This dissertation has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional dissertation writers.
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A SOUND INSTRUCTIONAL AND SOCIAL IMPROVEMENT PLAN TO CLOSE THE ACHIEVEMENT GAP FOR LATINO STUDENTS.
Definition of the Problem
The American education experienced long and sustained period of school reforms filled with significant challenges. The policymakers as well as the governors made the school reform movement their top project priority since the 1980s (Sindelar, Shearer, Yendol-Hoppey & Liebert, 2006). The school reform movement undergone profound achievements in the past and continues to tackle significant challenges although it has achieved its goal in creating changes to school conditions, student performance, and institutional policy. The National Governors Association for Best Practices is looking into the achievement gap challenge facing the schools today (Grant, 2009). This requires creating new policies and developing old policies to close in the achievement gap problems happening in several states. The policy primer discloses the nature of the achievement gap problem, its history, and the different state's efforts to solve the existing problem. The primer also discusses alternative solutions and strategies at state level including important issues and factors to avoid in implementing solutions.
Understanding the achievement gap context
The achievement gap context is all about the differences one sees between people coming from different race and class (Chubb & Loveless, 2002). There is an increasing difference concerning the performance of students coming from the disadvantaged minority as compared to the performance demonstrated by white students of the same grade level (Chubb & Loveless, 2002).
This achievement gap is a clear issue of racism and the effects of the power of the privilege. Educational institutions, educators, and policymakers face genuine lack of understanding creating and developing schools that can cope up with the context of a diversified society. The challenge goes on with the creation of correct policy that could help close the achievement gap.
Federal response to the urgent persisting achievement gap problem
The No Child Left Behind Act or NCLB is an attempt by the Federal government to close the achievement gap (Chamberlain, 2004). The policy set forth a new accountability practice for American schools to set the same standards with detailed plan for testing performance to ensure students meet preset standards of the schools. The framework of the NCLB allows a student to transfer to other schools located at the same district if he fails to pass the test performance set by the school. It is the responsibility of the school district to provide persistently failing students supplemental services as well as choices to study at other schools operating within the same district (Chamberlain, 2004). The school needs to demonstrate adequate progress about the problems of persistently failing students. Failure to show progress makes them open for state law corrective action (Chamberlain, 2004). The schools focus their performance targets based on the conditions of the students with disabilities and coming from disadvantaged family background. This includes students coming from ethnic or minority group that possess limited English language skills and proficiency.
However, well performing schools are still required to alter school practices, policies, and governance to accelerate and enhance the educational experience of the disadvantaged group of students.
The state considers a school as well performing only when they become successful in bridging the achievement gap. The intervention of the new Federal law on the educational scene has created quite a stir among schools struggling to meet the new set of policies and criteria.
How do you measure the achievement gap?
NCLB Act is clearly a Federal strategy to challenge the achievement gap brought by the effects and challenges of inequality among students in the US. Schools measure achievement gap by comparing African-American test scores and academic performance with the Hispanic group and white Americans using standard assessment tests (Chamberlain, 2004). Survey statistics gathered by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reflected a narrow gap between Hispanic and African-American 17 year old students reading scores for the period 1975 to 1988 (US Commission on Civil Rights, 2004). The gap becomes wider or somehow constant in the areas of mathematics and reading during 1990 to 1999. The NAEP charts on achievement gap raised concern over the intelligence and skills of the disadvantaged minority students. The Education Trust analysis on the NAEP data bothered policymakers.
It concluded that the grade 12 level disadvantaged minority students performed similar to the level of the students studying four years behind them (Ferguson & Mehta, 2004).
The skills of the Latino and African-American 17 year old students are comparable to the skills possessed by the 13-year-old White students in the subjects of English, science, and mathematics (Ferguson & Mehta, 2004).
The educational attainment is another way to measure the achievement gap between races. The different ethnicities showed wider gap as to the highest educational level of attainment they had achieved in the past. The groups showed gaps in all discipline. Dropouts among African-American and Hispanic groups in high school are heavier even though the tuition fee rates are lower than those rates given to the Whites (Ferguson & Mehta, 2004). The Whites show more effort in trying to get a college degree than the Blacks and Hispanic young adults.
Policymakers and schools do not overstate the importance of achievement gaps but actually noted the big difference between Whites and other ethnic group's educational achievement specifically Hispanic and African-American groups (Chubb & Loveless, 2002). The achievement gap is the outcome of local and national standard test measures between diversified groups of students mostly categorized by ethnicity and socioeconomic status (Chubb & Loveless, 2002). The other forms of category applicable to the groups are their gender and ability.
There are many ways that a school can measure the achievement gap between the groups such as test scores resulting from standardized test and average grades obtained by each group. The dropout rates, highest level of educational attainment, and population of college enrollees are other ways to measure the achievement gap between ethnicities (Strictland & Alvermann, 2004).
Although the results of this statistic survey came from different American states, the same thing is also happening with other countries. These achievement gaps noted across countries showed the possible effects brought by discrimination and social injustice. The government made a good move eradicating social discrimination.
The move to bridge the achievement gap between ethnicities also responds to their effort to solve existing social discrimination at the same time. Eradicating the gap as a public policy would help eliminate the other problem of social discrimination. However, some people disagree that the core causes of the achievement gap come from a person's class, culture, or even biology. These people believe that policymakers can directly influence economics and education using progressive education based on multiculturalism. This idea is more effective in helping them achieve equality among ethnic groups.
Identified factors causing the widening achievement gap
Researchers do not have any clear idea about the real reason for the increasing achievement gap between ethnic groups. Structural as well as cultural factors played a major role to the widening discrepancy.
Students lacking the cultural capital portrayed by the middle class are likely to show low academic scores and achievements especially if they experience little parental involvement concerning their education and home coursework (Strictland & Alvermann, 2004). Annete Lareau stated that better resource students demonstrate more accomplishments in academics and life (Lareau, 2000).
