This dissertation has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional dissertation writers.

GPS Tracking

(a) Tracking

Global Positioning System (GPS) is a global satellite navigation system that used a network of satellites into orbit by the U. S. Department of Defense. GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day for a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers for the information and use triangulation to calculate the user's exact location.

(b) the accuracy of the tracking method

GPS receivers are extremely accurate, because they are parallel to the multi-channel design. GPS satellite receivers are switched on as soon as the first barrier, and they have strong locks, even in dense foliage or urban settings of tall buildings. Some of the error and other environmental factors may increase the accuracy of the GPS receiver. The accuracy of GPS receivers 15 meters on average.
Newer GPS receivers with WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System), the possibility to improve accuracy of less than three meters in average. Users can also have better accuracy of Differential GPS (DGPS), GPS signals are right on average over three to five meters. GPS has become a pillar of the global transport systems, navigation data on air, land and maritime operations. Daily activities such as banking, are mobile operations and even the exact timing of the electrical control of the GPS is easier than ever. Farmers, surveyors, geologists and countless others in their work more efficient, safe, economical and thoroughly free and open GPS signals.

(c) information tracking system

The GPS tracking system is the installation of each rental unit on the vehicle. The device reads the location of the GPS satellite network and sends the position coordinates and other factors, such as vehicle speed and time again over the mobile data network such as GSM or GPRS. Information is then passed a rule Telemetric service. TSP route data either directly to the customer a separate communication link or information on a Web server where the user's data, which can be accessed through a Web browser.

(d) How often is the information communicated to central control of the vehicle

Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time signal with the satellite time, because he was the successful. The time difference tells us how it via satellite. The GPS receiver must signal for at least three satellites to calculate the position of the user is blocked. If the user's location is determined, the GPS device can calculate the distance, travel time, and so on.

Global Positioning System (GPS) data, and it is based on the received GPS data, noting the vehicle. The method also receives data on another vehicle. The method has changed, one or more characteristics of the vehicle, which will be able to determine the location and receive data from another vessel, the circumstances, including the suspension damping characteristic sign of the spring rate characteristics of the ABS, stability control functions, with the seat features shock absorbers, etc. ..

(e) the method of data transmission from the vehicle's center of

Documenting the process of data stored on the vehicle data and vehicle data, which are updated for any changes to the data memory, and these data are transmitted over a wireless data transmission equipment outside the center of the vehicle in which the control center, which triggers a signal to start, it passes through the data server configuration file, the data is stored in the database, particular chronological order and the products that are differentiated products and the registration of the default configuration of the vehicle to replace the vehicle.

(f) cost per vehicle per day system

Average operating costs per vehicle is around $ 1.50. The company may be reduced by at least 25 miles a week for each vehicle is equipped with a GPS system. $ 37.50 per week or $ 1950.00-equivalent per year.

(g) additional services that can provide the system

Some of us who do probably lost the habit, whenever traveling with a GPS system can be interested in, is a very convenient device to a vehicle is. This could be a separate GPS system, a system or handheld device or personal data, such as assistants, all of them in the right way to help drivers remain in the destination, saving time and inconvenience. Whatever car you are using a GPS system, it should never pay the monthly fee for a service car with GPS or other GPS-related subscription fees. But there are also other services to add, it may require that payment of additional fees. For example, real-time traffic and weather reports and satellite all the extra costs per month. Businesses do not pay a car-GPS services. However, go to the turn-by-turn route guidance on your card or money to wait in the company that supplies and services, is cost. One of the many advantages of automatic alert with the GPS system in the car, your location at any time. Stolen unfortunate if the car is if your system of national service, who have decided their current location, but it is, and turned to find that information on the prosecution for a speedy recovery. Many car rental companies use this service with a car GPS system to follow their car, their use and location.

(h) restrictions on the system

GPS devices come to an accuracy of 15 meters on average. And its cap is about 100 meters. The decision on the location of the data is typically 150 meters. To get more information about the restrictions, you can determine the location of the GPS part of the foot.

RFID

Stop a vehicle tracking system RFID transponder and the mobile stations. The invention is a tracking system using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) transponders and RFID transceiver, which is connected to a moving vehicle rental vehicles. Each location code encoded in the transponder, which is then incorporated into the seat of the vehicle route is considered to be a transceiver, if a vehicle is nearby. Reading data from a transceiver is determined as the mobile Internet mobile communication device will be passed on. Transponder in a safe place, and the sender's mobile vehicle, the system is in contrast to a typical RFID tracking system. In addition, the use of data stored on the RFID transponder RFID transponder and the processes of data storage and processing device, whether the vehicle has been awarded prior to the reading of the route the vehicle is estimated that today is the planned route and timetable. RFID Vehicle Tracking system is unique.


RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is a mobile and web technology enables companies to identify and manage their assets. Originally introduced the Retail Manager Craig Patterson, Knoxville, TN. Laptop integrated RFID readers can see the various tools in order to eliminate paperwork, enter the identity and presence. This approach includes manually entering data. Web-based management tools enable businesses, their assets and their management decisions in the world to drive. Web-based applications now means that it can be third parties, including manufacturers and operators to access property information, such as labor, testing and documentation of the history of Internet to ensure that the customer is always right to receive real-time data. Organizations already use RFID solutions for mobile asset management and storage location of the property to check the current status, and if they remain in force.

