EMOTION STRUCTURE OF THE ISIXHOSA LANGUAGE GROUP IN SOUTH AFRICA.

ABSTRACT

Title: Emotion structure of the Isixhosa language group in South Africa.

Key Terms: Emotions, emotion structure, similarity, prototype, dimensions, GRID, prototypicality, language group, cross cultural, cultural diversity and Isixhosa.

OPSOMMING

Titel: Emosiestruktuur van die Isixhoza taalgroep in Suid-Afrika.

Sleutelterme: Emosie, emosiestruktuur, sinonieme, prototype, dimensies, GRID, prototipikaliteit, taalgroep, kruiskultureel, kulturele diversiteit en Isixhoza.

CHAPTER 1

TITLE: Emotion structure of the Isixhosa language group in South Africa.

KEYWORDS: Emotions, emotion structure, similarity, prototype, dimensions, GRID, prototypicality, language group, cross cultural, cultural diversity and Isixhosa.

INTRODUCTION

This mini-dissertation focuses on how emotions are experienced in a cross-cultural environment among the Isixhosa culture. This chapter contains the problem statement and a discussion of the research objectives, in which the general objective and specific objectives are set out. The research method is explained and a division of chapters is given.

1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

South Africa's daily workforce according to Human (2005) is represented by the ethnic minority culture groups in South Africa. The past decade has seen South Africa gone under tremendous socio-economic and political transformation, after the disintegration of the apartheid era, and moving towards a democratic diversified country (Human, 2005).

The depletion of the apartheid regime in South Africa brought forward the willingness of a newly elected government to make away with the previous indignities of the apartheid regime, and this included the development of new psychological measurements, that is free of any racial, cultural and gender discrimination (Nzimande, 1995).

Psychometric testing in South Africa prior to the depletion of the apartheid regime was seen as unfair, biased and discriminating according to Foxcroft (1997), this assumption was mainly made because the measures used in South Africa, were developed and standardised for white people only (Foxcroft, 1997). Research done by Harding and Pribram (2002) has showed that there has been little detailed research of emotions structures as part of everyday personal, cultural and political life within various cultures. According to the results found in the above mentioned literature, the conclusion can be drawn that the development of a feeling instrument for South African languages will be off tremendous worth, to the recognition of future emotion structures as part of everyday personal, cultural and political life among the diverse South African cultures and languages.

The recognition of human emotion and affective expression is influenced by many factors, including culture according to Kleinsmith, De Silva and Bianchi-Berthouze (2006). Emotions according to Church, Katigbak, Reyes and Jensen (1998) can be viewed as one of the core dimensions of the human psyche, next to motivation, cognition, and perception. According to Totterdel (n.d) emotion in the workplace have always been studied as an outcome of work; in the form of job satisfaction or job strain.

Research psychologists have begun to study the ways in which employees experience and express emotions as an integral part of their work in the recent years (Totterdel, n.d.). “For example, many organisations require their employees to display specific emotions to customers in order to enhance customer service performance” (Totterdel, n.d.). Displaying emotion in exchange for a wage can have positive and negative consequences for employers and employees in the developing of emotions (Totterdel, n.d.).

An emotion that is experienced by employees at work, such as anger and shame, can have various effects on the employee's well-being and work performance, therefore the nee d to manage emotions among different cultures and people in the workplace have emerged according to the findings of Totterdel (n.d.). Armstrong (n.d.) have identified that organisations can be seen as emotional places. This according to Armstrong (n.d.) have risen from the fact that organisations rely on human beings to function, which can be identified as emotional animals that are prone to: loving, hating, fearing, envying, pleasure and pain.

“By the same token organisations are inter-personal places and so necessarily arouse emotions that are an inevitable accompaniment to inter-personal relations: competitiveness, rivalry, collaboration, conflict, dominance and submission” (Armstrong, n.d.). For over 500 years, emotion researchers have tried to establish the dimensional gap that can be accountable for similarities and differences in emotional experience among cultures (Fontaine, Scherer, Roesch, & Ellsworth, 2007).

Previous work done by emotion researchers stipulated from facial expressions or emotion labels perceived from similarity (e.g., Fontaine, Poortinga, Setiadi, & Suprapti, 2002; Schlosberg, 1952; Shaver, Schwarts, Kirson, & O'Conner, 1987) or from the individual differences that is experienced in verbal descriptions of emotional experiences (e.g., Yik, Russell, & Feldman-Barrett, 1999), and it lead to the fact that the dimensions have often been derived in an theoretical manner according to Fontaine, Scherer, Roesch and Ellsworth (2007).

This past decade have shown a lot of interest in the research on emotion (Berry, Poortinga, Segall, & Dasen, 2002). Recent findings have shown the role of emotional and intuitive processes in human decision making, which lead to the assumption that emotions are central to the clarification of basic problems and to interpersonal relationships (Verez Garcia, & Ostrosky-Solis, 2006). Studies done by Shaver et al (1987) on accepted categories of emotions suggest an emotion structure to familiarise people with various emotions experienced by the common population. Categories of natural objects or events, including emotions, are formed as a result of repeated experiences and become organized around prototypes (Rosch, 1978); the interrelated set of emotion categories becomes organised within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy. Fehr and Russell (1984) identifies the emotion hierarchy as : love, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and perhaps, surprise, which cab be utilized as a useful tool for making everyday distinctions among emotions, and these overlap substantially with the examples mentioned most readily when people are asked to name emotions. Every human being according to Berry et al. (2002) has an idea what emotion is, because everybody experiences it, however Ekman and Davidson (1994) stated that emotion concepts and theoretical approaches vary widely.

The biggest question arises among studies of cross-cultural environments whether it is possible to find a balance between emotions as psychological state that seemingly are invariant across cultures, and emotions as social constructions that differ in fundamental ways across cross-cultural environments (Berry et al., 2002).

Berry et al. (2002) found that emotion as a social construct can be stipulated as a “culture state”, if defined explains that, different emotions can be found among different cultures according to what the cultures experience. This according to Berry et al. (2002) is supported by the fact that emotion is not a singular state of the organism, but is made up of different processes, as the evaluation of the situation and the affinity to act in a certain way. South-Africa's cultural diversity, with 11 official languages form and ideal context where the impact of emotion on culture can identified through thorough research.

To investigate the impact of culture on emotion, one has to identify the similarities of emotions as they are encoded in the native languages within the specific culture. Studying emotion structures and the meaning thereof, has both logical and theoretical importance, which will allow the meaningful characterisation of emotions in terms of basic emotion prototypes through hierarchical classification of expressed emotion types (Shaver, Schwartz, Kirson & O'Conner 1987; Watson & Clark 1997) within South Africa's diverse cultural environment.

To determine the emotion words meaning, researchers need to realise that this step is of highest importance, because of its necessity to establish whether there are similarities and culture specificities in the meaning of emotion words across cultures (Fontaine, Luyten, de Boeck, Corveleyn, Fernandez, Herrera, Ittzes, & Tomcsanyi, 2006). Emotion words according to Church, Katigbak, Reyes and Jensen (1998) need to be defined in order to understand emotions that is represented in the every-day life of the culture, because of the cultures language being susceptible to culture dynamics and the prototypicality of the different emotion words in the culture.

Within a cultural group, the cognitive structure of emotions can be conceptualized as the cognitive representation of differences and similarities between emotion terms (Shaver, Schwartz, Kirson, & O'Connor, 1987). Interrelationships within cultures can be overviewed and studied, because of any language's limited vocabulary (Fontaine, Poortinga, Setiadi, & Markam, 2002). Moreover, (Levy, 1984) found that as emotion process or aspects thereof deemed relevant within a culture it is likely that emotion terms can be coded into emotion terms. Fontaine et al (2002) also found that emotion processes are being resembled by the cognitive representation of emotion terms. For example, studies done by Frijda (1987) have shown that the number of appraisals and the number of action tendencies shared by pairs of emotions closely relate to the cognitive similarity between corresponding emotion terms within cross-cultural environments.

According to Berry et al. (2002) a cross-cultural study need to be defined as the “similarities and differences in individual psychological functioning in various cultural and ethno cultural groups; of relationships between psychological variable and socio-cultural, ecological and biological variables; and of ongoing changes in these variables.”

Cross-cultural emotion research is of major interest for both cross-cultural psychology and for emotion research in the general (ICCRA, 2007a):

1. Emotions can be characterised as basic human processes which have the primal function to detect events that are of any relevance to the concerns raised of the organism and to prepare for appropriate action according to ICCRA (2007a). Emotions offer an interesting perspective for doing research on culture, which will lead to the arousal of specific emotions by those events that can be considered as particularly revealing for the concerns of a culture and the interpretation of its daily environment (ICCRA, 2007a).

2. Cross-cultural emotion research according to ICCRA (2007a) can also contribute to general emotion research. Previous research have shown that “cross-cultural emotion research is characterised by the dichotomy between universalistic and relativistic conceptualisations of emotions, with the former focusing on the biological innateness of the emotion process and latter focusing on the embeddedness of emotions within specific cultural systems” according to the findings of ICCRA (2007a).

The research question at the moment that is being raised in studies of culture and emotion is: if it is possible that emotions can be universal or culture-specific, although these studies haven't been fruitful nor defensible (ICCRA, 2007a). “The research question rather is at which stage universal aspects of emotional functioning turn into culturally-moulded aspects. Answers to this research question are revealing for the flexibility and plasticity of the emotion processes, and are thus of interest for general emotion research” ICCRA (2007a).

Extensive research have been done by emotion psychologists over the previous decades, which have brought forward, that basic conclusions can be made about the cross-cultural similarity and the idea of basic emotions among different cultures (Church et al., 1998; Church, Katigbak, Reyes, & Jensen 1999; Classen 1997; Herrman 1981; Izard 1994; Mesquita, Frijda, & Scherer 1997; & Russel 2003). Previous research have shown that similarities among emotion structures from various cultures have brought forward that people's semantic concepts influence the words they use to explain their emotions (Russel, 1980, 1989; Watson & Tellegen, 1985; Zevon & Tellegen, 1982). Emotions according to Ekaman (2003) determine the quality of human life.