Other researchers believed that a person's ability to achieve more in life and academics largely depends on its socioeconomic condition and the classification of race from which he belongs. It is evident that students belonging to the disadvantaged minority suffer the adverse result of the achievement gap because they find themselves at a disadvantage position than the White students.
Understanding the effects of the environment and culture to students' performance
The culture, traditions, beliefs, social roles, and environment of the student influence the student's performance and are factors that need extra consideration and study when dealing with the core causes of achievement gap (Lareau, 2000). It would be for the researcher's advantage that he should look into the lives, environment, economic condition, and practices of the disadvantaged minority to ascertain and identify specific cultural differences that can help explain the differences of the child-parent relationships between ethnic group families (Lareau, 2000). Cultural differences shaped the child's behavior and motivation to become achievers.
The authors Jencks and Phillips argue that a child belonging to the Black family do not have much motivation and encouragement from their parents because of the lack of understanding about the benefits of education and obtaining academic skills (Jencks & Phillips, 1998). The lack of awareness resulted to Black children going to school with little vocabularies than their White counterparts.
Studies claimed that students with parental involvement such as homework assistance show more progress in school (De Carvalho, 2001). In comparison, the disadvantaged minority consists of single parents have to spend more of their time looking for money to cope up with their household economics and other needs rather than staying and getting involve with their child's homework (De Carvalho, 2001). The minority group also consists of parents that do not understand nor speak English well. The study points two major causes of the child's difficulty namely unavailable English speaker at home and lack of parental involvement for homework.
Researchers highly believed that children from the minority group do not attend school because they are not willing to find themselves in comparison with the Whites and accused as behaving like the White children by their peers (De Carvalho, 2001).
The children of the minority group simply lack the motivation and the understanding to pursue higher education because they do not see and believe the benefits and role of education in their future.
They possess little understanding about the benefits that knowledge and higher education bring to their lives and how it could improve years of hard work (De Carvalho, 2001). The common minority behavior from lack of motivation to do better in school is plain rejection of the idea to achieve something more in their future. It is like giving up their potential and the ability to do more by not studying and working hard to make any progress in their social status as well as to receive higher wages.
Furthermore, researchers found that schools often set up their performance measures based from the students' knowledge as well as familiarity about the White group that belongs to the middle class cultural capital. It is obvious that the disadvantaged minority is not familiar about the middle class cultural capital background of the White group. Schools need to change their test for students' performance and base it on their understanding of the subject matter. The test should be solely base on how they understand and perceive the subject they are taking.
How structures of the institutions influence the students?
Students coming from the disadvantaged minority group definitely go to schools categorized by the district as poorly funded schools (Danielson, 2002). Children belonging to low-income household attend poorly funded schools because it is the only affordable form of education. Schools belonging to the poorly funded school category have limited resources and employ teachers with less qualification (Danielson, 2002).
Schools tried to solve the achievement gap between ethnicities by placing students in tracking education groups.
The framework of the tracking education group assigns students within the same school into several groups base on their skills and academic abilities (Ansalone & Biafora, 2004). The schools then tailored the teachers' lesson plans to meet the varying requirements of the different sets of learners' abilities (Ansalone & Biafora, 2004). The strategy made dramatic progress to some learners.
However, some schools based their grouping from the students' cultural capital and socioeconomic status that results to the disadvantaged minority overly representing the lower educational group (Ansalone & Biafora, 2004). This made schools placed the African-Americans and the Hispanic students into the lower educational group. Their perception about the minority group wrongly placed the African-Americans and the Hispanic students, which reflects practice of institutional racism (Ansalone & Biafora, 2004). This confirms some researchers' beliefs that the initiation of the tracking education groups implies the existence of racial segregation within the school system itself.
Several studies performed on tracking education groups provided negative results. The implementation of the tracking education groups harmed the potential of the minority students to learn more skills because the teachers assigned to their groups are less qualified (Molnar, 2003).
The curriculum design for the minority group is also less challenging and provides less opportunity for advancement in their academic fields. The peers as well as the teachers of the students belonging to the lower tracking educational group labeled them as slow learners. This greatly affected their self-confidence and motivation to continue their studies, which resulted to increasing minority school dropouts. Concerned psychologist claimed that the school's tracking group's outcomes might not be beneficial to all groups (Molnar, 2003). They cannot identify any lasting benefit to the grouping.
The schools explanation over the creation of the tracking education widely varies. The goal to find applicable institutional and policy solutions to narrow the achievement gap gave birth to drafting education reforms. The categorization leads schools to provide remedial classes as well as tutoring sessions for identified less performing students.
Strategies applied to narrow the ethnicities achievement gap
The school provided tutoring sessions to the less advantaged and low performing students after school. They also offer remedial classes to help underperformers.
The main problem noted with the categorization program is the pressure it gave to minority students.
The program pushes minority students or underperformers to learn at a fast pace in an attempt to catch up with the performing groups usually comprise of their White counterparts. The catch up required more efforts from the teachers and gave much pressure to the students. The schools changed their categorization by race to grouping the students according to their ability. This new grouping criteria enabled schools to provide fair quality education for the students without considering ethnicity. The detracking scheme made schools and teachers perceive students equally (Burris & Welner, 2005). This also made schools provide more teachers that are qualified to the different groups, design their curriculum appropriately, and provide more resources to the learners.
Understanding the condition of the minority
The Blacks and the Latinos usually describe the low-income minority of the United States (Aragon, 2000). These students usually come from poor families and comprise the less performing group in school. The schools can easily identify minority students based on their SAT scores. Minority students often obtain lower scores than their White peers (Aragon, 2000). The schools broke down their SAT scores according to their socioeconomic status. The results showed that the Blacks and the Latino students usually achieve lower SAT scores than the Whites. However, Asians still achieve higher SAT scores than their White peers who belong to the same family income level. The analysis of the authors Steven G. Rivkin and Eric A. Hanushek fully explained the core causes of the increasing achievement gap.
