Computer-based instruction was used by the military to create standardize training and be more cost-effective (Shlechter, 1991). Computer-based instruction allows individual learners to pace the lesson content to meet his or her needs and provides the environment for self-directed learning (Lowe, 2002). Computer-based instruction can be defined as using computers to deliver, track, and/or manage instruction and when computers are the main mode of content delivery. The instruction can include text, images, and feedback. Software advances allow developers to integrate audio narrations, sound clips, graphics, videos, and animation into a single presentation and played on a computer (Koroghlanian & Klein, 2000; Moreno & Mayer, 1999). Instruction is classified as multimedia when sound, video, and images are included.
Multimedia incorporates audio and visual elements with the instruction (Craig Gholson, & Driscoll, 2002; Mayer & Moreno, 2003; Mayer and Sims, 1994; Mayer & Johnson, 2008). Audio components include narrations, which uses the student's verbal channel of his or her working memory. Visual components include static images, animations using multiple still images, a video, and/or on screen text, which uses the student's visual channel of his or her working memory. When the student receives the information from the verbal and visual channel of his or her working memory and relates the information from the two channels, then meaningful learning has occurred (Tempelman-Kluit, 2006). Meaningful learning is "developing a understanding of the material, which includes attending to important aspects of the presented material, mentally organizing it into a coherent cognitive structure, and integrating it with relevant existing knowledge," (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). Meaningful learning or understanding occurs when students are able to apply the content they learned and are able to transfer the information to new situations or creating solutions to problems rooted in the content presented (Jamet & Le Bohec, 2007; Mayer and Sims, 1994). Allowing students to process and apply the information is essential for knowledge retention and meaningful learning.
"In multimedia learning, active processing requires five cognitive processes: selecting words, selecting images, organizing words, organizing images, and integrating." - Mayer Moreno 2003
Multimedia instruction not only incorporates audio and visual elements it also has the capability of creating nonlinear content. Creating a nonlinear lesson allows the learner to have an active role in his or her learning and bypass sections they have already learned as well as go back and review sections if they need reinforcement. It is like putting the student in the driver's seat and enabling them to reach the destination through a variety of paths versus sitting on a bus and stopping at each stop and waiting until they reach the destination.
Cognitive Learning Theories in Multimedia
Multiple multimedia learning theories and principles guide the creation process for multimedia presentations and facilitates student learning. Using the theories and principles guides the presentation creation process and facilitates students learning. The two overarching theories are cognitive load and dual coding. Several effects and __ related to the two main theories are: split-attention, redundancy, modality, spatial contiguity principle, temporal congruity principle and coherence principle. The four theories that are directly relevant to this study are: ___ ___ ___ and ___.
Add figure of org chart of principles & theories. Paivo, Sweller & Mayer. Mayer's theory of multimedia learning
The working memory has a finite capacity for processing incoming information for any one channel, visual or audio. The combined processing, at any particular time, creates the working memory's cognitive load ability (Baddeley, 1992; Mayer & Moreno, 2003; Chandler & Sweller, 1991). To take advantage of the memory's capability it is important to reduce redundant and irrelevant information, thus reducing the cognitive load (Sweller, 1994; Ardaç and Unal 2008; Mayer & Moreno, 2003; Tempelman-Kluit, 2006). To keep the information efficient the multimedia should eliminate information that does not apply to a lesson or assignment. Content that is nonessential for transfer or retention should also be eliminated. Information needs to be concise by carefully selecting the text and images for the content and present the information succinct and organized in a logical pattern (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). Careful selection of text and images should be concise so content can be presented in a succinct and organized, logical pattern.
Grouping the information into smaller portions of information reduces the cognitive load. By chunking the information, the working memory has the opportunity process the content and makes connections with prior learning and knowledge. The information is then stored in long-term memory (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). After presenting a portion of the information, the multimedia presentation should include a brief activity to engage the student in processing and storing the information. Utilizing both the auditory and the visual channel of the working memory also helps with the cognitive load and content retention (Tempelman-Kluit, 2006).
Based on the information above about memory and processing the Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) was developed by Sweller (1993, 1994, 1998). "The theory assumes that people possess a limited working memory (Miller, 1956) and an immense long-term memory (Chase & Simon, 1973), with learning mechanisms of schema acquisition (Chi et al., 1982; Larkin et al., 1980) and automatic processing (Kotovsky et al., 1985)," (Jueng, Chandler & Sweller, 1997). Cognitive load theory provides a single framework for instructional design based on separate cognitive processing capabilities for visual and auditory information (Jamet & Le Bohec, 2007). Creating a multimedia presentation that conforms to CLT would integrate the auditory and visual information on the screen. The CLT presentation design limits the load on any one channel to prevent cognitive overload and increase learning (Kalyuga, Chandler, & Sweller, 1998; Mayer and Moreno 2002; Tindall-Ford, Chandler, & Sweller, 1997). Further research conducted by ____ ______ _____ indentified three separate types of cognitive load, intrinsic, extraneous, and germane.
Intrinsic cognitive load
The first type of cognitive load is intrinsic and is shaped by the learning task and the learning taking place (Van Merriënboer and Sweller, 2005). Intrinsic cognitive load occurs between the learner and the content, with the learner's level of knowledge in the content area playing a factor. The other factors are the elements the working memory is processing at one time and element interactivity (van Merriënboer and Sweller, 2005). Element interactivity level depends on the degree to which the learner can understand the element information independently (Pass, Renkl, & Sweller, 2003). If you need to reduce total cog load (intri + extr + gemain) you need you need to know the elements and how to reduce loads. If the learner needs to understand several elements at once, and how they interact with each other, then the element interactivity is high. However, if the learner can understand each element independently then the element interactivity is low (Pass, Renkl, & Sweller, 2003). The intrinsic level occurs with the learner and their working memory and constructing meaning from the elements presented. While intrinsic load cannot be adjusted, the extraneous load can be modified.
- Give own example of high and low element interactivity.
- (van Merriënboer and Sweller, 2005) à intrinsic learning - schema construction and automation.
