, with the joining of Preval as President of Haiti, there caused transformation in the political system of Haiti. After the completion of the presidency period of Haiti in the year 2001, as the new president of Haiti Aristide was selected once again. As a political consequence the governmetn of Aristide was collapsed in the year 2004 due to some political conflicts. In that conflict Aristide was charged for corruption made by him in the parliamentry and he was declared as a government which was not capable to carry on the functions of the government at the appropriate level.
Recently in the year 2007, a document related to strategy of growth and poverty reduction was issued by the government of Preval. There were three most important key areas related to Haiti which were given priority in this document. The first key area in this document is related to the development of Haiti in the field of science and technology. In the second key area the development of Haiti regarding its education and health facilities was focused. In the third key area of document the poverty, disability and gender unequality were the main points of focus. The decentrailization of the political system was also an important aspect of this document. Thus, this document included both the social and political aspects of the Haitians.
A memorable incident occurred in the year 1998 in Haiti. In this event the national highway of Haiti was being made blocked by barricade again and again one after another. This was the the movement against the removal of poverty. This movemetn was followed by the Haitians which were completely free from illusion. This movement was adopted by Haitians for the protection of their country to protest it against poverty.
In the same series one more event also taken place in Arcahaine. In this event the native people of Arcahanie and the people living in the nearby areas made the national highways of the country blocked. This was done by these people to make the attention of the government towards the problem facing by their society in the year of 1998. In that period there society was facing very great problems related to water supply, education, communication facilities, electricity and several other basic requirements of the general people (Carla & Warnock, 1998).
In the month of August year 2007, a seminar was organized by the National Human Rights Defense Network. This seminar was continued for two days. The seminar was organized for the Naitonal police force of Haiti. The organization of the following seminar was done in the form of partnership. The other partner of this seminar was the Directorate General of National Police force of Haiti. With the help of this seminar the several members of the defense services were brough together in a single place for the protection of their rights. The members brought together through this seminar were the officers of the police force of the country, representatives of the Haiti’s mission of United Nations Stablization. The main purpose of this seminar was to give the members of defense industry of Haiti specialized training for the strengthen of the theoritical knowledge of the of the participated members related to their human rights. The seminar was aimed to reduce the violation of the human rights of the public regarding any of the life aspect (The Fight to Counter Corruption in Haiti:a Targeted Combat, 2007).
In this series there are several other events held at the social and political level in the Republic of Haiti. One of these events is the campaign started in Haiti against the problem of violence. The campaign was initiated by the Non Governmental Organizations as well as the government organization of Haiti. These organizations formed a alliance in the form of a multi-sectoral structure. The aim of this campaign was to make new developments in the field of health, communicaiton, education, etc. This campaign was initiated in the year 2005 due to increasing rates of the violent incidents in the state (Groups in Film, 2009).
The second event in this series was the foundatin of the Lambi Fund in the year 1994. The foundation of the Lambi Fund was done by both the Haitians and the Americans. This is a unique kind of organization of the Haiti whose main objective is to enforce and support the movement of democracy in the Republic of Haiti. The requirement of such organizations was felt on the demands of the civil societies. The civil societies of the government were asking for the strengthen of the democracy and other developments in the related aspets of the public issues for the betterment of the Haitians. This is also a memorable event in the social and political context of the Haitian history (Groups in Film, 2009).
In this way there has happended several events in the Republic of Haiti related to the social and political issues of the country. The democracy is the major demand of the nation. Regarding the concept of democracy the John Dewey the theoriest of democracy and education have given his theory. On the basis of this issue, in Haiti there occurred several social and political events and movements by the ruling people and general people of Haiti as discussed in the events above. In the same series the issues related to social developments, political crisis, human rights, basic human requirements are also evident in the above discussion which proves that Haitians have made several efforst for the establishment of the proper social and political system in the country.
Impact of external influences on the governance of Haiti and Caribbean
The governance of Haiti and Caribbean are not perfect in its own. There are several problems in the governance system of Haiti and Caribbean. Due to the ineffective system of governance there are several problems in the government system of Haiti. The governance systems of Haiti are required to be democratic for the better development of the people. The people of Haiti are not allowed to have al least the basic level of education. Due to this reason the literacy rate of the country is very high and this causes the increased level of poverty in the Republic of Haiti and Caribbean. The external influences all affect the government system of Haiti in various means and this ultimately affects the poverty of the nation.
The Caribbean has the great experience of the colonialism among all the nations of the western hemispheres. After the year of 1898 there was the establishment of the colonies in Caribbean by the nations of the Europe and America. There were four main countries namely the United Kingdom, the United States, Netherlands and France which put their control on the whole region of Caribbean in the year 1945. As a consequence of this colonial powers established their foreign policies in the Caribbean.
On the basis of their diplomatic responsibilities of the United States, the foreign countries resist the independence of Haiti and the Dominican Republic, and established their foreign policies in Caribbean. Haiti was invaded by the United States militarily in the beginning of the twentieth century. In the implementation of these foreign policies it was considered that the foreign policy of the United States will not match the vocabulary of the Haiti and Caribbean. The revolution started by Cubans in 1959 was responsible for carrying new standing to the international relationship of the Caribbean. For making their economic framework effective most of the countries of the Caribbean followed a free agent foreign policy of the United States. In the territory of the Caribbean there are several organizations on the regional level out of which some are very significant such as ACS, CARICOM and OECS.
The ACS stands for the Association of Caribbean States. This organization deals with the issues of development in economic areas by the provision of the various types of services such as abidance, conference and conjunctive activities with all the member states of the company. The second organization namely the Caribbean Community and Common Market provides a great cooperation in the economic issues of the nation with the help of the common markets of Caribbean. The third organization in this concern is the Organization of the Eastern Caribbean States. This organization provides great assistance to the states of the Eastern Caribbean especially to its members who were used English as a speaking language.
In addition to this the Republic of Haiti was declared in the year 1804 as the first independent nation in the category of black republics. Even after its independence, Haiti was fully affected by the external influences. It could not get its political recognition even in the entire first half of the nineteenth century. Haiti was also affected by the successful slave system of the powerful nations such as the United States. After the civil war of the United States the immediate president of that time was made permitted to provide Haiti the identification as a diplomatic nation. The impact of the United States on Haiti was specifically in the two major areas namely political and economic areas.
In the period of twentieth century the effect of the United States was mainly seen in the Republic of Haiti. There were good partnership between Haiti and the United States in the field of trading. These relations were not only limited to the field of trading but the US assistance was enjoyed by Haitians in many fields namely. Haiti was provided significant assistance by the United States as the most powerful source of the armed forces and the economic accommodation. Between the period of 191 and 1934, Haiti got great support of the United States. The United States took the assistance of Haiti as its primary matter of concern. It provides effective and required protection to the routes accessed to the Panama Canal. The military forces of the United States also occupied Haiti and the foreign policy of the Republic of Haiti was also under the control of Haiti.