Method and device to monitor the items described. Use of passive RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag system for monitoring equipment, enabling real-time location and identification of the location of thousands of parts production and storage. Passive RFID is attached to this report, point monitoring, remote sensing antennas are placed in each remote location to monitor interrogations at multiple antennas to communicate with the antenna input to the multiplexed signal to the antenna and interrogator of the host computer to designate the location of the recognized actions require an object.

Embodiment of the invention includes methods to check around the vehicle. Radio frequency (RF) identification (RFID tag) is fitted, the vehicle data and vehicle control. Sends a command vehicle to follow the vehicle after receiving information that the vehicle is a vehicle status. The processor activates the control mechanism in response to the command control of the vehicle. In a further embodiment of the invention in the display area of the vehicle includes a generator, the RFID reader and processor. Field generator generates radio frequency (RF) field) Clock Radio Frequency Identification (RFID installed in a vehicle headed drivers. RFID reader receives information from the vehicle RFID RFID is used in the wake of the field generator. The CPU is based on the RFID reader more communicative type of vehicle information and vehicle connected to the state.

Author uitvindingen vermeld in dit document tracking voertuig is een systeem met behulp van radio-frequency identification (RFID) transponders are RFID transceiver is bevestigd welke een aan een voertuig Go voertuig Locatie gegevens naar te verzamelen. Each location code encoded in the transponder, which is then installed in a place the way for the vehicle when the vehicle passes through the transceiver to read the vicinity. Read the data transmitted through the transceiver for mobile communication device such as mobile Internet. Transponder in a safe place, and the sender's mobile vehicle, the system is in contrast to a typical RFID tracking system. In addition, the use of data stored on the RFID transponder RFID transponder and the processes of data storage and processing device, whether the vehicle is set before reading the route the vehicle is estimated that today is the planned route and timetable. RFID Vehicle Tracking system is unique.

One type of RFID on the use of a centralized system for the coal line, analysts at least one player and a pipette for the coal belt, belts and straps on the feed mill hopper. Analysts put the online system at this time would cost about U.S. $ 600 000. However, local production, medicine dropper of six players, a system of radio-telemetry data, and seven miles of reusable tag only € 50 000 €. Credit card companies are now seeking ways of contactless payment cards for mobile phones. The carrier solution to the needs of the industry is now available. Less than 3 mm thick, 2 years of tolerating the undercard of the environment, protected from the elements and to ensure that the vehicle

RFID can be read when dusty or dirty, and virtually all environmental conditions is a good alternative to manual entry of false information or technology, bar code, there is no life, or to assess the readability of RFID. Some of the additional memory and RFID, which makes them ideal for field maintenance and repair services for industrial workers to store songs.
Assets of organizations, repair and maintenance of RFID can reduce the number of parts of the vehicle maintenance to manually enter data, increase productivity and improve customer service. These benefits contribute to general health and the economy.

(The system boundary)

This is a time-limited written information, and can be written several times higher
Capacity and can be connected to sensors
And limitations of RFID read range, and may include a number of Read more)
It should be considered at the time, and field of view, it is necessary to
Many tags can be read without visual contact and at the same time, it is necessary
Automatic vehicle location tracking system

a) the monitoring method
Automatic vehicle location system is generated by the vehicle on track. Automatic Vehicle Location Center contains a control unit and mobile units. Each mobile device will know the current status of external radio signals. Automatic vehicle location is a place for vehicles such as security vehicles, taxis, vans and emergency vehicles. AVL is used to automatically determine the location of the vehicle and a communication processor.

b) the accuracy of the tracking method


A wide range of basic methods of automatic vehicle location there. Living within 100 meters will be the derivation of the position. Die automatische Standortbestimmung des Fahrzeugs kann von 5% auf mehr als 25% durch das Management der AVL Flotten mit Echtzeit-Positionierung reichten zu gewinnen.

c) The information tracking system

According to location of the vehicle were taken, the monitoring data are transmitted using telemetry or wireless communication systems. GSM and EVDO are the most frequently used services, AVL. Requirements also allow for the slow satellite telemetry technology to obtain a moderately high price.

d) How often is the information communicated to central control of the vehicle

Communications satellites can AVL satellite vehicle position information and forward them to the transmitter station, the company charges. The information is then automatically configured to transfer a place in the period, eg every 5 minutes. The data do not cover the entire region of the world, and very remote areas, and terrestrial radio or a public body. Description of the system, I know that the sites had no doubt every thirty seconds.

e) the method of data transmission from the vehicle's center of

If the location of the vehicle determined and the data are transmitted via satellite or radio link to the vehicle receiver, satellite or nearby cell tower. There are also other ways to determine the actual location of the vehicle under certain conditions, for example, our taxi has been in an environment where the lighting is bad or the GPS can not process an active RFID system.

f) cost per vehicle per day) with the system

Low data to AVL, AVL system cost may be a brand, function, and quality. Some of the AVL system can be purchased only $ 70th The system that the price would be likely to handheld devices. AVL has installed a large vehicle may have more than 1000th Cost is about $ 3 a day.

g) Services that provide system

Later AVL to offer more services as follows:
  • Locate the nearest vehicle and send the client
  • Larger numbers of pickups and deliveries per day
  • Increased and timely delivery
  • an uncontrolled increase in the number of vehicles, dispatcher
  • Progress report documents
h) to limit the system


AVL can be within about 48meters. And this system is not very large building, which may prevent the signal path. Can block transmission, because the restrictions.

