Relationship Between EI and OP Amongst Librarians
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This chapter is seeks to verify the limited studies into the relationship between EI and OP amongst librarians. There appears to be very little research, or study investigating the areas synthesizing library administration issues and the study of EI in information works. Although researchers allude to the need to be able to understand and manage their own emotions as an information provider, the lack of research combining the areas of EI of librarians in Malaysian public libraries suggests a large gap in a very important research area (Quinn, 2002; Hernon, 2008 and Singer, 2005).
Consequently, a study that focuses on a public librarian's perceived need for EI would fill this gap and therefore contribute to the existing EI literature. The following information is provided as a literature review encompassing an overview of the different constructs and theories of EI, as researched by several authors. The historical context and development of Malaysian Public Libraries will also be explored in this literature review. The topics of EI, and the area of information works, are reviewed individually within, as there is very little research on issues pertaining to the combination of these topics.
This chapter furnishes an encompassing review on past literature, which covers a richness of information on EI research in general. There are 8 parts itemized as follows: Part 1 contains the introduction; Part 2 gives the description of EI history, theory, models and development; Part 3 discusses EI and applications in the workplace EI; Part 4 discusses librarians standard skills and capabilities; Part 5 shows clearly occupational performance; Part 6 examines the relationship between EI and performance, and finally, Part 7 summarizes all elements of this review.
2.2 EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
Twenty years ago, researchers didn't much pay attention the topic of emotions in the workplace, perhaps because emotions were viewed too difficult to be measured and were thought of as illogical, unstable, and not fit for decision making tool; they were therefore less popular and largely unexplored among researchers (Arvey et al., 1998 and Muchinsky, 2000). Early 1990 however, researchers have begun to recognize that emotions should not be excluded from skill and competency of organizational, because it can be used in ways that contribute constructively to organizations (Arvey et al., 1998 and Fredman, Ghini and Dijk, 2008).
In relation to this, it is motivating researchers to study the emotions in organizations. For instance, study on occupational performance has adopted a more affective focus. Additionally, new interest in the people feeling on work behavior has been influential in turning attention to the more emotional side of workplace experiences (e.g., Brief, Butcher, & Roberson, 1995; Fisher & Ashkanasy, 2000). Fisher and Ashkanasy (2000) and Ryback & Wenny (2007) also claim the popularity of EI as a mechanism for new research in the workplace. The information below was derived from the previous empirical studies and multiple formats of resources.
There is no definitive definition of EI. Many authors define EI as the ability to understand feelings, either internally or externally. Numerous studies indicate that, knowledge, cognitive skills and abilities are usually blended with performance. The term and concepts of EI were coined by Golemen (1995; 1998) in his two books, EI and Working with EI and developed a dimension and attribute of EI as self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill. However different authors have defined EI to some extent differently from Goleman. Mayer and Salovey's (1997) meaning is a kind of intelligence in that it emphasizes thinking, perceiving, understanding, appraising, discriminating, and identifying emotion. Goleman's concept of EI, in distinction, relates to the way people function emotionally if their functioning is at its potential or at least is not problematic.
From the viewpoint of Weisinger's (1998) gives descriptions and definition of EI is comparatively close to Goleman's when he described EI is the intelligent use of emotions. It in comparison to Goleman's, Cooper and Sawaf's (1997) delimitation gives greater attention to the higher directions of human behavior, mainly aspects correlated with leadership. Their concept comprehends factors such as intuition, integrity, personal purpose, and creativity which is not emphasized by Goleman. In contrast, Simmons and Simmons' (1997) approach to EI are very different from Goleman's when they relate EI to multiple relatively invariant character traits.
These theorists and many others defined and explained the concept of EI. There is no single definition in defining EI. Here I will include the five most popular ones. EI can be defined as:
1. “the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and action” (Mayer & Salovey,1993).
2. “ability to recognize and express emotions in yourself, your ability to understand the emotions of colleagues.” (Gardner, 1983).
3. “the intelligent use of emotions: you intentionally make your emotions work for you by using them to help guide your behaviour and thinking in ways that enhance your results.” (Weisinger, 1998).
4. “the ability to: 1) be aware of, to understand, and to express oneself; 2) be aware of, to understand, and to relate to others; 3) deal with strong emotions and control one's impulses; and 4) adapt to change and to solve problems of a personal or a social nature (Reuven Bar-On, 1998).
5. “the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships.(Goleman, 1998)
Based on the profusion of definitions, there seems to be no major differences among the definition of EI throughout the years. In consequence, EI generally entails the ability to understand and recognize feeling internally or intrapersonal and externally or interpersonal to make good decision. More timely, for this study, the researcher adopts the comprehensive of EI articulated by Goleman (1998) “a learned capability based on EI that resulted in outstanding performance at work”. EI echoes how an individual's possible for mastering the skills of Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness, and Relationship Management translates into work performance. Having defined EI, the following sections will highlight the literature related to EI and performance in library works.
2.1.2 Evolution of EI
In 1920, Thordike described the concept of EI as a form of social intelligence. He has divided intelligence into three facets; understanding and managing ideas (abstract intelligence), concrete objects (mechanical intelligence), and people (social intelligence). In his expression: "By social intelligence is meant the ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls to act wisely in human relations".
Further, in 1940, Wechsler, viewed intelligence as an effect and conceived that assessments of general intelligence are not adequate and consider that non-intellectual factors, such as personality, will influence the development of an individual's intelligence. Additionally, attention in social intelligence or other intelligence was reinvigorated in 1983 when Gardner introduced the theory of multiple intelligence (Brualdi, 1996; Gardner, 1995) and proposed an extensive field of differing intelligences.
In relation to this, Mayer and Salovey, (1990) coined the term EI in their article “EI,” from the journal “Imagination, Cognition and Personality” while Goleman, (1995) brought EI to the characteristic and developed his own model of EI. Ultimately, the concept of EI has been expanded and applied to numerous disciplines including services (e.g. Sales, Hospitality, banking, and school and information services etc). The evolving of EI as described in 2.1 below.
