Reading comprehension strategies and reading skillsList of abbreviations

GEPT: General English Profiency Test

HP: Higher proficiency

LP: Lower proficiency

HETC: Harvard Education & Training Center

Rationale

Hammadon (1991) says: “Reading comprehension is not just understanding words, sentences, or even texts, but involves a complex interartion of the reader's prior knowledge, language profiency and their learning strategies” (p.30). So reading strategies are very important to achieve the comprehension. Many types of reading strategies are introduced to guide students of all different levels. However, there were few researchers who investigate the relationship of reading comprehension strategies and reading comprehension of students. At HETC, reading has a key place in any English courses when students study English not only as the interest but also the demand for improving their study and promoting in their careers to achieve the long-term goals, especially some of them were assigned to live and work abroad. In their learning process, almost the students meet great challenges when dealing with the reading texts. They usually do not understand texts and cannot complete the tasks so they feel tired in reading lessons. Therefore, what are the main causes of this current situation? In order to find out the answer, the researcher started a survey on the reading comprehension strategy use. For teachers at HETC, it is hoped that this study may offer them the ways on how to identify strategies used by the students and then they can decide what they should do to promote their students' reading comprehension and in their learning as well.

Literature review

2.1. Reading comprehension strategies and reading skills

Oxford (1990) gives a detailed definition of language learning strategies: “ Learning strategies are specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, and more transferable to new situations” (p.8) and described concretely how learning strategies are applied to the four language skills: listening, speaking, writing and reading. According to her, four strategies: listening strategies, …, or reading strategies are those learning strategies themselves that applied to each of the four skills.

Of course, skills and strategies are two big words and common terms of the reading activities, as well. Nutall (1982) pointed out that reading was certainly a process of the readers, who used strategies to work with the meaning of the texts actively and then made sense from them. By the interesting interactions from the readers and texts, more and more researchers keep working to research the relationship between the use of reading strategies and reading comprehension.

However, strategy and skill, are they different? Yes, it was actually apparent that they were different. Strategy meant people used the planned methods and implements to achieve their goals, but skill was known as a routine. Moreover, strategy was the result of conciously work towards goals. It helped readers to understand the meaning of contents in order to find out the answer or obtain a certain performance level in reading that they want for themselves (Gagné, 1985). However, it is not always easy to make such a clear differnces between these two terms. Grabe and Stoller (2002) said that “many abilities that are commonly identified as strategies are relatively automatic in their use by fluent readers (e.g. skipping an unknown word while reading, rereading to reestabilsh text meaning” (p.15) Paris et al (1991) supposed “ an emerging skill can become more efficient and developmentally advanced when they become generated and applied automatically as skills” (p.61). Sometimes this difference is not clear at all because that is part of the nature of reading. In this study, reading strategies are used to show specific actions, steps and plans that students conciously apply in their reading process to improve their comprehension.

2.2. The relationship between reading strategies and reading comprehension

Reading comprehension must occur rapid in almost any purposeful context, and the more rapidly a text is read, the better reading processes are to effect. Those specific processes must be implemented effectively in combination to ensure the reading comprhension. Reading comprehension requires the reader be strategic. The reader needs to identify processing difficulties, address balances between text information and background knowledge, decide for monitoring comprhension, and shifing goals for reading. When a good reader use strategies, they can read fluently, flexible in line with changing purpose and then continue monitoring the comprehension. Similarly, reading is an process that evaluating the reader, who must decide if the reading information is coherent and finds out the purpose for reading.Alderson (2003) said reading as the interaction of four things. He claimed that the reader and the text together must be fluent reading or “ the ability to reach at an appropriate rate with adequate comprehension”, or “ the ability of the reader to use a wide variety of reading strategies to accomplish a purpose for reading” (p.149). So discovering the best methods and strategies are the way that a good learner apply during a reading process.

2.3. Previous research on reading comprhension strategies

Grellet, F. (1981) wrote a book “Developing Reading Skills”. This book showed the important role of reading and provided some techniques which help learners improve their reading skill.

Nutal, C. (1989) proved reading is “ to enable students to read without help unfamiliar authentic texts at appropriate speed, silently with adequate understanding”.

Ozek, O. (2006) researched “ A study on the Use of Cognitive Reading Strategies by ELT Students”. This study carried out to find out which reading strategies are commonly employed by ELT students while reading a text, and which reading strategies are needed to be developed to understand the text better, and to continue academic studies successfully.

San San Kung (2007) did an investigation into the relationship between reading comprehension and the use of reading strategies among EFL students in colleges in Taiwan. Through the study, the researcher knew what the reading strategies the EFL students use more or less and what the differences between different grade students.

Methodology

This chapter will describe research methods used to collect data to answer the research questions and then explain how and why the methods are used.

3.1. Research questions

This study aims to find out reading strategy use of HETC's students. This also has objectives to discover if there are any differences in strategy use between lower and higher proficiency readers, as well. Then to suggest some recommendations to raise students' awareness of using reading comprehension strategies in the classroom. It aims at answering the following questions:

1. What reading strategies are used by students at HETC?

2. What are the differences in the use of reading strategies between lower and higher proficiency readers?

3.2. Descriptions of variables

3.2.1. Independent variables

In this study, the independence variables were the students at HETC. 51 students were chosen as representatives of this particular group sudents to collect needed data. These 51 students were divided into four groups in which students are the members of higher and lower proficiency groups. These 2 groups were chosen to get information to answer the second research question ( More details about these groups and about higher and lower proficiency readers will be found in 3.3.1 and 3.4.2)

3.2.2. Dependent variable:

The dependent variable in this research were the strategies applied in reading comprehension, i.e. reading comprehension strategies.

3.3. The data collection instruments:

This study employs a combibation of 3 data collection instruments:

* General English Proficiency Test (GEPT)

* Questionaire

* Think-aloud interviews

As one of the objectives of this study is to find out if there are any dfferences in the strategy use between higher proficiency (HP) and lower proficiency (LP) readers. The test was used to divide the subjects into difference groups in which groups of higher and lower proficiency were chosen to collect the data.

Think-aloud interviews aimed at getting qualitative data and quesionaire was used to get quantiative data. The author can collect a large information of all mentioned strategies and the information from students who share their thought of strategy use in the think-aloud interviews. Of course, the think a loud interviews in this study can be one of the best ways to reaffirm the result got from the questionaire. For example, in the questionaire, the subjects report that they use life experiences to understand the meaning of texts or read the first and last paragraphs and then go back to read the paragraphs; the author will know they use these strategies or not in the interview.