When Duvalier was the dictator of the Republic of Haiti between the periods of 1957 to 1986, the autocratic nature of the government of Haiti was commanded by the United States presidential government. In Caribbean there became a great exploitation of the concerns of communism of the United States by Duvalier. In the entire Caribbean the Haiti was used to be considered as a defense of anti-socialism by the founders of government policies of the United States.
In end of itself the dictatorship of Haitian was provided assistance in the field of defense and economy in a great amount by the governing bodies of the United States. This assistance by the United States was limited only till the administration period of Duvalier. After the government of Duvalier in 1987, all kinds of assistances provided by US to Haiti were set aside by it. In the same series in the period of 1989, the economic assistance provided by the United States to Haiti was taken up. But this was made on some conditions. The government of Haiti asked for the continuation of the holding of the democracy election and assistance in the efforts made by the United States in the control process of the trading of drug on international level.
Later in the year 1991, Arstide became the first president of the Haiti who elected under the democratic process. But his dictatorship could not continue for long time as only nine months after his government was forced out by the military of Haiti. The power of Aristide was restored by the United Nations led by the United States. Without any consideration to the instability of the politics and economic issues a great range of economic assistance was made continue to the Haiti.
The relations between Haiti and the Dominican Republic became disruptive. Between the period of 1822 and 1844, the Dominican Republic was made occupied by the armed force of Haiti. Between the period of nineteenth and twentieth century the strong relations of Haiti with the Dominican Republic regarding diplomacy were made strained by the occupations followed in Haiti and the succeeding efforts taken by the Haitians to have conquest of the east part of the Hispaniola island (Leonard, 2006).
In the coming period due to continue search of the employment by the Haitians went across the borders of the country and approached Dominican for employment in its fields of sugarcanes which gave rise to the conflicts between both the nations and this conflict ultimately turned into the violent conflicts. In the administration of the Duvalier the labors of Haiti were allowed to get job as cane cutters in the process of harvesting of sugarcane in Dominican per year. Till the end of the year 2000, about more than one million of Haitian got employment in the Dominican Republic and some of them were found illegal. This caused very critical strain in the relations between the Haitian and Dominican.
In Caribbean the cultural and historical heritage of Haiti was considered very unique, but due to this legacy the ties of the Haitians with the other nations of Caribbean were became restricted and limited. The condition in the colonial period was completely changed. In that period there caused a great fear in the France and UK as they were afraid that the due to the experiences of the Haitians there would be a great political and economic instability in their own colonies. Due to this fear the UK and France made their relations discontinued with the Haiti and colonies of Caribbean. Due to such breakdown of relations of these countries with Haiti the conditions of Haiti became worsen day by day and it remained the least developed nation among the entire region of Western Hemisphere (Leonard, 2006).
In the year of 1844, Dominican Republic enjoyed its independence first time. This happened when the Haitians occupied the Republic of Haiti. Among the entire Caribbean who were used to speak English, there were two most famous nations namely Trinidad and Tobago. These two nations had their effective presence in the CARICOM (Caribbean Community and Common Market.
Canada also has equal impact as a part of external influence on Haiti just as the United States and the United Kingdom. In the year 2004 when Aristide left the position of President, the government of Canada made several efforts in order to establish the appropriate level of security and stability in the republic of Haiti. In this concern the Canadian government and the Non-Governmental Organizations of Canada played very effective roles for the welfare of the Haiti community. After that period Haiti got entrance into the phase of reconstruction after the period of post conflict.
This phase of Haitians attracted most of the countries which are interested in donating for Haiti. Due to such external influence the country is getting its stability again. In such condition if the country tries to become able to reach at the criteria of the Inter-American Development Bank, it could be become able to be qualified for getting relief from the debt prior to the completion of the year 2009. The stability of Haiti is not constant in nature due to which the political leaders and the early authorities of Haiti are facing various types of demands for the development of skillfulness and clarity in the services.
The donor countries and their governments consider Haiti as a fragile state. This is due to the governance system of Haiti, its economic condition and several other factors. The governance system of Haiti is very suffering from its early period which is grown from the autocratic political culture of Haiti. In the year 2006, the democratic elections of Haiti are completed in a full round. These democratic elections of Haiti are considered as fully fair and free elections by the international community.
As a consequence of this success, Haiti has enjoyed improved confidence level by the renovation of the donor and it has gained a great amount of heavy investment by the Canadian Government. Canada is on the second position as the United States is on the highest position by donating highest amount of donation for Haiti. With such kind of donations by the foreign countries, the government of Haiti has planned to develop an strategic framework on the national level through which the country want to enhance its growth and reduce its poverty problem. A huge amount of money is made reserved for the welfare of the children in Haiti.
There is a great relationship between the agricultural dependency levels of Caribbean with the colonialism of Europe. Through the colonialism of Europe the financial potential of Caribbean changed with the introduction of the effective system of plantation. Caribbean made its identity as an important community in the midst of the eighteenth century with the help of the Britain as the biggest importer of sugar. The plantation system was improved in order to export it to the Britain to fulfill its demand of sugar.
In the nineteenth century slavery was abolished and there took place the introduction of the wage system. There was no great difference between the old system of wages and the new system of wages as both were based on the colored working class. For several kinds of repeated jobs, a huge mass of unskilled workers were hired due to which the workers could not join any employment other than agricultural jobs. There was no urbanization of the Caribbean country that is why the workers had no options to work in other industries.
As a consequence of this the investment of the money in the Caribbean nations is only on agriculture. There existed only few cities in Caribbean where the job opportunities for the people were very limited. From such mass of rare opportunities the unskilled labor that had only working experiences on farms had no chances for the jobs. In the manufacturing industries whatever products were produced not for the use of the citizen of Caribbean but were exported to the foreign countries as the price control was under their administration.
Due to such kind of conditions the wage rates of the workers were lowered up to a great extent. They did not have any possibilities for their future growth in Caribbean due to such external influences in the business policies of Caribbean. With the consequence of this situation there occurred a great economic exploitation in Caribbean. This exploitation was caused due to the employment dependency of Caribbean on plantation. There were huge mass of workers in Caribbean who were expert in agricultural activities which did not get jobs in any other occupation and became the part of unemployed people.