In their book published last 2006, the authors discussed the effects of the schools effort to group the students according to their socioeconomics and ethnicity (Hanushek & Rivkin, 2006). The racial concentration in certain groups created the unequal distribution of experienced teachers and the inexperienced teachers (Hanushek & Rivkin, 2006). The study noted the increasing achievement gap in the grades 3 and grades 8 levels.
Looking into the structure of the high performers that belongs to the minority group
There are minority students who managed to excel in their grade levels. One great example of minority high performers is the students attending at Davidson Magnet School of Augusta, Georgia. The other school with minority high performers is the Amistad Academy located in New Haven, Connecticut.
The schools strategically employ traditional and rigorous training instructions that include providing direct instruction to students. Researchers found direct instruction effective and efficient in developing the skill levels of the learners coming from the inner city of the research title Project Follow Through (Harris & Graham, 2007). Black schools sometimes perform higher than their White counterparts do. The results of the annual test during the later part of the 19th century at Washington, DC can prove this claim. The Blacks performing higher than the Whites do continued until the middle of the 20th century. The M Street School gave quite a performance during this period by exceeding on the national standardized test.
The author Carl L. Bankston III and his partner researcher Stephen J. Caldas claimed that the achievement gap causes the segregation of the schools in US (Caldas & Bankston, 2005). The book titled “A troubled dream: The promise and failure of school desegregation in Louisiana” published in 2002 and the other book titled “Forced to fail:
The paradox of school desegregation” published in 2005, clearly pointed that students benefit more when placed in the same school with high achieving students (Caldas & Bankston, 2005). Their research also showed that students experienced academic disadvantage when they interact more with low achieving schoolmates. This proves their perception about the achievement gap as the core cause of school segregation. This means that parents played a major role and are greatly involve in the creation of school segregation for the fact that many parents even avoid sending their children to schools with larger minority student population (Caldas & Bankston, 2005).
Understanding the standards based form of education reform
The standard based education reform based its classification by the education characteristics and income level of the student regardless of performance (US Commission on Civil Rights, 2004). Most schools in US decide to adopt the education reform. The policymakers believed that students regardless of race and gender have the potential to become achievers and receive higher pay levels. There is a need to study the content and context as well as the effects of the state's education policy and compare them with the education policies of other nations.
Improved performance is attainable using the standard based assessments with clear set of incentives such as examination for high school graduation (US Commission on Civil Rights, 2004). The student reforms of whole language, multiculturalism, affirmative action, block scheduling, desegregation, inquiry-based science, and reform mathematics were not successful in improving the achievements of the students.
The recent NCLB legislation requires students to take annual testing and demonstrate progress at an acceptable rate every school year. The federal government imposed sanctions to schools with larger population of under performing students. Obviously, the schools having the greatest attendance of minority and poor students face the problems of coping up with the legislation and working on the skills of the students. Those who favored the traditional education claimed that the schools are not designing the education reforms in a constructive way because the reforms are not curriculum and student based.
The IQ tests and the SAT are widely accepted as norm-referenced tests. Some people claimed the ACT as limiting chances for the minorities. Many people favored the standards based assessment because they have a clear definition and design of the criteria for the reference test (US Commission on Civil Rights, 2004). The criteria are acceptable and regarded as free from any cultural bias. The students can easily pass the reference test criteria. In 2006, states like the Washington questioned the effectiveness of the approach.
The assessment became a mandatory requirement for graduation.
Terry Bergeson, a Superintendent, believes that students coming from the disadvantaged minority can compete and are capable of achieving higher scores (Thomas, 2005). However, these minority students need additional help to perform more. MCAS in Massachusetts showed higher percentage of graduating students for all races. In the Fairtest point, there are still many minority students dropping out and performing less than the Whites and Asians.
Although the Washington state has narrowed the achievement gap, researchers cannot find any conclusive evidence that the standard based reforms are effective in closing the achievement gap. The author of the book titled “The Bell Curve”, Charles Murray, looked into the point gaps and its relative improvement (Locke, 1995). His analysis implied that the test is theoretically easy to pass but actually difficult to answer. The test consists of open-response questions that are mostly problem solving, reading, writing, and mathematics. Minorities who fail the test are about twice or even four times than the population of the students that achieve high scores of the testing history. In 2006, only one sophomore student belonging to the minority group passed the standard test. One needs to pass WASL to obtain a diploma.
The tasks of keeping American public schools from educational failure depends on how fast policymakers and educators provide efficient policies and effective structure of framework for teaching that can respond to the students individual differences and capabilities. There is a rising need for educational institutions to meet projected challenges posed by changing demographic trends and requirements. The most crucial part is the transmission of societal values from diversified students of differing religion, philosophy, history, and political context.
The lack of understanding of each ethnic group values and culture endangers the opportunity of any education reform to work for the learners.
Significance of the problem
The American Indian group always ranked below the Latino and the African American students in terms of graduation rates and standardized test scores. The three groups always showed significant numbers concerning dropout rates. The achievement gap persists in the US history. The study published in the Education week revealed that American Indian or Alaska Native students' graduation rate is about 47.4 percent. The foundation of the couple Bill and Melinda Gates funded the study. The statistics showed that American Indians were 30 points below their White peers, which means that about half of the graduating students belonging to the minority failed. The Council of Chief State School Officers report in 2006 declared that the low attendance of American Indian students across the country is a significant problem among the states specifically West Mississippi (Council of Chief State School Officers, 2006).
The persisting problem about the achievement gap of the African Americans, Hispanic, Asian Americans, and Caucasian students present a challenge to the present structure of public education (Zajda, 2005). The gap narrowed a little during the 1970s and the 1980s and then started to widen again in 1990.