184.108.40.206 Social Intelligence
Social intelligence can be defined differently. Social intelligence can be defined as “the ability to understand and manage people to act wisely in human relations” (Thorndike, 1920, p. 228). Nevertheless, in the late 1930's, Thorndike and Stein (1937) altered the earlier definition of social intelligence to read, the “ability to understand and manage people” while a few years later, Gardner (1983) outlined his theory of multiple intelligences and he described in detail seven “relatively autonomous” of human intellectual competences (eg; linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, personal, interpersonal, and intrapersonal). Likewise, Moss and Hunt (1927) described social intelligence as the "ability to get along with others" (p. 108). Six years later as Vernon (1933), defined the social intelligence as the person's "ability to get along with people in general, social technique or ease in society, knowledge of social matters, susceptibility to stimuli from other members of a group, as well as insight into the temporary moods or underlying personality traits of strangers" (p. 44).
It was recognised by Maulding (2002) that EI was closely related to personal intelligence and was further qualified by Gardner with is employment of two personal intelligence aspects; intrapersonal and interpersonal. Intrapersonal intelligence was further depicted by Gardner as the capacity to be discriminating among one's feelings; to label them, and use them in ways to understand and guide one's behavior and interpersonal intelligence as “turns outward, to other individuals”. This focal point examined “the ability to notice and make distinctions among other individuals, and in particular, among their moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions”. Thus “Personal Intelligence” covers the close relationship of both intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence because, as Gardner noted, “these two forms of knowledge are intimately intermingled”.
There were numerous outstanding theorists were asked to define intelligence; unfortunate some definitions were obtained (Sternberg & Detterman, 1986) differently. White (2002) clarification, ‘In philosophical works we can find discussions of consciousness, perception and sensation, thought, action, memory, emotion and imagination, but rarely anything on intelligence' (White, 2002, p.78). In other words, Hand (2004) discussed the concept of Intelligence that is in general as stipulating technical senses and attempting to describe the ordinary sense. In contrast (Neisser et al., 1996) described intelligence are attempts to clarify and organize a vast array of phenomena that include: “the ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to environments, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought”. Even when experts in intelligence discuss the definition there appears more controversy than consensus (Matthews et al., 2002).
Unlike other definitions of intelligence, Wechsler (1958) described intelligence as “the aggregate or the global capacity of the individual to act purposely, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment”. Although many definitions were given by different authors, however, many studies of intelligence, in particular the psychometric approach, have provided a “predictor” of success (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000).
Emotion can be categorized as part of Social Intelligence was introduced by Gardner in 1930. The science of emotion has been problematic and is impeded with the complexities of linking tangible realities to the elusive, subjective, and experiential nature of emotions (Matthews et al., 2002). In the context of psychology, Salovey and Mayer provided a definition of emotions as:
Organized responses crossing boundaries of many psychological subsystems, including physiological, cognitive, motivational and experiential systems. Emotions typically arise in response to an event, either internal or external, that has a positively or negatively balanced meaning for an individual. Emotions can be distinguished from the closely related concept of mood in that emotions are shorter and generally more intense (1990, p. 186).
220.127.116.11 Emotional Intelligence
Mayer and Salovey (1990) wrote an article and outlining their EI framework. EI was listed by them at that time as a division of social intelligence. Elements of Gardner's personal intelligence study were employed when Mayer and Salovey defined EI as “the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings, to discriminate amongst them and to use this information to guide ones' thinking and actions” (p. 189). The book entitled EI (1995) was published as a way of coping with the pointless acts that were taking place, (Salopek, 1998) and became the best seller status.
After that the interest in EI took place (Mandell & Pherwani, 2003). Goleman persistent on this success in 1998 with a book entitled Working with EI where he reviewed 18 EI competencies usable in the workplace. Mayer and Salovey's (1990) definition of EI were modified by Goleman (1998c) with his revised definition of EI, “ ‘EI' refers to the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships” p317). Goleman listed 5 social and emotional groups - self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. This was subsequently reduced to just 4 after the arrival and review of new information.
He continues to refine his model and emphasize a mixture of interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence in defining EI and employed the four clusters (Maulding, 2002). The 4 new groups were labelled as self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2002). Self-awareness and self-management were merged into a “personal competence” category which included the capabilities that “determine how we manage ourselves” (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2002, p. 39). The capabilities that “determine how we manage relationships” define the Social Competency category (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2002, p. 39) and include the social awareness and relationship management groups. In the context of thois study, researcher will use the Golemans'Model as baseline or guideline to develop EI measurement for librarians. Yet a few competencies related to Malaysian public librarian nature will be considered (eg, spiritual, information literacy, Islamic values ect.) in the new model.
Table 2.1 Five Periods of Development in Emotions and Intelligence in the Past Century Period
The Emergence of The EI Concept
1900-1969 (Thorndike, 1920)
Intelligence and Emotions as Separate Narrow Fields
Psychometric approach to intelligence is developed and refined.
· Movement from Darwin's theory for heritability and evolution of emotional responses to now being viewed as culturally determined.
· Social Intelligence (Thorndike, 1920) as the concept is introduced.
1970-1989 (David Wechsler, 1940)
Non-intellective aspects of general intelligence
The field of cognition and affect emerged to examine how emotions interacted with thoughts.
· Gardner (1983) theory of multiple intelligences described an intrapersonal and an interpersonal intelligence.
· Empirical work on social intelligence developed four components: social skills, empathy skills, pro-social attitudes, and emotionality (sensitivity).
1990-1993 (Gardner, 1983)
Multiple intelligences; interpersonal intelligence-people smart; intrapersonal intelligence-self-smart
Mayer and Salovey publish a series of articles on EI.
· First ability measure of EI published.