Recommendation

GPS works in any weather, anywhere in the world 24 hours a day. There are no subscription fees or setup for the use of GPS. Disaster relief and emergency services depends on the location of the GPS functions and missions in their lives. GPS has become a pillar of the global transport systems, navigation data on air, land and maritime operations. Daily activities such as tracking vehicles and even mobile phone operations control electricity networks, is to facilitate the precise timing, the GPS. The inspectors, business owners and others to work more efficient, safe, economical and very carefully the GPS system.

Task(2)

Task(3)

Topology

Bus topology

A bus network topology is connected to a network architecture in which a number of customers over a common communication line when a bus. A bus network uses a multi-drop transmission medium, which all nodes in the network and thus share a common bus communication. This allows only one device at a time to be transferred. A distributed access protocol determines which station is transmitted. A bus topology connects each computer (node) to a single root segment (a communication line, usually coaxial cable as. The 'bus', the signal travels from one end called the bus on the other side. A terminator is required on each shaft to accommodate the signal so it does not reflect on the bus.
Bus networks are the easiest way to connect multiple clients, but may have problems when two clients want to send at the same time on the same bus. Sun-bus systems using network architectures normally have a plan of treatment or prevention of Collisions Collision for communication over the bus. The bus topology enables the addition of new devices easily. The term used to describe customers is station or workstation in this type of network. Bus topology uses a broadcast channel which means that all connected stations to hear every transmission and all stations to transmit the same priority in the use of the network, data.
Benefits

  • Easy to implement and expand
  • Cost-effective solution, since only a single cable is used,
  • Cable errors are easy to recognize.
  • Weight savings due to fewer wires

Disadvantages

  • Limited cable length and the number of stations.
  • If there is a problem with the cable, goes the entire network.
  • Maintenance costs may be higher in the long run.
  • the performance with increasing additional computers are added or on heavy traffic. (Shared Bandwidth)
  • The right attitude is required (loop) must be in closed path.
  • Significant Capacitive Load (each bus transaction must be in a position to most distant link) route.
  • It works best with limited number of nodes.
  • It is slower than the other top bed.

Ring topology

A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes and form a single path for continuous signals with each node - a ring. If data from node to node, with each node along the way dealing with each package. All the nodes on the LAN are connected in a loop and network interface cards (NIC) to work as a repeater. There is no beginning or end point. Each node repeat any signal that is independent on the net his goal. Because a ring topology is only one path between any two nodes ring network can be disrupted by the failure of a single link. Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) is the most popular ring topology protocol. FDDI (IEEE 802.6) is another protocol in the ring topology that is used on the token ring.

Benefits

  • Very orderly network where every device has access to the characters and the ability to transfer
  • Performs better than a star topology under heavy network load
  • Can create much larger network with Token Ring
  • Requires no network server to manage the connectivity between the computer

Disadvantages

  • A workstation failure or bad port in the MAU will cause problems for the entire network
  • Moves, adds and changes of devices can be based on the network
  • Network adapter cards and MAU are much more expensive than Ethernet cards and hubs
  • Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal load
  • The failure of a single node of the network can cause the whole network fails.
  • The movement or changes made to the nodes affects the performance of the entire network.

Star Topology

Star networks are one of the most common computer network topologies. In its simplest form, a star consists of a central network switch, hub or computer acting as a conduit to transmit messages. 10BaseT Ethernet uses a star topology, usually with a computer, which is located at one end of the trail, and the other end is set with a hub. The star topology reduces the chance of network failure by connecting all the systems into a central node. if one "point-to-point" segments of a break, it will affect only the nodes on the link to other computer users on the network continues as if this segment were not available. When applying for a bus-based network, the central hub displays all transfers from a peripheral node to all peripheral nodes on the network, sometimes called the origin nodes receive. All peripheral nodes may thus communicate with all others by transmitting to and received from the central node only. The failure of a transmission line linking any peripheral node to the central node in the isolation of peripheral node from all other results, but the rest of the systems is not affected.

Benefits

  • Because of its central nature of the topology provides ease of operation.
  • Better performance
  • In addition, achieved an isolation of the individual devices on the network.
  • Easy administration
  • Easy to locate problems (cable / workstations)
  • Easier to extend when a bus or ring topology

Disadvantages

  • High dependence of the system on the functioning of the central hub.
  • The performance and scalability of the network also depends on the capabilities of the hub.
  • Network size is limited by the number of connections that are at the hub
  • The wiring of the system can be very complex.

Media Information

Unshielded Twisted Pair --

UTP cable is the most common cable used in computer networks. Ethernet is the most common data networking standard uses UTP cable. Twisted pair cabling is often used in computer networks for short and medium length connections because of the relatively lower cost compared to fiber optic and coaxial cables.
In UTP cable, it contains hundreds or thousands of pairs, the cable is divided into smaller but equal bundles. Each bundle consists of pairs that have different prices to shoot. The bundles are twisted into Turn the cable. Couples with the same twist rate within the cable may still experience some degree of crosstalk. Pairs are carefully selected to minimize crosstalk in a large cable.