3.3.1. Test

A General English proficiency test is a procedure taken to collect data on students' ability or the knowledge of disciplines as “ Information about people's language ability is often very useful and necessary” (Nunan, 1992). The GEPT was taken form the book “IELTS for Academic Purpose: A short insentive course” (see the appendix 3). Based on the result of the test, the subjects were classified into 4 groups. Group 1 consists students who just got from mark 1 to 2.5; group 2 has those who got mark from 3 to 5. The students in these 2 groups are LP learners. Meanwhile, the students who are in group 3 got mark from 5.5 to 6.5 – they are at medium levels. And the last group – group 4 consists of HP ones who got mark from 7 and over. After having the result of the test, the author decided to chose group 2 and 4 to collect the data to answer the second research question. So there are 51 subjects in these 2 groups. The author did not choose group 1 because their proficiency were too low and they were only 1% of the subjects. Details of the test can be found in Appendix 1.

3.3.2. Questionaire:

Questionaire is the second data collection instrument in this study. This is also a pretty popular means of data collection. Many researchers suppose that using questionaire in language research has many advantages. First, questionaire can be given to a great amount of students at the same time and it is self-administered. Second, to protect the privacy and keep the fairness, the subjects' names might not be appeared on the questionaire. So subjects tend to share the information more naturally, even some sensitive information. Third, the data collected are more accurate because questionaire is usually given to all the subjects at the same time.

This study used one survey questionaire to gather the information about reading strategies as well as the differences in strategy use between these two kinds of readers. According to the result of the questionaire (and interviews), the athor can make some recommendation to help students improve their reading abilities. The quesionaire was designed based on the questionaire of Shan Shan Kung (2007). This part consists 3 parts. Of couse, in this study, the author modified the first part - personal information part. The next part – concept of reading had 3 questions to explore the perceptions of English reading. The last part had thirty – eight questions of strategy use. In the beginning of third section, thirty – four questions utilized a Liker – Scale point systems. The subjects were asked to respond to each statement by choosing among four answers: 1) usually; 2) sometimes; 3) rarely; 4) never. Each section has four to six questions (except section 1 has 10 questions because of discovering the reading process). Through the survey, the author found out which strategies actually actracted HP readers more than LP readers.

3.3.3. Think aloud interviews

In addition to the quetionaire, interviews are used to obtain information by actually talking to the subject. The interviewer asks questions and the subject responds. Interviews are the good way for collecting data as Seliger, H.W. (1989) claimed “ Interviews are personalized and therefore permit a level of in-depth information – gathering, free response and flexibility that cannot be obtained by other procedures” (p.166). However, it can be costly and time consuming. In this study, think – aloud interviews were used to collect the data about the students' reading strategy. The Interviewer Guide for Reading Strategies developed by Honsenfeld et al. (1981). In oder to make the Guide appropriate for objectives of thi study, the researcher has made some changes in the strategies they posed ( see Appendix 3).

3.4. Participants in the study:

At the time the study was carried out, the subjects had just finished an English course. Their textbook was ……… Therefore, their commonly assumed proficiency was intermidiate. They were members of three classes. One class included 25 students , 24 in the other class and 21 in the last one and they stuied the same textbook. Their ages ranged from 19 to 24. Almost all of students had at least 3 years of learning English before this class. They were delivered a reading proficiency test to be divided into higher and lower proficiency readers.

In this study, gender has minimal effect on the results because the number of male students is quite small in the total of the subjects.

3.5. Procedure

The data were collected by the researcher during a week in autum 2009. After contacting the English teachers of the subjects in person to get approval for asking their students to participate in the study, the researcher pre-arranged the time. The researcher went to English classes to administer the tests. The students were asked to complete the test in 60 minutes. The English teachers and the researcher supervised and marked the test papers later.

The 2 days after, subjects were distributed the questionanires. The researcher gave some directions to the subjects and of then encouraged students to ask for any clarifications they might need and any other extra time when they filled out the questionaire. And of couse, the researcher wanted to protect the privacy and the students' fairness, so the students' names would not fill in the questionaires. In order to advoid misunderstanding the questions, the questionaire were translated into Vietnamese which were enclosed with the English version. The questionaire administration took about 30 minutes in each class.

For days later, six chosen students were interviewed individually at the researcher' s office in HETC. The reseacher pre-arranged the time and contacted to the students by the phone. Before the interview, the reseacher gave the instructions and explained the purpose of the study to students so they could understand what they had to do clearly. Each interview took from 10 to 15 minutes.

Data analysis and findings

4.1. The result of the questionaire
4.1.1. Demographic Data

Table 4.1

Demographic Information of Students (N=51)

Subject

Frequency

Percentage

Total

N

%

Gender

Male

9

17.6

51

100

Female

42

82.4

Level

Lower proficiency

32

63.7

Higher proficiency

19

36.3

Years of

English learning experience

2

3

5.9

51

100

4

9

17.6

5

15

29.4

6

11

21.6

7

6

11.8

8

2

3.9

9

4

7.8

10

1

2.0

Look at the table 4.1, of the 51 students participating in the study, 9 (17.6%) were males and 43 (82.4%) were females. Of the 19 HP students (36.3%) and 32 (63.7%) were LP students.

When asking about years of English learning experience, just 1 students (2.0%) has been studying English for ten years. 9 students (17.6%) have been studying English for four years, 15 students (29.4%) have been studying English for five years, 11 students (21.6%) have been studying English for six years, 6 students (11.8%) have been studying English for seven years, 2 students (3.9%) have been studying English for eight years, 4 students (7.8%) have been studying English for nine years.

Because foreign language in general and English in particular were given into school from sixth grade in secondary school, and from tenth grade in high school ( in some remote areas), the most students' years of English learning experience were between four and seven years.

To answer the second section of the questionnaire about concepts of reading, the results were presented in Table 4.2.

Table 4.2

The Relationship between the Important of Reading for Language Learning and Reading Hours per Week by higher and lower proficiency students

Reading hours per week

2

3

4

Over 4

N

%

N

%

N

%

N

%

Higher proficiency students

(N =19)

Very important

2

10.5

5

26.3

6

31.6

3

15.8

important

1

5.3

2

10.5

Not important

Lower

proficiency students

(N =32)

Very important

6

18.8

7

21.9

5

15.6

important

4

12.5

5

15.6

4

12.5

Not important

1

3.1

According to the illustration of Table 4.2, HP students who thought reading was very important for language learning were 2 (10.5%) spent two hours per week on reading, 5(26.3%) for three hours per week, 6 (31.6%), for four hours per week and 3 (15.8%) for over four hours per week. HP students who thought reading was important for language learning were 1 (5.3%) spent two hours per week on reading, 2 (10.5%) for four hours per week. There were not any students who thought reading was not important for language learning.

In the LP group, 6 (18.8%) students thought reading was very important for language learning and spent two hours per week for it, 7 (21.9%) spent three hours for reading, 5 (15.6%) spent four hours for reading. These LP students supposed reading was important for language learning were 4 (12.5%) spent two hours per week on reading, 5 (15.6%) for three hours per week. There was 1 (3.1%) students said reading was not important for language learning but still spent two hours per week on it.