The relations of Caribbean with the United States had a great external influence on the current condition of the Caribbean. At the beginning of the 20th century the influence of the United States on Caribbean was seen greatly due to its engagement in The Banana Wars. The influence of America on the United States was not only limited to the military areas but also had its extension beyond this area. The influence of the United States on Caribbean can be seen in the economic context. The United States was the biggest primary market which imported the goods produced in Caribbean and thus supported the economy of Caribbean at a great extent. When the colonial power became free from any kind of limitations the form of government of the United States expended all over the region of Caribbean.
The confirmation of the economic influence of the United States on Caribbean can be done through the establishment of the Caribbean Basin Initiative which was a great economic initiative taken into account in the history of Caribbean. This initiative looked for the strong coalition between both the regions. The Caribbean Basin Initiative was a great success as it gave the Caribbean basin a great emergence to the United States in the form of a geopolitical country having great strategic interest. The strategic relationship between the United States and the Caribbean were not limited for the short period of time but were carried on till the end of 21st century. There was a great interest of the Caribbean Basin in the routes followed by the United States for the purpose of trade. According to the estimate of the Caribbean Basin it was analyzed that about more than half of the consignment carried to the United States through the way of seaways of Caribbean.
This kind of relation between Caribbean and the United States was not only the areas of interest of Caribbean, but the United States was also equally interested in such business relations with Caribbean. The foreign policy of Caribbean was in search for the free market on the global level in order to make its participation in the global economy stronger. In the global market there is a great influential role of the United States in the shaping of the Caribbean’s economic condition.
Haiti also had the similar impact of the external influences on its governance system and other areas. The diplomatic relations of Haiti are just is with more than 30 countries of the world. Most of the countries are from the continents of Europe and America. China also has same type of diplomatic relations with Haiti. In China, Taiwan has the best trade relations with Haiti. The relations of both the countries are very much friendly. The relations of Haiti with Cuba also have become friendly. The government of Haiti has given a great approval to the administration of the Fidel Castro in front of the entire population of the country.
During the period of 1991 to 1994 when there were illegal rules in the military, for the defense of Haiti the international community organized several rallies. The multinational force was mainly led by the United Nations and about thirty one other countries participated in that force. This force worked according to the guidance of the United Nations. The main objective of this force was to make the government of Haiti legalized by its restoration and it also acted to create a secured and progressive environment in Haiti. After few moths the new force namely the United Nations Mission in Haiti was established whose main objective was to make the environment of Haiti secured for its immediate population. It also helped to develop an entirely new police force in Haiti. In such a mission of Haiti, about 38 countries took part on international level.
In the relations with the external countries the proportional isolation of Haiti created several constrained across its long history. With its efforts Haiti made a successful revolution and as a consequence of this success Haiti became a prominent country. Even after this revolution made by Haiti, still there were governments of several countries which were under the category of slaveholding countries, kept Haiti as a fully disregarded and reprobated nation in the period of first half of the nineteenth century.
The issue of the acknowledgement of Haiti became a matter of debate among the social reformers in the United States. The social reformers of the United States gave a great favor to the issue of recognition of Haiti. These actions of the social reformers were critically opposed by the slaveholders. The immediate president of the United States, Lincoln was promptly permitted to have the acknowledgement of the Haiti with the coming of the Civil War. In that period, the strategic location of the country was very favorable. In the beginning of the twentieth century, all the powerful nations considered Haiti as a point of focus.
The consideration of Haiti caused a great level of competition among the powerful countries of the world that had their interest in Haiti. The most powerful nation interested in Haiti was the United States. The other competitive countries of Haiti were the Britain, Germany and France. The high degree of competition among these countries caused a breakdown in the self-government of Haiti. This also broke the trade relation between Haiti and the armed force of the United States. The main reasons for the subsequent isolation of the Haiti were its uniqueness regarding the culture and linguistic aspects (Bernstein, 2003). The other reasons for this kind of breaking of relations of Haiti with the United States were the conditions of the underdevelopment of Haiti in the economic scenario (Foreign Relations).
Though, all the powerful countries of the world had very good relations with Haiti, but its relations with the United States were maintained for a very long period of time. The economic relations of Haiti with the United States were considered much essential by the Haitians. The trade relations of Haiti and the United States were very strong. Both the nations were good business partners. The trade relations of both the nations included the import and export. The trade relations of Haiti with the United States were proved as the most significant source, which provided great foreign aid to Haiti.
The United States was considered as the primary target by the Haitians for the purpose of migration. In Haiti, voluntary business enterprises of the United States, which were owned privately, considered Haiti as the main center for functioning. The relations of the United States with Haiti were not only in the field of economy; but these relations were equally effective in the political field. This can be summed up in such words that among all the powerful nations of the world, only the United States has the most effective external influence on Haiti in its economic and political conditions.
Even today, the interests of the United States of America, in concern of diplomacy with Haiti exist, though, at the negligible level. In Haiti, the interests of Washington were also increased with a great speed. The main reason of this level of interest of Washington in Haiti was the proximity of this country with the Canal of Panama and the Central America. Haiti aimed for the establishment of the naval base in the nineteenth century by the United States. During the period of the First World War, the influence of the United States was clearly seen in Haiti. During this period, Haiti was mainly occupied by the United States. In addition to this, the other countries namely the Central America and Caribbean region were also occupied equally by the United States.
In the period of 1960, Haiti was considered as the most critical barrier of the anticommunist nature. This was because; there was a great proximity between Cuba and Haiti. In the United States, there existed a great fear for Caribbean in relation to its communistic elaboration. In the same series, after few years, a particular kind of interest by the United States was seen related to the controlling of the immigration activities of the Haitians in an illegal way. The shipment of the illegal drugs from Haiti was also restricted by the effective attempts made by Washington.
There was seen an enormous growth in the degree of assistance provided by the United States to Haiti in the period between the years 1970 to 1987. But after the completion of the year 1987, the conditions became entirely opposite. In the year 1987, there were organized elections, which were broken up with great violence. As a consequence of this break up, the assistance provided by the United States to Haiti were prevented by the immediate President of the United States.
One of the important nations, which shared the borders of Haiti, was the Dominican Republic. It also put its external influence on Haiti. But there was no mutual decision making between the two countries related to any of the issues. In the business activities, both the countries were provided assistance by each other. Dominican Republic had great production of sugarcane. For the cultivation of sugarcane, Dominican was provided a huge mass of labor by Haiti at very cheap rate. When there was the administration of Duvalier in Haiti, such assistance between both the countries resulted into the exchange of funds on an intergovernmental level on annual basis regarding the facility of labor supply, for the harvesting activities of sugarcane in the Dominican Republic.