Benefits

  • There is a thin, flexible cable that is easy to string between walls.
  • There is UTP is small, there is not complete wiring ducts quickly.
  • UTP costs less per meter / foot than any other type of LAN cable.

Disadvantages

  • Twisted-pair is the pair turned susceptibility systems during the installation.
  • Twisted-pair cables usually have stringent requirements for maximum traction and minimum bend radius.
  • Relative sensitivity of twisted-pair cables makes the installation practices an important role in the cable is guaranteed.
  • Twisted-pair cabling can introduce signal delays

Coaxial

Coaxial cable is an electrical cable with a conductor of a tubular insulating layer typically made from a flexible material surrounded by a high dielectric constant, which are all surrounded by a conductive layer, and finally covered with a thin insulating layer on the outside. Coaxial cable was the English engineer and mathematician Oliver Heaviside, the patented design invented in the first 1880.Coaxial cable is used as a transmission line for high-frequency signals in applications such as connecting wireless transmitters and receivers with their antennas, computer network ( Internet connections).
In a coaxial cable the electromagnetic field, the signal only exists in the space between the inner and outer conductors. This allows coaxial cable leads to the next to metal objects such as gutter without the losses that are installed appear in other lines, and provides protection of the signal from external electromagnetic interference.
The inner conductor may be solid or stranded wire, and flexible. To improve high frequency performance of the conductor may be silver plated. Sometimes copper-plated iron wire used as the inner conductor

Disadvantages

  • Coaxial cables are expensive as a pair
  • Do not support for some network standards (eg Token Ring)
  • They are also very bulky and has high attenuation
  • they must implement to repeaters, etc.
  • High installation costs

Benefits

  • Greater channel capacity
  • Larger bandwidth
  • Reduced error rates
  • Big Noise
  • Susceptible to damage from lightning

Fiber optic cable

Fiber optic cable is a technology used), the glass (or plastic) threads (fibers to transfer data. An optical fiber consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of them capable of transmitting messages modulated on light waves. Fiber optic communication is a method for transmitting information from one place to another by pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light is an electromagnetic wave, the carrier is modulated in order to disseminate information. Initially developed in the 1970s, fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and played an important role in the era of information society age. Because of its advantages over electrical transmission optical fibers have largely replaced copper wire communications in core networks in the developed world.
The process of communicating with fiber-optics involves the following basic steps: Creating the optical signal, which ensure the use of the station that implementation of the signal along the fiber, that the signal is not distorted or too weak to receive the optical signal, and conversion into an electrical signal.

Benefits

  • High data rate and large bandwidth
  • immunity to EMI / RFI and lightning damage
  • No ground loops
  • Low attenuation (data loss)
  • Longer distance - 2 a.m. to 5 p.m. km with multimode fiber, or over 25 km with Single Mode Fiber

Disadvantages

  • Costs
  • wiring trouble: weight, routing, size, attenuation and cross-talk
  • Distance between the terminals and hosts are limited to a few meters
  • Limited topologies
  • Large diameter cable ducts and plenum fills
  • Must be run by power and control wiring

Recommendation:

I would recommend using the star topology and twisted-pair cable (UTP) for this system. In this system, it has five controllers, which also connect with each other. Through the use of star topology, the company a lot of advantages. Since star topology is easy to manage and operations easily, the problems that have been made in cable and workstations to be found. They are easy to expand as a bus or ring topology. They also have an isolation of the individual devices on the network. It is easy to maintain, cheap and quick to install. It can also reduce network redundancy. And) with twisted-pair cable (UTP, we just can not be easily controlled to interconnect with another network system and manipulate the user. And even in fast moving files, and dedicated users. UTP are easy to install, troubleshoot and configure. Due to the above mentioned reason why I recommend that with star topology, and for UTP cable for A2B taxi company

Task(4)

I. Safety problems with the transmission of location data of the vehicle (NMS)

I recommended that the tracking system GPS vehicle in the vehicle tracking method. Through the use of GPS vehicle tracking method, we can secure data transmission. GPS location of the vehicle is to use the private network data transmission. Thus, the position of the vehicle, all data are in the private network with the transition. This is one of the many possibilities of GPS. As you know, we'll meet all sorts of problems related to security issues. These problems can be achieved on the declaration of vehicle location. To use any type of vehicle-tracking method, such as RFID, all data on vehicle position with frequency. For the security of data transmission, vehicle position by other functions must be that the monitoring system. For the secure transmission of location data of the vehicle, we need network security, such as eavesdropping and men held in-the-middle. These are the main problems is that we need to worry. Eavesdropping is the main problem for radio networks. This is how the snooping information via the network. This may be one of the obligations of the terminal while the user is away or typing in the cable carrying the signals. Authentication can be regarded as problems. This mechanism allows you to network, identify the person or determine a system for mounting the network and if they are allowed to do so. Although the username and password protected, this is a problem, we should be aware. If we use another method, we have to worry about the security issue related to these problems. With the method of GPS vehicle tracking should not be concerned about this issue.