- Content element interactivity directly correlated to intrinsic cognitive load - ? (Pass, Renkl, & Sweller, 2003). Page 1 of article
Extraneous cognitive load
The second type of cognitive load is extraneous or ineffective and is affected by the format of the information presented and what is required of the learner. Extraneous cognitive load occurs when information or learning tasks have high levels of cognitive processing and impedes with knowledge attainment (Pass, Renkl, & Sweller, 2003). Extraneous cognitive load is also referred to as ineffective cognitive load since the cognitive processing is not contributing to the learning process. The working memory has independent two channels for processing audio and visual. If the instruction occurs only using one channel instead of utilizing both channels the learner will experience a higher level of extraneous cognitive load (van Merriënboer and Sweller, 2005). Extraneous cognitive load can be reduced by several effects studied as part of instructional design and cognitive load report as by Sweller et al., 1998 such as; split attention, modality, and redundancy (van Merriënboer and Sweller, 2005).
Germane cognitive load
The third type of cognitive load is germane and is also affected by design of the instruction being presented. While extraneous cognitive load accounts for information impeding learning germane cognitive load focuses on freeing cognitive resources to increase learning. Germane is also referred to as ineffective cognitive load. Germane and extraneous work together disproportionately. Designing instruction that lessens the extraneous cognitive load allows additional cognitive processing for germane load and increase students ability to assimilate information being presented (Pass, Renkl, & Sweller, 2003). Intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive loads work together for a combined total cognitive load; this combined load cannot be greater than the available memory resources for a learner.
An experiment conducted by Tindall-Ford, Chandler and Sweller, 1997 had a purpose of measuring cognitive load. The participants were twenty two first year apprentices and had completed grade ten of high school. The participants were assigned to one of two treatments, visual-only instructions and audio-visual instructions. The experiment started with an instructional phase, which has two parts and was 100 seconds in length. Part one of the instruction phase had an explanation of how to read an electrical table and was either all visual, or was visual and audio with a cassette player. After the instructional phase part one, the participant rated the mental effort (load) based on a seven point scale.
Then the apprentices took part in a test phase which included three sections. The first section was a written test where participants filled in the blank headings in an electrical table. The second section contained questions about the format of the table. After the first part of instruction and two parts of testing, participants were given the same electrical table and participants had to apply information contained in the table to examples given. Participants had 170 seconds to study the information, then completed another subjective mental effort (load) survey. Then the participants complete the final section of the test phase. The apprentices had to apply the information and select the appropriate cable for an installation job with the given parameters. Apprentices had a two week break where they continued with their normal training. Then both the two part instruction phase and the three part test phase were repeated.
A 2 (group) X 2 (phase) ANOVA was run for the first instruction section and the first two sections of the written test in the test phase and significant difference was found with the audio-visual group performing better than the visual-only group. When the ANOVA was run for the mental load for the two phases significance was found again, with the audio-visual group rating the mental effort lower than the visual-only group. Similar results were found when analyzing part two of instruction mental load and section three of the written test for both phases. All test results revealed the audio-visual group outperforming the visual-only group for all tests and a lower mental load rating. Therefore the participant performance can be linked back to the cognitive load.
An experiment was conducted by Ardac and Unal, 2008 --- finish later ---
Based on the experiment above by Tindall-Ford, Chandler and Sweller, 1997, when selecting a format for a presentation audio-only is the better choice. This is true not only from a modality theory, it is also better from a cognitive load theory perspective, since visual-only formats cause a higher level of mental effort for participants.
Transition sentence that link split-attention effect as a part of cognitive load theory.
When images or animations are involved with the redundant text then the visual channel has to pay attention to multiple visual elements and the attention is split between the many visual pieces, creating the "split-attention" effect. Having several visual components such as text and animations causes an increase in the cognitive load and learning is hampered (Ardac & Unal, 2008). Split-attention occurs when instructional material contains multiple sources of information that are not comprehendible by themselves and need to be integrated either physically or mentally to be understandable (Jeung, Chandler & Sweller, 1997; Kalyuga, Chandler, & Sweller, 1998; Tindall-Ford, Chandler, & Sweller, 1997). Split-attention effect can be minimized by placing related text close in proximity to the image in the presentation or using audio narration for an animation instead of on-screen text (Jamet & Le Bohec, 2007).
One experiment conducted to test the split-attention theory was designed by Mayer, Heiser, and Lonn, 2001. In this experiment there were 78 participants selected from an university psychology subject pool. The experiment was a 2 x 2 design with summarized on-screen text as a factor and extraneous details as a second factor. There were four groups; no text/no seductive details group with 22 students, text/no seductive details group with 19 students, no text/seductive details group with 21 students, text/seductive details group with 16 students. The group had a median age of 18.4 and was 33% male. All participants a little prior knowledge of meteorology with a score of seven or lower out of eleven questions.
Participants viewed a computer-based multimedia presentation. The versions with text included a summary of the narration. The versions with seductive details included additional narrations with real world examples. The experiment started with participants completing a questionnaire to collect demographic and prior knowledge information. Then participants watched a presentation with one of the treatments at individual computers. At the completion of the video students completed a retention and transfer test.
Students who received on-screen text scored significantly lower on both the transfer and retention test than student who did not have on-screen text. These results are consistent with the split-attention theory as it relates to cognitive theory of multimedia. Students who received seductive details also scored lower on both the transfer and retention test than student who did not have seductive details. These results indicate that including seductive details to a presentation hampered student learning.
Another experiment conducted was by Tindall-Ford, Chandler, and Sweller, 1997. This experiment had thirty participants that were first year trade apprenticed from Sydney. The participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups, each group had ten participants. The first group was the visual only group that consisted of diagrams and related textual statements. The second group integrated the presentation included the textual statements however the statements were physically integrated into the diagrams. The third group is the audio-visual group included the same diagrams and however the textual statements were presented as audio instead of text.
The participants first read the instructional materials, the audio group listened to the information from an audio-cassette. Then participants completed a written test with three sections; a labeling section, a multiple choice section, and a transfer section, and finally participants completed a practical test. While analysis of the multiple choice section revealed no significant difference, the data indicated the audio-visual group performing better than the visual group. The section three data, the transfer test, had significant with the audio-visual and the integrated group performing better than the visual only. The findings revealed that the audio-visual and the integrated formats performed better than the visual only group. The non-integrated text performed the poorest out of the three groups, which supports the split-attention effect.