4.1.2. Findings for Research Question One

The research question one was “What reading comprehension strategies are used by students at HETC ?” After collecting data, it showed what the same or different strategies were used more or less by HP or LP students for helping them understand the contents of the reading materials in different reading situations and were ranked from low to high to represent which strategy would be used more or less by the students during their reading process in different situations. The results were listed in the following by all of students' reading ability levels when they used reading strategies in different reading situations.

The total results came from the 51 students in Table 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 and 4.6.

Table 4.3

Means, Ranks, and Standard Deviations of the Uses of Reading Strategies in First Section by students at HETC

When I read English materials,

Mean

Mean

SD

Rank

1.

I read a table of contents, and then read the contents

1.82

1

.90

2.

I focus on the first sentence of each paragraph for helping me understand the main points of the whole paragraph

2.51

7

.12

3.

I underline the main points when I am reading

2.03

4

.97

4.

I write Vietnamese on the margin for vocabulary words I don't understand during reading

1.86

2

.90

5

I skim over the full text, and then read details

1.88

3

.92

6

I use life experiences helping me understand the meaning of texts

1.86

2

.90

7

I use the background knowledge of the English culture to understand the contents

2.57

8

1.03

8

I use key words or sentences to guess the main idea of the articles

1.88

3

1.08

9

After reading each paragraph, I ask myself if I understand what I read before, and paraphrase the main idea, then keep reading the next paragraph

2.25

5

1.09

10

I discuss what I read with classmates

2.45

6

1.05

In Table 4.3, the result indicated which strategies the 51 students used more or less when they read English materials. The table showed the data with mean, mean rank, and standard deviation.

As illustration of Table 4.3, the mean was from 1.82 to 2.51 and the rank was S1 (1.82) < S4 = S6 (1,86) < S5= S8 (1.88) < S3 (2.03) < S9 (2.25) < S10 (2.45) < S2 (2.51) < S7 (2.57). The data express that strategy 1 had lowest mean scores. It meant that strategy 1 “I read the table of contents, and then read the contents” most students would like to use to help them understand the contents during reading process. On the contrary, they used the two least strategies: strategy 2 and strategy 7.

Table 4.4

Means, Ranks, and Standard Deviations of the Uses of Reading Strategies in First Section by students at HETC

When I do not understand a vocabulary,

Mean

Mean

SD

Rank

11

I check the dictionary immediately

2.37

3

1.1

12

I mark and pass it, keep reading and then go back

2.33

2

1.08

13

I use other words in the sentence to infer the meaning of vocabulary

2.09

1

.87

14

I analyze its suffix and prefix to get its meaning

3.00

4

1.21

Through Table 4.4, strategy 13 “I use other words in the sentence to infer the meaning of vocabulary” was most used by the students when they did not understand a vocabulary during the reading process. On contrary, strategy 14 “I analyze its suffix and prefix to get its meaning” was the strategy which most students used least in this reading situation.

Table 4.5

Means, Ranks, and Standard Deviations of the Uses of Reading Strategies in First Section by students at HETC

When I do not understand a sentence,

Mean

Mean

SD

Rank

15

I use the context (topic, subject) to derive the meaning of each sentence

1.86

1

.91

16

I translate word for word into Vietnamese to better understand the meaning of the sentences

2.35

4

1.12

17

I take grammar analysis (ex: finding subject and verb etc.) to understand the meaning of the sentences

2.33

3

1.02

18

I analyze the structure of sentences (ex: sample sentence, adjective clause, or adverb clause, etc.)to derive the meaning of sentence

2.37

5

.97

19

I will analyze the verb tense (ex: past tense or future tense) or verb mood (ex: subjunctive mood or imperative mood) for better understanding

2.27

2

.95

In Table 4.5, those strategies had close mean scores between each other, but it also pointed out the differences from 2.27 to 2.37, except the strategy 15 had the mean score less 1.86. It described that strategy 15 “I use the context (topic, subject) to derive the meaning of each sentence” were the most used by the students when they did not understand a sentence during reading process. Vice versa, the means of the strategy 16 and strategy 18 to derive the meaning of sentence” meant that they were used least than other strategies in this section.

Table 4.6

Means, Ranks, and Standard Deviations of the Uses of Reading Strategies in First Section by students

When I don't understand (including vocabulary and sentences,) except above reading strategies,

Mean

Mean

SD

Rank

20

I check books (ex: grammar books or encyclopedia) for references

2.16

2

1.14

21

I go on the Internet to find related information

1.98

1

.92

22

I ask teachers or classmates for clarification

2.27

3

1.03

23

I read the difficult parts several times

2.63

5

1.12

24

I read the contents orally several times

2.47

4

.94

25

I will memorize the vocabulary pertaining to the contents before reading

2.16

2

.99

According to the data, it presented that strategy 21 “ I go on Internet to find related information” was used by almost students. The information technology nowaday becomes quite popular to students so they would like to search information on the Internet. The S20 = S25 (2.16) both stood the second position. The strategy that students used least was strategy 23 “ I read difficult parts several times”.

4.1.3. Findings for Research Question Two

Research question two was “What are the differences in the use of reading strategies of the higher and lower proficiency students at HETC?” Through mean, standard deviation, t-tests and p value, the data analysis depicted detailed information about the differences of reading strategy performance between these two groups of students. The comparative groups focused on higher and lower proficiency student.

Table 4.7

Means, Standard Deviations, t-Tests and p Value between higher and lower proficiency students at HETC

when I read English materials,

Lower proficiency students

Higher proficiency students

T

p

(N=19)

(N=32)

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

1.

I read a table of contents, and then read the contents

2.00

1.054

1.72

.813

.999

.322

2.

I focus on the first sentence of each paragraph for helping me understand the main points of the whole paragraph

2.16

1.118

1.78

.792

1.288

.20

3.

I underline the main points when I am reading

2.00

1.105

2.06

.914

-.208

.84

4.

I write Vietnamese on the margin for vocabulary words I don't understand during reading

2.79

1.084

2.78

1.069

.026

.98

5.

I skim over the full text, and then read details

2.05

1.026

1.78

.870

.965

.34

6.

I use life experiences helping me understand the meaning of texts

1.89

.937

1.84

.917

.189

.85

7.

I use the background knowledge of the English culture to understand the contents

2.05

1.129

2.86

.871

-2.729

.00**

8.

I use key words or sentences to guess the main idea of the articles

2.37

1.261

1.59

.911

2.412

.02*

9.

After reading each paragraph, I ask myself if I understand what I read before, and paraphase the main idea, then keep reading the next paragraph

2.00

1.202

2.53

.983

-1.630

.11

10.