II Communications Voice Transfer

For the transmission of voice, I recommend you use the GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) two-way communication for your business. To transfer the system to two-way voice communication with a frequency for them to voice data. Although not able to say that this method is not safe, it needs high security. Frequencies that are transmitted from the base station can be received by each device. Thus, man-in-the-Middle problems with the transmission of voice data occur. Man-in-the-middle person who is caught is the third in the other two parties to the talks. Others argue that the two parties that is the other party. This problem occurs because the frequency is not transmitted limited. Eavesdropping problem can also occur when you use the voice communication system. With the use of this system security is the most important question we should pay attention. Must protect protection such as adding software or system reliability of voice transmission. But after using the protection software or system which is the best system for collecting two sets of two-way voice communication. And even at the expense of the emotional with the best benefits.

Task(5)

GPS Tracking

Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite navigation system, a network which aims to launch a satellite from the U. S. Department of Defense. GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day for a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers of this information and triangulation to calculate the exact location of the user.
GPS receivers are extremely accurate at the same time, because of their multi-channel design. GPS satellite receivers to arrive as soon as the first step and he had a solid lock, even in dense foliage or in urban high-rise. Some errors and other environmental factors may increase the accuracy of the GPS receiver. The accuracy of GPS receivers to 15 meters on average.
Newer GPS receivers with WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) capability can improve the accuracy of three meters on average. Users can also have better precision differential GPS (DGPS) that improves the GPS signals within an average of three to five meters. GPS has become a pillar of global transportation, navigation and data on air to ground and maritime operations. Daily activities such as banking, mobile operations, and facilitates the precise timing of the electrical control using GPS. Farmers, surveyors, geologists and countless others in their work more efficient, safe, economical, and the GPS signal is free and open.
System GPS vehicle tracking works installed in each vehicle tracking. The device reads the information on the location of the GPS satellite network and sends the position coordinates and other factors, such as speed and back on the mobile data network such as GSM or GPRS. The information is then sent to the rule service provider telemetry. Making TSP data either directly through a dedicated communication link, or customer information via the Web server where users can search by entering the Web browser.


Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time signal with the satellite time, because it was successful. The time difference how satellite states. Be locked with GPS receiver must score at least three satellites to calculate the location of the user. If the user is located, the GPS can calculate the distance, time travel, etc.
Global Positioning System (GPS) data, based on GPS to determine vehicle position. The method also receives data on another vehicle. This method gets the properties of one or more of the vehicles to get a precise location and details of vehicle characteristics, including the suspension damping characteristic of the spring rate of the APA, specifications system stability control, a typical location of dampers, etc.
Some of us tend to feel more mail lost while driving around a car GPS, you may be interested in your car. This could be a separate GPS system or a handheld personal data assistant, or type, all continue to assist the driver with a destination, saving time and inconvenience. Is the GPS system for cars that should never be a monthly service of a car with GPS or other GPS, subscription fees related. There are also additional services are added in May, which require additional charges. One of the many benefits of having a car GPS in the car to know your position at any time. Stolen unfortunate if a car is when the system is a state, their current position may be combined and noted that the prompt restoration of the police. Many car rental companies, the service can be used in conjunction with a GPS system for cars in their car, their use and location to continue.

RFID

Stopping a tracking system RFID transponder and mobile stations. The invention is a surveillance system for radio frequency identification (RFID) and RFID transceiver that is installed in a moving vehicle on the vehicle's location. Each position coded transponder code, which is the seat of the vehicle along the route is attached to a transceiver, if a vehicle is nearby. Reading data from a transceiver is determined as the mobile communication device mobile Internet will be passed. Transponder and the transmitter of a moving vehicle in a safe place, this system is the opposite of a typical RFID tracking.
Method and apparatus for monitoring points described. Passive RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag system for monitoring equipment used in conjunction with real-time detection and location of thousands of parts manufacturing and warehouse space. Passive RFID is attached to the monitoring point for remote sensing antennas are placed in each of the geographical distance, multiple antennas to monitor his interrogators that the input signal from antenna to antenna multiplex interrogator and communicates with the host computer to designate a place, the Act requires a theme.

Embodiment of the invention includes methods to check around the vehicle. Radio frequency (RF) identification (RFID tag) is installed on the vehicle and the vehicle data and vehicle control. Sends a command to the car after receiving information from the vehicle, based on state-controlled vehicle technology. The processor will start a mechanism of control measures in response to the command control vehicle. In another embodiment of the invention in the display area of the vehicle includes a generator, the RFID reader and processor. Field generator produces high frequency (RF) field to identify the clock frequency identification (RFID) code is in the driver installed. RFID reader receives information from a vehicle used for RFID RFID wakes the field generator. The processor is based on the RFID reader is connected, data communication may be sent to the vehicle control and the vehicle.

Each position coded transponder code, which is then installed in a place the way for the vehicle when the vehicle passes through the transceiver to read the environment, in addition, the use of data stored on the RFID transponder RFID transponder reading and recording of data processing and the processing device determines if the vehicle has been pre determined route of the vehicle is estimated to come today the planned route and timetable. RFID tracking system vehicle is unique.