There was a several years’ period, in which, there were analyzed the investigation activities by Haitians in the Dominican Republic, for the search of the job opportunities with its practices of crossing the borders of the Dominican. As per the estimation of the calculation based on the survey, it was analyzed that about more than two lakh civilians of Haiti, were residing in the Dominican Republic. With such involvement of the black Haitians, in the population of Dominican Republic, the population of Dominican Republic was also blackened. Due to such blackening, the immediate dictator of Dominican was not happy and he followed the killing of large number of Haitians in the year of 1937.
This was the most miserable incident in the history of Haiti. Apart from this, several other controversies were raised among the two nations, as both the countries shared their borders with each other. Without any regard to such controversies between the two nations, the Haitian economy furnished a suitable market for the products produced in Dominican Republic. This much of production of Dominican products created a negative effect on the domestic market of Haiti. This caused the reduced level of production of the Haitian goods and also lowered the market of the goods produced in Haiti, in its own local markets. The politician of Haiti, those who were expelled from their nations, also looked for the shelter in the Dominican Republic and this rendered great assistance to the government of Dominican Republic to let down the government of Haiti.
With the other nations of Caribbean region, the connections of Haiti were not as much effective, but were limited. Some other nations did not want that the movement for independence in Haiti should be effective. For this purpose, the countries like France and Britain put limitations on their own dependencies to have any kind of relations with Haiti. As a consequence of this, the struggle of independence of Haiti was discouraged at a great level. The relations between Haiti and Caribbean could also not be flourished due to the distinguishing cultural and language practices and this resulted into the prohibition between the close relations of the two nations.
There were several other powerful countries, which were very important for Haiti. Most of these countries were the countries that used to give assistance to the poor countries by the facility of donation. Among these donor countries, few of the countries were Germany, Canada and France. There were no trade relations between Haiti and France, but their relations in cultural aspects were very strong.
The relations of Haiti with Canada were also very supportive in nature. There were several organizations, which were working at the international level, which had the Haitian membership at a significant level. Among these organizations, most were the assisted organizations of the United Nations. Some of these organizations were the Inter American Development Bank, Organization of American State and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
The political system or the governmental systems of Caribbean and its other nations are balanced and insignificant. In all the nations of Caribbean there are very effective and strong democratic traditions, which are inherited from the effects of the external influences. The government of the Caribbean nations has formed its parliamentary systems on the basis of the model of Westminster. In the Caribbean nations, the succession of the politics is followed in a peaceful way, followed by the principles of democracy, which is also an impact of the external influence on its governance system.
There was a great tradition of the transshipment of the drugs to the United States from the part of Latin America. For this purpose, the Caribbean proved to be an important transit point. For such kind of the transshipment of the drugs, the officials of the Caribbean were given a great amount as payment by the American entities, which were engaged in the marketing of the kind of drug products. This payment was given to the Caribbean officials, so that, their products can be transferred in a safe way to the targeted region.
This way the political position of Caribbean till the year of 1980 was quite good; but the economic condition of the country was not up to the desired level. The country had to face several critical challenges regarding its economic conditions. There was only a single dominant business industry in Caribbean region, which was the sugar industry. The industry was very much affected due to the inefficient level of production and lower level. The prices of the sugar on the international level were declined due to such an economic condition of the country. The importing ratio of the United States was also reduced due to such financial decline at a significant level. Due to the increasing rate of unemployment in Caribbean nations, the rate of migration of the Caribbean to the foreign countries like the United States and Canada increased at a significant level.
This way, the governance of Haiti and Caribbean were affected by the impact of external influences at a huge echelon. This impact of the external influence on the governance of both the regions was seen in both political and the economic fields. In Haiti, there was a great level of unemployment, as the economy of the country was only based on the sugar production. The workers of the Republic of Haiti were mainly occupied in the job of harvesting sugarcanes. Due to such kind of limited experience by the workers of Haiti, they did not have any kind of job opportunities in other countries. This affected the economic conditions of Haiti.
Though, there were several foreign countries, which had their influence on the governance system of Haiti, but most among all those countries was the United States. The United States government provided great assistance to the Republic of Haiti. In America, all the governments provided great assistance to the governance system of Haiti for the betterment of this poor nation. In addition to this, the Dominican Republic, which is situated on the border of the Haiti is also impacted the governance system of Haiti. The governance system of Haiti is also influenced by Canada.
Caribbean also had the same level of influence of the external countries on its governance system. The most important external influence on Caribbean was of the Britain. Britain provided great assistance to the Caribbean, as it was the biggest importer of the production volume of Caribbean region. In addition to this, the United States also had equal impact on the Caribbean governance system. There was a great military assistance provided by the United States to the Caribbean nation. Also, on the development of the economic status of the nation, the impact of the United States cannot be ignored.
In this way, both the regions of Caribbean and Haiti had a great impact of the external influences on their governance system.
Effect of Governance on Poverty Level of Haiti & Caribbean
In the entire western hemisphere, Haiti is considered to be the poorest nation. The GDP of the country on per capita basis is quite inactive or declining since its independence. Currently, the governmental system of Haiti is carried on by the transition government. This type of governance system of Haiti is working continuously due to the support offered by the stabilization force on the international level.
The poverty of Haiti is much worse, that, there is no adequate provision for providing food to its total population. In the Republic of Haiti, the infant mortality rate is very high and the expectancy of life is at a very low level. Of the total population of Haiti, about 75% of the populace comes under the category of the ‘rural population’. In such rural areas, there are no provisions of the employment and exposure rates to diseases are very high.
The poverty level of the 80% of the Haitian population is very despondent. The rate of unemployment in Haiti is about more than 60%. About 50% of the total population of Haiti is unemployed. In last few years, the rate of reduction of poverty has increased. According to some data, there was about 59% of Haitian population, which was below poverty line in the year 1986 and 1987; it has reduced to about 40, in the year 1999 and 2000 (Pedersen & Lockwood). This much of reduction in the poverty level of Haiti is due to the changes in the governance system of Haiti. In Haiti, for the year 2005, there were made planning for the new elections. For the coming government of the Haiti, the most urgent and critical problem was the level of poverty of Haiti under which the majority of the Haitian population is surviving. The governance system of Haiti may have both positive and negative effect on the poverty of this region.
In the year 2003, the governance of Haiti has agreed for the SMP (Staff Monitored Program) with the International Monetary Fund (Sletten & Egset, 2004). This program adopted by the governance of Haiti was renewed in the year 2004. In this renewing policy of the governance, the government made an agreement for changing the lending system, by altering it in the form of a program of PRGF (Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility).
According to such a program of the governance of Haiti, there is a requirement of the paper related to the strategy of the interim poverty reduction. In addition to this, there is required the commission of a poverty profile by the UNDP in the Republic of Haiti. This is done by the government as a preparation for the strategy of poverty reduction. The new program of the Interim Cooperation Framework has considered the international financial institution as the part of the strategy of the poverty reduction strategy.