· Editor of the journal Intelligence argued for an existence of EI.
· Further developments for EI in the brain sciences.
1994-1997 (Goleman 1995)
The Popularization and Broadening EQ
· Goleman (1995) publishes EI which becomes worldwide best-seller.
· Time magazine used the term “EQ” on its cover (Gibbs, 1995, October 2).
· Measures of EI using mixed model theories were published.
1998-Present (Peter Salovey & Jack Mayer, 1990
· Refinements to the concept of EI.
· New measures of EI introduced.
· Appearance of peer-reviewed articles on the subject.
2.2 Model of EI
There are many researchers that exist within the area of intelligences developed several models and theories to address EI (Gardner, 1990; Bar-On, 2008; Bernet, 1996; Brown, 1999; Brualdi, 1996; Burgess, Palmer, Stough & Walls, 2001; Caruso, Mayer, Perkins & Salovey, 1999; Cherniss, 2007; Ciarrochi, Chan, Caputi, & Roberts, 2001; Dulewicz & Higgs, 2000; Finegan, 1998; Gardner, 1995; Goleman, 1995; Goleman, 1998; Goleman, 2008; Langley, 2000; Mayer & Geher, 2007; Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 2003; Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2000; Mayer, 2001; Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenios, 2001; Mayer, Perkins, Caruso & Salovey, 2001; McDowelle & Bell, 2000; Pfeiffer, 2001; Reiff, Hates, & Bramel, 2001; Salovey & Mayer, 1990; Salovey & Sluyter, 1997; Weiss, 2000).
The model of EI is comprised into two types; the ability model and mixed model.
a) Ability model can be defined, EI as a set of mental abilities and constructs claims about the importance of emotional information and the potential uses of reasoning well with that information. Representatives of this model are Mayer and Salovey (1997) with four-branch model of EI.
b) mixed model, whereas more commonly orienting and mixes mental abilities with personality attributes. Model from Goleman (2001), Cooper & Sawaf (1997) and Bar-on (1997) are representatives for mixed model, but they expanded the meaning of EI by explicitly mixing the ability to understand and process emotion with other diverse parts of personality or skills, hence creating mixed approaches to EI. On the other word, the mixed model is defined as a combination of non cognitive abilities, personality traits and competencies (Goldsmith, 2008).
2.2.2 Models Assessing Emotional Intelligence
2.1.2 Bar-On's Model of EI
Bar-On reports that the EQ-i “was originally constructed as an experimental instrument designed to examine the concept of emotional and social functioning in the early 1980's (Bar-On, 2001, p.363). He created the term emotional quotient (EQ) to describe his mixed approach to the evaluation of an individual's general intelligence. He explained that the emotional quotient reflects our ability to operate successfully with other people and with our feelings (Bar-On, 2001).
Bar-On developed the Bar-On EQ-i and instrument has been translated into twenty-two languages and normative data has been collected in more than fifteen countries (Bar-On, 2001). This EI inventory is the first scientifically developed and validated measure of EI that reflects one's ability to deal with environmental challenges and helps to predict one's success in life, including professional and personal pursuits (AbiSamra, 2000 and Bar-on, 2001).
This model is separated into five different scales with fifteen subscales as detailed in Table 2.3. The first of these scales assess an individual's Intrapersonal EQ which consists of self-regard, emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, independence and self- actualization. The second scale assesses the individual's Interpersonal EQ consisting of empathy, social responsibility, and interpersonal relationships. Adaptability EQ is the third measure of Bar-On's scale. This scale focuses on reality testing, flexibility and problem solving or how an individual handles emotion in the moment. The fourth scale assesses an individual's Stress Management EQ. This scale is comprised of stress tolerance and impulse control. The fifth and final scale of the EQ-i measures an individual's General Mood EQ, consisting of optimism and happiness.
Bar-On reports that the research “findings obtained to date suggest that the EQ-i is measuring emotional and social intelligence…more specifically, the EQ-i is tapping the ability to be aware of, understand, control, and express emotions” (Bar-On, 2001, pp.372 -373). This ability model created by Bar-On is a selection of emotional, personal and social abilities that affect an individual's overall ability to manage the daily pressures and demands of life. Bar-On further reports that the ability is “apparently based on a core capacity to be aware of, understand, control and express emotions effectively” (p.374). Although Bar-On's early research focused on the emotional quotient, it was not until the 1990's that EI truly began to receive recognition as a distinct form of intelligence (Geher, Warner & Brown, 2001; Salovey & Sluyter, 1997). The concept of an individual's EI (EI) was explained and expanded upon by Mayer and Salovey in 1990 (Mayer, Perkins, Caruso & Salovey, 2001), and popularized by Daniel Goleman in 1995 (Goleman, 1995).
In 1995, Goleman elaborated on the original Salovey & Mayer definition of EI to suggest five major EI domains as reported in Table 4.
Table 4: Goleman's original model of EI.
Goleman's Model of EI
1. Assessment of emotions
2. Regulation of emotions
3. Motivating and emotional self control
4. Understanding and recognizing emotions
5. Relationships and emotions
The first of Goleman's EI domains includes knowing one's emotions. This domain involves assessing and knowing what the emotion is as it occurs. The second domain of managing emotions is described as handling those emotions in an appropriate manner that builds on self-awareness. Motivating oneself or emotional self-control is the third domain. The fourth domain involves recognizing emotions in others. This domain involves empathy and Goleman considers it to be a “people skill” (Goleman, 1995, p.43). The last domain in Goleman's original model consists of handling relationships. Goleman states that the ability of handling a relationship is in part the ability of managing emotions in others. Goleman contends that capacities for EI each have a distinctive involvement to form our lives. To some extent, these capacities build upon one another to formulate social skills. These abilities do not guarantee that people will develop or display emotional competencies. Goleman suggests that individual's use competencies in many areas across many spectrums.