Emotions occur in every relationship we have, in the workplace, our friendships, family-related matters and in our most cherished relationships according to Ekman (2003). Emotions lead us into ways that we think are realistic and appropriate, which can be awfully regretted afterwards (Ekman, 2003).

In a study done on a population of five cultures - Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Japan, and the United States - these cultures where asked to judge what emotion was shown in each facial expression, the majority of the population agreed stating that these facial expressions can be identified and seen as universal (Ekman, Sorenson, & Friesen, 1969). Izard (1971) found the same results in a study on different cultures, that facial expressions can be identified and seen as universal.

Psycho physiological processes and other bodily events such as facial expressions have been studied as concomitants of internal states experienced as emotions among cultures (Berry et al., 2002). Previous studies according to Berry et al. (2002) haven't made it clear if any relationship exists between self-reports of feeling states an underlying processes, although many previous research have showed that commonly established separate emotions such as happiness, anger, fear, and sadness has not been clearly established (Cacioppo & Tassinary, 1990). However according to Berry et al. (2002) theories do reflect that emotions among cross-cultural environments can be associated with biological processes, characteristic of the human being. Therefore it is not surprising that studies have been done across cultures pursuing similarities in emotional life (Berry et al., 2002).

The theoretical conceptualization of emotions consists of a set of six components (Ellsworth & Scherer, 2003; Niedenthal, Krauth-Gruber, & Ric, 2006; Scherer, 2005): (a) appraisals of events, (b) psycho physiological changes (bodily sensations), (c) motor expressions (face, voice, and gestures), (d) action tendencies, (e) subjective experiences (feelings), and (f) emotion regulation. Fontaine, Scherer, Roesch and Ellsworth (2007) made use of a semantic-profile (Scherer, 2005), asking three different Indo European language groups, which consisted of a English, French and Dutch population to evaluate 24 prototypical emotion terms on scales representing 144 features (GRID-measurement) that represent activity in all six of the major components of emotion (Ellsworth & Scherer, 2003) to obtain definitive evidence regarding the optimal low-dimensional space (Fontaine, Scherer, Roesch, & Ellsworth, 2007). Fontaine, Scherer and Roesch (2006) identified emotion words in general language that gradually refer to appraisals, psycho-physiological changes, expressive facial, vocal, and bodily expressions, action tendencies, subjective experiences, and regulation efforts, which was based purely on the componential emotion theory.

The componential emotion theory is about identifying the transition of universals into culture-specificities in the semantic fields of emotion across linguistic and cultural groups. Based on an extensive review of the general and cross-cultural emotion literature, a GRID has been constructed consisting of 24 emotion terms and 144 emotion characteristics. The 24 emotion terms are representative of the emotion domain in Western languages. Participants are asked to evaluate to what extent each emotion characteristic can be inferred when an emotion term is used in their own cultural group (ICCRA, 2007b).

The componential emotion theory has four concrete goals, namely (1) testing whether the basic assumption of the componential emotion theory also applies to the semantic field of emotions, (2) identifying cross-cultural similarities and differences in the underlying dimensional structure of the emotion domain in general and of the specific emotion components, (3) constructing a short instrument for evaluating the meaning equivalence of emotion terms and emotion characteristics, and (4) constructing a world atlas of emotion terms (ICCRA, 2007b).

The focus of this study is firstly to identify the relevant and representative emotion words in the Isixhosa language group based on free listing of emotions. It is important to determine what emotion words mean across this cultural language group, and whether there are universals and culture-specificities in the meaning of emotion words with other cultures in South Africa.

Secondly, the prototypicality of emotion words need to be established in order to understand emotions represented in every day life within a specific cultural environment of the Isixhosa language. The primary objective of this research study is to investigate the emotion lexicon of the Isixhosa language group in South Africa.

Based on the above-mentioned description of the problem statement, the following research questions arise:

* What is the relationship between emotion and culture according to the literature?

* What are the relevant and representative emotion words in the Isixhosa language group?

* What are the relevant and representative features for each emotion component (such as appraisals, action tendencies, and subjective experiences) that have been encoded in this cultural group?

* What are the extents to which the emotion words refer to specific positions on each of the emotion features in the Isixhosa language group?

* What recommendations can be made for future research and practice?

* Is the measuring instrument of emotion and culture the GRID valid and reliable?

1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The research objectives are divided into general and specific objectives.

1.2.1 General objective

The general objective of this research is to study the manifestation of the emotion lexicon within the Isixhosa language group in South Africa. This will be done in order to identify the emotion lexicon, to identify the emotion features, and to study the relationship between emotion words and emotion features in this cultural group.

1.2.2 Specific objectives

The specific objectives of this research are:

* To determine the relationship between emotion and culture in a sample of the Isixhosa language group.

* To determine the relevant and representative emotion words in the Isixhosa language group.

* To determine what the relevant and representative features for each emotion component (such as appraisals, action tendencies, and subjective experiences) that has been encoded in the Isixhosa language group.

* To determine the extent to which the emotion words refer to specific positions on each of the emotion features in the Isixhosa language group.

* To determine the reliability and validity of the measuring instrument for emotion and culture the GRID.

* To make recommendation for future research and practice

1.3 RESEARCH METHOD

This research method consists of a short literature review and an empirical study. The results obtained will be presented in a research article.

1.3.1 Literature review

A complete review regarding research on emotion, emotion structure and the prototypicality thereof, and the cultural context of emotion is done.

1.3.2 Empirical study

The empirical study consists of the research design, participants, procedure and the data analysis in order to achieve the research objectives.

1.3.2.1 Research design

This research study can be classified as descriptive and explorative. According to Mouton and Marais (1992) the aims of exploratory and descriptive research designs are to:

• Gain new insight into a phenomenon,

• undertake a preliminary investigation prior to conducting a more structured study of the phenomenon,

• clarify the central concepts and constructs of the phenomenon,

• determine priorities for future research,

• and to develop a new hypothesis about an existing phenomenon.

According to Mouton and Marais (1992) an exploratory study is relevant when a relatively unknown research area is undertaken by the researcher. In this study the exploratory method is chosen in order to gain new insight, to discover new ideas and increase the knowledge of the emotion structure of the Isixhosa language group in South Africa.

1.3.2.2 Participants

The study population of the first phase (Free listing of emotion terms) consisted of a convenience sample of Isixhosa speaking people (N=134) from the Eastern Cape Province. In terms of gender, 53,7% (n=72) were men and 46,3% (n=62) were women. 73,9% of the group were between the ages of 18 and 27, where 21,7% were between 28 and 37 years of age. The highest qualification for this group was 64,2% with a Gr12 qualification, 21,7% had a Gr12 qualification with exemption and 7,5% had a tertiary qualification.

The study population of the second phase (Prototypicality ratings of the Extended English Emotion List) consisted of a convenience sample of Language Experts in the spesific indigenous languages (N=30). The sample included only black groups (100%) and consisted of the following cultural groups: Sepedi (n=10), Xitsonga (n=10) and Tshivenda (n=10) speaking language experts. In terms of gender, 53,3% (n=14) were men and 46,7% (n=16) were women. 20% of the group were between the ages of 20 and 29, where 40% were between 30 and 39 years of age. 40% of the group were older than 40 years. 100% of the group had post graduate qualifications.

The study population of the third phase (Similarity Rating Task) consisted of a convenience sample of entry level police applicants (N=550) from the South African Police Services. The sample included only black groups (100%) and consisted of the following cultural groups: Sepedi (n=185), Xitsonga (n=202) and Tshivenda (n=163) speaking applicants. In terms of gender, 54,5% (n=300) were men and 45,5% (n=250) were women. 91,5% of the group were between the ages of 18 and 29, where 8,5% were older than 29 years. The entry-level qualification for the police is grade 12, and for 85,5% of the group, this was their highest qualification, while 14,5% had further tertiary qualifications.

1.3.2.3 Procedure

The project has two phases:

Phase 1: Free listing task

This phase will be done in four main parts:

Part 1: Generating prototypical emotion words

Sample sizes of 120 participants are asked to write down as many emotion words as they can think of during 10 minutes. The frequency of each emotion word will be computed and emotion words that have been reported with a frequency of at least five times will be withhold for further study. After translation, convergence in frequency of each emotion term is investigated across the emotion lexicon of the Isixhosa language group.

Part 2: Prototypicality, clarity, frequency, intensity ratings

To assure comparability, all emotion words generated in part 1 are translated to English and the full list is then back-translated to the native language Isixhosa. The full list is extended with emotion words from emotion lists from Western and cross-cultural research (Shaver, Schwartz, Kirson, & O'Connor 1987). Within the language group 6 - 10 cultural experts will rate the prototypicality, clarity, frequency and intensity of all emotion words in the list.

Prototypicality: How prototypical is the word for the concept of "emotion?"

Clarity: If someone uses this word in your language, how well do people understand what is meant by it?

Frequency: How frequently do you have each of the emotional experiences?

Intensity: Think of a recent emotional experience: How well does the emotion word describe what you felt during that emotional experience?

Based on the above, the internal structure of the frequency and the intensity ratings can be investigated. Based on this information a limited set of emotion words is selected that are relevant and representative of the emotion structure of the Isixhosa language group. A common stem will be selected which is extended with culture-specific emotion words.

Part 3: Meaning similarity between emotion terms

The aim of this study is to identify the meaning similarity between emotion terms from clustering the 50 emotion terms in a limited set (six or seven) of emotion words. Pairs of emotion words are judged for similarity in meaning on a scale going from completely opposite in meaning up to identical in meaning. In the cultural group 120 participants each judge the pair wisely to distinguish any similarity for 500 pairs of emotion words. The similarity of each pair is judged by 30 participants. Across the 30 participants the average similarity is computed for each pair of emotion terms. A hierarchical cluster analysis is computed for the similarity matrix. For scientific interest, also multidimensional scaling is applied. The expectation is that a three- to four- dimensional structure will be recovered in the Isixhosa language group.

Phase 2: Geneva Grid

Participants will rate four emotions chosen from a set of 24 in terms of 144 features. Using a 9-point scale (ranging from "extremely unlikely (1) to "extremely likely (9)"). Participants will be asked to rate the likelihood that each of the 144 emotion features could be inferred when a person from the culture group use the emotion term to describe an emotional experience.