These measures taken by the governance system, may affect the poverty level of the Haiti region in a positive way. With the help of such a poverty reduction program, the government can have a large amount of fund from the IMF. With the lending of this much of fund, the government can start new programs for the reduction of the poverty level of Haitian population. With such amount of fund, the government can improve the level of living in the rural areas of the Haiti. As the most of the poverty is found in the rural areas of the region; so, the government is required to make effective investment of this fund for the development of their literacy and employment level.
To overcome the poverty, the contribution of the Haitian Government, as well as, the external supporters, who work at the international level, is required. The efforts are required to remove all the obstacles, which are preventing the country on its way to prosperity. The government may reduce the poverty through the given essential steps:
The government may make the public sector institutions strong and it can improve the process of conference among the government elements, effective. Through this, the orders made by general public can be maintained effectively, the right of property of the Haitians should be protected and there should be regulatory acts for the Haitians. By such changes, the government may improve the education facilities for the Haitians. It can also increase the jobs for the people to earn their livelihood.
For the purpose of modernization of the entire Haiti region, the government may improve the penal system through the contribution of the Central Bank and police services of the government.
The government can also do sector planning in an effective way through the assurance of the civil societies’ integration. In this series, the most effective strategy for the government to be followed is the ‘educational strategy’. With the educational strategy, the Haitians population can acquire basic primary and secondary education on the basis of which, they can get other employments, rather than cane cutting. This may reduce the poverty of Haiti up to a certain extent.
For the future growth of the economic condition of the country, the government can utilize the facilities of private investment. The government can also adopt several kinds of capitalization programs such as electricity services, water supply and several other facilities. With such provisions of the government, the Haitians can enter into newer jobs and their poverty level can be reduced.
The government may also improve the quality level of its spending. The most of the investment of the government should be on the basic needs of the people and should try to raise the human capital.
For the support of the social services, the government should do proper allocations of finance and other resources. With this, the government can enhance the level of social services like health facilities, education water and sanitation, family planning and several other services. The government should also give effective services to the non-governmental organizations. These organizations will then provide direct services to the poor population of the country.
There should be provision of the government resources in a limited way which should be directed towards the programs for benefits of the poor Haitians. For the survival of the people of Haiti, the government may adopt the programs for social safety.
The external donors, which are given by the donors of external countries, can be rationalized by the governmental efforts. Such kind of support by the external donors is very essential for the government of Haiti to reduce the rate of poverty. There is a great requirement of the coordination between the external donors and the government of Haiti. With such kind of coordination of the Haitian government with the external donors, may provide a financial support to the Haitian people for the initiation of the newer job facilities.
There is a great deficiency of the good governance level in Haiti. There is a lawful government in the Republic of Haiti. The government of Haiti is framed on the basis of the fair and free election practices. For the reduction of poverty in Haiti, there is a need of the government to frame a pluralism and comprehensive access of the governance.
The government of Haiti developed its strategy of poverty reduction in the year 2007. The approval of this strategy was taken back again in the year 2008; when, the meeting held by the external donors was postponed, after the passing of the vote of ‘no confidence’ against the government. The developmental process for the reduction of poverty by the government may be improved through the involvement of the local ownership, which can assist the government to make coordination with the international donors for the improvement of the living conditions of the Haitians (Maguire, 2008).
The poverty level of Caribbean may also be affected by the governance of the country itself. There is a huge mass of the Caribbean population, which is below the poverty line not only in one way; but in several ways. The poverty level of Caribbean mainly increased between the periods of 1980s to the 1990s. In Caribbean region, there are a lot of poor people. The main reason of this much of poverty in the Caribbean region is the lack of effective infrastructure in the country and its per capita income level is also very low. For the reduction of poverty, the governmental efforts may have positive ways (Girvan, 1997).
The governance of Caribbean may do lots of efforts for the reduction of the poverty level. For this purpose, the government can take loans from the international financial institutions. With such facilities, the government can have adequate flow of capital and products. It can make the new opportunities, which can be easily accessible by the poor people of Caribbean region. In this series, the opportunities of the new policies of the government for higher education can make the population of Haiti to get new jobs based on the new technology.
The economic sector of the country can also be improved with the provision of such kind of opportunities for the employment. The government can also improve the level of selection of government by the provision of the establishment of the political democracy in the country. With the provision of such new facilities, the government can reduce the level of poverty at a great extent because in the democratic governance, if the policies of the government are followed in a favorable way then, poverty can be alleviated at a great extent.
The government can collect funds from social levels, which can help the entire Caribbean region to make new mechanisms for the assistance of the poverty reduction. With the provision of the program of social funds, the government can frame the programs for the protection of the society and its prosperity. These programs of the social protection can improve the measures of the poor strata to manage the financial problems and risks faced by them. The government may be engaged with the cross sector projects and with the communities of Caribbean through which, a new framework can be made for the poor strata through which they can be able to overcome all the problems related to poverty.
In such a program of the social protection, the government can put its contribution in following ways:
The vulnerable groups, who are affected with the problem of poverty, can have the improved capacity to mange the risks.
The gaps in the ways of intervention with the benefit of the cost effectiveness can be earned through such assistance of the government.
The government can understand its role for the betterment of the community, as well as, the private sector (Social Funds and Poverty Reduction).
With such programs, the government may be able to enhance the capacity of the Caribbean, of reducing the risks of poverty.
With the provision of the participatory practices by the government, the communities of the Caribbean can have enhanced social capital.
Thus, it can be analyzed that the Caribbean and Haitian government may affect the poverty of these regions in an effective way. The efforts of the government of these regions not only would be helpful for the communities of such regions; but it will also assist the government to improve its financial decisions.
Application is the third section of the discussion paper. The discussion of this section is based on some effective objectives. In the first section of the application part, the theories of democratic governance given in the breadth section are linked with the research and observations currently done to analyze the governance of Haiti in two of its aspects. These two aspects are the ‘Educational practices’ and the ‘Pressure of the United States’ politics on the economy and foreign affairs of the governance of Haiti’.
In the next section of the discussion paper, the main economic and social indicators of the Haiti and Caribbean are analyzed. The analysis of the social and economic indexes of Haiti and Caribbean is done by analyzing the affect of the internal governance factors or external pressures from multinational organizations from the United States. In the next section of the application paper, the other alternatives for the democratic governance in addition to those, which are defined in the breadth section, is evaluated in relation to the past events and current events happening in Haiti.
Research on Governance of Haiti
In the Republic of Haiti, though, the facilities of the education are free; but the expenses of having high education are still very high for the Haitians to be afforded. Most of the Haitian families are still not able to afford the expenses of books, uniforms and several other requirements of the education facility for their children. In the educational services the condition of Haiti is much feeble. All the religious schools and private schools are till only the primary level. In such schools only about 60% of the children of primary education age are enrolled in the account of the government.