I discuss what I read with classmates

2.53

1.264

2.41

.946

.359

.72

p<.05*, p<.01**

As indicated in Table 4.7, strategy 7 and strategy 8 attended to the significant difference level (p<.05) which meant there were significant differences in usage between the two groups of students. Looking at the means of strategy 1, 2, 5, 10 the analyzing data showed that good students had lower frequency of use than lower ones. Meanwhile, look at strategy 9, HP students had higher frequency to use these strategies to help their read than LP students As for the rest strategies in this section, there were no significant differences between two groups.

Table 4.8

Means, Standard Deviations, t-Tests and p Value between higher and lower proficiency students at HETC

When I do not understand a vocabulary,

Higher proficiency students

Lower proficiency students

t

p

(N=19)

(N=32)

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

11.

I check the dictionary immediately

3.32

.749

1.81

.896

6.432

.00**

12.

I mark and pass it, keep reading and then go back

2.89

1.1

2.06

.878

2.809

.00**

13.

I use other words in the sentence to infer the meaning of vocabulary

2.05

.911

2.13

.871

-.279

.78

14.

I analyze its suffix and prefix to get its meaning

2.84

1.344

3.13

1.07

-.782

.44

p<.05*; p<.01**

In table 4.8, strategy 11 and strategy 12 attended to the significant different level (p<.05). That meant that the two strategies both had significant differences on frequencies of use between HP students' and LP students' mean scores. Good students had higher frequency to use the strategy to solve their vocabulary problems during the reading process. The mean score of strategy 11 showed that HP students would prefer to use it for solving their vocabulary problems, but LP students did not. Other strategies in this part, there were no significant differences.

Table 4.9

Means, Standard Deviations, t-Tests and p Value between higher and lower proficiency students

When I do not understand a sentence,

Higher proficiency students

Lower proficiency students

t

p

(N=19)

(N=32)

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

15.

I use the context (topic, subject) to derive the meaning of each sentence

1.89

1.1

1.84

.808

.176

.86

16.

I translate word for word into Vietnamese to better understand the meaning of the sentences

3.21

0.976

1.84

0.884

5.005

.00**

17.

I take grammar analysis (ex: finding subject and verb etc.) to understand the meaning of the sentences

2.16

1.167

2.44

.948

-.885

.38

18.

I analyze the structure of sentences (ex: sample sentence, adjective clause, or adverb clause, etc.)to derive the meaning of sentence

1.84

.898

2.69

.896

-3.253

.00*

19.

I will analyze the verb tense (ex: past tense or future tense) or verb mood (ex: subjunctive mood or imperative mood) for better understanding

1.84

.898

2.53

.915

-2.630

.01*

p<.05*, p<.01**

As indicated in Table 4.9, strategy 18 and strategy 19 attended to significant different level (p<.05). These strategies had significant differences between the two groups. Through the mean score, we know these significant differences were that HP students preferred to use this strategy more often to help them reading fluently, but LP ones did not. However, in strategy 16 “I translate word for word into Vietnamese to better understand the meaning of the sentences”, LP students preferred this strategy to HP students.

Table 4.10

Means, Standard Deviations, t-Tests and p Value between higher and lower proficiency students

When I don't understand (including vocabulary and sentences,) except above reading strategies,

Higher proficiency students

Lower proficiency students

t

p

(N=19)

(N=32)

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

20.

I check books (ex: grammar books or encyclopedia) for references

2.32

1.157

2.06

1.162

.755

.45

21.

I go on the Internet to find related information

2.05

.970

1.94

.914

.419

.68

22.

I ask teachers or classmates for clarification

2.16

1.214

3.25

.984

-3.326

.00**

23.

I read the difficult parts several times

3.37

.761

2.19

1.091

4.54

.00**

24.

I read the contents orally several times

2.53

.905

2.44

.982

.328

.74

25.

I will memorize the vocabulary pertaining to the contents before reading

2.05

1.312

2.22

.792

-.501

.62

p<.05*, p<.01**

In table 4.10, strategy 22 and strategy 23 attended to the significant difference level (p<.05). It meant that the two strategies had significant differences on frequency of use between efficient student and less efficient student mean score. It seemed that HP students like to use the strategy 22 when they don not understand their reading. Vice versa, the LP students like to use strategy 23 “ I read the difficult part several times” even it would waste of their time. Other strategies did not have significant differences between these two groups.

In order to know the futher information about the strategy of the two groups. There were think-aloud interviews to conduct the results.

4.4. The results of the interviews

As mentioned in 3.3.3, in this study, six students with 1 girls and 3 boys were given think alound interviews to get further information about their reading strategy use and to reaffirm the results of the quetionaire. Among them, 2 are successful and 2 are unsuccessful.

The first trend the researcher took notes is the use of strategies of skimming and scanning by both goood and poor students. When students were asked “When you read a text like this, what do you usually do?” they all answered “First, I look through the text to get the main ideas of it. After that, I read the required tasks and come back to the text to find the answers”. It seemed that most of them did in this way automatically. And All of them don't know that they were using reading strategies in their reading process.

The second trend is that the students used translating strategy at a lower rate than they answered in the questionaire. Both two poor readers claimed they were trying to translate the text into Vietnamese to understand it and do the task easily. While students read, they always had a pencil in their hands and underlined the new words: they then looked at dictionary or glossary. Their physical habits made the reseacher no surprise. They opened the dictionary when they met a new words. They said: “There are a lot of new words and I have to use it. If not, I can not understand the text”. Only one strongest students never used the glossary and finished reading in 15 minutes with comprehension as good as or better than others who took more than 20 minutes to read the article while using their dictionary. He said: “ I only use the dictionary as the last resort”.

During the intervies, nobody ask the teacher for help. This is not like what they actually did in thr classroom where they certainly make questions when they do not understand something. So the strategies “ I ask teacher or classmates for clarifications” were not directly observed in the interviews because the students were interviewed individually.

conclusion

In conclusion, The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of reading strategies by higher and lower proficiency students, to find out the common and uncommon strategies used by these students at HETC. The findings may use to predict the possible students' viewpoints of learning to read in Vietnam. Although the study was limited by fifty-one students coming from HETC, The principal emered from the study:

1. Most students had English learning experiences from four to seven years, so they actually understood the important role of reading in Enlish language acquisition, but they still did not spend much time on it. The main reason might be most teachers in Vietnam would mainly focus on teaching grammar. Because they believed it was useful for the tests.

2. Most students (even fewer learning experiences ones) could choose appropriate strategies to help them read effectively when they could not understand the text or met some reading problems.

3. The HP students knew how to use more strategies to help them read better and apply more strategies than LP students because they thought that reading strategies were useful for helping reading comprehension.