1.3.2.4 Data analysis

Phase 1: Free listing task

Part 1: The data consists of a number of different emotion words reported by the participants.

Analyses: Analysis will be done by computing the frequency with which each of the emotion words were reported. All the words that are reported by at least 1 in 30 participants are retained.

Part 2: Prototypicality ratings

The data consists of the ratings of prototypicality for the concept of emotion by a number (approximately 50) of participants.

Analyses: Again the Cronbach's alpha is computed, removing participants with a very idiosyncratic understanding (less than 0,40 participant total correlation) and then averaging the scores across all remaining participants. The 100 emotion words which are most prototypical are retained.

Part 3: Similarity ratings of emotion words retained in Part 2

Data: Pairwise similarity ratings between emotion terms, e.g. joy and happiness (in total 100 participants per group are needed, with each participant rating 500 pairs of emotion terms.)

Analyses: Compute reliabilities and remove participants with an idiosyncratic understanding. The pairwise similarities are then averaged across participants. The score for each pair will be based on about 30 participants judging a certain set of emotion pairs. These sets are then combined into one matrix on which Multidimensional Scaling is then applied which will produce either a three or four dimensional picture.

Phase 2: Geneva Grid

Data: Participants (n = 120) groups of four emotion terms on 144 emotion features per group.

Analysis: The reliability of the pattern per emotion word on 144 emotion features will be computed: The Cronbach's alpha is computed, with the 144 emotion features as the observations and all the participants that rated the emotion words as the variables. Participants with a word total correlation of lower than 0,40 are removed. They are considered to have a very idiosyncratic understanding of the word and are therefore removed. A GRID will then be computed of 24 emotion words by 144 emotion features, by averaging the scores across all participants that are retained after step 1. Principal Component Analyses will then be performed on the GRID of 24 by 144.

This data analysis will provide the dimensional emotion structure of the Isixhosa language group of South Africa in terms of multidimensional scaling.

1.4 CHAPTER DIVISION

Chapter 1: Problem statement and Literature review

Chapter 2: Article: Emotion structure of the Isixhosa language.

Chapter 3: Conclusions, limitations and recommendations

1.5 CHAPTER SUMMARY

In this chapter the problem statement and motivation for the research was discussed. The purpose of the research was formulated; the methodology of the research outlined and the methods used for statistical analysis were described.

References

Armstrong, D. (n.d.). Emotions in organisations: Disturbance or intelligence? Tavistock consultancy service. Retreived March 13, 2008 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ispso.org/Symposia/London/2000armstrong.htm.

Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (2002). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications, 2nd ed. Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Cacioppo, J. T., & Tassinary, L. G. (1990). Inferring psychological significance from physiological signals. American Psychologist, 45, 16 - 28.

Church, A. T., Katigbak, M. S., Reyes, J. A. S. & Jensen, S. M. (1998). Language and organisation of Filipino emotion concepts: comparing emotion concepts and dimensions across cultures. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 63-92.

Church, A. T., Katigbak, M. S., Reyes, J. A. S. & Jensen, S. M. (1999). The structure of affect in a non-western culture: Evidence for cross-cultural comparability. Journal of Personality, 67, 505-534.

Claassen, N. C. W. (1997). Culture differences, politics and test bias in South Africa. European Review of applied Psychology, 47, 297-307.

Ekman, P., Sorenson, E. R., & Friesen, W. V. (1969). Pan-cultural elements in facial displays of emotions. Science, 164: 86 - 88.

Ekman, P., & Davidson, R. J. (1994). The nature of emotions: Fundamental questions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ekman, P. (2003). Emotions revealed: Recognizing faces and feelings to improve communication and emotional life. Henry Holt and Company: NY.

Ellsworth, P. C., & Scherer, K. R. (2003). Appraisal processes in emotion. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook o effective sciences (pp. 572 - 595). New York: Oxford University press.

Fehr, B., & Russell, J.A. (1984). Concept of emotion viewed from a prototype perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 464-486.

Frijda, N.H. (1987). Emotion, cognitive structure, and action tendency. Cognition and Emotion, 1, 115-143.

Fontaine, J. R. J., Poortinga, Y. H., Setiadi., & Suprapti, S. M. (2002). Cognitive structure of emotion in terms of Indonesia and The Netherlands. Cognition and Emotion, 16, 16 - 86.

Fontaine, J. R. J., Luyten, P., de Boeck, P., Corveleyn, J., Fernandez, M., Herrera, D., Ittzes, A. & Tomcsanyi, T. (2006). Untying the Gordian knot of guilt and shame: The structure of guilt and shame reactions based on situation and person variation in Belgium, Hungary and Peru. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 273-292.

Fontaine, J. R. J., Scherer, K. R., Roesch, E. B., & Ellsworth, P. C. (2007). The world of emotions is not two-dimensional. Psychological Science, 18, 1050 - 1057.

Foxcroft, C. D. (1997). Psychological testing in South Africa: Perspectives regarding ethical and fair practices. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 13, 229-235.

Harding, J., & Pribram, E. D. (2002). The power of feeling: Locating emotions in culture. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 5, 407 - 426.

Herrmann, D. J. & Raybeck, D. (1981). Similarities and differences in meaning in six cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 12, 194-206.

Human, L. (1995). Diversity management: For business success. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

ICCRA. (2007a). What is cross-cultural emotion research? Retrieved February 18, 2008, from the World Wide Web: http://www.iccra.net.

ICCRA. (2007b). The Grid Project: Revealing the meaning structure of the emotion domain across languages and cultural groups. Retrieved February 18, 2008, from the World Wide Web: http://www.iccra.net/grid-project.

Izard, C. (1971). The face of emotion. Appleton-Century-Crofts: NY.

Izard, C. E. (1994). Innate and Universal Facial Expressions: Evidence from developmental and cross-cultural research. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 288-299.

Kleinsmith, A., De Silva, P. R., & Bianchi-Berthouze, N. (2006). Cross-cultural differences in recognizing affect from body posture. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on 17 February 2008: www.ebscohost.co.za.

Levy, R.I. (1984). The emotions in comparative perspective. In K.R. Scherer & P. Ekman (Eds.), Approaches to emotion (pp. 397-412). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Mesquita, B., Frijda, N. H. & Scherer, K. R. (1997). Culture and emotion. In: J.W. Berry, P.R Dasen & T.S. Saraswathi (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Basic Processes and Human Development (p255-297). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Mouton, S., & Marais, H. C. (1992). Basiese Begrippe: Metodologie van die geestes-wetenskappe. Pretoria: HSRC.

Niedenthal, P., Krauth-Gruber, S., & Ric, R. (2006). Psychology of emotion. New York: Psychology Press.

Nzimande, B. (1995). Culture fair testing. To test or not to test? Paper presented at the Psychometrics Congress. Pretoria, South Africa.

Rosch, E. (1978). Principles of categorization. In E. Rosch & B.B. Lloyd (Eds.), Cognition and categorization (pp. 27-48). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Russel, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161 - 1178.

Russel, J. A. (1989). Measures of emotion. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research and experience (Vol. 4, pp. 83 - 111). Toronto: Academic Press.

Russel, J. A. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review, 110, 145-172.

Scherer, K. R. (2005). What are emotions? And how can they be measured? Social Science Information, 44, 693 - 727.

Schlosberg, H. (1952). The description of facial expressions in terms of two dimensions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44, 229 - 237.

Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D. & O'Conner,C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1061-1086.

Totterdel, P. (n.d.). Emotion at work. Institute of work psychology. Economic and social research council. Retreived March 13, 2008 from the World Wide Web: http://esrccoi.group.shef.ac.uk/research/emotion.shtml.

Velez Garcia, A. E., & Ostrosky-Solis, F. (2006). From morality to moral emotions. International Journal of Psychology, 41, 348 - 354.

Watson, D. & Clark, L.A. (1997). Measurement and mismeasurement of mood: Recurrent and emergent issues. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 267-296.

Watson, D. & Tellegen, A. (1985). Towards a consensual structure of mood. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 219 - 235.

Yik, M. S. M., Russell, J. A., & Feldman-Barrett, L. (1999). Structure of self-reported current affect: Integration and beyond. Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 77, 600 - 619.

Zevon, M. A. & Tellegen, A. (1982). The structure of mood change: An ideographic/nomothetic analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 111 - 122.

Chapter 2
Research Article

EMOTION STRUCTURE OF THE ISIXHOSA LANGUAGE GROUP IN SOUTH AFRICA.

ABSTRACT

OPSOMMING

Introduction

Emotion researches over the past few years have consistently showed emotional experiences are connected to a good mental health and life satisfaction (Greenberg & Safran, 1989 & Pennebaker, 1997 & Svetlana, 2006). Emotion according to Svetlana (2006) has been researched in many ways in an attempt to identify factors that will contribute to a better life satisfaction. Some researchers have identified emotions as biologically based, which implicate that emotions are therefore determined by personal, biological, and hence dispositional factors (Ekman & Davidson, 1994; Izard 1993; LeDoux, 1996; Panksepp, 1998 & Svetlana, 2006). Harré (1996), Kemper (1990) and Wierzbicka (1994) however are of the opinion through their research that emotions are strictly social constructions. Cultural and language factors give and indication to the manner in which individuals evaluate and react to emotions and that the socialization of emotions develop through selective reinforcement, modelling, and semantics (Wierzbicka, 1994). Further research on emotion have identified that the individual experience of emotions is mediated by or socially developed at the more complex levels beyond just the reflex by cross cultural factors such as the understanding of emotions, expectations, and social norms (Frijda, 1986 & Mayne & Bonanno, 2001).

Therefore an important research question to ask is whether or not all emotions are experienced, expressed and represented similarly across cultural borders and what effect does emotions have on the current workplace itself. Hillman (1997) has identified that the concept of emotion has become an integral part of our time.

Armstrong (n.d.) have identified that organisations can be seen as emotional places. This according to Armstrong (n.d.) have risen from the fact that organisations rely on human beings to function, which can be identified as emotional animals that are prone to: loving, hating, fearing, envying, pleasure and pain. These emotions according to Nicholl (2008) are brought into play through interpersonal interaction and relationships between human beings. Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (1999) have identified emotion as one of the key factors which forms the basis for all social transactions; therefore could be viewed as one of the key social skills human beings need to interact on a daily basis.