The gap persists to widen until today (Vanneman, Hamilton, Anderson & Rahman, 2009). There were about 22% grades 4 White students who scored below the basic NAEP test for reading in 2007.
The report also showed about 50% Hispanic and 54% Black students who obtained scores below the basic NAEP. There were about 16% White students at grades 8 who scored below the basic mark required to pass the reading test. There were about 42% Hispanic and 45% Black students performing below the basic mark required to pass the reading test. The wide achievement gap reflected in their math scores also. Some people argued that district resegregation across the states reinforced the rising disparity problems. This is especially true in the northern and southern districts (Kozol, 2005). The White parents enroll their children in high quality suburban schools while the African-American as well as the Hispanic families enroll their children in racially isolated schools. These racially isolated institutions normally provide school instruction of very low quality and normally face other types of problems (Zajda, 2005).
The California state is the most affected state in the US. Jack O'Connell, State Superintendent, considers the task of helping the minority as moral, economic, and ethical imperative (Gerston & Christensen, 2009). The California Department of Education (2009) revealed the state needs to prepare and train the students especially the African-American and the Latino to compete in the global economy. This would make California gain a competitive edge over world economic leaders.
The success of the task largely depends on how well the students respond to the NCLB standardized test. Taylor (2006) is the main advocate of the Critical Race Theory. He tried to bring awareness about the racial minority and institutionalized oppression hidden under the Federal as well as state policies.
Although the Federal government created the NCLB in an attempt to bridge the achievement gap, Taylor claimed that the Federal regulation puts too much pressure over the educators and students in trying to improve academic performance. Taylor claimed that the movement did not correctly address the issues stated in The Colors of Poverty by Lin and Harris. Taylor claimed that putting pressure to perform better does not respond to the racial segregation practices and policies. People and policymakers do not even understand the occurrence and the consequence of the practices nor do they have the ability to reverse its occurrence (Taylor, 2006).
Understanding the context of differentiated instruction
Differentiated instruction makes students the center of learning and teaching based from the theory that students come to school bearing different skills implying unique differences on their learning needs (Tomlinson, 1999). The varying degrees of differences may refer to their personal and educational context, community or environment background, and academic skills. The educators under the differentiated instruction design and employ several methods of instruction that can facilitate the learning experiences of the diversified students in the classroom effectively. The goal is to match students' skills to the resource materials in a qualitative manner.
The program includes blending the needs of the whole class with the design of their individual instruction using effective approaches and methods to expedite the processing of knowledge, input and output, of the learners.
This requires constant assessment of the students' progress by their respective classroom teachers. Policymakers considered the differentiated instruction movement as a proactive approach to educational issues facing practitioners today (Tomlinson, 1999). The proactive approach makes the students become more comfortable in pursuing their education. Educators refine and tailor their instructions according to the needs of the students. This also entails adjusting the curriculum to fit the students' academic needs. Teachers committed to this approach understand that the students they teach shape their teaching style and practically believe that students create awareness on teachers how to shape them.
The students' personality and learning style necessarily influence the instructor's teaching philosophy and methods (Tomlinson, 1999). This is the only way to get through them and seems the only possible way that they get to learn things. Creating a model for differentiated instruction requires student centered approach that supports the key elements of interest, readiness, and learning profile (Allan & Tomlinson, 2000).
The Russian psychologist, Lev Vygotsky, declared that people receive and learn more things when they are ready to learn these things (Daniels, 2001), which is the theory behind the differentiated instruction movement. The differentiated instruction approach matches the individuals' interest and methods of learning.
This approach supports the student interest, which is one of the key elements of differentiated instruction. Jerome Bruner claimed that the moment a teacher gains the interest of the student is the specific moment that a student starts to learn and the learning experience becomes more rewarding (Tomlinson & Allan, 2000).
The American psychologist who wrote about the multiple intelligence theory, Howard Gardner, claimed that a human being is a unique individual that possesses different levels of intelligence and perceives learning in different ways. This led him to suggest that schools need to look into the possibility of providing individual-centered approach. The framework tailors the curriculum to the intelligence and preferences of the child (Tomlinson & Allan, 2000). This suggestion fits to the different student learning profile key element of differentiated instruction.
The context of differentiated instruction supports and integrates the learning styles of the students to the conditions of their brain development.
This constructivist learning theory details and analyzes the various factors that influence the readiness, intelligence preferences, and the interest of the students that motivate and engage them to learn at school (Anderson, 2007). Kathie Nunley, an educational psychologist, stated that the movement for differentiated instruction is crucial to the classroom makeover from the 1970s homogeneous groupings to the present heterogeneous learners (Nunley, 2006). Educators using the differentiated instruction approach are able to ascertain and meet the differing needs of the students, help each student in their learning process, and exceed expectations from established standards (Levy, 2008).
Tomlinson believed that the need to implement differentiated instruction came from the fact that learners are unique individuals that vary in different ways. The student population is also fast becoming academically diverse, which presents higher probability that diversity will continue for a long time.
Pre-assessment criteria for differentiated instruction
The most crucial part of the differentiated instruction program is the assessment, identification, and determination of the students' skills and knowledge. Educators need to understand the level of their skills for identification and design of the instruction methods and approach. The students' skill levels and knowledge base are crucial to facilitate writing of lesson plans as well as introducing resource materials. Pre-assessment is important for the design, lesson plan structure, educator's efficiency, and effectiveness of teaching styles (Ormsbee, 2001). Pre-assessment comes in many forms such as a grade level short test, small group discussion, or even in the form of a game. Any activity that helps the teachers assess the knowledge base and skills of the students can also help evaluate the students' future performance for the upcoming lessons. The technique for pre-assessment is to ask specific questions that can help assess the students' knowledge base.
The use of learning inventory form helps determine the students' preferences for learning. One great example for learning inventory form is the Multiple Intelligences inventory. The Layered Curriculum is one differentiation model that does not need any pre-assessment. The students demonstrate self-assessment and self-evaluation through daily oral defense (Nunley, 2004, 2006).