Goleman has currently revised his original theory of EI as shown in Table 5. He now suggests that there are four domains rather than his original five domains (Goleman, 2001B).
Table 5: Goleman's current model of EI.
Goleman's Current Model of EI
1. Emotional Self Awareness
2. Emotional Self Management
3. Social Awareness
4. Relationship Management
The first component or cluster of EI is that of Emotional Self- Awareness, or knowing what one feels. Recognizing one's own feelings, how they affect one's performance, and the realization of our own strengths as well as our weaknesses, is an important part of the self-awareness cluster.
The second component of EI is Emotional Self-Management. This component reflects the ability to regulate stressful affects such as anxiety or anger, as well as how to deal with those situations. This component is reflected when an individual seems to keep their cool during a stressful situation. Self-management also reflects the abilities of an individual to be flexible and adaptable, looking at different perspectives of a situation.
Social-Awareness, the third component, encompasses the competency of empathy. The Social-Awareness cluster is described as the cluster where an individual is aware of others emotions, concerns, and needs. Being aware of this information and internally processing it, allows the individual to read situations and act accordingly.
The Relationship Management component makes up the fourth segment of Goleman's current model. This component relates to how we interact with others in emotional situations. Goleman believes that if we cannot control our emotional outbursts and impulses, and we lack the necessary skill of empathy, there is less chance that we will be effective in our relationships. The Relationship Management cluster includes many of the skills necessary for being successful in social situations. Communication is also an essential element in the relationship management cluster (Goleman, 2001b).
According to Goleman (2001a), EI at its most general rating, refers to the abilities to identify, reflect and adjust emotions in ourselves as well as to be aware of the emotions of others. Currently, Goleman relates the capacities for each domain in his EI model are: makes a unique contribution to job performance; strong communications; capacities build upon one another; does not guarantee people will develop or display the associated competencies; The general list is to some extent applicable to all jobs.
Although Goleman explains that these capacities are hierarchical, meaning that one cannot fully pass on to the next phase or tier without accomplishing the previous stage with some degree of success. These capacities are not fixed and an individual can experience many levels at the same time. Goleman (1998) also states that EI determines our potential for learning the practical skills that underlie the four EI clusters. He maintains that emotional competence illustrates how much of that potential we have realized by learning and mastering skills and translating EI into on the job capabilities.
According to Hall & Torrance (1980), empathy and super-awareness to the needs of others is a trait that lies outside the realm of human abilities that can be measured. Hall & Torrance report that many attempts have been made to measure these abilities, but with very little success. In their view, if empathy and awareness to others needs were accessed in a way that was based on reasoning, those qualities may reflect a measurable intellectual ability that would be associated with friendliness, compassion and happiness; all traits reported to be representative characteristics of emotionally intelligent individuals (Goleman, 1995; Pfeiffer, 2001).
The information reported in 1980 by Hall and Torrance was prescient in that these traits are currently being measured as traits of EI. The traits of flexibility and freedom of thoughts as well as a high rating of motivation, either intrinsic or extrinsic, the ability to express emotion, the ability to manage stress, self confidence, and the ability to cope with tension are also valued characteristics of EI (Caruso, Mayer, Perkins, & Salovey, 1999; Cherniss, 1998; Goleman, 1995, 1997; Levinson, 1997; Olszewski-Kubilius, 2000; Pfeiffer, 2001; Reiff, Hates & Bramel, 2001).
Currently, Goleman emphasizes that EI at its most general rating, refers to the abilities to identify, reflect and adjust emotions in ourselves as well as to be aware of the emotions of others (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001; Goleman, 2001A). According to Goleman, EI refers to the ability to recognize our own feelings and those of others, to motivate ourselves, and to manage emotions in ourselves and in our relationships. (Clawson 1999; Dulewicz & Higgs 2000; Goleman 1998; Burgess, Palmer, Stough & Walls 2001). In another cognitive research study conducted by Sternberg, Wagner, Williams, and Horvath (cited in McDowelle & Bell, 1998) it is reported that these differences in IQ and success at work accounted for between 4% and 25% variance of job performance. This leads us to the conclusion that a major part of what enhances our job performance is affected by non-IQ factors. McDowelle & Bell (1998) state “emotionality and rationality complement each other in the work world. They can be viewed as inseparable parts of the life of the organization.
2.1.4 Salovey and Mayer's
Since the origination of the theory of EI in 1990, Mayer and Salovey have worked diligently to refine their academic and scientific model of EI model. Their current model, developed in 1997, is decidedly cognitive in focus and revolves around four tiers or ratings that are not genetically fixed or set in early childhood. As people grow and develop, they also seem to develop a greater sense of EI suggesting that these traits of EI can be developed over time (Epstein, 1999; Ford-Martin, 2001; Goleman, 2001A; Weiss, 2000).
According to Mayer, Perkins, Caruso & Salovey (2001), the emotionally intelligent person is skilled in four distinct branches: identifying, using, understanding, and regulating emotions. These four distinct areas are outlined in Mayer and Salovey's current model. The newest model begins with the idea that emotions contain information about relationships (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, and Sitarenios (2001). (See Table 6). The recognition, the evaluation and the communication of emotions initiate the first branch of Mayer and Salovey's model. The second branch involves using emotions to think constructively such as utilizing those emotions to make judgments, the consideration of an alternative viewpoint, and an appreciation that a change in emotional state and point of view can promote various types of solutions to problems. The third branch combines the abilities of classifying and differentiating between emotions to help integrate different feelings. This rating also works toward helping us to form rules about the feelings we experience. The fourth and final branch involves the ability to take the emotions we experience and use them in support of a social goal (Finegan, 1998; Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). The four hierarchical developmental branches established by Mayer and Salovey in 1997, although different from Goleman's ratings of EI, seem to incorporate several fundamental principles of personal development theory. These developmental stages discussed by Salovey and Mayer are reported to be hierarchical. The Mayer and Salovey model frames the complexity of emotional skills that develop from the first tier and continue through the fourth, whereas Goleman's competencies, in contrast, can be viewed along a continuum of mastery.