A set of two experiments were conducted by Mayer & Moreno, 1998 to verify split-attention and dual processing. The first experiment had 78 college students from a university psychology pool with little prior knowledge about metrology. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The concurrent narrations group (AN) had 40 students and the concurrent on-screen text groups (AT) had 38 students. Participants were tested in groups of one to five and were seated at individual cubicles with computers.
The participants first completed a questionnaire, which assessed the student's prior knowledge and collected demographic information. Then the students watched the presentation about lightening formation; the students in the AN groups had on headphones. The presentation was 140 seconds long and included animation of the lightening process. The AN version had narration and the AT version had text on-screen that was identical to the narration, and used the same timings as the narration version.
After the presentation the participants had 6 minutes to complete the retention test, where participants had to explain the lightening process. Then they had 3 minutes to complete a transfer test, which consisted of four short essay questions. Finally the participants had 3 minutes to complete a matching test, where the students had to label parts of an image, based on the lightening formation statements provided. A split-attention effect occurred for all three tests, retentions, matching, and the transfer test; which the AN group scored higher on the matching test than the AT group. These results also align with dual-processing.
The second experiment by Mayer and Moreno, 1998 the content was changed to how a car's braking system operates. The first experiment had 68 college students from a university psychology pool with little prior knowledge about car mechanics. The concurrent narrations group (AN) had 34 students and the concurrent on-screen text groups (AT) had 34 students. Participants were tested in groups of one to five and were seated at individual cubicles with computers. The participants first completed a questionnaire, which assessed the student's prior knowledge and collected demographic information. Then the students watched the presentation about how a car's braking system operates; the students in the AN groups had on headphones.
The presentation was 45 seconds long and included animation of a car's braking process, and was broken into 10 segments. The AN version had narration and a brief pause between segments, and the AT version had text on-screen that was identical to the narration, and used the same timings as the narration version. The AT group's text appeared under the animation and stayed visible until the next segment started. Then participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. After the presentation the participants had 5 minutes to complete the retention test, where participants had to explain the braking process. Then they had 2.5 minutes to complete a transfer test, which consisted of four short essay questions. Finally the participants had 2.5 minutes to complete a matching test, where the students were given parts of the braking system and they had to identify the parts in an image and label them.
A split-attention effect occurred for all three tests, retentions, matching, and the transfer test; which the AN group scored higher on the matching test than the AT group. These results also align with dual-processing. - CONCLUSION!!! (318-319)
The experiments indicate the adding text in addition to the narration will impede student learning. The second experiment clarifies the split-attention effect, which if text is included it needs to be placed near the relevant part of the diagram. If text is not near the images, increase in the cognitive load occurs by trying to combine the images and text. The last two experiment further clarify the split-attention effect with three measures in two different experiments. Therefore narration should be used to accompany animation and images instead of text.
The working memory of a human has two channels a visual channel that processes information such as text, images, and animation through the eyes and an auditory channel that processes sounds such as narration through the ears. According to the "modality principle," when information is presented in multimedia explanations, it also should ideally be presented auditorily versus on screen text (Craig, Gholson, & Discoll, 2002; Moreno & Mayer, 1999; Mayer, 2001; Mayer & Johnson, 2008; Mayer, Fennell, et al., 2004). When the information is presented auditorily, the working memory uses both channels, visual and auditory to process the information being heard and the information on the screen (Tabbers, Martens, & van Merriënboer, 2004). By utilizing both working memory channels, the mind can allocate additional cognitive resources and create relationships between the visual and verbal information (Moreno and Mayer, 1999). When learning occurs using both memory channels the memory does not become overloaded and the learning becomes embedded, this improves the learner's understanding (Mayer & Moreno, 2002).
Several experiments have been conducted relating to modality theory. One experiment in a geometry lesson taught in a math class at the elementary school level focused on the conditions that modality effect would be occur. The researchers, Jeung, Chandler, and Sweller, (1997) created a three-by-two experiment that included three presentation modes and two search modes. The three presentation modes were visual-visual, audio-visual, and audio-visual-flashing. The visual-visual diagrams and supporting information were presented visually as on screen text; the audio-visual group diagrams and supporting information were presented visually. In the audio-visual-flashing group, the supporting information was presented auditorily and diagrams were presented visually. However parts of the diagram flashed when the corresponding audio occurred.
The two search modes were high search mode and low search mode. The high search mode labeled each end of the line separately so a line was identified by the letters at each end such as "AB." Whereas the low search mode labeled the entire line with a single letter, such as "C" and reducing the search needed to locate the information. The experiment content was geometry; the study population was sixty students from year six in a primary school with no previous geometry experience, creating ten students per group.
The students participated in the experiment individually during class time. Students were randomly assigned to one of six groups the information was presented to the students on the computer. The experiment had three phases; an introduction phase where the problem was identified and was presented in one of the six modes as assigned to the student, an acquisition phase which included two worked out examples on the computer, after each example students were required to complete a similar problem with pencil and paper, and finally a test phase that included four problems for students to complete with pencil and paper. In the test phase they found a significant effect on presentation mode but not on the search complexity.
They performed additional data analysis to discover the significance between the presentation modes occurred in the high search group, but not the low search group. Analysis of the presentation modes for the high search group revealed that the audio-visual-flashing group performed a higher level of performance than the visual-visual group. The experiment confirmed the modality theory hypothesis that mixed mode presentation (audio-visual-flashing) would be more effective because the multiple modes increase the working memory capacity.
However these results were only found with the high search group and not the low search group. The group conducted two additional experiments to focus on high search and low search separately. The second experiment focused on high search. For this experiment, the population included thirty students from a Sydney public primary school who were in year six and had not been taught parallel line in geometry. The procedure was the same as before however the geometry content was a complex diagram. The groups were visual-visual, audio-visual, and audio-visual-flashing, with ten students were in each group. The results were consistent with modality theory and students who were in the audio-visual-flashing group performed better then the visual-visual group, and no differences were found between visual-visual group and the audio-visual group. Therefore for high search materials, the dual presentation mode increased performance when a visual reference was provided.