The objective of the differentiated instruction movement is creating, designing, developing, and implementing engaging as well as challenging tasks appropriate for each low-end or high-end learner.
The selection of the instructional methods, teaching styles, instructional activities, and resource materials depends entirely on the information taken from the assessment and screening tools results. The flexibility of the instruction based itself on the students' processing capabilities, which includes the content of the curriculum and the design of the lesson plans as well as the product. The pre-assessment and post assessment communicate the skills level, knowledge base, and the needs of the learners (Ormsbee, 2001). They provide value to the students' needs and preferences, which make differentiated instruction meaningful.
Educators' lesson plans design and content
The flexibility of the design and content of the lesson plan based itself on the knowledge that students already possessed. The school district provides the learning standards and guidelines for the lesson plan's basic content. There are things that teachers need to evaluate before designing the lesson plan such as the familiarity of the subject, which refers to the students' mastery or partial mastery of the content and concept of the lesson.
The teacher may use Bloom's Taxonomy for easy and fast differentiation of the content and design of instructional activities (Pitler, Hubbell, Kuhn, & Malenoski, 2007).
Students expressing zero familiarity of the subject content may complete the Bloom's Taxonomy tasks for lower levels, which cover comprehension, knowledge, and application (Pitler, Hubbell, Kuhn, & Malenoski, 2007). Students demonstrating partial mastery may undergo the Bloom's Taxonomy analysis, application, and evaluation portions. Students showing high mastery levels may take the Bloom's Taxonomy synthesis and evaluation tasks.
The first step is always evaluation of the students' preferences for learning and knowledge base or skills followed by lesson plan content differentiation and design. Educators have two options for content differentiation namely their perception for the learning needs of the students and the students' context, skills, and capability to gain access and understand the content (Anderson, 2007). Differentiation of content raises the potential of the students to learn and does not intend to lower nor vary the standards for performance and objectives of each student. Content flexibility includes the use of different short stories, texts, or novels to raise the reading comprehension level of each learner. The technique is to create groups with similar skill levels and assign appropriate reading and audio materials including sources found in the internet. Although students work under the same standards to achieve the same objectives, teachers give them the wise option to work as an individual, pair, or groups depending on their preferences, level of comfort, and learning styles. This facilitates processing of knowledge and raises students' interests.
Processing of knowledge
Each student learning styles and preferences are unique and different from the other students learning methods regardless of ethnicity. Processing of knowledge entirely depends on the perception and learning style of a particular student.
This differentiation stage allows the student to choose which teaching style best suits his learning style to maximize learning skills in acquiring knowledge (Tomlinson, 1999). Students prefer to learn things their way as reflected by their preferences to read or to listen instead of reading. Students process content easily using individual learning styles. The teacher may manipulate resources and present information or content in multiple ways that may ignite challenge, interest, and motivation among the learners (Tomlinson, 1999). The usual recourse is the use of the Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1999). The assessment results present certain commonalities that an educator may use as basis for student grouping. The decision to group students helps the creation and design of lesson plans more accurate for each group of the same skill levels. This results to easy and fair identification and implementation of teaching styles. The grouping is an approach to meet the needs of the learners in a convenient way. The teaching styles, instruction, and delivery of content depend on the results of the students assessments (Gardner, 1999).
The assessment results reflect the students' needs, interests, prior knowledge, mastery of a certain subject, and learning styles. These factors make the grouping approach flexible. A student can move from one group to the other as he increases his knowledge and develops his skills. Grouping changes relate to the speed of processing and acquisition of knowledge and skills of a certain learner.
The grouping and regrouping movement is one of the major dynamics of differentiated instruction. Another important aspect of differentiated instruction is the respect for a student preference to work alone. The teacher allows the student to work alone if the condition makes him more efficient and comfortable in completing an assigned task (Nunley, 2004).
The process stage helps the student to understand as well as assimilate relevant concepts and facts (Anderson, 2007). The teacher may break the group to even smaller ability groups whenever the students are ready to answer series of questions that can assess their learning performance. The questions given to students relate to the lessons' objectives. Grouping according to the students learning styles is another way to group the students. Teachers cannot implement the same teaching styles for a group of students with differing learning styles, which is the rationale behind the option to group by learning style. The Layered Curriculum is another option for differentiation, which allows students to choose their assignments. However, the student needs to demonstrate knowledge and skills to pass the assignment. This option does not require pre-assessment and great for teachers handling larger loads (Nunley, 2004).
Understanding the element of product
The product refers to the output or outcome of the student at the end of the lesson. The product is the thing that the student produces to demonstrate content mastery and acquisition of knowledge. The tests, projects, evaluations, reports and other instructional activities measure the product. Teachers based instructional activities on the educational standards and skills of the students such as content mastery in writing reports.
A teacher may employ another approach in giving activities. The teacher may allow the student to choose the method he feels can demonstrate best his mastery of the subject. A good example is song composition or creating three-dimensional objects that can demonstrate mastery of the lesson. The product is an important element of the differentiated instruction model. The assessment best determines the methods, approaches, teaching styles, and instructional activities of the teachers.
The teacher allows students various ways to demonstrate mastery of the subject by employing differentiated instruction according to the student's performance or product (Anderson, 2007; Nunley, 2006). Creating menu unit sheets, open-ended options for final product, and choice boards are some techniques that a teacher may apply in a differentiated instruction model. This allows students to demonstrate subject mastery based on their skills, interest, and learning styles. The common models for differentiated instruction used by teachers are the Layered Curriculum, RAFT writing, tiered instruction, Curry/Samara model, and tic-tac-toe (Heacox, 2002).
The teacher's willingness to ascertain and respond to a student's specific instruction and knowledge needs, interests, readiness, and learning style is the greatest benefit that a student may derive from the differentiated instruction model.