Current research shows that emotion is one of the most researched paradigms on the International arena at the moment (Nicholl, 2008). Human beings on a daily basis are guided by their emotions (Schwarz & Clore, 1996), which could entertain the manner in which we manage and guide other people in the workplace. Being aware and intact with your emotions according to Du Toit (2009) can bring human beings closer to each other emotionally and/or alienate them from each other. Further research done by Du Toit (2009) have shown that emotion could be drawn to all spheres of life - from social interaction with a pet, the cashier in the grocery store and your fellow employees at work.

Du Preez (2008) and Hochschild's (1983) research have identified that emotion plays an integral part in the workplace, especially interlinked with people working in the service work where the quality of interactions between employees and clients is necessary. Employees in a client serviced environment have to regulate different emotions on a daily basis in order to comply with the emotional capacity that is congruent with their job requirement (Zammuner & Galli, 2005). Emotions with regards to work and its organisational aspects are very well researched; however not much published theory or even practical assessment tools for emotions at work have been researched in the past (Briner, 1999). Research done by Briner have shown that it would be very limitin to the workplace if researchers only focus on stress and satisfaction as these concepts disclose a general explanation of feeling “good” or “bad” (Du Toit, 2009). Therefore it could be hypothesised that emotion at work within South Africa generates the need for further emotion research in line with the multiculturalism South Africa face on a day-to-day basis.

It is therefore a necessity to ascertain within the culturally diverse South Africa whether or not all emotion words or concepts exist and/or is expressed in similar ways within the various language groups (Nicholl, 2008). Research done by Mesquita, Frijda, and Scherer (1997) and Shipper, Kincaid, Rotondo and Hoffman (2003) have shown that cultural variations do exist within emotions. In South Africa it will be very important to recognize the role emotions play in communicating in a culturally diverse society (Nicholl, 2008 & Rowe, 2005).

Through this research we will need to focus on the basic dilemma of the cross cultural psychological view on Universalism and Relativism in emotions in a South African context. Little research has been done to find if emotion have a cross cultural psychological view on Universalism and Relativism within South Africa; this however reiterate the necessity to further research on emotion based on the cross cultural psychological view and the effects thereof. Doing more research on the universals and culture-specifics in emotions in the South African context according to Nicholls (2008) will provided a better opportunity for companies to identify the definite impact of culture on emotions within their current operational structures.

Nemetz and Christensen (1996) have identified that a multicultural society are suggesting that cultural diversity is based on racial, ethnic, gender, or physical differences; however it has further been identified that exhortations to diversify the workplace seem somewhat inadequate, given the confusion surrounding the term “multiculturalism”. This confusion will in turn have an effect on organisations that wants to diversify rapidly by hiring consultants to “take care of the problem” (Rosset & Bickham, 1994). Two basic issues surrounding multiculturalism have been researched and defined by Nemetz and Christensen (1996).

The first issue stems from the multiculturalism society where the most grounded differences between individuals view ideal or desirable states of multiculturalism in today's society and how these ideals have evolved or changed over the last 30 years (Nemetz & Christensen, 1996). Integration and equal treatment according to Nemetz and Christensen (1996) have once been prescribed by previous research for the relief of racism, sexism, and other forms of multiculturalism discrimination; the current prescribed prescriptions have become much more complex and confusing.

The second issue according Nemetz and Christensen (1996) stems from the belief that the current organisationally sanctioned diversity programs are only one source of influence for individuals in the workplace. Employees at the moment are influenced by sources such as “emotion” of their own choosing, which may or may not reflect the view the organisation have on the multiculturalism workplace (Nemetz & Christensen, 1996).

The research done by Nemetz & Christensen (1996) have explored and recognised that diversity programs within multiculturalism organisations will cease to exist, regardless of their honourable intention or efficacy. This further strengthen the validity that the multiculturalism society and organisation need to be researched with regards to other effects that might have an effect on the culturally diverse environment we live in and the different views we have regarding diversity such as the emotion lexicon of different cultures within a culturally diverse society such as South Africa.

This study will provide a better view on the influence of the culture on emotions as well as an empirically reviewed report regarding the different psychological tests focusing on emotion across the South African cultures taking into account the cultural diversity (Nicholl, 2008). The hypothesis was drawn by Du Toit (2009) that in depth research needs to be done on emotions in the workplace to develop and implement better intervention strategies in organisations. South African organisations through this study will be able to provide emotional assistance to their diversified workplace through improved culturally specific emotion assessments; as employers will now better understand the differential emotional lexicon of their company. Nicholls (2009) have identified that it is of the utmost importance to determine the semantic equivalence for emotion lexicon across cultures as this will enable emotion researchers in developing culturally specific emotional competence instruments and assessment tools in order to understand the impact of culture on emotion within the South African context. It is therefore a necessity to determine what emotion words mean across languages and cultural groups in order to identify further if there are any universals and culture-specificities in the meaning of emotion words (Fontaine et al., 2006).

In the remainder of the literature review the importance of emotions in the workplace and emotion research will be highlighted with an overview on different emotion definitions, theories and dimensions researched and identified by previous emotion researchers. The role of emotion and culture will be investigated in order to identify the effect and/or difference these two structures have with each other in order to provide further argument for other emotion researchers to identify further if there are any universals and culture-specificities in the meaning of emotion words in a multiculturalists society.

Emotions and especially the research of emotion structures in the workplace are becoming more and more important in organisational behaviour research these days. Research psychologists have begun to study the ways in which employees experience and express emotions as an integral part of their work in the recent years (Totterdel, n.d.). “For example, many organisations require their employees to display specific emotions to customers in order to enhance customer service performance” (Totterdel, n.d.). Displaying emotion in exchange for a wage can have positive and negative consequences for employers and employees in the developing of emotions (Totterdel, n.d.).

Poskey (2006) found through research that managers and business executives often end up asking the following questions: Why do certain employees get into accidents more often than others? Why do they violate company ethics and policies? Why do they ignore the rules of the organisation? Why do they use illegal drugs while on the job? Why do some people cause conflict while others are so gifted at resolving it? Why do they put self-interest ahead of organisational values? Why do some salespeople build large books of new businesses with ease while others struggle to do so even though they seem to be putting forth the required effort?

According to Poskey (2006) the answer too many of the questions above would be in the way people perceive or manage their own emotions rather than the individual personality type. The traditional view on management is to try to be rational and logical about their managerial responsibilities (Mitchell, 2006). According to research done by Mitchell (2006) managers in our time are being paid to think, decide and act intelligently because feelings and worries are not part of management's responsibilities anymore. This approach creates negativity in the workplace, although it seems to be sensible it's not very affective (Mitchell, 2006). Successful leadership according to Mitchell (2006) is characterised by the integration of rational and emotional styles of management; problems could be spurred by the incorrect use of these skills and this could lead to ineffective management. Mitchell (2006) depicts that the ineffective use of emotion skills by management can cause a ripple effect of management to derail within the business world.

Lennick and Kiel (2005) identified that when destructive emotions and moral viruses threaten, one's emotional skills help one stay connected with one's values. Taking charge of your emotions includes gathering all emotional resources to manage the rising demands in the workplace and your personal life (Lennick & Kiel, 2005). Mitchell (2006) identified that if an individual prepares him/herself for daily emotional challenges, the individual will be emotionally prepared to face the challenge at hand. According to Mitchell (2006) it is critical to rehearse emotional challenges to have an effective performance at work. If an individual cannot identify their feelings they will have no basis to measure other people's feelings (Mitchell, 2006). Much of reading the feelings of others is through reflection and osmosis (Ryback, 1998). Ryback (1998) also identified in previous research that knowing ones own personal feelings on a continuing basis is the key to being sensitive to others emotions.

According to Ryback (1998) a person should be able to read other peoples emotions, before he/she could mange that person effectively. If this could be done, the manager will gain the employees of that organisations trust and loyalty and as a result their devotion (Ryback, 1998). The tone of the emotionally intelligent executive is set by speaking directly, forthrightly, clearly and most importantly when appropriate (Ryback, 1998). Cooper (1998) identified that when emotions in the workplace are acknowledged and guided constructively, they enhance intellectual performance among employees.

An employee with the capability to adapt their emotions in the workplace would be able to manage their emotional impulses, communicate with fellow employees, manage change well, solve problems, and use humour to build relationships in tense situations (Poskey, 2006). Employees with these characteristics according to Poskey (2006) tend to have more empathy, remain optimistic even in the face of adversity, and are gifted at educating and persuading in as sales situation and resolving customer complaints in a customer service role. According to Poskey (2006) top performers and weak performers in the workplace are separated by their “clarity” in thinking and “composure” in stressful and chaotic situations. Emotions occur in every relationship we have, in the workplace, our friendships, and family-related matters and in our most cherished relationships according to Ekman (2003). Emotions lead us into ways that we think are realistic and appropriate, which can be awfully regretted afterwards (Ekman, 2003).

In a study done on a population of five cultures - Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Japan, and the United States - these cultures where asked to judge what emotion was shown in each facial expression, the majority of the population agreed stating that these facial expressions can be identified and seen as universal (Ekman, Sorenson, & Friesen, 1969). Izard (1971) found the same results in a study on different cultures, that facial expressions can be identified and seen as universal.

It has been identified by Russel (2003) that there are no formal criteria that depicts or constitute an emotion. Defining the term emotion have created a lot of confusion between researchers such as Russel, Feldman Barrett (1999) and Scherer (2005); which is demonstrated by questions such as:

- Are emotions conceptualized as behaviorally (actions and action tendencies) based, cognitive configurations, drives, impulse reactions, attitudes, instincts, sensations or feelings?

- Is emotion socially or biologically derived?