Automatic vehicle location tracking system

Automatic vehicle location on your computer to create a rail vehicle. Automatic Vehicle Location Center contains a control unit and mobile units. Everybody knows the location of mobile device receives radio signals outside the current user. Automatic Vehicle Location tracking of vehicles, such as security vehicles, taxis, vans and service vehicles used for emergency communications. AVL is used to automatically transmit vehicle position and the controller.
There are many different methods of car-based vehicle rental. Positioning accuracy of 100 meters and can take one more stand. Automatic vehicle location may be from 5% to 25% of fleet management, AVL positioning using real-time to win.
After detecting the location data from vehicle location is transmitted via telemetry systems and wireless communications. GSM and EVDO are services that are most commonly used AVL. Requirements can slow satellite telemetry technology to get a slightly higher price.
Communications satellites can view the data by satellite transmitters AVL and vehicle transfer station, the company featured. This information is automatically configured to forward its position to a certain period of time, eg every 5 minutes. The data are based on global and remote areas not covered by terrestrial radio, and air carriers. System Profiler shows that the sites will be reviewed every thirty seconds.
If the vehicle is determined and data are transmitted via satellite or wireless receiver of the vehicle, satellite or antenna near the relay. There is also another possibility to determine the actual location of the vehicle under certain conditions, such as our taxi is an environment where GPS signals, lighting or the lack of an active RFID system has not worked.

Later AVL to offer more services as follows:
  • Find your vehicle and send to client
  • A large number of pickups and deliveries per day
  • Increase the speed of delivery
  • Increase the number of vehicles to handle the sender
  • Report monitoring documentation

Recommendation

GPS works in any weather anywhere in the world 24 hours a day. There are no subscription fees or setup charges to use GPS. Rescue and emergency depends on GPS positioning and timing and rescue operations. GPS has become a pillar of global transportation, navigation and data on air to ground and maritime operations. Daily activities such as mobile operations, vehicle tracking, and even control the power grid, will facilitate the precise timing, the GPS. The inspectors, contractors and others to work more efficient, safe, economical and well-GPS.
Task 2
Private Mobile Radio (PMR), or if it is sometimes called the Professional Mobile Radio business travelers in general is an excellent opportunity to use communications. Usually refers to the truck services that offer a sophisticated two-way radio systems for mobile voice and mobile PMR data network to invite. This method is used, the half-duplex system. Half-duplex system provides for communication in both directions in one direction at a time (not simultaneously).
Radio communication, such as PMR, is often used to provide the necessary link between all members of the regime. All these systems must be authorized under the PRM and related laws. The license to operate a specific channel or channels. May be managed by a base rent of channels to individual users of the company. PMR licenses issued in May the company, namely, individual, partnership, limited liability company or association formed.


Public Access Mobile Radio

Public Access Mobile Radio (PAMR) is a method of two way radios, the number of transmitters, which are linked to the region or country. If local services) from the transmitter site (usually up to 45 km from the site, which is a common base station (BSC), information can be found, are presented separately.
A feature of the PAMR is that it identifies how a number of programs related to the truck, he is accustomed to the fact that the mobile network capacity to choose the next available free channel, instead of waiting for a string is free. This will reduce waiting time and improves efficiency. Signage has also been used to identify different customer groups, and similar services. While most PAMR radio can not be bugging of absolute immunity, which offers a little more intimacy.
PAMR has several advantages, it is not necessary to apply for a license and no longer need to purchase and maintain costly infrastructure. And he has access to the range of value added services such as data transmission in the PSTN routes short.
Annual license fee has been granted regulatory Diners: (30) days after the actual end of the year for which the license was granted, shall be prorated for each year or later than January 31 of each year by the result. The licensee is a code of conduct approved in writing by the publication of regulatory, advisory and legal fees to customers of the individual licensee to the requirements of the provision by the licensee of the licensee shall prepare Services . The initial draft code of business conduct and submit to the examination of the regulatory authority within three (3) months after the entry into force.

General Mobile Radio Service

GMRS General Mobile Radio Service, which was originally called Radio Service-class citizens when it is implemented 1960th General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) is authorized by the FM radio service terrestrial UHF, the United States for short distance of two way communication. Broadband in the original FM deviation ± 15 kHz channel spacing is employed, and 50 kHz. At that time it was the norm for all surfaces and U.S. services.
General Mobile Radio Service (formerly A-Class Citizens Radio Service) is a personal conduct of the man of wireless personal and family. This is in section 95, regulated by guidelines and FCC regulations.
GMRS using commercial quality UHF FM radios identical to those of public safety agencies, businesses, licensees and other government agencies, commercial and industrial private land mobile services.
May have only radios, GMRS FCC type certified to be used for this service. Most radios used in the band of amateur radio (420-450 MHz), and some parents (especially pipes) commercial radio stations are not allowed to use. Otherwise, some of UHF FM radios currently used in 90 types of 450-470 MHz band, which has been proven in more than 50 watts of power, not the buildings certified for use on GMRS GMRS specific.
"Preferred" type of radio licenses, GMRS radio in your pocket. This provides better mobility and flexibility as it can be done and managed by the user, wherever he goes - at home, at work, a motor vehicle while shopping, even riding public transportation or through recreational activities (camping, hiking, etc..) Some of the licensees on board, including radio, but they are generally willing to portable radios. Only minor changes, some of the vehicle is also used in radio base stations, although the hand-held radios are often used in this way
As its name suggests, it is determined the entire mobile radio service, particularly the exchange of information between mobile stations or mobile stations and base stations.
Repeater Station is another type of base station that receives a signal on a frequency (467 MHz) and automatically (and usually about the same time), the second broadcast signal frequency (in the band 462).
You can also use the ratio of the conventional base station signal is 462-MHz receive, it sends the signal even after a slight delay at the same frequency. This requires a business-related "cheap-and-forward" device, the base station, but they must also use another device to close the plant if they occur elsewhere.
The base stations is often of high buildings or towers, or the mountains, to extend the wireless bandwidth.
Maximum power 50 watts GMRS eligible. GMRS channels, which are divided into FRS is limited to 5 watts of electricity. Even if they are shared GMRS may have much more power than FRS or legal persons. Mail to communicate with base stations and mobile units, and the frequency multiplier May be licensed in May fifty watts of power, some mobile units have been approved by 1-4 watts. Power determines your license, you can use to May and the height of the antenna, you may have.