Thereforce, from the findings of this study and from the teaching and learning context at HETC, the researcher recommends that teacher should raise their students awareness of using learning strategies in common, especially reading strategies, teach them how to use strategies appropriately and encourage them to use the strategies more often not only in the classroom but also in new contexts. Future research can investigate if teaching particular reading strategies results in better reading scores on standardized tests.

Appendix 1

Survey questionnaire

The questionnaire is aimed to investigate reading comprehension strategies. We are grateful for your goodwill and cooperation in truthfully completing the questionnaire. Please respond to each question as frankly and accurately as possible. Thank you very much!

I. Personal information (please fill in the blanks with numbers)

1. You are in group: _________ (1) GE2/08/2 _________ (2) GE2/22/4

2. Gender ___________(1) male ___________(2) female

3. How many years have you studied English? _________

II. Concepts of reading (please fill in the blanks with numbers)

1. Do you think that reading is important for language learning?

__________ (1) very important, __________ (2) important, __________ (3) not important, __________ (4) not very important.

2. Do you read English materials other than the teachers' assignments?

_______(1) yes _______(2) no

3. How many hours do you spend reading English very week? (including textbooks)

______(1) two hours ______ (2) three hours ______ (3) four hours ______ (4) over four hours.

III. The use of reading strategies

Please fill in the blanks with ( ) according to how offen you use a certain reading strategy : 1 = usually

2 = sometimes

3 = less

4 = never


When I read English material,

1 2 3 4

1.

I read a table of contents, and then read the contents

□□□□

2.

I focus on the first sentence of each paragraph for helping me understand the main points of the whole paragraph

□□□□

3.

I underline the main points when I am reading

□□□□

4.

I write Vietnamese on the margin for vocabulary words I don't understand during reading

□□□□

5.

I first skim the text then go back and read carefully

□□□□

6.

I use life experiences helping me understand the meaning of texts

□□□□

7.

I use the background knowledge of the English culture to understand the contents

□□□□

8.

I use key words or sentences to guess the main idea of the articles

□□□□

9.

After reading each paragraph, I ask myself if I understand what I read before, and paraphase the main idea, then keep reading the next paragraph

□□□□

10.

I discuss what I read with classmates

□□□□

When I do not understand a vocabulary,

11.

I check the dictionary immediately

□□□□

12.

I mark and pass it, keep reading and then go back

□□□□

13.

I use other words in the sentence to infer the meaning of vocabulary

□□□□

14.

I analyze its suffix and prefix to get its meaning

□□□□

When I do not understand a sentence,

15.

I use the context (topic, subject) to derive the meaning of each sentence

□□□□

16.

I translate word for word into Vietnamese to better understand the meaning of the sentences

□□□□

17.

I take grammar analysis (ex: finding subject and verb etc.) to understand the meaning of the sentences

□□□□

18.

I analyze the structure of sentences (ex: sample sentence, adjective clause, or adverb clause, etc.)to derive the meaning of sentence

□□□□

19.

I will analyze the verb tense (ex: past tense or future tense) or verb mood (ex: subjunctive mood or imperative mood) for better understanding

□□□□

When I don't understand (including vocabulary and sentences,) except above reading strategies,

20.

I check books (ex: grammar books or encyclopedia) for references

□□□□

21.

I go on the Internet to find related information

□□□□

22.

I ask teachers or classmates for clarification

□□□□

23.

I read the difficult parts several times

□□□□

24.

I read the contents orally several times

□□□□

25.

I will memorize the vocabulary pertaining to the contents before reading

□□□□

Appendix 2

PHIẾU ĐIỀU TRA

Phiếu điều tra này điều tra về chiến lược đọc hiểu của sinh viên. Chúng tôi rất biết ơn sự thiện chí và hợp tác của bạn hoàn thành phiếu điều tra này. Xin vui lòng trả lời những câu hỏi dưới đây một cách trung thực và chính xác nhất. Chúng tôi xin cám ơn sự giúp đỡ của các bạn.

I. Thông tin cá nhân (xin vui lòng điền vào khoảng trống theo chữ số)

1. Bạn học lớp _________ (1) K19a1_________ (2) K19a3

2. Giới tính ___________(1) nam _________ (2) nữ

3. Bạn học tiếng Anh được bao nhiêu năm? ___________

II. Các quan niệm về kỹ năng đọc hiểu (xin vui lòng điền vào khoảng trống theo chữ số)

1. Bạn có nghĩ rằng kỹ năng đọc hiểu là quan trọng trong việc học ngoại ngữ không?

____________(1) rất quan trọng, ___________(2) quan trọng, ____________(3) không quan trọng, ___________(4) rất không quan trọng.

2 .Bạn có đọc các tài liệu tiếng Anh nhiều hơn so với các bài tập mà thầy cô giao cho bạn không?

_______(có) _______(không)

3. Mỗi tuần bạn dành bao nhiêu tiếng để đọc tiếng Anh? (bao gồm cả sách giáo khoa)

________(1) hai tiếng ________ (2) ba tiếng________ (3) bốn tiếng ________(4) hơn bốn tiếng

III. Về việc sử dụng chiến lược đọc hiểu:

Xin vui lòng điền dấu ( ) vào khoảng trống theo mức độ từ 1 đến 4 là :

1 = thường xuyên sử dụng

2 = thỉnh thoảng sử dụng

3 = ít khi sử dụng

4 = chưa từng sử dụng

Khi tôi đọc tài liệu tiếng Anh,

1 2 3 4

1.

Tôi thường đọc phần mục lục, sau đó đọc phần nội dung

□□□□

2.

Tôi thường tập trung vào câu đầu của mỗi đoạn để giúp tôi hiểu ý chính của toàn đoạn

□□□□

3.

Tôi thường gạch chân những ý chính trong khi tôi đọc

□□□□

4.

Tôi thường viết những từ mới trên lề khi mà tôi không hiểu trong khi đọc

□□□□

5.

Tôi đọc lướt qua toàn đoạn, sau đó đọc chi tiết

□□□□

6.

Tôi sử dụng những kinh nghiệm của cuộc sống để giúp tôi hiểu ý nghĩa của bài đọc

□□□□

7.

Tôi sử dụng hiểu biết về nền văn hoá Anh để hiểu nội dung

□□□□

8.

Tôi sử dụng những từ hoặc những câu chính để đoán ý chính

□□□□

9.

Sau khi đọc mỗi đoạn, tôi tự hỏi liệu tôi có hiểu những gì mà tôi đã đọc ở phần trước chưa, và diễn giải bằng cách khác những ý chính, sau đó tiếp tục đọc đoạn tiếp theo

□□□□

10.

Tôi thảo luận những gì tôi đọc với bạn cùng lớp

□□□□

Khi mà tôi không hiểu từ vựng,

11.

Tôi tra từ điển ngay lập tức

□□□□

12.