The third experiment focused on low search. In this experiment the population included thirty students from a Sydney public primary school who had not been taught parallel lines in geometry. The groups included visual-visual, audio-visual, and audio-visual-flashing, and ten students were in each group. The procedure was similar to the first experiment however the geometry content was a low search diagram and only contained two labels. The groups were visual-visual, audio-visual, and audio-visual-flashing, with ten students in each group. The results revealed that the modality effect did occur with the transfer problems and the visual-visual group took more time than the audio-visual and the audio-visual-flashing group. The difference was that with the low search content the audio-visual group performed better than the visual-visual group meaning, low search materials the flashing indicator is not as beneficial. The three experiments had demonstrated that using mixed modes of presentation increases the effectiveness of the working memory and capacity for learning. The results indicated that when content requires a high level of search, visual indicators need to be included to free up cognitive resources and increase memory capacity.
Therefore, based on the work of Jeung, Chandler, and Sweller (1997) when the computer multimedia presentations were created with a visual cue of a yellow box with a red outline was used as a visual indicator to assist users to locate where the mouse is clicking so students are not scanning the entire video screen for the mouse. In addition to visual references one version of the video included audio only and another version will contain text only to confirm the modality effect.
Selecting the most appropriate part of the working memory to disseminate the information and using the auditory channel to process information via audio instead of visual text allows the visual channel to use the working memory to focus on the images and animations that coincide with the audio. It is similar to watching a news program on television, your ears are listening to the news anchor and the working memory is processing that information while your eyes are watching the corresponding footage and the brain it combining the two pieces of information together. However if put closed captioning on you are reading the same information you are hearing which is redundant.
Redundancy effect can be defined as information being presented appears as both an image and as on-screen text, and the visual channel is responsible for all information while the audio channel is not used (Mayer, 2001; Barron & Calandra, 2003). "The distinction between the split-attention and redundancy effects hinges on the distinction between sources of information that are intelligible in isolation and those that are not. If a diagram and the concepts of functions it represents are sufficiently self-contained and intelligibly in isolation, then any text explaining the diagram is redundant and should be omitted in order to reduce the cognitive load (Kalyuga, Chandler, & Sweller, 1998)." Redundancy can occur with full text and full audio, full text and partial audio or partial text and full audio (Barron & Calandra, 2003). The redundant information may be duplicate text and narration, a text description and a diagram or on-screen text and audio narration. The duplicate information causes in increase in the learner's working memory because the visual channel is processing the same information from multiple sources. (Kalyuga, Chandler, & Sweller, 1998; Mayer, Heiser and Lonn, 2001). The redundancy effect is evident when student performance is hindered when redundant information is present, and student performance increase when the redundant information is removed (Kalyuga et all, 1998; Mayer, Heiser and Lonn, 2001; Jamet & Le Bohec, 2007). The redundancy effect can be eliminated by presenting on-screen text as narration or presenting information as a diagram instead of a lengthy text explanation, and delivering information in a single mode that works complimentary with the other content be delivered (Mayer, Heiser and Lonn, 2001).
Several experiments have been conducted relating to redundancy theory. One experiment conducted by Jamet and Le Boec, 2007 was designed to test the hypothesis that redundancy effect would be observed with full text and narration, and presenting sequential text would reduce the redundancy effect. The experiment had 90 undergraduate students from a psychology pool in France, with a median age of 20. The participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups; no text, full text with corresponding audio, and sequential text. The experiment started with a prior knowledge test with four general questions and two specific questions. Then the participants viewed three documents about memory functioning, the presentation lasted about 11 minutes. After the presentation the participants took a retention test twelve open-ended questions. Then they took a transfer test with twelve inferential open-ended questions. Finally, the participants had to complete a diagram by labeling components.
Results revealed significance difference with the retention scores with the no-text group performing better than the full-text group and the sequential text group. Similar results were reported for the diagram completion portion of the experiment and the transfer task. There was no significant effect size to indicate that the redundancy effect would be reduced by presenting redundant text sequentially. There was a significant effect between the no-text and the other two groups for the transfer, retention, and the diagram test which validates the redundancy effect. Based on the findings from the experiment above, having on-screen text in addition to narration overloads the visual channel and decreases learning. The authors did point out that the participants had a difficult time understanding the documents presented and they could not control the presentation.
Another set of experiments were conducted by Mayer and Johnson, 2008 to test the redundancy theory. The first experiment focused on short redundant text that was display on-screen. The population was 90 undergraduate students from a university psychology pool with a median age of 18.29 with 58 women participants and 32 men. Students were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the redundant group and the non-redundant group, for a treatment size of 45 students per treatment. The experiment tested students in groups of 1 to 5 and started with participant questionnaire to collect demographic information as well as prior knowledge. Then student watched a lesson on lightening formation.
The lesson was a PowerPoint presentation that included diagram and narration, the slides advanced automatically and the lesson lasted about 2.5 minutes. The redundant on-screen text were summarized into a few words. Then the students completed retention test that contained one essay question, and the transfer test that contained four short essay questions. Data analysis revealed significant difference between the redundant and the non-redundant group with the redundant group outperforming the non-redundant group on the retention test and no significant difference on the transfer test. The lack of redundancy effect was explained by the cognitive theory which and the on-screen text focused the learner on key words of the lightening process.
Experiment two was created to see if similar results would occur with different instructional content. This time there were 62 undergraduate students from the university psychology pool with a median age of 18.6. There were 27 women and 35 men in this study. Students were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the redundant group and the non-redundant group, for a treatment size of 31 students per treatment. The experiment tested students in groups of 1 to 5 and started with participant questionnaire to collect demographic information as well as prior knowledge. Then student watched a lesson on how a car's braking system operates. The lesson was a PowerPoint presentation that included diagram and narration, the slides advanced automatically and the lesson lasted about 80 seconds. The redundant on-screen text were summarized into a few words. Then the students completed retention test that contained one essay question, and the transfer test that contained five short essay questions. Data analysis revealed significant difference between the redundant and the non-redundant group with the redundant group outperforming the non-redundant group on the retention test and no significant difference on the transfer test. These are the same results as the first experiment.
In conclusion short on-screen text assisted the learner by focuses them on the key words and phrases, and this was done without increasing additional memory processing. The researchers Mayer and Johnson discussed three factors that made this experiment different from other redundancy experiments. The three differences were; the on-screen text was short and word for word script of the narration, the text was placed in close proximity to the part of the graphic being reference, and the graphics were static and not animated.