2.2 Emotions definitions, dimensions and components

Various fields and sciences such as psychotherapy depicts the significant role of emotions over time: the abreaction and catharsis of repressed emotions in the method of Freud, the emotionally toned complex in Jung, the motional basic needs in Horney, are all concepts essential to the theory an practise of psychotherapy (Hillman, 1997). Emotion according to Hillman (1997) has been playing an integral part and role in the body-mind relation of the twentieth century. If we led ourselves to ask the question of, what is an emotion? The first list of emotion that occurs according to Hillman (1997) is fear, anger, hope, suspense, jealousy, and the like. According to Brown and Farber (1951) the concepts of emotion has not, as a rule, been considered and still remain a tangle of unrelated facts.

Scherer (2005) depicts that emotion as a concept presents a particular problematic predicament in that the term is frequently used to a point of extreme fashion ability among people these days. “The question “What is an emotion?” rarely generates the same answer from different individuals, scientists or laymen alike (Scherer, 2005).” According to Scherer (1987, 2001) emotion could be defined in the framework of the component process model as follows: “An episode of interrelated, synchronised changes in the stated of all or most of the five organismic subsystems in response to the evaluation of an external or internal stimulus event as relevant to major concerns of the organisms.” Emotion can also be defined as an affective sense or state of consciousness in which the basic human emotions of joy, sorrow, fear, hate, or the like is experienced according to the Oxford Dictionary (2000) and the Random House Unabridged Dictionary (1997).

Scherer (1984) and Frijda (1987) is of the opinion that emotional experiences as particular type of cognitive structure as well as complex phenomenon where the relationship between appraisal structures of the stimuli or situation, physiological component of activation or action readiness, plays an essential role in understanding emotions. Socially shared meaning in emotion is created among populations, since the inception that emotions are social events (Mesquita & Frijda, 1992). Early studies of emotion tended to focus on the "intrapersonal" aspects of emotion,mapping the determinants and characteristics of emotional response within the individual. Many of the initial functional accounts of emotion similarly highlighted how emotions solve problems within the individual, for example as "interrupts" that prioritize multiple goals of the individual (e.g., Simon, 1967; Tomkins, 1962).

Several developments have led researchers to examine more closely the "interpersonal" functions of emotions. Researchers have begun to uncover how emotions structure relationships between parents and children (e.g., Bowlby, 1969), siblings (Dunn & Munn, 1985), and romantic partners (Levenson & Gottman, 1983). Emotions such as anger and embarrassment have been shown to have systematic effects upon other individuals (e.g., Averill, 1980; Keltner & Buswell, 1997; Miller & Leary, 1992; Tangney & Fischer, 1995). Ethological studies have shown how emotions guide social interactions such as courtship and appeasement rituals (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1989). Finally, the growing contact between anthropologists (Abu-Lughod, 1986; Lutz, 1988; Lutz & White, 1986) and psychologists (Haidt, Koller & Dias, 1993; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Mesquita & Frijda, 1992; Russell, 1991) in the new field of cultural psychology (Shweder, 1989; 1991) has led to greater awareness of the ways that emotions construct and are constructed by cultural practices and institutions.

These converging trends have inspired a wave of research and theory in a variety of disciplines on the connections between emotions and the social environment (Averill, 1980; Campos, Campos, & Barrett, 1989; Clark, 1990; Frijda, 1986; Frijda & Mesquita, 1994; Kemper, 1993; Lazarus, 1991; Lutz & Abu-Lughod, 1990; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Plutchik, 1980; de Rivera & Grinkis, 1986; Tooby & Cosmides, 1990). Frijda and Mesquita (1994) have written usefully about the social and interrelated functions of emotions, particularly anger, shame, and guilt. The necessity to ascertain whether or not all emotion words or concepts exist and or is expressed in similar ways within the various language or cultural groups within the culturally diverse South Africa is emphasised through this. The past decade has seen South Africa gone under tremendous socio-economic and political transformation, after the disintegration of the apartheid era, and moving towards a democratic diversified country (Human, 2005).

The depletion of the apartheid regime in South Africa brought forward the willingness of a newly elected government to make away with the previous indignities of the apartheid regime, and this included the development of new psychological measurements, that is free of any racial, cultural and gender discrimination (Nzimande, 1995). Psychometric testing in South Africa prior to the depletion of the apartheid regime was seen as unfair, biased and discriminating according to Foxcroft (1997), this assumption was mainly made because the measures used in South Africa, were developed and standardised for white people only (Foxcroft, 1997). Research done by Harding and Pribram (2002) has showed that there has been little detailed research of emotions structures as part of everyday personal, cultural and political life within various cultures. According to the results found in (Human, 2005; Nzimande, 1995; Foxcroft, 1997 & Pribram, 2002), the conclusion was drawn that the development of a feeling instrument for South African languages would be off tremendous worth, to the recognition of future emotion structures as part of everyday personal, cultural and political life among the diverse South African cultures and languages. It is therefore a necessity to establish whether or not all emotion words or concepts exist and or is expressed in similar ways within the various language or cultural groups within the culturally diverse South Africa. Research done by Mesquita, Frijda and Scherer (1997) and Shipper, Kincaid, Rotondo and Hoffman (2003) have indicated that cultural variations in emotions do exist. (Rowe, 2005) have implicated through his studies that it is of the utmost importance to recognize the role of emotions in communicating in a cultural diverse society; specifically in relation to the advanced legal regulations (the Labour Relations Act in 1996 and the Employment Equity Act No 55 of 1998, section 8), with respect to the use of psychological tests as well as discriminatory practices within the workplace within South-Africa. The Government Gazette, (1998) furthermore refers to psychological tests and assessment and states that: Psychological testing and other similar assessments are prohibited unless the test or assessment being used (a) has been scientifically shown to be valid and reliable, (b) can be applied fairly to all employees; and (c) is not biased against any employee or group.

Extensive researches of emotion have documented both cultural similarities and differences (Ambady, Elfenbein, Harizuka, Kumar & Mandal, 2002). Cross-cultural studies of emotion recognition have been one of several central sources of evidence in favour of emotional universality. Numerous studies (e.g. Ekman, 1972; Ekman, Sorenson, & Friesen, 1969; Izard, 1971) demonstrated that facial photographs of Americans expressing basic emotions like laughter, angry, guilt could be recognized at above-chance accuracy in literate and preliterate cultures. According to Ambady et al. (2002) the same studies also provided evidence for cultural differences, given that American samples generally outperformed others when viewing these American stimuli. For example, in Izard's (1971) large-scale study, American and European groups correctly identified 75%-83% of the facial photographs, whereas the Japanese group scored 65% and the African group correctly identified only 50%.

Cross-cultural differences in emotional communication are explained by two different types of theories, namely the absolutist theory and the rational theory according to Ambady et al. (2002). The first theory is absolutist, examining the fixed attributes of the cultural groups expressing emotion or of the cultural groups perceiving emotion (Ambady et al., 2002). Matsumoto (1989, 1992) and Schimmack (1996) have argued in their research that collectivistic cultural groups are less accurate at expressing and perceiving negative emotion, because of the risk of disrupting social order within the cultural group. Ambady et al. (2002) have expressed that these arguments predict absolute differences in communication accuracy across groups, or “main effects” in terms of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) in their study. In contradiction, relational theories characterise the relationship between the cultures of the emotional expressor and perceiver rather than the fixed attributes of one group or the other Ambady et al. (2002); accordingly relational theories rather focus on match or similarity than on absolute characteristics of cultures. In terms of an ANOVA according to Ambady et al. (2002), relational theories predict an interaction between expressor and perceiver cultural groups.

Recent empirical work has provided initial support for relational perspectives on emotional communication (Elfenbein & Ambady, 2001); including a meta-analysis of the cross-cultural literature on emotion recognition suggesting the presence of an in-group advantage (Elfenbein & Ambady, 2002a & 2002b). According to Ambady et al. (2002) emotional communication is much more accurate when the expresser and the perceiver is both members of the same cultural group rather than members of different cultural groups. Both absolutist and relational perspectives can contribute toward a valuable understanding of emotional communication (Ambady et al., 2002). In previous research done it was found that members of each culture view stimuli equally from members of their own and members of other cultural groups (Ambady et al., 2002). The biggest question arises among studies of cross-cultural environments whether it is possible to find a balance between emotions as psychological state that seemingly are invariant across cultures, and emotions as social constructions that differ in fundamental ways across cross-cultural environments (Berry et al., 2002).

Previous research done across Western cultures have depicted that (Mesquita & Frijda, 1992; Mesquita, Frijda & Scherer, 1997; Kitayama, Markus, & Kurokawa, 2000 and Fontaine et al. 2006), cultural diffrences therefore impacts on the perceived value of emotional intelligence within a South African multi-cultural perspective since emotional intelligence according to Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (1999) could be defined as one's ability to recognise, use and regulate emotional, personal and social information in an adaptive and acceptable manner.

Therefore it is of the utmost importance to determine the semantic similarity for emotion lexicon across cultures in South Africa. The concept of emotion has an internal structure and can be reliably ordered according to Fehr and Russell (1984), from better to poorer examples of emotion (prototypicality). Fehr, Russell and Ward (1982) have identified that prototypical emotions are verified as emotions faster than terms rated as poorer examples. Church, Katigbak, Reyes and Jensen (1999) have reportedly through their studies found that self report structures are essential, especially within cross cultural studies whilst investigating the intangible organisation of emotions. Cross-cultural similarities as well as differences exist across all aspects and dimensions of emotions (Mesquita & Frijda, 1992). According to research done by (Herrmann & Raybeck, 1981) it is more credible to make use of a multicultural when establishing universalities; at the same time indicating cross-cultural differences that are indeed unique to the specific culture involved as with the Isixhosa group.

Most studies according to Nicholls (2008) are executed and associates differences and similarities with cultural differences across national boundaries with little consideration given to slight differences and similarities within nations and even subcultures. This aspect is to be considered in emotion studies conducted in South Africa across the eleven language groups (Nicholls, 2008).