Tôi đánh dấu và tiếp tục đọc, sau đó quay lại những từ vựng đó

□□□□

13.

Tôi sử dụng những từ khác ở trong câu để suy ra nghĩa của từ

□□□□

14.

Tôi phân tích phần tiền tố và hậu tố để biết nghĩa của từ

□□□□

Khi tôi không hiểu đoạn văn,

15.

Tôi sử dụng bối cảnh (tiêu đề, chủ đề) để hiểu nghĩa của mỗi đoạn

□□□□

16.

Tôi dịch từng từ ra tiếng Việt để hiểu hơn nghĩa của đoạn văn

□□□□

17.

Tôi phân tích ngữ pháp (ví dụ như tìm chủ ngữ, động từ…) để hiểu nghĩa của câu

□□□□

18.

Tôi phân tích cấu trúc của câu (ví dụ như câu mẫu, mệnh đề tính ngữ, mệnh đề trạng ngữ…) để hiểu nghĩa của câu

□□□□

19.

Tôi phân tích thời của động từ (thời quá khứ, thời tương lai) hoặc là tình thái của động từ (giả định thức hoặc mệnh lệnh thức) để hiểu hơn

□□□□

Khi tôi không hiểu (bao gồm cả từ vựng và câu), trừ những chiến lược đọc ở trên,

20.

Tôi tra sách(sách ngữ pháp hoặc tư điển bách khoa toàn thư) để tham khảo

□□□□

21.

Tôi vào mạng để tìm thông tin liên quan

□□□□

22.

Tôi hỏi thầy cô hoặc bạn bè giải thích

□□□□

23.

Tôi đọc những phần khó hiểu nhiều lần

□□□□

24.

Tôi đọc to phần nội dung nhiều lần

□□□□

25.

Tôi nhớ từ vựng gắn với phần nội dung trước khi đọc

□□□□

Appendix 3

READING

READING PASSAGE 1

VENUS

The planet Venus, named after the Roman goddess of love, is the second closest planet to the Sun (Mercury is the closest), and the second brightest natural object in the night sky (after the Moon).

From Earth, Venus is brightest just after sunset and just before dawn. Because of this, the planet is often known as the Morning Star of the Evening Star. Venus is also sometimes known as the Earth's sister, because both planets share similarities in terms of size – Venus' surface area and volume are just a little smaller than Earth's. However, scientists believe that, several billion years ago, Venus and Earth were much more similar than they are today. Back then, Venus' atmosphere was more like Earth's, and there was almost certainly water in liquid form on the surface. Over time, Venus became hotter, and this water evaporated. Today, the planet's surface is a dry dusty desert.

Above the ground on Venus are sulphuric acid clouds. These thick clouds prevent the surface of the planet being seen from Earth. Indeed, it is only in the last few decades that scientists have discovered what the surface of the planet is really like. In the early 1990s, NASA's Magellan spacecraft mapped the surface of Venus in detail for the first time. Its radar images of hills, ridges and craters are almost photographic in their quality.

Questions 1 - 3

Which THREE of the following statements are true, according to the reading passage?

NB Your answers may be giver in any order.

1 _______ 2_______ 3_______

A The Moon is the brightest natural object in the night sky.

B From Earth, Venus is at its brightest in the middle of the night.

C Venus is a slightly larger planet than Earth.

D Venus' atmosphere has changed greatly over billions of years.

E A telescope is required to see Venus' surface from Earth.

F Scientists now have a detailed map of the surface of Venus.

G The surface of Venus is almost completely flat.

Questions 4 – 10

Complete the sentences.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

4 The ancient Romans had a _____________ called Venus.

5 Only ____________ is closer to the Sun than Venus.

6 Venus has been called the _____________, the Morning Star and the Evening Star.

7 It is highly likely that there was __________________ on Venus in the past.

8 Venus is a much ___________________ planet than it used to be.

9 Venus' thick clouds are made of _________________ to create pictures of the surface of Venus.

READING PASSAGE 2

SUPERCONDUCITIVITY

In 1908, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes became the first scientist to produce liquid helium. Achieving the lowest temperatures recorded up to that point. A number of researchers that materials behaved differently at very low temperatures, and this substance was important in allowing experiments that confirmed it. Working with solid mercury, Onnes demonstrated the phenomenon of superconductivity. This is when the electrical resistance of the metal drops suddenly to zero. No energy is lost as an electric current travels through the material, making it very efficient for storing or transmitting power. Since the work done by Onnes, other superconducting materials have been discovered that can be used at higher temperatures and which are therefore more economical.

There are a number of practical applications of superconducting materials, Many of these applications are based on the fact that the materials can be made into extremely powerful electromagnets. These are used in scientific experiments to direct beams of particles. They also form part of maglev trains – trains that float a small distance above the rails because of magnetic forces. Because there is no contact between the train and the rail, this form of transport is capable of very high speeds, although it is unlikely to be in widespread use until cost drop considerably.

Questions 11 – 15

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?

Write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

11 Many people had tried to produce liquid helium before Onnes. ____________

12 Onnes was the only scientist interested in very low temperatures. ____________

13 Liquid helium was used for science at very low temperatures. ____________

14 only metals can be used as superconductors. _______

15 Superconductors that work at higher temperatures are more expensive. _____

Questions 16 – 20

Complete the summary of the second paragraph.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Superconductors are used in a variety of contexts. Very 16 __________ can be made out of superconducting materials and scientists use them in 17 _____________. In transport, maglev trains rely on the 18 ____________ produced in superconductors to raise the train above the rails, the lack of 19 __________ meaning that high velocities can be reached. The 20 ___________ of maglev systems limit their use.

Appendix E

Reading Activities Use for think-aloud Interviews

_______________________

Reading Activities for think-aloud interviews

Name - - - - - - - - Class - - - - - - - - - -

The Legislature of the United Kingdom

The main legislative body in Britain is the Parliament. It is one of the oldest representative authorities in the word. Historically, Parliament developed from the councils that in early tomes were appointed to advise the King.

The Britain Parliament consists of two houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The Queen is the formal head of Parliament. The House of Commons in an elected chamber and has more power than the House of Lords. The role of the House of Lords is restricted to revising the legislation passed by the Commons and it can only delay the enactment of some bills.

New laws can come into force when they passed through Parliament. A proposal for a new law is called a bill. According to very ancient practice, each bill must have three readings in order to become a law. The bill becomes a law or, in other words, an Act of Parliament, after it receives Royal Assent from the Queen.

Britain is a constitutional monarchy without a written constitution. In this respect, the United Kingdom is unique among nations as constitutions are usually written documents. But this doesn't mean that Britain lacks a body of constitutional laws. Some parts of the governmental system are written down in Act of Parliament, which are also called “laws” of “statutes”. Others are regulated by conventions, which are commonly accepted assumptions about the ways things should be done, mostly based on precedents. As there are none of the usual legal restraints imposed by a written constitution, Parliament is the supreme authority in Britain and legislates as it pleases subject only to Britain's obligation as a member of the European Union.