Caruso, Mayer, Perkins, & Salovey (2001), expected individuals need to be able to identify their emotions as well as the emotions of others. Using those emotions, understanding those emotions, and having the ability to manage those emotions is also required to be successful. Caruso et al. (2001) relate that when an individual works in an administrative or work environment that requires the cooperation and collaboration, the skills of EI become even more essential.
Caruso et al. (2001) also report that EI can assist in facilitating this work in helping to generate new and creative ideas and solutions to problems. At times, some of the problems that are challenging an individual can be very complex, while at other times the problem-solving task may be effortless. According to Caruso et al. (2001), problem solving requires creative thought to generate ideal solutions. Caruso et al. (2001) deduce that EI can help the individual to think creatively in many ways such as, viewing the problem from multiple perspectives, brainstorming or generating new and creative ideas, being inventive, generating original ideas and solutions to the problem, and defining and recognizing new solutions.
Table 2.3: Characteristics of Selected EI Model
Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (1990)
Intrapersonal Assertiveness, EQ Self-Regard,
Self- actualization, Independence
(1) Self Awareness
Knowing one's internal states, preferences, resources, and intuitions.
(1) Ability to Emotions in faces,
perceive music and designs emotions
accurately - Emotional Awareness
EQ relationships, Social responsibility
(2) The ability Accurately relating
to use emotions to other emotions to basic sensations. facilitate Using emotions to thought shift perspectives.
(3) Reality Testing
EQ Problem solving,
(3) Social Awareness
(3) The ability Ability to analyze
to understand emotions in parts. emotions and Ability to
their meanings understand likely transitions from one feeling to another. Ability to understand complex
feelings in stories.
(4) Stress Stress tolerance,
Management Impulse control
(4) The ability Ability to manage
to manage emotions in the emotions self.
Ability to manage emotions in others
(5) General Happiness, Mood EQ Optimism
2.3 EI AND APPLICATIONS IN THE WORKPLACE
There are numerous roles of EI in workplace. Work and emotions are mostly conceived as being commonly linked. In other words, an individual's profession is amongst the primary determinants of emotional life and a sphere of existence that really matters (i.e., workplace emotions) (Zeidner et al., 2009). In the workplace, with its importance for a person's well-being, self-esteem, income and social status, is a foremost resource of both positive and negative emotions. Success or failure at work may influence the individual's affective development and health through the mediation of emotions. On the other hand, emotions are amongst the primary determinants of behaviour and achievement at work, impacting upon individual efficiency, health and social atmosphere (i.e., emotions at work) (Goleman, 1998 and Zeidner et al., 2009). Thus emotions may influence or linked work-related cognitive and motivational processes, which in turn shape tasks, social behaviour and performance outcomes (see 2.4).
2.3.2 Roles of EI in Workplace
There are enormous roles for EI in the organization. Goleman (1998) lists 25 different competencies necessary for effective management in the workplace with different competencies believed to be required in different professions. One of them is librarian. It is clear from the list that librarian requires the EI to deal with users and facilitate services (customer service orientation) (Singh, 2006 cited in Yate, 1977) see 1. As Leonhardt (2008) highlighted libraries will be facing an extraordinary challenge to the extent that the survival of services often becomes an issue for discussion. In this respect, it is critical to understand that libraries must create EI skills in order to deliver services effectively.
Rental Sales Associate
Goleman, (2002) recognized emotional competencies are crucial in the work place. Previous studies have reported the roles of EI in workplace (Harnon, 2008; Brotheridge, 2006; Lopes, Grewal, Kadis, Gall, & Salovey, 2006; Cherniss & Adler, 200). EI is great skill that librarian to poses. This skill will create great librarian and able to adopt any situation they are facing. Quinn (2005) survey among librarians suggests a profile is formed with three dimensions: attitude, professional skills and interpersonal skills. The study also found that not one single factor made a librarian great - it is a combination of skills.
A growing body of organizational and occupational research points more generally to the important role of emotions at work. Accumulating evidence portrays EI as associated with greater work performance, life satisfaction, organization performance and many more. The relationship between EI and work performance has been widely investigated by HeartMath, 2003; Watkin, 2000; Bar-on and Parket, 2000; Goleman, 1998). HearthMath have shown that after Motorola manufacturing facility used EI programs, 93% of employees had an increase in work productivity and performance as equal as Watkin (2000) research portrays EI as the single most important factor for superior performance at every level from entry-level jobs to top executive positions. Bar-On and Parker (2000) similarly found EI competencies as critical for effective performance in most jobs while Goleman (1998b) found that 67 percent of the abilities regarded as essential for effective performance were emotional competencies.
In contrast Hayward (2005) surveyed from a sample of 160 leaders and 800 raters using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire concludes no significant linear relationship was found between employee performance and an emotionally intelligent and simple correlation analysis showed that there is a relatively weak significant linear relationship between EI and transactional leadership
Similarly, Watkin (2000) reported his findings regarding profit of including EI measure in the selection succession. Based on the data collected in a global consumer firm, selection based on EI measures led to turnover rate decreased from 50% to 6% (Watkin, 2000). Harmon (2000) lists five factors to be the most predictive for recruitment success within the library. These are: assertiveness, empathy, happiness, emotional self-awareness and problem-solving skills. A library manager with intense EI skills will use more than IQ to make a hiring, selecting and promoting decision (Singer, 2005).
The success of library services needs to instil and enhance this skill (EI skills) in providing quality services at the same time as Christopher (2003) claims, EI for library staff is essential for harmony, maximum productivity and quality services. Quinn (2005) survey suggests a profile is formed with three dimensions: attitude, professional skills and interpersonal skills. The study also found that not one single factor made a librarian great - it is a combination of skills. Quinn's study found that the most important characteristic described by librarians was exemplar mastery of skills. Similarly study conducted by Budd (2000) involved academic librarianship to identify professional culture and the relationship between library and higher education. He found a reference interaction with users is important, because it shaped the perceptions of librarians, the user and their relationship (Goleman, 1995; Mayer and Salovey, 1990).