Recommendation

GMRS radios for direct communication, rather than each time a mobile phone. By using repeaters GMRS Radio allows you to open your options and scope. You can use your mobile vehicles, walkie-talkie repeater base stations can be managed with a repeater to extend your ability to speak a few miles over 40 miles. Best of all is free access to the repeater.
And it is not necessary to pay each year, and no monthly contracts. And also free. This is less static, more light, I nterference and more compact than other services. GMRS, and is easy to use in our business. GMRS can stand outside and a lot of abuse. I think the use of GMRS is the best in our society.
GMRS time is not necessarily free of air and pay monthly contracts. GMRS and not have to pay a fee. This is less static and interference than CB radios. And also easy to use, facilities and equipment.

Topology

Bus topology

A network topology bus is connected to a network architecture in which a number of clients over a common communication line when a bus. A bus network uses a multi-drop transmission medium, all nodes in the network and therefore shares a common communication bus. This allows a single device at a time to transfer. A distributed access protocol determines the position is transmitted. A bus topology connects each computer (node) to a single segment of stem (a communication line, coaxial cable in general, which, like. The 'bus', the signal moves from one end of the bus called the other side. Terminator record is required for each signal, again, back on the bus.

Benefits

  • Easy to apply and extend,
  • Cost-effective solution, since only one cable is used,
  • Errors of cables are easy to recognize.
  • Weight savings from the son of least

Disadvantages

  • Limited cable length and number of stations.
  • If there is a problem with the cable going across the network.
  • maintenance costs may be higher in the long term.
  • The performance is deteriorated, additional computers are added or on heavy traffic. (Shared Bandwidth)
  • The right attitude is required (loop) must be in closed path.

Ring Topology

A ring network is a network topology where each node connects to exactly two other nodes and form a single path for continuous signals to each node - a ring. If data from node to node, each node along the path processing each packet. All network nodes are connected local loop and network interface cards (NIC) to work as a repeater. There is no beginning and no end in itself. Each node repeat any signal that is independent on the net his goal. For a ring topology is only one path between two nodes ring network can be disrupted by the failure of a single link. Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) is the most popular ring topology protocol. FDDI (IEEE 802.6) is another protocol in the ring topology is used on token ring.

h3>Benefits

  • Very orderly network where every device has access to the characters and the ability to transfer
  • Performs better than a star topology under heavy network load
  • Can create a much more important with Token Ring
  • Does not require server to manage network connectivity between the computer

Disadvantages

  • Failure workstation or a bad port in the MAU will pose problems for the entire network
  • departures, additions and changes of devices can affect the network
  • NICs and Mau are much more expensive than Ethernet cards and hubs
  • Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal load

Star topology

Star networks are one of the topologies of common computer network. In its simplest form, a star consists of a core network switch, hub or a computer acting as a conduit to pass messages. 10BaseT Ethernet uses a star topology, usually with a computer, which is located at one end of the runway, and the other end is set with a hub. The star topology reduces the risk of network failure by connecting all systems in a central node. if a "point to point 'segments has a break only on the node on this link to computer users on the network continues as if this segment are not available. When you ask a network based on the bus, the central hub displays all transfers from a device node to all peripheral nodes on the network, sometimes called the source node received. All the devices in May nodes thus communicate with all others by transmitting and received by the central node only. The failure of a transmission line linking any peripheral node to the central node in the isolation of a node device of all results, but the rest of the system is not affected.

Benefits

  • Because of its centrality to the topology provides ease of operation.
  • Best performance
  • You may also reach the isolation of individual devices on the network.
  • Easy administration
  • Easy to identify problems (cable / workstations)
  • Easier to extend when a bus or ring topology

Disadvantages

  • Strong dependence on the operating system's central hub.
  • Die Leistung und Skalierbarkeit of Netzwerks hängt auch von den Fähigkeiten der Nabe.
  • Network size is limited by the number of connections that are central
  • The system wiring can be very complex.

Media Information

Unshielded Twisted Pair --

UTP cable is the cable most commonly used in computer networks. Ethernet is the most common standard data network using UTP cable. Twisted pair cabling is often used in computer networking connections for short to medium due to the relatively lower cost compared to fiber optic cables and coaxial.
In the UTP cable, it contains hundreds or thousands of couples, the cable is divided into smaller packets, but equal. Each beam consists of pairs that have different prices to shoot. The bundles are then twisted together to build the cable. Couples with the same rate of twist in the cable may still experience some of the crosstalk. Couples are carefully selected to minimize crosstalk in a thick cable.