The enrollments of the students in secondary education are much lower than this ratio. Only 20% students are enrolled for the secondary education. Apart from the enrollment of the 60% students in the primary education, only 35% are able to complete their primary education. The Haitian population is very much interested in sending their children to acquire primary and secondary education; but due to the lowered economic conditions of the Haiti, they fail to reach up to their level of ambitions. There are no provisions of funding by the government of Haiti for the educational purpose.
During the period of 1970s and 1980s, there occurred several changes in the field of education in Haiti. Initially, the numbers of enrollment of the children in primary classes were increased in the urban areas. Even after this, only 65% of the children of the age 10 years or more were under the category of the students, who had no opportunities to get education. The people, who were having education above the primary level education, were only 8% of the population.
The struggle for the education of the Haitian government is continued from several years. This is evident that the people of Haiti have been denied education, since, about two centuries. The government is also given a foreign aid by the foreign countries. The United States has provided Haiti a great financial help. Since the year 2004, the total aid is about more than 600 million dollars. Recently, there has been an implementation of the ‘Universal Schooling Program’ by the government of Haiti. According to this program, all the children are given the opportunity of acquiring education.
In between the period of 1994 to the year 2000, several numbers of schools have been opened in Haiti. During this period, the rural areas were given preference for opening the new schools. The immediate governing body of the Republic of Haiti in 2001 declared that every year, about 20% of the amount of the total annual budget of the company, will be dedicated for the educational development of Haiti (Haiti after the Coup, 2004).
In this regard, it is analyzed that initially, there was no involvement of the given theories of education and democracy in the Haitian administrative system and the development of the Haitian people at the education level was about negligible. But currently, there have been several changes in the administration system of Haiti. In the filed of education, democracy is being implemented as suggested in the theory of John Dewey. Now, all the children have been given the right to gain education without any sort of discrimination. This is a kind of democratic educational level. With such an implication of Dewey’s theory, the government of Haiti is having several kinds of developments.
The theory of human development given by Piaget is also applied in the changing scenario of the Haitian educational level. According to this theory, the capacity of learning of the humans depends on their mental level and it does not have any link with the skin color. Now, such discrimination has been abolished, as government has elucidated that all the children have the right to attain education without any kind of prejudice.
For the increment in the assessment of the educational level, several other measures are also being taken by the government. The government has decided to give about 70% of the subsidy for the children to purchase uniforms and books. In addition to this, in the same subsidy, the programs for school buses for the children living in far away areas and the provision of school lunch for them is also being declared by the government of Haiti.
Even after such efforts of the Haitian government, still there is a great lack of the public schools in Haiti. In this regard, the government of Haiti has started several programs of providing scholarship to the children for joining the private schools, for acquiring an enhanced level of education. Now, with such developmental efforts of the Haitian government, the country has become able to reduce its illiteracy level to about 50%.
For the reduction of the illiteracy up to a certain extent, the government of Haiti has recently, adopted a new campaign of ‘National Literacy’ in the year 2001. In the same series, the government has published millions of manuals of literacy. This is the idea of the Secretary of the State Literacy. The government has also given training to the thousands of students of both schools and colleges to work as the workers of literacy.
This is started with the objective to make these students committed for the coming years to provide teaching facility, all over the nation to make the whole nation, literate. The new provisions of increasing the level of literacy are not only for the children; but also for the adult people with the provision of opening the centers of ‘adult literacy’. In this series, not only men are given education; but women are also included in this program. Most of the centers for adult literacy are opened in the rural areas.
This current situation of the Haiti governance in education is also linked with the theories of education. The provision of literacy for women on equal level also shows the implication of democracy in education. As well as the learning provisions for the entire nations proves that this has been considered by the government as a base for the overall development of the nation.
Because of the economic and the political pressure faced by the Haitian governance from the United States, several researches have been recently made. From such researches, it is being analyzed that Haiti has been greatly pressurized by the United States concerning its economy, as well as, the foreign affairs. From the very beginning, Haiti has been receiving donations from the United States, Canada and France, etc. In such a concern, the United States creates great pressure on the country. During the administrative period of Bush government, Haiti has faced a dreadful level of pressure.
Recently in the year 2001, a trade barrier had been imposed on Haiti by the United States. This was just only because the Haitian Government did not support the economic policies of the current elected government of the United States. Such embargo did not continued for long time and was immediately stopped. Again in the year 2004, there was a force given to the governance of Haiti by the officials of the United States, for the provision of the flight and support the US government against Africa. In such a period of American violence, several numbers of Haitians were killed and with such an incident, the level of democracy, which the Haitians achieved through their hard work and efforts, was abolished within few hours.
The government of the United States was only ready to give foreign assistance to the Haitian government only when, it works under its pressure. Such a treatment of the United States with Haiti came to an end in the year 1804, when, the country became independent. Under the pressure of the United States, the Haitian government was not allowed to have donations from other countries. The United States refused to have any link with the new Republic of Haiti,which was run by the free Haitians. In the year 1915, the United States tried to invade Haiti. The main base of occupation in Haiti was the agriculture, which was destroyed by the United States.
Now in the changed scenario, the Haitian government is expecting that the policies of the United States would be altered in several ways. In this series, the country has experienced a great success in the filed of democracy by the contribution of the United states from the period between the year 1994 to 2001. In the democratic era of Haiti, elections were held as a challengeable aspect. Even after its democracy, the Haitian governance has faced a great struggle regarding education, justice, healthcare and other fields (Farmer & Concannon, 2009). These are the major challenges, which were faced in both economic and foreign relations by the Haitian democracy. Due to such changes, the Haiti’s governance was transferred from one President to another in the year 1996 and this was again transferred in the year 2001.
The analysis of this research also has a great link with the theories discussed in the breadth section. The theories of democracy stated that no nation can achieve the good level of democratic government if its population is not literate up to a certain level. In this regard, the Haitian governance had to face such level of pressure from the governance of the United States, as the literacy level of the country was much low. There were no means of occupation for the illiterate people. Due to such level of lowered economy, the country of Haiti had to work under the United States’ force.
The theory of human development and the theory given by Rousseau also comprise some points, which can be linked with the given situation of the Haitian governance. Rousseau stated that the humans can develop more in a democratic environment. They cannot grow under any kind of pressure. The theory of Piaget also supports the inclusion of democracy for the proper development of a nation. Currently, when the country of Haiti has acquired a good level of democracy, it has achieved a great echelon of development in both economic, as well as, foreign relations.