A large body of research has come to the conclusion to suggest that people hold a general mental representation of concern in the form of a circular structure, or circumplex according to Feldman and Barret (2001). A circumplex according to Larsen and Diener (1992) is an empirically plagiaristic dimensional structure which represents the conceptual, mental structure of a group of stimuli typically derived from a dimensional factor analysis of proximity ratings (e.g., similarity ratings) for a set of stimuli (e.g., affect terms) as per the example of a circumplex model given below in 1 . Here, eight variables are listed in a two-dimensional space where the horizontal dimension presents the pleasure-displeasure dimension and the vertical dimension, the arousal-sleep dimension. The remaining four variables aid in defining the quadrants of the space. Russel, Lewicka and Nitt (1989), studied aspects of emotion, determining the commonality to all human beings as well as commonality to only particular cultures. Universalists have found that emotions are biologically driven and therefore universal to all human beings according to Fontaine and Poortinga (2002); Nicholls (2008). Relativists in contrast are of the opinion that emotions are intimately tied with the social and cultural context in which they emerge with biological aspects merely playing a background role(Fontaine & Poortinga, 2002; Nicholls, 2008).

Although previous research have found that the circumplex model can be applied across a broad range of cultures as the sole determinant of how humans conceptualize emotions, however South African language groups and sub-cultures were not taken into consideration as this study has been conducted within Western cultures (Nicholls, 2008). To explore the impact of culture on emotion, the researcher firstly has to turn to emotions as they are encoded in the native languages within a specific culture (Church, Katigbak, Reyes, & Jensen, 1998 and Fontaine et al., 2006). Therefore according to Fontaine et al. (2006) it is important to determine what emotion words mean across languages and cultural groups, and whether there are universals and culture-specificities in the meaning of emotion words.

With language being sensitive to cultural dynamics, the prototypicality of emotion words needs to be recognized in order to understand emotions represented in every day life within a specific cultural context (Church et al., 1998). According to Nicholls (2008) studying emotion lexicon and the meaning thereof, is both logical and of a theoretical importance. This will allow the characterisation of emotions in terms of basic emotion prototypes through hierarchical classification of expressed emotion types (Shaver et al., 1987 and Watson & Clark 1997) within a South African multi-cultural domain through the Isixhosa language group. The hypothesis can be made that the psychological reality constructed within a South African specific cultural context will therefore enable researchers in developing culturally relevant emotional competence instruments and assessment tools, as well as creating a new paradigm on emotional intelligence through an in depth understanding of the impact of culture on emotion within the South African context, especially the Isixhosa language group.

Making a hypothesis on the cross-cultural comparability of emotions or emotional experiences and the idea of basic emotions and emotional intelligence, (Church et al., 1998, 1999; Claassen 1997; Herrmann 1981; Izard 1994; Mesquita et al., 1997 and Russel 2003) requires careful attention especially with emotional intelligence being promoted and pursued as a key skill required by effective, future managers within organisations as well as in respect to the role it plays in everyday social interaction between individuals (Barling, Slater, & Kelloway, 2000; Dulewicz, Higgs & Slaski, 2003; Gardner & Stough, 2002; Shipper, Kincaid, Rotondo, & Hoffman, 2003; Wong & Law, 2002; Shaver et al., 1987). To understand emotions the researcher has to appreciate the aspect and role of emotional intelligence as the emotion lexicon cannot be removed from its cultural specific context in which it is expressed (Nicholls, 2008) and have been discussed above.

2.3 Emotions and culture

A key research question remains whether or not all emotions are experienced, expressed and represented similarly across cultural boundaries. Moreover, it emphasises the necessity to ascertain whether or not all emotion words or concepts exist and or is expressed in similar ways within the various language or cultural groups. It is furthermore important to determine what emotion words mean across languages and cultural groups, and whether there are universals and culture-specificities in the meaning of emotion words.

The gender-as-culture view is that men and woman should have different ideas about effective, sensitive, comforting messages - ideas which originate from different implicit theories of emotion and emotion change (Burleson, 2003). Research done by Tannen (1990) and Wood (1997) showed that woman tend to endorse messages that elaborate and explore a distressed individuals feelings, whereas men in contradictory sense prefer to avoid any discussion on feelings and tend to focus more on the physical fixing of the problematic situation or redirecting attention from the highlighted situation.

Studies done by Kunkel and Burleson (1999) showed that men across cultures exhibited low levels of person centeredness, and woman tend to exhibit high levels of person centeredness when messages is positively evaluated. Balswick (1988) made the conclusion that men and woman among different cultures tend to have different emotional makeup's, with woman being emotional and expressive and men being instrumental and inexpressive, although other research have shown that men and woman have very similar ideas about what counts as sensitive emotional support exhibiting different degrees of person centeredness (Burleson, 1997; Kunkel & Burleson, 1998 & Burleson, 2003).

Previous research has shown that there are significant cultural differences in a broad range of communication practises and behaviours (Burleson, 2003), which is supported by the findings by Dilworth, Anderson and Marshall (1996) and Goodwin and Plaza (2000) that there is notable cultural differences in preferred approaches to providing emotional support. These findings are relevant to researchers understanding of emotion as both a collective and culturally bound phenomena (Burleson, 2003; Boucher, 1983 & Lazarus, 1994). This research on emotions across cultures is relevant to provide helpful forms of support among intercultural settings (Burleson, 2003). The question that needs to be answered is whether or not all emotions are experienced, expressed and represented similarly across cultural boundaries.

Previous research have shown that emotional experiences as a particular type of cognitive structure plays an essential role in understanding emotions where the relationship between appraisal structures of the stimuli or situation, physiological component of activation or action readiness is present (Scherer, 1984 & Frijda, 1987). The inevitability to determine whether or not all emotion words or concepts exist and or is expressed in similar ways within the various language or cultural groups cannot be emphasised enough. Recent studies are executed, which correlate differences and similarities with cultural differences across national boundaries with little interest given to faint differences and similarities within nations and even subcultures. This aspect is to be considered in emotion studies conducted in South Africa across the eleven language groups.

With language being sensitive to cultural dynamics, the prototypicality of emotion words needs to be established in order to understand emotions represented in every day life within a specific cultural context. Studying emotion lexicon and the meaning thereof, is both logical and has a theoretical importance as previously indicated. This will allow the meaningful characterisation of emotions in terms of basic emotion prototypes through hierarchical classification of expressed emotion types (Shaver, Schwartz, Kirson & O'Conner 1987; Watson & Clark 1997) within a South African culturally-diverse population. The psychological reality constructed within a South African specific cultural context will therefore be better represented due to the nature of this study and will result in enabling researchers in developing culturally relevant emotional competence instruments and assessment tools, an in depth understanding of the impact of culture on emotion within the South African context.

Based on the prototype theory in describing the hierarchical status and cluster analysis of emotion terms, certain concerns presents itself in the analysis of emotion lexicon within various cross cultural language groups within South Africa. One therefore has to determine the core affect which describes moods and emotions in its simplest form (Russell 2003) in order to establish a unique South African componential emotion GRID consisting of a representative sample of emotion words and emotion features. Ideally, this should be a replication of the Geneva GRID with cultural relevant material (words and features).

The GRID approach, a foundational project of the International Consortium for Cross-Cultural Research on Affect (ICCRA, 2007), developed in Geneva aims to encourage cross-cultural research on emotion with a principled approach based on the componential emotion theory. The GRID approach has four concrete goals according to ICCRA (2007), namely (1) testing whether the basic assumption of the componential emotion theory also applies to the semantic field of emotions, (2) identifying cross-cultural similarities and differences in the underlying dimensional structure of the emotion domain in general and of the specific emotion components, (3) constructing a short instrument for evaluating the meaning equivalence of emotion terms and emotion characteristics, and (4) constructing a world atlas of emotion terms, where phase 1 specifically focuses on identifying emotion prototypes. The goals of the GRID approach will be discussed as follows:

1. The componential emotion theory and the semantic fields of emotion

Previous research have assumed the componential emotion theory is that; an emotion is to be conceptualized as a process that consists of a harmonization of activity in several emotion components (notably appraisal, subjective experiences, action tendencies, expressive behaviour, bodily changes) as a response to specific events with the goal of preparing the individual as fast as possible for the best possible reaction (ICCRA, 2007). ICCRA (2007) have identified emotion terms which we use in daily language referring to emotion processes as described by the componential emotion theory across the world. Emotion words according to ICCRA (2007) should at the same time refer to changes in appraisals, subjective experiences, action tendencies, expressive behaviour and bodily changes in each of the cultural groups. ICCRA (2007) have found that an emotion term (even when it has been judged as translation equivalent) can be characterised by a highly specific pattern of characteristics, the most basic assumption of the componential emotion theory is that the characteristics themselves can be organized in terms of appraisals, subjective experiences, action tendencies, expressions, and bodily changes. ICCRA (2007) stated that the first important step in revealing the meaning structure across culture and linguistic groups is made when the prediction is confirmed in every language group. The emotion components can be used as the conceptual standards of comparison (ICCRA, 2007).

2. Identifying the underlying dimensional structure of the emotion domain

The hypothesis that could be drawn is that the underlying scope that structure the emotion sphere are comparable across cultural groups, even if individual emotion words and individual emotion features can have highly culture-specific meanings (ICCRA, 2007). If this hypothesis is confirmed through our studies, it would mean that these fundamental dimensions can be used as point of reference to identify cross-cultural stability or cultural specificity of the concrete emotion words and the concrete emotion features in each of the different cultural/language groups (ICCRA, 2007).

3. Constructing a short instrument for evaluating the meaning equivalence of emotion terms and emotion characteristics

Once stable underlying dimensions and a subset of stable emotion characteristics can be identified, the aim is to make a short GRID instrument that can be used as a methodological tool to investigate meaning equivalence of translations of emotion terms and emotion characteristics among different cultural and language groups (ICCRA, 2007). ICCRA (2007) identifies the comparison of profiles of translated emotion terms or translated emotion characteristics on the short GRID which will allow us to identify connotation similarity much more adequately among different cultures and languages.

4. Constructing a world atlas of emotion terms

The ultimate goal of the GRID project is to create a world atlas of emotion terms (ICCRA, 2007). Culture-specific semantic emotion spaces will be projected onto the common standards that are provided for by the short GRID (ICCRA, 2007).

Previous research done by Fehr, Russel and Ward (1982) and Fehr and Russel (1984) relied exclusively on the emotion lexicon associated to judgment types presented as tasks or scripts to candidates, with the conjecture that emotion terms are identical or similar across cultures, therefore the assumption could be made that inherent emotion lexicon has not been captured accurately within cultural language groups in South Africa (Church, Katigbak, Reyes, & Jensen , 1999; Kitayama & Markus, 1991; Kitayama, Markus, & Kurokawa, 2000; Mesquita, Frijda, & Scherer 1997; Shipper, Kincaid, Rotondo, & Hoffman, 2003).