A teacher-facilitated and learner-responsive classroom used differentiated instruction to respond and meet the differing needs of the learner as well as the objectives of the curriculum. The instruction employed may be problem based, inquiry based, or project based.
Understanding assessment process for preparation to differentiated instruction
Authentic assessment is the process of evaluating and measuring a student's skill and knowledge based from his collective abilities (Guba & Lincoln, 1989). Authentic assessment is the art of presenting students real world challenges that initiate relevant knowledge and skill demonstration when finding solutions and facing challenges.
Authentic assessment key elements
Authentic assessment seeks to achieve the following objectives:
* Encourages learners to create and develop responses than mere selection of actions from predetermined alternative solutions
* Initiates higher level of thinking as an addition to acquisition of basic skills
* Holistic projects direct evaluation
* Allows students to synthesize classroom instruction
* Allows old portfolios of students as work samples
* Students know the criteria of the assessment
* Allowances for differing human judgments
* The assessment relates closely to learning within the classroom
* Allows students to assess their work
Authentic assessment is a natural, personalized, and flexible type of evaluation that allows modification to ascertain and identify specific levels of difficulty that influence a student's function and ability to complete a specific task (Guba & Lincoln, 1989). The context of the authentic assessment promotes rapport between the student and the examiner. The criterion-referenced authentic assessment tool accurately identifies the student's weakness and strength without ranking or comparing abilities among his peers. The assessment usually based evaluation according to the student's performance where a student performs a task that demonstrates his competency, skill, or knowledge of the lesson's content (Guba & Lincoln, 1989). The teacher handling authentic assessment faces several challenges such as assuring validity of the curriculum, eliminating bias from evaluator, and time management.
Authentic assessment relates to the similarity of the task with reading and writing test in the school real world environment (Hiebert, Valencia & Afflerback, 1994); Wiggins, 1993). The objective of the authentic assessment is to test the literacy efficiency and ability of a student in situations that resembles the real world environment.
The examiner may ask a student to read meaningful subjects, discuss contents of a book, write letters and journals, paraphrasing or revising a piece of content until the completed task meets the needs of the reader. The resource materials used including the assessment itself look natural to make the student feel more comfortable in completing the authentic assessment.
The authentic assessment focused on the student's manner of thinking behind the process to complete the task and produce the finished product (Pearson & Valencia, 1987; Wiggins, 1989; Wolf, 1989). Wolf (1989) stated that performing authentic tasks is an engaging activity that creates valuable learning experience for the student. The activities focused on strategies and skills as perceived by the teachers (Wiggins, 1989). The students are practically learning how to respond and use their skills and knowledge in situations similar to the real world. The activity's objective is to take away limitations such as making the students' work from simple information recall, circling vowel sound, or memorization to a more authentic application. The application of acquired knowledge is very different in authentic assessment. To illustrate, asking students to find metaphors in a story is very different from asking them to analyze and know why the author preferred to use the metaphors. Asking students to analyze the use of the metaphors would make them read the story, reread the story, understand, and then analyze the use of the metaphors and its effect on the story.
They work through their skills and knowledge to analyze and understand the effects of the metaphors used by the author in the story, which is similar to the tasks that they will complete in the real world.
Performance assessment is the other term for authentic assessment. The performance assessment is the process of creating and developing a specific response or product using the skills, knowledge, and strategies learned from their lessons (Rudner & Boston, 1994; Wiggins, 1989).
The focus is more on using their literacy abilities to perform research, write reports, character analysis, argue character's motives, and illustrates their ability to gather critical information than the traditional multiple-choice type of questions. The context of the performance assessment also focused on the student's ability to understand and dramatize a story or show their ability to express and read aloud meaningful sections. In performance assessment, the students complete more complicated task such as writing and drawing a story. The examiner instructs students to create and write stories after they read one story and become familiar with its sequence and structure. The creative writing of their own story is an application of the knowledge they gained from reading the story.
The performance assessment format may be long-term projects or short answers. However, all formats require integration of skills, arts, and language as well as higher order of thinking.
The performance assessment formats may present the students more complex problems than the traditional assessment. The examiner ensures balance between the long and short formats given to students.
Understanding Social and Emotional Learning (SEL)
The Social and Emotional Learning focused on developing the student's emotional intelligence, which is powerful management, understanding, and control of one's emotions (Novick & Elias, 2002). Emotions affect a person's decision-making, views in life, and relationships. SEL encourages understanding and use of certain abilities, which is important in facing life's challenges and in achieving academic success. SEL motivates an individual to care and develop concern for other people besides themselves, create positive relationships, understand and control emotions, know their personal values, create responsible decisions, and become effective in managing emotions over challenging situations (Novick & Elias, 2002).
Studies revealed that individuals demonstrating high social and emotional competence mostly succeed in their academic and personal lives. They also demonstrate higher sense of well being and usually contribute to their respective communities (Novick & Elias, 2002). These individuals tend to show full confidence on their strengths and full awareness on their weaknesses. They are happy and contented achievers that maintain meaningful relationships and show an optimistic attitude about the future. They have an excellent goal setting ability and problem solving skills that make them achieve their goals and become successful in all their endeavors. Individuals with high emotional competence appreciate and respect people's diversities and values. SEL is the tool used by educators to promote emotional and social competence (Novick & Elias, 2002).
The concept of emotional intelligence became popular after the success of the book “Emotional Intelligence” written by Daniel Goleman in 1995. Daniel Goleman, a psychologist, discussed the context of emotional intelligence in his best selling book. The Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to the person's ability to manage, understand, and control his emotions. Self-awareness displays a very profound effect on the person's ability to face life and social challenges in a professional manner. The child's emotional competence proactively influences relationship and therefore affects the success of his peers in the classroom. The main objective of the SEL is to help the student understand and manage his emotions, which also develops his emotional quotient (EQ).