Benefits

  • There is a thin flexible cable that is easy to string between walls.
  • Because UTP is small, it is not quickly fill in wiring ducts.
  • UTP is less expensive per meter / foot than any other type of LAN cable.

Disadvantages

  • Twisted pair is the pair turned the susceptibility of systems during installation.
  • The twisted pair cables usually have stringent requirements for maximum traction and minimum radius of curvature.
  • relative sensitivity of twisted pair cables makes the installation practices to ensure an important role in the performance of cable.
  • Twisted pair cabling can introduce signal delays

Coaxial

Coaxial cable is an electrical cable with a center conductor surrounded by a tube. In a coaxial cable the electromagnetic field, the signal exists only in the space between the inner and outer conductors. This allows coaxial cable to another leads to metal objects such as gutters, not including losses that occur will be installed in existing lines, and provides protection to the signal of electromagnetic interference.
The solid or stranded conductor might fail is more flexible. To improve performance at high frequency conductor may be silver plated. Sometimes copper-plated iron wire used as inner conductor.

Disadvantages

  • Coaxial cables are expensive as a pair
  • Do not support certain network standards (eg, Token Ring)
  • They are also very large and has high damping
  • They must implement repeaters, etc.
  • The high costs of installation

Benefits

  • Increased channel capacity
  • more bandwidth
  • Reduced error rates
  • Big Noise
  • susceptible to damage from lightning

The fiber optic cable

Fiber optic cable is a technology used), glass (or plastic) son (fiber to transfer data. An optical fiber consists of a bundle son of glass, each capable of transmitting messages over the airwaves modulated light. The fiber optic communications is a method for transmitting information from one place to another by pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light is an electromagnetic wave, the carrier is modulated to disseminate information.
The process of communication with the optical fiber comprises the following major steps: the creation of optical signal, which ensure the use of the station that the application of signal along the fiber, the signal is not distorted or too weak to receive the optical signal and converting into an electrical signal.

Benefits

  • High-speed broadband
  • immunity to EMI / RFI and lightning damage
  • No ground loops
  • Low attenuation (data loss)
  • longer distance - 2 hours to 5 km h with multimode fiber, or over 25 km with single mode fiber

Disadvantages

  • Costs
  • wiring difficulties: weight, routing, size, attenuation and crosstalk
  • Distance between terminals and the host is limited to a few meters
  • Limited topologies
  • Large diameter fill plenum cable and son
  • Must be executed by the power and control wiring

Recommendation:

I recommend using the star topology and a twisted pair cable (UTP) for this system. In this system, it has five inspectors, who also links to each other. By using the star topology, the company has many advantages. Since star topology is easy to manage and easy operations, problems which have been made cables and workstations to find. They are easy to develop a bus or ring topology. They also have an isolation of individual devices on the network. It is easy to clean, inexpensive and quick to install. It may also reduce duplication. Et) with twisted pair cable (UTP, we can not be easily controlled to interconnect with another network system and manipulate the user. And as soon as file transfer, and dedicated users. UTP are Easy to install, troubleshoot and configure. Due to the reason mentioned above, I recommend that, with the star topology, and UTP cables for A2B Taxi Company.

Task 4

I. Safety problems with the transmission of location data of the vehicle (NMS)

I recommended that the tracking system GPS vehicle in the vehicle tracking method. Through the use of GPS vehicle tracking method, we can secure data transmission. GPS location of the vehicle is to use the private network data transmission. Thus, the position of the vehicle, all data are in the private network with the transition. This is one of the many possibilities of GPS. As you know, we'll meet all sorts of problems related to security issues. These problems can be achieved on the declaration of vehicle location. To use any type of vehicle-tracking method, such as RFID, all data on vehicle position with frequency. For the security of data transmission, vehicle position by other functions must be that the monitoring system. For the secure transmission of location data of the vehicle, we need network security, such as eavesdropping and men held in-the-middle. These are the main problems is that we need to worry. Eavesdropping is the main problem for radio networks. This is how the snooping information via the network. This may be one of the obligations of the terminal while the user is away or typing in the cable carrying the signals. Authentication can be regarded as problems. This mechanism allows you to network, identify the person or determine a system for mounting the network and if they are allowed to do so. Although the username and password protected, this is a problem, we should be aware. If we use another method, we have to worry about the security issue related to these problems. With the method of GPS vehicle tracking should not be concerned about this issue.

II Communications Voice Transfer

For the transmission of voice, I recommend you use the GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) two-way communication for your business. To transfer the system to two-way voice communication with a frequency for them to voice data. Although not able to say that this method is not safe, it needs high security. Frequencies that are transmitted from the base station can be received by each device. Thus, man-in-the-Middle problems with the transmission of voice data occur. Man-in-the-middle person who is caught is the third in the other two parties to the talks. Others argue that the two parties that is the other party. This problem occurs because the frequency is not transmitted limited. Eavesdropping problem can also occur when you use the voice communication system. With the use of this system security is the most important question we should pay attention. Must protect protection such as adding software or system reliability of voice transmission. But after using the protection software or system which is the best system for collecting two sets of two-way voice communication. And even at the expense of the emotional with the best benefits.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.