Parliament has direct control over legislation. It can make new laws, replace any of the laws already in force with other laws, turn conventions into laws, or even overturn established conventions. Other law making bodies in the country (such as local councils) exercise their power only so long as Parliament authorizes them to do so. The accountability of government to Parliament for the policy of the Government as a whole, and each minister is individually responsible for the work of his or her department. Cabinet ministers may be forced to resign by the vote of confidence in the Parliament if their actions do not meet with Parliament's approval.

Activity 1: Answer the following question

1. What is the topic of the text?

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

2. What are the historical origins of the Britain Parliament ?

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

3. What is the role of the House of Commons?

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

4. What is a bill?

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

5. Why are conventions important in the Britain governmental system, and what are they based on?

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

6. What can Parliament do with laws already in force?

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Activity 2: Say if the following statements are true or false. Write T for true and F for false. The first one done for you as an example.

7. - - - - - T - - - - The Britain Parliament is one of the oldest representative authorities in the world.

8. - - - - - - - - - The Queen choose the member of the House of Commons.

9. - - - - - - - - - A bill becomes law immediately after its third reading.

10. - - - - - - - - - Only the Queen can give Royal Assent.

11. - - - - - - - - - Britain does not have a constitution.

12. - - - - - - - - - In some cases, the European Union has authority over the Britain Parliament.

13. - - - - - - - - - Local councils exercise their power independently of Parliament.

14. - - - - - - - - - All ministers are responsible to Parliament for the policies of the Government.

Activity 3: Using the words in the text to fill in the gaps left in the following short passage.

There are two (15) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - in the Britain Parliament. They are called the House of Commons and (16) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. Britain Parliament is the legislative (17) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - of Britain, which means that it makes new (18) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - and revises existing ones. Britain is a constitutional (19) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -, so the Queen is the formal head of Parliament, but she does not have any real power; it is the with the most seats, that runs the country. Each department is headed by a (21) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - and the most important of these are together called the (22) - - - - - - - - - - - - .

APENDIX 4

Details of Think-aloud Interviews

Notes: - P stands for Interviewees

- The italicized part is the original text

- I stands for interviewer.

Interview 1: Ho Thai Khanh, 6th November 2009 (Test proficiency score: 7)

I: I see you are reading something. What are you reading?

P: I'm reading a text called The Regislature of the United Kingdom.

I: What for?

P: Mm…To do the exercises given below

I: So what is the text about?

P: I think it is about the Regislature of the United Kingdom

I: OK, how do you know that?

P: Oh, so simple. The title.

I: Good. Do you usually read something like this?

P: Yes, of course. But I mainly read in Vietnamese

I: So, when you read a text like this, what do you usually do?
P: I always look at the first sentence of each pparagraph for helping me understand the main points of the whole paragraph.

I: OK, now do the activities and describe the ways you complete them, please?

P: Yes, Regislature of the UK. I'm sure the content is about the Regislature of the UK (smile). Regislature… Question 2, orgins… Parliament…

I: What are you thinking?
P: I'm looing for these words in my dictionary…hmm… OK. That's right, as I think, the historical orgins of the British Parliament is a councils. Next, question 3,…the role of the House of Commons…oh line 7… The role of the House of Lords is restricted to revising the legislation passed by the Commons… Oh, passing the legislation.Question 4, certainly it is a new law because I see it in the line 10. Question 5,…convention…what is this?

I: What are you doing?
P: I'm looking for the meaning of “convention”, “precedent” and “assumptions”

I: Are they new words?
P: No, not all of them. I've read this words “assumptions” before but I can't remember. OK, I think may be because some parts of the govermental sysytems are written down in Acts of Parliament, but others are regualted by laws. Question 6, Parliament… can replace any of the laws already in force with other laws. Yes, Parliament.

I: Do you understand that sentence?
P: No, because I don't knoe the word “inforce”

I: OK. Now go on with the activity 2, please.

P: Yes. Question 8 is True because I think the Queen is the most powerful. Oh, wait a minute. It's False because the House of Commons is an elected chamber. Question 9, …False. It is stated in the paragraph 3. Question 10, I can answer it ‘s true. Question 11, it's False, obviously . Question 12, Oh, no…

I: What are you thinking?
P: There are many new words. I can't find the answer here. So I will pass and then go back. Question 13, I think it's False.

I: Why do you think so?
P: I see 2 words : “only” and “independently”, one in the question and one in the text. I just predict.

I: Now, I see you always read the text again when you finish one part. Why?

P: Because I need to understand the details of the text. I have to read again and again to remember it.

I: I know. You don't remember the information?
P: Yes, I need to check it again to advoid forget it.

I: Why don't you have some notes or summerise of what you read? These ways will help you remember the inforamtion.

P: I don't think about it.

I: You have just finished some questions. Are you sure you have the right answer?

P: Just some of them

I: Do you understand the text now?

P: Yes, I do

I: Do you know what help you understand the text?
P: May be I know a little about this topics before

I: When you have to deal with difficult reading text or when you're bored with your reading, do you discuss with your classmates to share the information and find out the correct answer together?
P: Yes, I do

I: Do you know it is a reading strategy

P: No, I don't even I usually do this

I: Thanks a lot.

Interview 2: Nguyen Thanh Hai, 7th Novem 2009 (Test proficiency score: 5.5)

I: I: I see you are reading something. What are you reading?

P: I'm reading a text.

I: What for?

P: Mm…To do the tasks.

I: So what is the text about?

P: I think it is about the Regislature of the United Kingdom

I: OK, how do you know that?

P: I read the title.

I: So, when you read a text like this, what do you usually do?
P: I skim over the full text first, then read the details and the required tasks.

I: Oh, what are you looking for?

P: I'm looking for the answer for question 5. Uhm... Why are…convention… (Tại sao…convention…

I: Why don't you translate the word “convention”?

P; Because it is a new word.

I: Oh, what will you do?

P: I'll check in dictionary

I: But if you don't have the dictionary or glossary with you?

P: I'll ignore. Question 6…laws…in force

I: What are you doing?

P: I'm having a quick look. OK, here… It can make new laws, replace any of the laws already in force with other laws, turn conventions into laws, or even overturn established conventions.
I: OK. Now go on with the activity 2, please.

P: Yes. I think the Queen doesn't choose the members of the House of Commons because it is an elected chamber. Question 9 is acgtually false because they mentioned in the last paragraph here … the bill becomes a law after it receives… So question 10 is true. Question 11, it's False every country has their own consitutions. Question 12…

I: What are you thinking?
P: I'm trying to translate the question and the last sentense in paragraph four. Unfortunately, there are some new words so I can't understand.So I can not answer this question.