Another experiment designed by Mayer, Heiser, and Lonn, 2001 was created to test for redundancy effect. In this experiment there were 109 college students, with a median age of 18.8, from the university psychology pool. The students were randomly assigned to one of three groups; a no-text group, a summary-text group, and a full-text group. There were 37 students in the summary-text group and 36 in each of the other two groups. The experiment tested students in groups up to 5 and started with participant questionnaire to collect demographic information as well as prior knowledge and two additional test that lasted three minutes. Then participants watched a presentation, created in Director, about lightening formation.
The no-text presentation lasted 140 seconds about two and half minutes and contained the animation and concurrent narration. The summary-text presentation contained the animation and concurrent narration as well as selected key words from the narration which were displayed during the narration. The full-text presentation contained the same animation and concurrent narration as well as a full text display of the narration. After watching the presentation students took a retention test with one short essay question asking students to explain the lightening formation process, and transfer test with four short essay questions both tests had a maximum score of eight.
The retention test data revealed no significant difference between the groups, however a significance difference was found between the no-text and full-text groups. A significant difference was also found on the transfer test among the groups with the no-text group scoring higher than the other two groups and little difference between the full-text and summary-text group. This experiment revealed that adding on-screen text of any kind hindered the students learning.
A forth experiment to be analyzed was conducted by Craig, Gholson and Driscoll, 2002. This experiment was created to investigate the redundancy effect. There were 71 students from a psychology pool. Students had to score less than six on a knowledge test that contained 12 items to be included in the experiment. Participants were assigned to one of three groups; agent printed text only, agent spoken text only, and agent spoken plus printed, text and narration were synchronized with the animation. There were 24 participants in the spoken only and the printed and spoken text group and 23 students in the printed text only group.
The participants first took a knowledge test to ensure they were eligible for the experiment and completed an informed consent form, then they watched a lesson on lightening formation, modeled after the Mayer and Moreno, 1999 presentation, however this version included an agent to the left and graphics were animated. The presentation had navigation buttons on the screen, but they were disabled and the presentation automatically advanced as programmed. The lesson lasted 180 seconds, about three minutes. Then participants completed a one essay question retention test, seven item matching test, and a transfer test with four short essay questions.
The retention test data revealed the agent spoken only group performed significantly better than the agent printed only group. The agent spoken plus printed performance was between the other two groups and not statistically significant between the other groups. While there was no significant difference (effect size of .48) the data indicated that the agent spoken only group did perform better than the agent spoken plus printed text group, this data points toward the redundancy effect. However the agent spoken only group performed significantly better than the agent spoken plus printed and the agent printed only group on the transfer test. These results are consistent with the redundancy theory, even with an agent present in the presentation.
Another two sets of experiments were conducted by Kalyuga, Chandler and Sweller, 1998. There were 33 first-year inexperienced apprentices and had little prior knowledge of electrical principles for this experiment. The experiment compared instructional formats and randomly assigned participants into one of three groups. There were 11 participants in the diagram-only group, 12 participants in the integrated diagram and text group, and 10 participants in the separate diagram and text group. There were three stages to the experiment and all materials were presented using a computer-based program and the instructional format for the assigned group.
In stage one participants studied instructions of an electrical motor's operations for five minutes then answered mental load questions, multiple choice questions, and scenario situation where participants identified faults on the diagram, all of these test were taken on the computer. In stage two participants received self-paced direct instruction and training of four electrical circuits for an hour, with short breaks a needed. Instruction was presented as integrated-diagram-with-text format. Stage three was identical to stage one. Participants took a post-test after the three stages of instruction.
The data was analyzed and a significance was found for the pre- and posttest training for instruction time and subjective mental ratings which indicates that trainees rated the material lower in difficulty because they spent less reading the instructions. Researchers also found significance when comparing instructional formats interaction. They found significance for the fault-finding task and the multiple choice items. These findings "suggest that the most efficient mode of instruction depends on the learner's level of expertise." Redundancy effect was not obtained and the diagram only group did not outperform the other two groups.
The second experiment occurred one month later after trainees had additional training in electrical circuits. This time there were only two groups, diagram-only and integrated-diagram-and-text. The participants from the previous experiment who were initially in the two groups stayed in their original group and the separate-diagram-and-and-text group members were randomly assigned the one of the other two groups. There were a total of fifteen participant in a group, three previous participants were unavailable, for a total of thirty trainees. There were two stages for this experiment and the materials were all computer-based. In stage one all participants watched an hour long multimedia presentation about starter circuits, and audio narration was used instead of text. In stage two participant were placed in their groups and watched another circuit presentation, that was different than the training circuit, in their instructional format for five minutes. Concluding stage two of the experiment trainees took a mental load survey, completed a task where they identified faults in a circuit, and took a multiple choice test.
Significant difference between the two groups was found for all measurements, instruction processing time, mental load ratings, fault-finding test, and the multiple choice test. The diagram-only group was favored for all measurements. The results indicate that the ideal instructional format is dependent upon trainee experience. For more experienced trainees diagram-only format is more efficient mode of delivery than other formats, because the diagrams are understandable and the when text is added it forced the learner to process additional information which produces a redundancy effect.
The first experiment was able to produce the redundancy effect, where as the second and third experiment were not. The differences were length the first experiment was 11 minutes versus one to two minutes for the second and third, and the first experiment displayed full text versus shortened text for the second two experiments. The third experiment produced a redundancy effect. A difference between the second and third experiment was animations, the second experiment had static images and the third experiment had animations. The fourth experiment also produced a redundancy effect with an agent added to the presentation. Length could have played a factor in the redundancy effect. If the shorted text presentations were ten to eleven minutes, would learner still perform better with redundant text? 1-4 experiments both experiments had slides that advanced automatically and the learner could not control presentation.
The set of two experiments by Kalyuga, Chandler, and Sweller (1998) revealed diagram only presentation were more efficient for learners with experience in the field therefore information about previous experience with Excel should be collect from the students. Then the data can be analyzed from an experience standpoint as well as instructional format standpoint. While Kalyuga, Chandler, and Sweller (1998) were able to produce a redundancy effect with significance for a shorter presentations, five minutes, however the groups were small with ten to fifteen participants in a treatment.