The concept of social and emotional learning helps an individual to develop the right attitude, skill, and knowledge to
* Understand, recognize, and handle emotions
* Gain the confidence to set and achieve goals
* Develop caring attitude and concern for the welfare of other people
* Create and maintain relationships in a proactive manner
* Give more responsible and smarter decision making skills
* Handle and respond interpersonal situations efficiently
The SEL encourages students to improve their emotional and social competence by teaching them the ability to understand their emotions and handle themselves better when they are upset. This means that the students actually learn to calm themselves when they are angry and facilitate conflict resolution.
The emotional competence enables one to make safe and ethical decisions (Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning, 2005; Elias, Zins, Weiss-berg, Frey, Greenberg, Haynes, Kessler, Schwab-Stone, & Shriver, 1997; Zins & Elias, 2006). CASEL identified five categories that SEL programs need to focus, which relate to the social and emotional competence of the student (Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning; 2005; Devaney, O'Brien, Keister, Resnik, & Weissberg, 2006) namely self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision-making.
CASEL means Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. Self-awareness is the ability of the person to know and assess his feelings, strengths, weaknesses, and values and still keeping a very good level of self-confidence.
Self-management is the skill to handle and regulate emotions especially under stressful situations. Social awareness is the person's ability to respect and express empathy on other people's values, cultural differences, and needs.
Responsible decision-making is the art of making appropriate decisions based on safety, ethical standards, and social norms.
Latin American Culture is defined as the formal and informal expression of the Latin American people (Kleymeyer, 1994). It includes high culture (high art and literature), popular culture (dance, music and folk art), religion and customary practices. Latin America has different definitions. From the cultural point of view, Latin America includes regions of the Americas where Portuguese, Spanish, and French languages prevail, Mexico, South America and a large part of Central America. It also includes the some regions of the Caribbean such as Haiti (a country that is non-Hispanic but with Hispanic cultural influences). There is a crucial presence of the Latin American culture within the United States of America, especially in the Southwest and California and in cities like Miami and New York. There is the growing attention in the relations that exist between the Caribbean and Latin America (Kleymeyer, 1994).
The wealth of the Latin American culture is as a result of numerous influences including:
* Pre-Columbian cultures whose significance is at present notable in such countries as Guatemala, Ecuador, Paraguay, Mexico, Bolivia and Peru.
* European colonial culture. This is owing to Latin America's colonization history by countries such as France, Spain and Portugal. European influence is especially marked in the region's high culture (music, literature and painting). What is more, the colonial history left long-lasting marks of influence particularly in their languages which are still spoken in Central Latin America (the Caribbean included) as well as North and South America (sections of the United States and Mexico (Kleymeyer, 1994).
* 19th and 20th Century immigration for instance Germany, Eastern Europe and Italy also helped to transform such countries as Uruguay, Argentina, Venezuela, Chile and Brazil (more so the southern and southeast parts).
* The immigration of the Japanese and Chinese influenced the culture in countries such as Peru, Brazil, Panama and Cuba.
* The introduction of African slaves influenced religion and dance in such countries as Panama, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Colombia and Venezuela.
Accordingly, it would be in order to talk of an ‘Indo-Latin-Afro American culture' (Kleymeyer, 1994).
English as the 2nd Language
Bilingual education is said to provide numerous advantages to adults. The gains go beyond the acquisition of language.
Specifically, the bulk of programs focusing on bilingual education promote leadership, confidence, friendship and community while teaching English at the same time. The characteristics are not only necessary but helpful especially when it comes to learning language effectively. Chavez (1992) in the descriptive unregistered immigrants anthropology, revealed that family, neighbors and even groups of acquaintances possess considerable advantages especially when it comes to helping immigrants gain employment and establish their residences. Chavez highlights rates with which the networks are used by individuals who want to relocate to the north. It provides social networks to newcomers to a country which is crucial to the acquisition of language. Chavez affirms that when new migrants connect with established immigrants, they are given places to stay and in some instances their hosts even help them look for work (p.136).
Networks such as these offer huge benefits to migrant workers and also to those who do not have English as their first language. The programs are able to fill in family demands while at the same time decreasing the sinister sense of the unknown which in most instances results in depression and despair. Feelings such as these are reasonably common when individuals are placed in new environments, in which they are required to live, work and/or learn. Numerous immigrants do not have ties with their native lands. Methods used in bilingual education help the adult learners extend their circle of friends (Arriaza, 1997).
There are a lot of adults that migrate with their kids. The will to reside in a new nation comes hand in hand with the acclimation process to the new country.
Where children are concerned, the process of acclimation is even more important. Bilingual education offers the opportunity to converse in English as to develop friendships. ESL or bilingual education is crucial to adults for the simple fact that it is interactive. ESL teachers can teach the adult students to interact in numerous ways. Through interaction, ESL students are able to learn as the interaction is carried out in English.
Students instructing other students
Learning and teaching go together. It is impossible to do one and leave the other out. Individuals that participate in community service consider it important to help others. As kids, not much emphasis is placed on value. It is only when these kids become adults that they look back into their childhood and reflect on the good things they did to assist other children. This is what is referred to as value. Children remember what they were taught in their adult years. ESL students may be trained to assist others in numerous ways. One is by assisting other students boost their low self-esteem. For instance, by assisting students having a difficult time with the English language, you encourage self-esteem in them and allow them to be expressive in words and also creative. This will come in handy in life as they will be able to see people and not their color. Adults may also be taught through sharing. If kids are taught to share their stuff not only with their siblings but others as well, they are encouraged to share at all times and also to assist with giving their wealth to others (literacy Centers Help Immigrants; Lack of English Hinders Success of Newcomers, 2003)
Socialization is defined as the process through which individuals learn about the roles, values, norms and rules of society. Individuals are socialized through observation and life experiences of the numerous situations and people that they come into contact with.