I: Now, I see you always read the text again when you finish each part. Why?

P: Because the text too long to be able to remember it immidiately so I have to reread to find the inforamtion again.

I: Why don't you have some notes or summerise of what you read? These ways will help you remember the inforamtion.

P: Sometimes I do.

I: You have just completed the task. Are you sure you have the right answer?

P: I don't know

I: Do you understand the text now?

P: Yes, I do

I: When you have to deal with difficult reading text or when you're bored with your reading, do you discuss with your classmates to share the information and find out the correct answer together?
P: Yes, I do like to disscuss with my classmates. I don't like read in silent. I like to read aloud and disciss with my classmates.

I: Do you know it is a reading strategy

P: Reading strategy? No.

I: Do you like to ask your teacher or your classmate for help?

P: Both of them. But I always ask my friends first.

I: Why?

P: Because I'm afraid of wasting my teacher's time.

I: Afer reading each paragraph, do you ask yourself if you understand what you read before?

P: No, never.

I: Thanks a lot.

Interview 3: Nguyen Chien Thang, 7th November 2005 (Test proficiency score: 4.5)

I: I: I see you are reading something. What are you reading?

P: I'm reading a text called the Regislature of the United Kingdom

I: What for?

P: To do the exercise

I: OK, how do you know that?

P: I read the title.

I: So, when you read a text like this, what do you usually do?
P: I look through the article to get the main ideas and read the tasks to fing out the answer

I: Good. Now you have to do these exercises. Tell me what do you often do if you have this kind of exercise. Let's begin with the first exercise.

P: Yes…uhm…

I: Oh, what are you looking for?

P: I'm looking for some words that I don't know.

I: Oh, what are they?

P: A lot of words. For example: authority, restrict, ect. Now I think the topic of the text is the Legislation of the United Kingdom. Question 2, nguyên gốc lịch sử của House of common. I think it is the councils.

I: Good. How do you know that?

P: I can read in the paragraph 1.

I: OK. Let's do the question 3 and 4!

P: You can find the answer easily in the paragraph 2 and 3. Question 5…

I: What are you thinking?

P: I'm trying to translate the fourth paragraph to get the answer but I can't. It is too difficult. I'll pass. Question 6…uhm…here in the text . It can make new laws, replace any of the laws already in force with other laws, turn conventions into laws, or even overturn established conventions. Other law making bodies in the country (such as local councils) exercise their power only so long as Parliament authorizes them to do so.

I: OK. Now go on with the activity 2, please.

P: Yes. I think it's false because the Queen doesn't choose the members of the House of Commons, she just choose the members of the Lords.. Question 9 I think it's true.

I: Can you explain why?

P: Because the text says… each bill must have three resding in order to become a law So I guess it's true.

I: Where you can find it? And how do you guess?

P: I look at the word “three” in the sentence and “third” in the question (smile)

I: Good, can you explian on that? Is it stated in the text?

P: No, . But in the last paragraph, I see the Government three times.

I: Good I see you sometimes reread the text. Why?

P: I always do this because I can't remember the information.

I: Why don't you have some notes or summerise of what you read? These ways will help you remember the inforamtion.

P:I nevr do this.

I: Could you complete all the tasks?

P: No

I: Which question couldn't you answer?

P: two last questions.

I: Are you sure all your answer are correct?

P: No, I don't

I: Why don't you cooperate with your friends?

P: Yes, I do. But I just disscuss with some of them

I: Why?

P: Because I think working with the friend I know well is better.

I: Do you know it is a reading strategy

P: Reading strategy? No.

I: Do you like to ask your teacher or your classmate for help?

P: Both of them. But I always ask my teacher first.

I: Why?

P: Because I think teacher will give me the correct answer.

I: Afer reading each paragraph, do you ask yourself if you understand what you read before?

P: Yes, I do.

I: Thank you very much.

Interview 4: Bui Viet Thanh, 7th November 2005 (Test proficiency score: 8)

I: I: I see you are reading something. What are you reading?

P: I'm reading a text called the Regislature of the United Kingdom

I: What for?

P: I read it to find out the needed information to do the tasks.So the text iis about the legislature of UK.

I: OK, how do you know that?

P: I read the title and first sentence.

I: Do you often read something like this?

P: Yes, sometimes.

I: So, when you read a text like this, what do you usually do?
P: I read the text, the question and return to find out the answer.

I: Good. Now you have to do these exercises. Tell me what do you often do if you have this kind of exercise. Let's begin with the first exercise.

P: I think the topic of the text is the Legislation of the United Kingdom. Question 2, I think it is the councils because “Parliament, developform”. The meaning of “develop from” is “phát triển từ”. Question 3…House of Common…the role…

I: What are you thinking?

P: I'm looking for the answer in the text but in the text they only say the role of the House of Lords… is revising the legislation passed by the Commons. Oh, just a second. The role of House of Commons is passing the legislature.

I: OK. How do you know that?

P: I just have a guess. I don't know it's true or not. Question 4, it's quite clearly in the text. Question 5,…convention…

I: What do you think about?

P: I'm thinking about the meaning of some words: “convention”,”precedent”. I don't know these words. But I can find the answer in the text. “this doesn't mean some Britain lacks a body of constitutional laws…other regulated by convention”. So I can guess.

I: In this case if you don't have dictionary or gllosary, what do you often do?

P: I try to guess the meaning the the word I know through the other words in the sentence. I only use the dictionary as the last resort”.

I: OK. Continue with the activity 3.
P: Yes, wuestion 15, I think it is the word “Houses”, question 17, body, question 18 is the word “law”, question 19, mornarchy, question 20…uhm…question 21… I can not answer them.

I: From the question 15 to 19, you answer so quickly. But you met difficlt when answer the qustions 20-22?

P: Oh, because I can find the answer of them in the text. Question 20…oh…may be “gorvement” because I read it before. I don't know the word “departemnt” so I can't do it and question 22, of course.

I: Right. I see you read the text again and again.

P: Yes. I have to find a lot of information

I: You don't remember the information?

P: I remember some. But I check it again.

I: I see you noted and underline in the text. It's good. But do you often have some summerise what you read?

P: I never do this before. But I'll try in the next time when I have some other readings.

I: DO you understand the text?

P: Yes, I can.

I: Tell me, what help you to understand the text?

P: Uhmm… May be somethings I knew before.

I: Why don't you cooperate with your friends?

P: Yes, I do like this.

I: Do you know it is a reading strategy

P: Reading strategy? No.

I: Do you like to ask your teacher or your classmate for help?

P: Both of them.

I: Do you like to share your feeling what you read with your friend?

P: Yes, I do.

I: Thank you very much.