In the context of leadership in workplace, Bennis (2001) and Chen et al. (1998) on the other hand claim that EI accounts for 85-90 percent of the success of organizational leaders. Dulewicz and Higgs (1998) found that their measure of EI accounted for 36 percent of the variance in organizational advancement, while IQ accounted for only 27 percent. Longhorn (2004) suggests that a relationship exists between the EI of the general managers in their study and their key performance results as measured by the performance appraisal rating of the manager, the profit output of the units under their control and the satisfaction of the customers.
Some research has similarly indicated that EI levels are expected to increase with managerial and leadership. This is particularly true in light of a growing body of research suggesting that EI is a critical ingredient in accounting for the success of organizational leaders (Goleman, 1998a; Bennis, 2001). Goleman (1998b) and Fatt (2002) suggest that EI tends to acquire more importance as individuals progress in the organization and the more EI is an important consideration. Expanding one area of a leader's traits, Hernon and Rossiter used Goleman's original five domains (to study the EI traits of directors of libraries with membership in the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), Hernon and Rossiter (2006). They identified those traits that directors considered the most important for a director to possess.
The roles of EI in the context of economic cannot be denied. The Government Accounting Office (1998) outlined the amount saved when the United States Air Force used Bar On's Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I) to recruit new staff. By selecting those individuals who scored highest in EI, they increased their ability to recruit successful staff by 300 percent and saved $3 (RM 10.5) million annually. The study by Boyatzis (1999) found that when partners in a multinational consulting firm were assessed using EI competencies, partners who scored above the median on nine or more competencies delivered $1.2 (RM 4.2) million more profit than did other partners. In hospitality industries, a large metropolitan hospital reduced their critical care nursing turnover from 65 percent to 15 percent within 18 months of implementing an EI assessment.
A community bank that reduced staff by 30 percent due to the sluggish economy assessed the remaining workforce for their EI competencies, placed them in the right roles for those competencies, and the bank is now producing more with less people. Additionally, a Texas-based Fortune Company utilized an EI-based selection assessment, EI training and development program for 500 candidates. The result was a success when they increased retention by 67 percent in the first year, which they calculated added $32 (RM 112) million to their bottom line in reduced turnover costs and increased sales revenues.
Promsri (2005) conducted research on 400 respondents at the Special Commercial Bank HQ in Thailand and found the empathy of service provider EI factors were a significant explanatory variable in customer retention. Quiet similar findings were shown by Lopes et al., (2006) while conducting a study involving Fortune 400 insurance companies. The study found the positive relationship between EI, assessed with a performance measure, and positive workplace outcomes.
The major role of EI in information work is to enhance relationship between users and library staffs. Study conducted by Budd (2000) involved academic librarianship to identify professional culture and the relationship between library and higher education. He found a reference interaction with users is important, because it shaped the perceptions of librarians, the user and their relationship (Goleman, 1995; Mayer and Salovey, 1990). As American Library Association (ALA) Guidelines for Behavioral Performance of Reference and information Service Providers (2004), p. 1) acknowledge “In all forms of reference services, the success of the transaction is measured not only by the information conveyed, but also by the positive or negative impact of the patron/staff interaction. The positive or negative behavior of the reference staff member (as observed by the patron) becomes a significant factor in perceived success or failure.” Thus interaction and communication is a part of EI that will assist library staffs to sustain services and create good environment (Mill and Lodge, 2006; Budd, 2000).
Emotion appears to be engaged in all aspects of human interaction and use in our daily life, as well as something that we recognize readily in everyday situations. According to Ciarrochi, Chan, Caputi, and Roberts (2001), develop a model and shows the potential roles of EI in the workplace and the relationship between work success and EI. In the library work, this theory, can be adopted to link between character and EI. Librarians who have a large number of negative emotions would substantiate the Ciarrochi et.al. report that; librarian self awareness and management, social awareness and relationship management of emotions are directly related to the success in workplace. The importance of being able to understand and manage these emotions are then interpreted and adapted according to those life events, leading to life outcomes, either positive or negative.
Slaski and Bardzil (2003) and Hartley (2008) trace that empathy is a fundamental competency for enhancing the service provision. Empathy can enhance the effectiveness of a conversation between user and librarian leading, for example, to an improved reference interview as stated by Birdi, Wilson and Cocker, 2008. Wilson and Birdi (2008) as well as Quinn (2007), claim that empathy is applicable in the field of librarianship, while Nikolova (2004) states that “empathy is one of the psychological skills that a librarian must work to improve” and that it could serve to improve the quality of services provided. Users need all types of assistance and services from librarians (Birdi, Wilson and Cocker, 2008). The role of empathy is essential in the development of customer service skills (Goleman, 2001; Bar-On, 2002; Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts; 2004; Flanagan et al., 2005 and Birdy, Wilson and Cocker, 2008.
Likewise, many studies show evidence of a link between emotions and motivation over a broad range of research (Zurbriggen & Sturman 2002 and Anne et al., 2007 and Tella, Ayeni and Popoola, 2007). EI in the workplace can play a major role in making staff more committed, motivated, productive, profitable, and therefore a more enjoyable workplace (Roberts, 2004 and Anne et al., 2007). Study conducted by Anne et al., (2007) showed that individuals with a higher perceived ability to regulate their emotions were more likely to report being motivated by achievement needs. Thus, librarians who regularly receive positive feedback (achievement orientation) from management and users for their contributions are motivated to think about how they can perform even more in their library (Tella, Ayeni and Popoola, 2007).