Economic & Societal Indexes of Haiti
In Comparison to the average for Caribbean, the economic and societal indicators of Haiti are still, far lower. Due to an impoverished level of economy; Haiti has faced several drawbacks such as a low level of stability in both economic and political level, corruption in the entire administration inefficient public sector administration and also a worsened level of investment in both the human and the physical capital. The relevant economic indicators for Haiti are mainly considering various Gross Domestic Product (GDP) statistics (GDP in million constant, GDP PPP, GDP per capita, etc.), Employment, Inflation, Trade and Government statistics, Official Development Assistance (ODA ) and Financial Flows, National Savings, Income distribution and so on (Econ Stats: Economic Statistics and Indicators for Haiti, for the Year of 2008).
The growth in economy of Haiti is significant from last few years, but it is not so significant in comparison to Latin America and Caribbean. The Gross Domestic Product of Haiti for the year 2005 was $ 3985 million, which had increased to $5869 million in the year 2007. The Gross National Income of Haiti was also increasing, which was further causing an increase in the personal income of the individuals. But this increase in GDP and NI were not significant because of the increase in Inflation rate. The inflation rate in Haiti was about 14.4% in year 2008. The rate of inflation was increasing continuously with a rate of 20.8% at the end of year. The increase in inflation rate was also resulting into a reduction in the saving and investment, which was affecting the capital project and developmental programs of the Haitian government. The country has had a rapid rate of urbanization, as the total population of migrants is about 3.2 million as per the data of the year 2002.
There are some other social indicators, which prove that Haiti is the weakest country in the world. According to the Human Development Index of the year 2007 and 2008, as per the National Development Program of the United States; the rank of Haiti among the entire 177 countries is 144. The rate of literacy of the people is 43% (Haiti Country Brief, 2009). From the analysis of the data 2004, the population of the country has become about 8.4 million and this is with the growth rate of population about 1.4% annual (Haiti Economy). The illiteracy rate of the adults is decreased to about 40% from the year 1970 to 2000. The rate of infant mortality has become 79 on 1000 population, which were earlier 148. Thus, concerning some social factors, the country has improved; but the overall economic and social condition of Haiti is not at all better.
Economic & Societal Indexes of Caribbean
There is lot of difference between the social and economic condition of Caribbean as compared to Haiti. This can be analyzed with the help of the social and economic indexes of Caribbean. The categories of the economic indicators for both the companies are same. The difference is in the level of increasing or decreasing in varied indicators, at varied rate. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of Caribbean for the year 2008 have grown up to 4% and it is estimated to grow about 4.2% in the year 2009.
The inflation rate of Caribbean is rising as per the current year, due to the increase in the rate of food price. This shows that purchasing power of the people of Caribbean is lowering and this is reducing the economic standard of the country. As per the data, the social expending power has been raised about 6% due to this much of increase in inflation. Though, the rate of unemployment in the nation is still high, but it has downed about 2.3% from the existed rate. The rate of poverty has decreased up to about 36% in the year 2006 (Bárcena, 2008).
Other than economic indicators, the other indicators of Haiti are the social indicators. The social indicators of Haiti include various factors related to the growth and progress of the country in several social aspects. The main categories of the social indicators of Haiti include the population, sex ratio, (IMR) Infant Mortality Rate, total fertility rate, growth rate of urban population, expenditure of government on education, gross enrolment ratio of both primary and secondary nature, poverty level, seats of both men and women in the Parliament and many more factors (Haiti, 2009).
According to the current analysis of the social indicators of Caribbean, the growth rate of the population per year from the year 2005 to year 2010 is 1.6% per annum. The sex ratio for the year 2008 on the base of men per 100 women is about 98.0. The next social indicator, which is the life expectancy at birth of both women and men from the year 2005 to 2010, is 62.8/59.1. The rate of infant mortality is the 48.8% on per 1000 live births according to the data of the year 2005 to 2010.
The total fertility rate on the basis of the live births, per woman is about 3.5 as per the data of the year 2005-2010. From the Gross Domestic Products of the country, the expenditure of the government on the educational development of the country is about 1.4% as per the data of the year 1991. The gross enrolment ratio on both the primary and secondary level of women and men per 100 is 34.6/36.8 as per the estimation done at the national level in the year 1991.
From the given social and economic indicators; it is clear that the social and economic condition of the Caribbean is still not well off. Though, it has improved at a certain level in comparison to the initial stages. This is due to the involvement of the democracy in the governance system of Caribbean.
Effect of Internal Governance Factors on Indexes of Haiti
The social and economic indicators of Haiti and Caribbean are adversely affected by the internal governance factors of the countries’. The internal governance of Haiti has several negative points from the very beginning of its administration. The impact of internal governance factors on the indexes is as follow:
Political Instability: There is great political instability in the country, which is caused due to the internal conflicts among the internal levels of the government. Due to this political instability, Haiti has faced great problem of proper governance for taking appropriate steps, for the advancement of the nation.
Poor Governance: The governance system of the country is very poor. There is no democracy in the country. Due to this, the favor of the general public is not considered in the policies of the government, which make the economic indicators’ contribution much inferior.
Discrimination in Education: In the Haitian governance, ‘racism’ is a great negative factor. The black population of the country is not given rights to have education, due to which, the illiteracy rate has increased and ultimately, the number of population is increasing, which does not understands the positive aspects of ‘family planning’. The rate of unemployment is also increasing due to this condition.
Income Inequality: There are no provisions for the income equality in Haiti. There were no jobs in Haiti other than the harvesting jobs. Secondly, the government has made no efforts for the establishment of the equal income level in the nation.
Infrastructure: There is great inequality in accessing the infrastructural services, as locations of the resources of income, is extremely different.
Political Crises: In Haiti, there occur various political crises, from time to time. These political crises are the main negative factors for the internal governance of Haiti, which put negative impact on the economic indicators of the country. The social crises also affect the social indicators of the country.
Effect of Internal Governance on Indexes of Caribbean
The economic and social indicators of Caribbean show that its condition is better than Haiti. This better position of Caribbean is due to its internal governance factors.
Strong Democracy: The immediate agenda of the country has a point of strengthening democracy. The political economy of the country has been changed up to a certain extent, which has made the democracy of the country much sturdy. Such democratic condition has made the people of the country free to have all the opportunities of development (Benn & Hall, 2000).
Significant Scope: In the governance of Caribbean, there is a significant scope for the validation of some economic decisions such as selection of appropriate market for business, in the world economy, movement through varied degrees etc.
Maintenance of Human Aspects: In the Caribbean governance, there are satisfactory provisions for the security of the human rights of the people and also qualitative provision for the employment of the people. This improves the educational level and literacy level of the country, as well as, its GDP also has improved up to a certain extent.