Testing emotion lexicon and prototypes becomes indispensable if one can assume that descriptive emotion terms differ across cultures within an ever demanding internationalising and globalising arena (Church et al., 1999; Kitayama & Markus, 1991; Kitayama et al., 2000; Mesquita et al., 1997; Shipper et al., 2003). . Therefore the essentiallity to determine the similarity and differences in emotion expression of the Isixhosa language group in a scientific analysis, as well as to compile a unique South African componential emotion GRID in relation to the Geneva GRID have come to pass.


Findings from this study will thus also result in a more precise reflection and representation of emotion lexicon in South Africa, as well as it being applied without bias across all cultural groups in the development of future test batteries and instruments. O'Conner and Little (2002) and Oatley (2004) have identified that the research of emotions in the South African domain is therefore highly relevant for applied psychology as it is obligatory to determine the true dimensionality and domain of emotion terms across designated ethnic or language groups.

Research design

A survey design is used to achieve the research objectives (Kepple, Saufley, & Tokunaga, 1992). The survey design has the advantage of obtaining a large amount of information (free listing of emotion words as well as similarity sorting of emotion terms) from a large population Isixhosa speaking people, it is economical and the research information can be regarded as accurate (within sampling error). Disadvantages of this design include that it is time and energy consuming according to Kerlinger and Lee (2000).

The research will now be presented in 1 independent study (e.g., freelisting, protptypicality rating & Similarity sorting of emotion terms) for the Isixhosa speaking group.

Study 1: Freelisting

Participants

The study population for the first study consisted of a convenience sample of Isixhosa speaking people (N=134) from the Eastern Cape Province. Table 1 presents some of the characteristics of the participants.

Table 1

Characteristics of the Isixhosa speaking participants of the Free Listing Exercise

Item

Category

Frequency

Percentage

Language

Isixhosa

134

100,0

Gender

Male

72

53,7

Female

62

46,3

Age

18-27

99

73,9

28-37

29

21,6

38+

3

2,2

Education level

Grade 12

124

92,5

Certificate / Short Diploma

0

0,0

3 year Diploma / Degree

10

7,5

Other

0

0,0

The sample included only black (100%) Isixhosa speaking applicants (n=134). In terms of gender, 53, 7% (n=72) were men and 46, 3% (n=62) were women. 73, 9% of the group were between the ages of 18 and 27, where 21, 6% were between 28 and 37 years of age. 92, 5% of the applicants had Grade12 and 7, 5% of the applicants had further tertiary qualification.

Measuring Instrument

This study focused on identifying the relevant and representative emotion words in a specific indigenous language group (Isixhosa), where future research need to focus on the relevant and representative features for each emotion component (such as appraisals, action tendencies, subjective experiences, etc.) that are encoded in that language group. Free listing questionnaires were utilised where respondents were asked to list as many emotion terms they could think of in 10 minutes.

Procedure

For the Free-listing questionnaire, respondents were asked to list as many emotion terms they can think of in 10 minutes.

Statistical analysis

Freelisting emotion words that were reported by the respondents were captured in Excel. A macro was developed for the Excel sheet, calculating the frequency of emotion words, number of participants that reported each emotion term, ranking of emotion terms per respondent and average number of emotion terms that were reported, as well as the median per emotion term.

Results

Emotion terms that were reported five times or more by respondents were selected in order to compile the Basic English Emotion List or BEEL. Table 1 report the emotion terms that were reported five times or more by respondents from the Isixhosa group. For the Isixhosa group, 134 responses were captured resulting in a list of 1340 words or phrases of which only 34 words or phrases having a frequency higher than 5. 1306 words or phrases had a frequency less than 5 and was deleted. According to Table 9, the emotion words which most readily came to mind as examples of “emotion” by the Sepedi speaking participants were emotions of joy (happiness and excitement), emotions of anger (angry and hatered), emotions of love (love) and emotions of sadness (sad, hurt, pain).

Table 2

Isixhosa Emotion terms reported five or more times

ISIXHOSA

Original Isixhosa Emotion Response

English

Frequency of Participants that Reported the Emotion

Uthando

Love

36

Uloyiko

Fear

34

Umsindo

Anger

33

Uvuyo

Joy

32

Ulonwabo

Happiness

31

Ukacaphuka

Angry

28

Intlungu

Pain

25

Ukuqumba

Cross

22

Intlonipho

Respect

21

Umona

Jealousy

20

Uxola

Peace

19

Imfesane

Affection

18

Uvelwano

Empathy

18

Ukukhathazeka

Hurt

16

Umonde

Patience

16

Inzondo

Resentment

14

Ukuzingca

Self-centered

14

Ukulila

Cry

12

Ukuhleka

Laughing

12

Ukudinwa

Tired

11

Ukuzisizela

Self-pity

11

Inceba

Mercy

10

Ukuvuya

Rejoice

10

Udandatheko

Depressed

10

Ukuhleba

Gossip

10

Uchulumanco

Exitement

10

Umvandendwa

Guilty Conscious

8

Impakamo

Pride

8

Ukuphulaphula

Listen

8

Ukuphoxeka

Dissapointment

7

Ukunyoluka

Greedy

6

Ukutheta

Speak

5

Ukothuka

Insult

5

Unxunguphalo

Distress

5

References:

Abu-Lughod, L. (1986). Veiled sentiments. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ambady, N., Elfenbein, H. A., Harizuka, S., Kumar, S., & Mandal, M. K. (2002). Cross-cultural patterns in emotion recognition: Highlighting design and analytical techniques. American Psychological Association, 2, 75 - 83.

Armstrong, D. (n.d.). Emotions in organisations: Disturbance or intelligence? Tavistock consultancy service. Retreived March 13, 2008 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ispso.org/Symposia/London/2000armstrong.htm.

Averill, J. R. (1980). A constructivist view of emotion. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience. 305-339. New York: Academic Press.

Balswick, J, (1988). The inexpressive male. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Barling, J., Slater,F & Kelloway, E.K. (2000). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: an exploratory study. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(4), 198-204.

Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (2002). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications, 2nd ed. Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Boucher, J. D. (1983). Antecedents to emotions across cultures. In S. H. Irvine & J. W. Berry (Eds.). Human assessmentand cultural factors (pp. 407 - 420). New York: Plenum.

Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment. New York: Basic Books.

Brown, J. S. & Farber, I. E. (1951). Emotions conceptualized as intervening variables. Psychological Bulletin.

Burleson, B. R. (1997). A different voice on different cultures: Illusion and reality in the study of sex differences in personal relationships. Personal Relationships, 4, 229 - 241.

Burleson, B. R. (2003). The experience and effects of emotional support: What the study of cultural and gender differences can tell us about close relationships, emotion, and interpersonal communication. Personal Relationships, 10, 1 - 23.

Campos, J. J., Campos, R. G., & Barrett, K. C. (1989). Emergent themes in the study of emotional development and emotio regulation. Developmental Psychology, 25, 394-402.

Church, A.T., Katigbak, M.S., Reyes, J.A.S. & Jensen, S.M. (1998). Language and organisation of Filipino emotion concepts: comparing emotion concepts and dimensions across cultures. Cognition and Emotion, 12(1), 63-92.

Church, A.T., Katigbak, M.S., Reyes, J.A.S. & Jensen, S.M. (1999). The structure of affect in a non-western culture: Evidence for cross-cultural comparability. Journal of Personality, 67(3), 505-534.

Claassen, N.C.W. (1997). Culture differences, politics and test bias in South Africa. European Review of applied Psychology, 47, 297-307.

Clark, C. (1990). Emotions and the micropolitics in everyday life: Some patterns and paradoxes of "Place". In T.D. Kemper (Ed.), Research Agendas in the Sociology of Emotions (pp. 305-334). State University of New York Press: Albany, NY.

Cooper, R. K. (1998). Executice EQ, emotional intelligence in leadership and organizations. New York: Berkley Publishing Group.

de Rivera, J. & Grinkis, C. (1986). Emotions as social relationships. Motivation and Emotion, 10.

Dilworth-Anderson, P., & Marshall. S. (1996). Social support in its cultural contexts. In G R. Pierce, B. R. Sarason, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Handbook of social support and the family (pp. 67 - 79). New York: Plenum.

Dulewicz, V., Higgs, M. & Slaski, M. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence: content, construct and criterion - related validity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 8(5), 405-420.

Dunn, J. & Munn, P. (1985). Becoming a family member: Family conflict and the development of social understanding in the second year. Child Development, 56, 480-492.

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1989). Human Ethology. New York: Aldine de Gruyter Press.

Ekman, P. (1972). Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. In J. Cole (1971). Nebraska symposium on motivation, 19, 207-282. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Ekman, P. (2003). Emotions revealed: Recognizing faces and feelings to improve communication and emotional life. Henry Holt and Company: NY.

Ekman, P., Sorenson, E. R., & Friesen, W. V. (1969). Pan-cultural elements in facial displays of emotions. Science, 164: 86 - 88.

Elfenbein, H. A., & Ambady, N. (2002a). Is there an in group advantage in emotion recognition? Psychological Bulletin, 128, 243-249.

Elfenbein, H. A., & Ambady, N. (2002b). On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 205-235.

Elfenbein, H. A., & Ambady, N. A. (2001). Cultural similarity's consequences: A relational perspective on cross-cultural differences in emotion recognition.

Fehr, B. & Russell, J.A. (1984). Concept of emotion viewed from a prototype perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113(3), 468-486.

Fehr, B., Russell, J.A., & Ward, L.M. (1982). Prototypicality of emotions: A reaction of time study. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 20(3), 253-254.

Feldman Barrett, L. (2001). Mental representations of affect knowledge. Cognition and Emotion, 15(3), 333-363.

Fontaine, J.R.J. & Poortinga, Y.H. (2002). Cognitive structure of emotion terms in Indonesia and the Netherlands. Cognition and Emotion, 16(1), 61-86.