The ability of librarian's emotions and the feelings of others are pivotal to relationships or interactions that are: engaging, exciting, fulfilling, creative, and productive (Mill and Lodge, 2006 and Birdi, Wilson and Cocker, 2008). Moreover, it is essential for a connection or communication to be established between library staff and patrons (Sanderback, 2009). The achievement of these relationships will depend on the importance of the relating approaches used by library staff. One likely indicator of the staff's ability to relate to their users is their level of EI and to be able to build, cultivate, sustain and occasionally patch relationships with library patrons (Mill and Lodge, 2006).
According to Downing (2009), the changing and evolution of the information landscape, requires library staff be able to making right decision and understand user demands, in order to retain their users in the competitive environment. Library services therefore, must be able to recognize and combine potential interpersonal, intrapersonal (EI skills) and technical skills in order to make better or right decisions (Harmon, 2000; Goleman, 2005). Librarians can sense and perform more rationally in the moment by developing self-regulation skills that enable him or her to quickly metamorphose negative, weakening emotions into more positive, productive ones (Stock, 2009).
2.4 THE CURRENT STATUS AT PUBLIC LIBRARIES
In Public Libraries, librarian is a challenging profession as it requires proficiency in a broad range of skills, competencies and abilities; working under pressure, fulfilling user demands and handling stakeholders from wide ranging groups and communities (. In addition to the EI necessary to serve and deliver services to a patron, librarians need to operate complicated library equipment, facilities and services (e.g. OPAC, reference questions, expertise in cataloguing tools, information searches etc.), working as part of a multi-disciplinary team and adapting to constantly changing environments (AUTHOR, YEAR).
Librarians are often overwhelmed by multiple roles and tasks that affect work performance, stress, anxiety and other psychological problems. However, limited studies prove the evidence of a relationship between emotion and librarian performance exists, which makes these skills unpopular or largely unexplored despite many researches showing evidence that emotion is positively significant to performance.
2.4.2 Librarians Standard Skills and Capabilities
In today scenario, librarians must recognize themselves as information providers in an environment that is constantly changing (Erlendsottir; 1997 and Downing, 2009). To this end, librarians must continuously restructure their emotion and their approaches to work. This will facilitate them to display their ability to identify, anticipate, and react to constantly shifting customer requests. It therefore becomes imperative for librarians to manage their own personality. Ultimately, the perception of the user towards information services will drastically change. Librarians have to change and develop their skills, as well as emotional intelligence skills to facilitate their service. .
Most of the librarians within management roles will have an education background in Library Science. This educational background ensures that will various technical abilities will vary from librarian to librarian, there is at least a large common ground regarding general competencies within the field (Leonhartd, 2008). Given this common background and grounding in basic skills and values, success in a management role depends on an entirely different set of skills. Promis (2008) refers to the aspects of EI, including “higher order thinking skills such as creative thinking, critical and analytical thinking, data manipulation and synthesis, and decision-making” (p. 24).
Many studies have been conducted on personality types and traits inherent to service oriented individuals. Some of the latest analyses include the relationship between service quality and EI (Kernbach & Schutte, 2005; Langhorn, 2004). Varca (2004) and Winsted (2000) examined many of the elemental traits of EI in relation to customer satisfaction in service delivery and found significant effects. Kernbach and Schutte (2005) found a strong relationship between the overall EI level of service providers and customer satisfaction. The fundamental need to provide universal free access for all to information and literature, which led to the creation of public libraries many years ago, has created a national institution which retains its value and appeal to the present day.
2.4.2 The Nature of Library Services
Leonhartd, (2008) claims the nature of library work, and the teamwork aspired to be a successful call for a certain amount of social skills. While the profession has a reputation of being occupied by invaginates, this characteristic does not mean one is lacking the ability to work in a group. As addition Stephens and Russell (2004) support Leonhardt as they mention that much of the work in a library is “accomplished with two or more staff members working together, whether in work teams, committees, or task forces. Effective group processes are essential to the success of the organization”. Libraries need split infinitive the importance of these group dynamics and responsibilities by encouraging team building and by considering this when hiring and training individuals.
A large number of theorists have tried to define the nature of services (cf. Bateson & Hoffman, 1999; Lovelock & Wright, 1999; Nerdinger, 1994). The most prominent definition was proposed by Zeithaml, Parasumaran, and Berry (1985). They argued that services have four unique characteristics:
(1) Services are intangible, which means, they are experienced by the customer. Thus, as compared to goods, evaluations of services are much more subjective.
(2) Services are heterogeneous, that is, they cannot be delivered in an absolutely consistent or uniform way.
(3) Production and consumption are inseparable. For example, financial consulting is consumed by the client the moment it is produced by the consultant.
(4) Services are perishable, which means; they cannot be stored or inventoried.
Other theorists have focused on the psychological aspects of service (e.g., Klaus, 1985; Nerdinger, 1994). For example, Nerdinger (1994) has defined a service as a face-to-face interaction between a customer and a service employee on the basis of an exchange of service for money. The result of the service is a solution for a customer's problem or request. In such a conceptualization, the core of the service is the face-to-face interaction (or the service encounter).
From the perspective of the library service employee, service encounters are a rather complex affair. A service employee has to accomplish at least two major tasks in the same time (Nerdinger, 1994). On the one hand, service work requires carrying out instrumental tasks and service employees have to fulfil the customers' request, which involves actions that can range from searching information and consolidating information. This has to be done efficiently and quickly. On the other hand, service employees have to deal with users on a social level. In most service occupations, the customers expect service employees to be friendly and sociable and to express empathy and appreciation throughout the service encounter (Hochschild, 1983; Rafaeli & Sutton, 1989 and Wilson and Birdi, 2008).
Thus, library staffs have to simultaneously carry out instrumental and social tasks. Classical approaches to performance in work and organizational psychology have emphasized the instrumental component. However, as scholars have argued, in service work the social component may be a task attribute that is at least of equal importance for customer satisfaction (George, 1991; Morrison, 1997).