Trade Bargaining: The governance of Caribbean have put great emphasis on the negotiations in the trade with several global institutions. Such as, Caribbean has made negotiations with the World Trade Organization for some kind of flexibility in the business transactions for the betterment of the economy.
Financial Crises: The crises in the financial matters have broken the capital markets of the and thus, have affected the economy of Caribbean negatively, as well as, affected the economy of the world too (Duncan).
Global Support: The governance of Caribbean has gained a great support on global level for the technological development of the country and for the development of the human rights of the country’s populace.
In such a way; the internal governance factors of both Haiti and Caribbean affects the societal and economic indexes of these nations in both positive and the negative way. The internal governance factors of Caribbean have better impact on its social and economic aspects rather than the Haitian aspects.
Alternatives to Democratic Governance
The movement of democratization from the early period has experienced a rise transformation in the different democracies of the world. In the democracy of the several nations, various challenges are faced by the related governance systems. The governments of the nations have made several efforts to achieve the strong democratic position in the world. The countries like Haiti and Caribbean have also adopted several alternatives for democracies as have been discussed in the democratic theories.
In spite of such aspects, the government of these countries can also use several other alternatives of democratic governance. Some of the alternatives are discussed as under:
The people of the country should be allowed to take whatever actions they want to take and this should be completely independent from the governmental interference. With the provision of such governing environment, the country would have an urbanized way of life and there would be open environment for them without any intrusion.
The societies should be developed in the form of civil societies. In such societies, there should be no role or much reduced level of the role of the states in the societal affairs.
There should be a provision of funds for the establishment of the democracy. This duty should be assigned to the NGOs. They should work for the protection of the human rights. The state should not impede in the work of these institutions (Duncan).
Women should also be given equal rights as per the men in all fields related to the governance and administration. Such as, they should have rights to participate in decision making. Regarding all the public policies, there should be equivalence on gender level.
There should be liberal democracy in the governance of Haiti and Caribbean. In such a democracy; election are held in fair manner; but with the inclusion of freedom of giving votes, to all the citizens equally, without any kind of discrimination. Yet this system is also based on certain laws (Diamond, 2004).
The state should be capable enough to function in such a way, that the all the citizens of the country can be serviced with the fulfillment of the basic needs. For this purpose, there should be the provision of the training of the civil services in a professional way; so that, the favorable aspects of the general public can be saved.
There should be full involvement of the two things in the business and state affairs namely accountability and transparency. In such a matter, there should be ingenuousness in the conduct of the business and governance matters and both should have essential responsibility to safeguard the provisions of the public. The power of the states should be examined prior to be implemented in the civil societies (Diamond, 2004).
The social capital should be utilized for the achievement of the common ends. The people should be assembled together through the formation of trusts and other institutions. The use of social capital should be done for the generation of the civic breed and it should have regard for the law. Through such efforts; the democratic governance can be established in an appropriate way.
The main problem in the development of Haiti is the establishment of the democratic governance. Due to the lack of democratic governance, the country could not have proper provisions for the education of the people. This lower degree of educational level has caused the great poverty in the country. The government of the country has made several efforts for the establishment of the democratic governance in Haiti. In this series, the given alternatives for the establishment of the democracy are very much useful for Haiti.
Evaluation of Alternatives according to the Haitian Perspective
In Haiti, the governance of democracy has been a very critical issue. According to the Human Development Index, Haiti is the poorest nation in the entire region of the Western Hemisphere. For the establishment of the democracy, the government of Haiti has taken donations from several countries such as Canada, Germany and The United States. Regarding the establishment of the democracy, there have been several events in the past and the current scenario of Haiti.
The given alternatives can be very much helpful for the objectives aimed in the events that occurred in Haiti. In this regard, the first alternative of taking actions by the public without any interference of the government can be very helpful for the people to have achieved their human rights. In democratic governance; the people are given freedom to enjoy their human rights to the full extent. In such an environment, the people of Haiti would have the freedom to start any kind of business activities to earn their livelihood and thus, the country would be able to develop at a certain degree. In this concern, several events have taken place in Haiti for the achievement of the human rights.
With the provision of the civil societies, the favors of the Haitians could be protected at a great degree. In past, there had been some violent events in Haiti, which have caused severe social problems like poverty and racism. In the civil societies, all the people can work together in groups with no inclusion of racism or other discriminatory aspects enforced by any governmental body. For the development of the civil societies, there have been several movements organized in Haiti.
The provision of the Non- Governmental Organizations for the protection of the rights of the citizens is very helpful in the light of the events that have occurred in Haiti. In this regard, as analyzed from the events that took place in Haiti that the government of Haiti had no support for the people of the country in several regards. With the provision of the NGOs, the people of the country can be assisted in their required matters. The NGOs have funds granted by several governmental and non-governmental institutions. With the provision of such funds, the NGOs can provide a great assistance to the Haitians.
Gender equality is the main focus among all the given alternatives of the development of the democracy in the governance of Haiti. Women can also have innovative ideas for the development of the nation. With the freedom of decision making of women in governance matters, the country can achieve a good democracy level. With the provision of the liberal democracy, all the people will have equal rights of voting and with such kind of fair and free elections; the democracy can be achieved at a great level.
The civil services are the main requirements of the citizens of a country as a part of good democracy. Regarding this, Haitians have faced several problems. With the alternative of training of civil services, the government can achieve good level of democracy in which, civil services can be practiced at an enormous echelon. With the transparency in the governmental and business affairs, fair relations can be maintained between the government and the civilians. With the availability of the social capital, the Republic of Haiti can achieve the targets made for the development of the democratic governance in the nation.
Thus, from the evaluation of the given alternatives, it can be analyzed that, if the government of Haiti practices the appropriate measures for the establishment of the democracy in the country the condition of Haiti can be improved at a certain level.
From the entire discussion paper, it can be concluded that Haiti is a very poor country of the Caribbean region. The educational echelon of the country is much low and there are several kinds of problems in the governance system. The governance system of the country is affected by racism. It lacks the democratic governance. In relation to the given problems of Haiti, several theorists have propounded their respective theories. There are several aspects given in the theories of democracy and education, which are also supportive for the establishment of an enhanced level of democracy.
Several social and political events have occurred in Haiti in the past and also in the present. Related to these events; several alternatives were developed for the establishment of the democracy in the Haitian governance. Some effective alternatives are also suggested to be followed for the establishment of the democracy over there. With the provision of such efforts, Haitian Government can improve the erudition level of the country by removing discriminative factors and thus, poverty existing in the country can also be reduced up to a certain extent. Therefore, the establishment of the ‘Democratic Educational Environment’ is a prolific aspect for Haiti.
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