In order to use the working memory optimally one should consider the cognitive load.
Dual Coding Theory
Dual coding theory as identified by Paivio states...
A set of three experiments were designed by Mayer and Anderson, 1991 to test the dual coding theory. The first experiment had 30 studen-ts from a university psychology pool. The students were selected based on their questionnaire results of having little experience with mechanical devices. Students were randomly assigned of one of two treatments; the words-with-pictures group had 15 students and the words-before-pictures group had 15 students. Students were tested individually. After the questionnaire students viewed a monochrome animation on how a bicycle pump works three times. The words-with-pictures animation lasted 30 seconds each and the words-before-pictures animation lasted 45 seconds each. Finally students completed four open-ended, problem solving test questions. The words-with-pictures group came up with more possible answers to the open-ended questions than the words-before-pictures group, by fifty percent.
The second experiment by Mayer and Anderson, 1991 expanded experiment one by adding a verbal recall test in addition to the problem solving test. There were 24 college students from a university psychology pool. Similar to the first experiment, the students were selected based on their questionnaire results of having little experience with mechanical devices. Students were randomly assigned to the same two treatments as in experiment one; the words-with-pictures group had 12 students and the words-before-pictures group had 12 students. Students watched the same animations three times like the first experiment. Participants completed the four open-ended, problem solving test questions then completed a verbal recall test. The recall test required the students to explain how a bicycle pump works in their own words. The problem solving test results were the same as the first experiment with words-with-pictures group answering the question with fifty percent more solutions than the words-before-pictures group. However on the recall test the group's results did not differ significantly. The results suggest that both groups formed representational connections equally as well, but the words-with-pictures group creates referential connections better than the words-before-pictures group.
The third experiment by Mayer and Anderson, 1991 focused on representations and referential connections. There were 48 college students from a university psychology pool. Students were randomly assigned to one of four groups; words-only, picture-only; words-with-pictures; and a control group. There were twelve students in each group. The control group received no instruction. Procedure was the same as the second experiment with the questionnaire, animation view three times, the problem solving test, and the verbal recall test. The results from the problem solving test revealed that the words-with-pictures group scored significantly higher than the other three groups. The verbal recall test results revealed that the words-with-pictures and the words-only group outperformed control group. The picture only group preformed between the control group and the words-with-pictures and the words-only groups and their score did not differ significantly from the other groups.
A set of two experiments conducted by Mayer and Anderson, 1992 focused on dual coding, derived from the contiguity principle. Both experiments had the same two predictions; the first prediction is "The control group will perform worse on retention than the treatment groups, which will not differ from one another," and the second prediction is "The concurrent group will perform better on problem solving than the other groups, which will not differ from one another." The first experiment had eight version of a multimedia presentation, some included narration (N) and some included animation (A) with concurrent and successive information. The presentation played three times for a total of 90 seconds. 136 participants were selected from a university psychology pool, based on their low level of prior knowledge of household repairs.
There were 17 participants in each of the eight groups. The groups were concurrent (A+N, three times), ANANAN, NANANA, AAANNN, NNNAAA, animation only, narration only, and the control group. Participants were seated at individual computers and were tested in groups of 2 or 3. Students first completed a questionnaire to determine their level of knowledge in household repairs. Next, the participants watched a presentation about how a bicycle pump works, and if they had a narration version, they put on a set of headphones. Then the participants had 2.5 minutes to answer each of the four short problem solving essay questions, and 5 minutes to complete the recall test for retention.
The retention test results were analyzed and the control group performed significantly lower than the other seven groups. The ANANAN groups scored higher than the animation only group and the other groups did not differ from one another. The problem solving test results were analyzed and the control group performed significantly lower than the other seven groups. The ANANAN groups scored higher than the animation only group and the other groups did not differ from one another. The concurrent group scored significantly better than the other groups. The other seven groups did not differ significantly. The data also reveals that animation only is no more effective than the control group, no instruction, for problem solving. The results of the retention and the problems solving test support the dual coding theory.
The second experiment in the set by Mayer and Anderson, 1992 used the same design, but changes the topic from how a bicycle pump works to the brakes on a car work. The second experiment had the same eight version of a multimedia presentation; concurrent (A+N, three times), ANANAN, NANANA, AAANNN, NNNAAA, animation only, narration only, and the control group. The presentation played three times for a total of 90 seconds. There were 18 participants in each of the eight groups, for a total of 144 participants. The participants were selected from a university psychology pool, based on their low level of prior knowledge of car mechanics. Participants were seated at individual computers and were tested in groups of 2 or 3. Students first completed a questionnaire to determine their level of knowledge in household repairs. Next, the participants watched a presentation about how the brakes on a car operate, and if they had a narration version, they put on a set of headphones. Then the participants had 2.5 minutes to answer each of the five short problem solving essay questions, and 5 minutes to complete the recall test for retention.
The retention test results were analyzed and six of the seven groups treatments groups performed significantly higher than the control group. The only group not to score significantly higher than the control group is the animation only group. The problem solving test results were analyzed and concurrent performed better on the test than other seven groups. The other groups' scores did not differ significantly from one another. The results of the retention and the problems solving test support the dual coding theory, and indirectly supports the contiguity principle.
Another set of two experiments were designed by Mayer and Sims, 1994 to further analyze dual-coding theory from the contiguity angle with high and low-spatial ability students. The first experiment had 86 students from a university psychology pool, and were selected because of they had little mechanical devices prior knowledge, as determined by a questionnaire. Students were randomly assigned to one of three groups, concurrent-narration, which had 22 students or successive-narration, which had 43 students, the second group was further divided and half had the animation then narration and the other half had narration first followed by the animation, and 21 students in the control group. After being assigned to treatment groups, students were given a spatial ability test containing a paper-folding test and a mental rotation test.
Then the students were put into one of two categories, high spatial ability or low spatial ability. Students were tested in groups of one to three. Following the questionnaire and spatial ability test they received three computer based instruction, with their assigned treatment, on how a bicycle tire pump operates. The control group did not receive instruction. After the instruction students completed four transfer problems. Data analysis revealed a contiguity effect, as described in the dual-coding theory. The contiguity effect occurred with concurrent group outperforming the successive and the control groups. Students in the concurrent presentation group scored significantly higher than the other groups. The successive and the control (no instruction) groups performance were significantly different from each other, indicating the groups were unable to build referential connections.