2.4.2 Definition, Responsibilities and Roles
IFLA/UNESCO Public Library Manifesto, (1994), clearly highlights ‘The public library has to be organized effectively and professional standards of operation must be maintained. The librarian is an active conciliator between patrons and services. Professional and continuing education of the librarian is indispensable to ensure adequate services.' The roles of public librarians, therefore, must employ all the appropriate skills and competencies for conducting services to users. There are several international bodies and organizations listed a set of librarian skills and competencies to pose. For instances; ALA, IFLA, ALIA, LOC, NLM and many more.
However, in the globalization age, librarians are required to prepare themselves more flexible on knowledge and skills that allow the librarian to function in a variety of environments and to produce a continuum of value-added, customized information services that cannot be easily duplicated by others (Ahmad, 2009). Further he listed vital skill to emphasis among librarians in the areas of information resources, information access, technology, management and research, behavioural and personal or soft skill and the ability to use these areas of knowledge as a basis for providing library and information services.
2.4.2 Librarian Set Skills and Competencies
Recent evidence analyzes the skills needed by a modern librarian (Fisher, 2004). Ashcroft (2004) identifies six basic skill categories for librarian to posses:
* Marketing and promotion.
* Communication - negotiation - collaboration.
· Personal transferable skills.
Previous studies have reported interpersonal skills, have a high percentage of appearance in the job ads and social skills are important not only for professionals working in public services, but should be considered a distinct category of skills, along with professional skills, important for every modern LIS professional (Gerolimos and Konsta, 2008). These are involving EI competencies.
For survival and sustain services library staff will entail a variety of skills (multikislling) and qualities, as well as interpersonal skills, social awareness, teamwork and leadership and competence in the practices and procedures of the organization (IFLA (2005). This is EI constituent as well as soft skill. The primary qualities and skills required of public library staff can be defined as the ability to:
* communicate positively with people (social awareness)
* understand the needs of users (empathy)
* work together with individuals and groups in the community (relationship management)
* understand and knowledgeable of cultural diversity (empathy)
* familiarity of the material that forms the library's collection and how to access it
* understand of and sympathy with the principles of public service
* work with others in providing an effective library service (relationship management)
* adapt with the flexibility to identify and implement changes and organizational skills, (self regulation)
* have imagination, vision and openness to new ideas and practice (self regulation)
* readiness to change methods of working to meet new situations (self awareness)
* Knowledge of information and communications technology.
a. American Library Association (ALA)
The American Library Association (ALA, 2008) has highlighted several skills for librarians to apply. However, the majority of skills, with emphasis on technical skills (such as the organization of information and ICT), while only 11 competencies were related to EI set skills. They are; analytical skills, problem solving, decision making, communication, creativity/innovation, expertise and technical knowledge, flexibility/adaptability, interpersonal or group skills, leadership, organizational understanding and global thinking, planning and organizational skills, resource management and service attitude/user satisfaction.
· Analytical skills
· Information literacy
· Response to user need
b. Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA)
Unlike the ALA, model competency and skills in the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA, 2001), entered 15 generic skills and attributes to EI such as: communication; professional ethical standards and social responsibility; project management; critical, reflective and creative thinking; problem-solving; business acumen; ability to build partnerships and alliances; effective team relationships; self management; a commitment to life-long learning; relevant information, communications technology, technology applications and appropriate information literacy skills. Nonetheless, again the skill related to technical and ICT became vital skills within this model.
· Communication skills
· Problem-solving skills
· Business acumen
· Effective team relationship skills
· Self management skills
· Information literacy skills
· Professional ethical standards and social responsibility
· Reflective and creative thinking
· Ability to build partnerships and alliances
· A commitment to life-long learning
c. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA/UNESCO, 2001) developed 14 set skills for public librarians relating to the EI model. These are; interpersonal (eg; teamwork, social awareness, leadership and competence) in the practices and management system of the organization. The essential qualities and skills of public library staff to pose can be defined as: communication, understand the needs of users, co-operate with individuals and groups in the community, knowledge and understanding of cultural diversity, knowledge of material, understanding, teamwork, organizational, flexibility, imagination, vision and openness to new ideas, readiness to change methods and knowledge of ICT. In this model, clearly the cognitive skills become important and have been included rather than technical and management skills. Despite the EI skills existence, still there is a lack of a widespread model in measuring the EI level for librarians.
· Interpersonal skills
· Social awareness
· Communication skills
· Understand the needs of users
· Co-operate with individuals and groups in the community
· Knowledge and understanding of cultural diversity
· Understanding, teamwork
· Organizational skills
· Vision and openness to new ideas
· Readiness to change methods
d. National Library of Malaysia
The NLM (2004) conducted research and identified 11 areas of set skills required for librarians to possess. These are; persuasiveness and user education, technology information systems, strategic thinking & user orientation, management and information services, research & analytical, performance orientation, impact and business, management and leadership (Organizational Drive), communication, information searching and knowledge management and personal drive (PNM ID). These set skills have still been lacking when skills related to EI have not been evident. In fact, some skills should be put in the same area as cognitive skills. For example, communication should integrate into the personal drive.
· User education
· Strategic thinking
· Information searching
· Knowledge management
· Analytical skills
· Performance orientation
· Management and Leadership
· Organizational drive
e. Federal Library and Information Committee Library of Congress
The Federal Library and Information Committee Library of Congress (2009) developed the Federal Librarian Competencies needed to perform successfully as a federal librarian. The skills and competencies allied to EI are:
· Conflict Management
· Creative Thinking
· Decision Making
· Oral Communication
· Problem Solving
· Teamwork and Collaboration
As discussed previously, the wide ranging skills and abilities expertise required by Librarians (or Information Professionals) in competitive environment. These skills are varies and depending to the organisations. However EI skills must embedded to librarian skill. Working within a multidisciplinary team, responsible for handling information, answering individuals and customers enquiries, operating ever more sophist
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