Fontaine, J.R.J., Luyten, P., de Boeck, P., Corveleyn, J., Fernandez, M., Herrera, D., Ittzes, A. & Tomcsanyi, T. (2006). Untying the Gordian knot of guilt and shame: The structure of guilt and shame reactions based on situation and person variation in Belgium, Hungary and Peru. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(3), 273-292.

Foxcroft, C. D. (1997). Psychological testing in South Africa: Perspectives regarding ethical and fair practices. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 13, 229-235.

Frijda, N. (1986). The Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Frijda, N.H. (1987). Emotion, cognition, structure and action tendency. Cognition and Emotion, 1(2), 115-143.

Gardener, H. (1983). Frames of mind. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Gardner, L. & Stough, C. (2002). Examining the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in senior level managers. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(2), 68-78.

Goodwin, R., & Plaza, S. H. (2000). Perceived and received social support in two cultures: Collectivism and support among British and Spanish students, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 17, 282 - 291.

Government Gazette, Republic of South Africa, Vol. 400, no19370. Cape Town 19October 1998.

Greenberg, L. S., & Safran, J. D. (1989). Emotion in psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 44(1), 19-29.

Haidt, J., Koller, S., & Dias, M. (1993). Affect, culture, and morality, or is it wrong to eat your dog? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 613-628.

Harding, J., & Pribram, E. D. (2002). The power of feeling: Locating emotions in culture. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 5, 407 - 426.

Hein, S. (2005). Introduction to emotional intelligence. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from the World Wide Web: www.article911.com.

Herrmann, D.J. & Raybeck, D. (1981). Similarities and differences in meaning in six cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 12(2), 194-206.

Hillman, J. (1997). Emotion: A comprehensive phenomenology of theories and their meanings for therapy. 3rd Eds. Northwestern University Press. Evanston, Illinois.

Human, L. (1995). Diversity management: For business success. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

ICCRA. (2007). The Grid Project: Revealing the meaning structure of the emotion domain across languages and cultural groups. Retrieved February 18, 2008, from the World Wide Web: http://www.iccra.net/grid-project.

Izard, C. E. (1971). The face of emotion. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Izard, C.E. (1994). Innate and Universal Facial Expressions: Evidence from developmental and cross-cultural research. Psychological Bulletin, 115(2), 288-299.

Jutas Pocket Statutes. (2003). Employment equity act of 1998: Section 8. Juta Law, 3, 19.

Jutas Pocket Statutes. (2007). Labour relations act 66 of 1995: Section 5. Juta Law, 3, 24.

Keltner, D., & Buswell, B. N. (1997). Embarrassment: Its distinct form and appeasement functions. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 250-270.

Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (1999). Social functions of emotions at four levels of analysis. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 505 - 521.

Kemper, T.D. (1993). Sociological models in the explanation of emotions. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), The handbook of emotions (pp. 41-51). New York: Guilford.

Kepple, G., Saufley, Jr. W., & Tokunaga, H. (1992). Introduction to design and analysis: A student's handbook (2nd ed.). N.Y: W.H. Freeman and Company.

Kerlinger, F.N., & Lee, H.B. (2000). Foundations of behavioural research (4th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College.

Kitayama, S. & Markus, H.R. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253.

Kitayama, S., Markus, H.R. & Kurokawa, M. (2000). Culture, Emotion, and Well-being: Good Feelings in Japan and the United States. Cognition and Emotion, 14(1), 93-124.

Kunkel, A. W., & Burleson, B. R. (1998). Social support and the emotional lives of men and woman: An assessment o the differnt cultures perspective. In D. J. Canary & K. Dindia (Eds.), Sex differences and similarities in communication (pp. 101 - 125). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kunkel, A. W., & Burleson, B. R. (1999). Assesing explanations for sex differences in emotional support: A test of the different cultures and skill specialization accounts. Human Communication Research, 25, 307 - 340.

Larsen, R.J., & Diener, E. (1992). Promises and problems with the circumplex model of emotion. In M.S. Clark (Ed.), Emotion: Review of personality and social psychology (pp 25-59). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lazarus, R. S. (1994). Universal antecedents of the emotions. In P. Ekman & R. J. Davidson (Eds.). The nature of emotion (pp. 163 - 171). New York: Oxford University Press.

Lennick, D., & Kiel, F. (2005). Moral intelligence: Enhancing business performance and leadership success. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing.

Levenson, R. W. & Gottman, J. M. (1983). Marital Interaction: Physiological linkage and affective exchange. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 587-597.

Lutz, C. (1988). Unnatural emotions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lutz, C. A. & Abu-Lughod, L. (1990). Language and the politics of emotion. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lutz, C., & White, G. (1986). The anthropology of emotions. Annual Review of Anthropology, 15, 405-436.

Lilova, S. (2006). The scales for experiencing emotions: Establishing concurrent and cross-cultural validity.

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition,emotion and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224-253.

Matsumoto, D. (1989). Cultural influences on the perception of emotion. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,20, 92-105.

Matsumoto, D. (1992). American-Japanese cultural differences in the recognition of universal facial expressions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 23, 72-84.

Mayer, J.D. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In Salovey, P. & Sluyter, D. (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for Educator (3-31). New York, NY: Basic Books.

Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D.R., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27, 267-298.

Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D.R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings and implications. Psychological Inquiry 15(3), 197-215.

Mesquita, B & Frijda, N.H. (1992). Cultural variations in emotions: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 112(2), 179-204.

Mesquita, B., Frijda, N.H. & Scherer, K.R. (1997). Culture and emotion. In: J.W. Berry, P.R Dasen & T.S. Saraswathi (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Basic Processes and Human Development (p255-297). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Miller, R.S. & Leary, M.R. (1992). Social sources and interactive functions of embarrassment. In M.Clark (Ed.) Emotion and social behavior. New York: Sage.

Mitchell, J. W. C. (2006). Emotional intelligence and workplace performance. University of South Africa.

Nicholls, T. (2008). Emotion lexicon in the Sepedi, Xitsonga and Tshivenda language groups in South Africa: The impact of culture on emotion. North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus.

Nzimande, B. (1995). Culture fair testing. To test or not to test? Paper presented at the Psychometrics Congress. Pretoria, South Africa.

O'Connor, R.M. and Little, I.S. (2002). Revisiting the predictive validity of emotional intelligence: self report versus ability-based measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1893-1902.

Oatley, K. (2004). Emotional intelligence and the intelligence of emotions. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 216-238.

Plutchik, R. (1980). Emotion: A psychobioevolutionary synthesis. New York: Harper & Row.

Poskey, M. (2006). The importance of emotional intelligence in the workplace: Why it matters more than personality. Retrieved April 17, 2006, from the World Wide Web: http://www.zeroriskhr.com/ZeroriskhrCom/Articles/EQ.aspx.

Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process. Psychological Science, 8(2), 162-166.

Rossett, A., & Bickham, T. (1994). Diversity training: Hope, faith, and cynicism. Training. 41-46.

Rowe, D. (2005). The meaning of emotion. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 19(4/5), 290-296.

Russel, J.A. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review, 110(1), 145-172.

Russel, J.A., Lewicka, M. & Nitt, T. (1989). A cross-cultural study of a circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(5), 848-856.

Russell, J. A. (1991). Culture and the categorization of emotions. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 426-450.

Ryback, D. (1998). Putting emotional intelligence to work: Successful leadership is more than IQ. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Salovey, P. & Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185-211.

Salovey, P., & Sluyter, D. (1997). Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from the World Wide Web: www.article911.com.

Scherer, K. R. (2005). What are emotions? And how can they be measured? Social Science Information, 44, 696 - 729.

Scherer, K.R. (1984). "On the nature and function of emotion: a component process approach", in Scherer, K.R., Ekman, P. (Eds), Approaches to Emotion,: NJ, Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

Senault, J. F. (1649). The use of the passions. London.

Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D. & O'Conner,C. (1987). Emotional knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1061-1086.

Shipper, F.M., Kincaid, J.F., Rotondo, D.M., & Hoffman, R.C. (2003). A cross-cultural exploratory study of linkage between emotional intelligence and management effectiveness. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 11(3), 171-193.

Shweder, R. A. (1989). Cultural psychology: What is it? In J. Stigler, R. Shweder, & G. Herdt (Ed.), Cultural psychology: The Chicago symposia on culture and human development. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Shweder, R. A. (1991). Thinking through cultures: Expeditions in cultural psychology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Simon, H. A. (1967). Motivational and emotional controls of cognition. Psychological Review, 74, 29-39.

Tangney, J. P. & Fischer, K. W. (1995). Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride. New York: Guilford Press.

Tannen, D. (1990). You just don't understand: Woman and men in conversation. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Tomkins, S. (1962). Affect, imagery, consciousness: The positive affects. New York: Springer.

Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (1990). The past explains the present: Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Ethology and sociobiology, 11, 375-424.

Totterdel, P. (n.d.). Emotion at work. Institute of work psychology. Economic and social research council. Retreived March 13, 2008 from the World Wide Web: http://esrccoi.group.shef.ac.uk/research/emotion.shtml.

Watson, D. & Clark, L.A. (1997). Measurement and mismeasurement of mood: Recurrent and emergent issues. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68(2), 267-296.

Wong, C.S. & Law, K.S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 243-274.

Wood, J. T. (1997). Gendered lives: Communication, gender, and culture, 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Zeidner, M., Matthews, G. & Roberts, R.D. (2004). Emotional intelligence in the workplace: A critical review. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 53, 371-399.

Nemetz, P. L., & Christensen, S. L. (1996). The challenge of cultural diversity: Harnessing a diversity of views to understand multiculturalism. Academy of Management Review. 21(2), 434-462.

Ekman, P., & Davidson, R. (1994). The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental questions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Izard, C. E. (1993). Organisational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland, (Eds.) Handbook of emotions, (pp. 631-641). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

LeDoux, J. E. (1996). The emotional brain. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Mayne, T. J., & Bonnano, G. A. (2001). Emotions: Current issues and future directions. New York: The Guilford Press.

Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wierzbicka, A. (1994). Emotion, language, and cultural scripts. In S. Kitayama & H. Markus (Eds.), Emotions and culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence (pp. 133-196). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.