The results were then analyzed by spatial ability and group performance. The high-spatial ability, concurrent presentation students significantly scored higher than the low-spatial ability concurrent presentation students. The low-spatial ability concurrent presentation scores were not significantly different from the other two low-spatial ability groups. The results align with the enhancement view of spatial ability that concurrent presentation benefits high-spatial ability students more than low-spatial ability. This occurs because low spatial ability student have an increased cognitive load to build visual representational connections, than do high-spatial ability students.
Experiment two by Mayer and Sims, 1994 had 97 students from a university psychology pool, and were selected because of they had a low level of prior knowledge about human anatomy, as determined by a questionnaire. Thirty two students in the concurrent groups with 17 high-spatial ability and 15 low-spatial ability. The successive group had 33 students with 15 high-spatial ability and 18 low-spatial ability. The successive group used only the narration followed by animation model. The control, which had no instruction, group had 32 students with 17 high-spatial ability and 15 low-spatial ability. Students were randomly assigned to one of three groups, and were tested in groups of one to three. Following the questionnaire the participants received computer based instruction, with their assigned treatment, on how the human respiratory system works. There were three presentation each one lasted about 45 slides with about a 100 word narration for a total of approximately two minutes for the concurrent group and approximately four minutes for the successive group. After the instruction students completed four transfer problems then the spatial tests.
Data analysis revealed a contiguity effect, as described in the dual-coding theory for the students in the concurrent group outperforming the other two groups. Similar to the first experiment the contiguity effect occurred for students with high-spatial ability, but not for the low-spatial ability students. Based on the findings from the two experiments and dual-coding theory, the theoretical implications are verbal and visual descriptions presented concurrently increases the opportunity for students to make mental representations and build connections with the information being presented. CONCLUSIONS on page 400 of Mayer & Sims 1994 article!!!
Based on the results above the presentations were created with concurrent instruction. Even though the students spatial ability will be not be measured; concurrent presentation is more effective the successive or no instruction as a whole. representational connections versus referential connections!!! --instructional effects were stronger for low-experience learners than for high-experience learners (Mayer & Gallini, 1990; Mayer & Sims, 1994) - From Mayer & Moreno 1998 article.
Contiguity effect as defined by Mayer states...
Spatial and temporal contiguity
The third principle is "spatial contiguity." This principle includes placing text and related images in close proximity (Mayer, Fennell, et al, 2004; Tempelman-Kluit, 2006; Mayer & Moreno, 2003). When static graphics and text are near each other the learner will link the information together easier, store the content jointly and increase transferability. While dual coding theory states the content needs to be presented both visually and auditorily and the spatial contiguity principle states that images and text should appear in near each other, the temporal contiguity principle deals with audio and animated graphics. The temporal contiguity principle states that when the animation is occurring the accompanying audio should be playing concurrently and not subsequently as this increases learner ability to connect the information and transferability. For example when describing the blood flow through the heart chambers an animation depicting the steps is occurring at the same time of the narration.
Two experiments were designed by Moreno and Mayer (1999 ) to investigate modality theory by testing the two cognitive principle of contiguity theory; temporal-contiguity effect and spatial-contiguity effect. In the first experiment conducted to test the modality effect the researchers used a psychology subject pool from University of California, Santa Barbara and selected 132 college student participants. Between 40 and 41 participants were assigned to one of three groups. The three groups were integrated text, separate text, and narration. The integrated text group's animation included on-screen text was in close proximity or integrated into the animation. The separate text group's animation contained the text however it was separated or distant from the animation. The narration group had no text but spoken narration with the animation. The animation lasted 180 seconds, used the same animation for the three groups only the text or audio changed.
The experiment consisted of four parts for the participants "a questionnaire, a retention test, a matching test and a 4-page transfer test" all parts were completed with a pencil and paper. The questionnaire collected participant demographic information as well as prior knowledge level of the subject matter. The retention test was an easy questions where students had to describe the process they watched, in this case how lightening works. The transfer test has four easy questions in which the participant had to apply the information they had learned to answer the questions. The matching test required participant to match parts an image with the corresponding text.
The participants completed the questionnaire first, then watched the animation then completed the other assessments. The verbal recall tests scores and the problem-solving transfer test scores both revealed the narration group performed significantly better than the integrated text and the separate text groups; which aligns with the modality theory. The integrated text group performed significantly better than the separate text group on both the recall tests and the problem-solving transfer test, which aligns with the spatial-contiguity effect. The visual-verbal test results were split into high and low scores, based on the median score, then analyzed with a Chi-square test which revealed the text groups had significantly more low scores than the narration group.
The integrated text group also out preformed the other two groups on the visual-verbal matching test. However integrated text group and the separate text group scores did not differ significantly, this test aligned with the modality effect but not the spatial-contiguity effect. Overall modality effects were found for all three tests. Where as the spatial-contiguity effect was found for only the retention and the transfer test.
The second experiment conducted by Moreno and Mayer, 1999 further investigate simultaneous and sequential presentation modes. There were 127 students from a university psychology pool, which were selected based on their low level of prior experience with meteorology. The participants were randomly assigned to one of six groups; simultaneous narration (NN), simultaneous text (TT), animation with sequential text (AT), animation with sequential narration (AN), text with sequential animation (TA), narration with sequential animation (NA). The text was separated from the animation and appeared at the bottom of the screen.
The groups had twenty participant each, except for the AN group which had eighteen participants. The NN and the TT animations lasted approximately 180 seconds and the other four presentation lasted approximately 300 seconds. The procedure from the first experiment was replicated with participants completed a questionnaire, watched the animation, then completed three assessments. The narration groups scored higher on the verbal recall test than the text groups, and the TT and TA groups scored significantly less than the three narration groups, confirming modality theory.
The recall test results failed to produce a temporal-contiguity effect, however the sequential group did score higher than the simultaneous groups for both text and narration. The problem solving test scores also produced a modality effect with the narration groups scoring higher than the text groups. Similar to the recall test there was no temporal contiguity main effect as a whole or significant interaction between modality and temporal contiguity. The interaction between modality and temporal contiguity did show the simultaneous group scored slightly higher than the sequential group with narration. The sequential group scored slightly higher than simultaneous group with text. The visual-verbal matching scores were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA which revealed a modality main effect with the narration groups scoring higher than the text groups.
The two-way ANOVA also revealed a temporal contiguity main effect with the sequential group scoring higher than the simultaneous group. There was significance with the modality and temporal contiguity interaction as well with the sequential group performing significantly higher than the simultaneous group when the information was presented as text, with no significant difference the when information was presented as narration. The verbal-visual scores were again split based on the media score and analyzed. The text groups again had a higher percentage of low scores than the narration groups. The low score analyses supports the split-attention theory of cognitive load (Chandler & Sweller, 1992). Modality effects were found on all three tests meaning presenting information in audio form is better than text. Temporal contiguity was found for the text groups, but not the narration groups.
The results from both experiments demonstrated the modality effect, meaning students learn more when information in an animation is presented in the form of audio rather than on screen text, and perform better on assessments after the animation. The results from the verbal-recall and problem-solving transfer test revealed the spatial-contiguity effect. Spatial-contiguity effect means when onscreen text is used in a presentation it needs to be integrated with the pictures or animations so students can recall more information from the presentation and solve more transfer problems than if the text were separate from the pictures or animations.
The experiment conducted to test the modality effect conducted by Roxana Moreno and Richard Mayer, 1999 also tested for spatial contiguity. The three groups they used were integrated text, separate text, and narration. The results revealed the spatial contiguity principle for retention and transfer tests, with the integrated text group performing significantly better than the separate text group.
Therefore, based on the work of Moreno and Mayer (1997) when the computer multimedia presentations were created the corresponding text was placed near the mouse icon which was the area the actions were taking place.
Other Multimedia Principles
Many other principles are used in conjunction with multimedia four of the additional theories are coherence principle, dual coding theory, spatial contiguity principle, and temporal congruity principle. "Coherence principle" was alluded to in the cognitive load section. The principle entails selecting text, images, and audio that teach the information but removing irrelevant visual or audio components and keeping the information concise (Mayer, Fennell, et al., 2004; Mayer & Johnson, 2008). For example do not use a paragraph, visually or verbally, to explain what can be summarize with the same essence in two sentences. While the "coherence principle" encompasses excluding nonessential information, the dual coding theory states that knowledge is obtained and encoded when information is presented both verbally and visually (Ardaç, 2008; Barron & Calandra, 2003; Paivio, 1986). For example incorporating images or animations that aligns with the auditory information but is not redundant such as on-screen text. This helps memory retention because information is received in stored through multiple channels.
Summary of Theories as Applied to Multimedia Creation
When creating multimedia content information needs to be presented visually and auditorily to take advantage of both channels of the working memory. Presenting content through audio instead of on-screen text adheres to the modality theory and avoids the redundancy and split-attention effect. Irrelevant information needs to be excluded to keep content concise and the multimedia also needs to include breaks after each section of important information for the student to process reflect and content to prior learning and store into long-term memory to abide by the cognitive load theory. When animation is involved and needs explanation the audio needs to coincide with the animation instead of occurring after the animation this increases transfer as noted in the temporal contiguity effect. If static images are along with some text, they need to be in close proximity for the learner to make the connections.
Many experiments have been conducted that support the above theories and principles. The experiments conducted focus on the theories and can be segmented by multimedia elements screen text and animations.
Screen Text Versus Narration
Screen text experiments checked for text only, text used in conjunction with audio, and audio only as well as whole text versus partial text. In an experiment conducted by Craig, Gholson and M. Driscoll, 2002 from the University of Memphis 71 participants were assigned to watch a multimedia presentation where a "computerized character" or agent described how lightening works. The participants were divided into three groups, in one group the agent gave the information auditorily, the second group watched the presentation where the agent gave the information as printed text, in the third group the agent gave the information as printed text and auditorily. The group with the written and auditory information did not perform better than the printed only group which supports the redundancy effect.
In another experiment conducted by Mayer et al, (2001) participants were given one of three different presentations, one with full on-screen text, one with partial on-screen text that contained a summary, or one with no text, all three presentations had full narration (Ardaç, 2008). Students who received the version with no text preformed better than the other two groups in retention and transfer, this supports the modality principle that states that text based information is best received by the learner when it is presented as audio. Students continued to perform better with audio combine with animation over animations and on screen text (Mayer and Moreno, 1998; Ardaç, 2008).
Since the modality principle states the narration is better than on-screen text, Moreno and Mayer (2000) conducted an experiment to determine if students learn better from conversational style of narration or formal style of narration. First or second person classified conversational style where as formal style was third person and did not contain comments directed toward the participant. They discovered "students scored higher on a transfer test after paying an educational science game containing narrated animation in which the words were in conversational style than when the words were in formal style" (Mayer, Fennel, Farmer, & Campbell; 2004).
When Mayer, Fennel, Farmer, and Campbell conducted their experiments they divided the participants into two groups, both groups watched a presentation about how the respiratory system works. One group listened to the presentation that was nonpersonalized which contained the word "the" when describing the process, the second group listened to the personalized presentation which contained the word "your" instead of "the." The participants took a test to check for transfer and retention. There was not a statistical significance between the two groups on retention, however the personalized group performed better than the nonpersonalized group on the transfer test. In summary, the current research reveals that using audio only works better than full or summative on-screen text used in conjunction with the audio or text only and a personalized narration help students perform better on transfer tests than nonpersonalized narration.
An experiment conducted by Jeung, Chandler and Sweller (1997) divided the participants into three groups one with the diagrams and on screen text, one with diagrams and audio, and the third with the diagrams and audio with the addition of flashing visual cue to direct learners attention. The group with the flashing visual prompt preformed better than the other two groups (Adraç, 2008). The authors propose that flashing elements assist learners especially when presenting with complex images that include many elements. In an experiment conducted by Craig, Gholson, and Driscoll (2002) participants watch a multimedia presentation that had either a static picture, sudden onset, or animation. They discovered that "sudden onset was as effective at controlling attention as was a full animation." In conclusion, visual on-screen cues help focus the learner on the necessary pieces of the image or animation while listening to the narrations.
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