The socialization process begins at birth and lasts throughout one's lifetime. In one's formative years, the process of socialization is mainly directed by ones parents as well as immediate family members. However, as individuals mature and learn to make decisions for themselves socialization becomes self-directed.
Socialization process experiences have considerable impact on the self and identity of an individual. (‘What Is the Socialization Process?'). Socialization as well as other learned behaviors are examples of nurture. The genes and genetics that individuals receive from their birth parents play an important role in the personality, self and identity of a person and are examples of nature. Through ESL and education, the process may be improved and/or altered.
It is possible to develop leaders by combining nature and nurture. Like in the old debate of the chicken and the egg and which comes first, the significance of nurture versus nature in developing leaders or other behaviors or personality traits cannot be unraveled with any amount of certainty. Maybe more crucial than establishing which has more significance - nurture or nature - is appreciating the way in which the two determinants work hand in hand especially in the building of business leaders.
A leader is not conferred as such because of his/her status or rank in a particular company. Without a doubt, at the end of the day, the buck stops with the CEO. However, in the day to day running of the company, there is probably a leader(s) who make sure that work gets completed. But who are these individuals? Leadership was defined by Professor Lao Tzu as; ‘When the top leader's job has been completed, individuals say, ‘We did it ourselves!' In order to lead people one must walk behind them' (‘Leadership - Nature or Nurture?') (Lao-Tzu, 2000; Lao Tzu, 2009).
That is, leaders are people who have the ability to inspire, motivate and help others see their personal self-worth. It is not just an individual who simply barks out the orders.
Regardless of where one is placed on the nurture versus nature issue as far as the building of leaders is concerned, it would not be correct to argue that individuals who choose to do so may learn leadership theories and techniques. Seeing theories in practice, learning about them or even being mentored by a leader cannot guarantee that the development of leadership skills will take place. This is where nature becomes important. The basic personality of an individual might require greater effort in order to grow into the personality traits of a leader who is successful.
Daniel Goleman in his book Emotional Intelligence, states that characteristics of successful leaders may be placed into two large categories: capacity to relate to other individuals and self-management skills 9Leadership Traits) (Goleman, 2006). There are particular skill sets and abilities in each category that are possessed by the individuals who are leaders.
Self-awareness, or the capacity to understand personal ambitions, strengths, motivations, weaknesses and goals is crucial before individuals begin understanding others (Osborne, 2004). This is another important leadership trait (Leadership Trait).
Self regulation is yet another attribute within the self-management skills as proposed by Goleman. A leader is not very different from other people as he/she also experiences fear, phobias and impulses.
What sets the leader apart from ordinary people is that he/she is able to control his feeling (Goleman, 2006). Accordingly, he/she does not act on them (Leadership Traits).
The third attribute according to Goleman in the area of self-management is motivation. Leaders are self-driven individuals who do not require prompts from those close to them in order to act. Individuals who are motivated are able to lead by way of example. They also work so as provide environments where motivation is able to thrive. However, individuals cannot make other individuals be motivated as it has to come from within (Leadership Traits).
In Goleman's second category of characteristics of successful leaders, the capacity to relate to other individuals, he states that social skills, active listening skills and empathy are important attributes (Leadership Traits) (Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee, 2002). Empathy is described as the ability of an individual to look at things from another person's point of view. Empathetic people are able to relate with people from diverse backgrounds easily as they can place themselves in other people's shoes. Empathy and sympathy are not one and the same thing. This is because while empathy generates understands, sympathy only pities.
According to Goleman, social skills are the result of all other characteristics in the category (Leadership Traits) (Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee, 2002). These vital social skills are ‘the capacity to develop rapport with others and to motivate them to work hand in hand towards a shared goal' (Leadership Traits).
Active listening is considered to be an acquired/learned skill (Cummings, 2000). It is more than just hearing what another individual is saying. It calls for concentration on the listener's part. The listener has to take care not to hear just the speaker's message. He/she also has to note all non-verbal clues. Active listeners never try to finish the speakers' sentences (Cummings, 2000. They are also never busy conceiving responses to give once the speaker has finished speaking.
Active listeners such cues as head nods and/or occasional ‘I understand' as the speakers talk. This gives feedback to the speakers thereby reassuring them that the listeners are indeed listening (Cook, 2008). When a speaker is done talking, active listeners paraphrase back to the speakers what they have understood the communication to be (Cook, 2008). This helps to reinforce to speakers that their message has indeed been heard. It also gives speakers the chance to clear up the misunderstanding that the listeners might be having.
On close analysis of Goleman's characteristics of successful leaders, it is evident that nurture (learning) as opposed to predisposition or genetic coding is necessary for each of the characteristics. The characteristics do not distinguish between female and male, age or ethnicity.
From another viewpoint on what the characteristics of successful leaders comprise of, Napoleon Hill a respected author, described as the modern day Dale Carnegie, had a listing of eleven characteristics that he was convinced are embodied and possessed by successful leaders (Ulrich, Zenger, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999).
Unwavering courage: In spite of fears, leaders display courage even in the face of great adversity. They do this by using their self-knowledge as well as other tools of comprehending not only the business but other related factors.
Self control: People never follow individuals they perceive is not able to control themselves.
Keen justice sense: Leaders should be able to maintain fairness sense and use it when dealing with others so as to be accorded respect (Adair, 2002).
Decision definiteness: Leaders make decisions on the basis of knowledge and experience. Once the decisions have been arrived at, leaders move forward with them (Adair, 2002).
Doing more than one get paid for: This is closely related to Goleman's motivation characteristics. Leaders do not wait for others to them what should be done. Leaders look for things to do and do them (Baldoni, 2005).
Pleasant personality: This supports Goleman's characteristic of the capacity to develop rapport with other individuals (Baldoni, 2005). Hill also states that leaders are not slovenly when it comes to their appearance or careless (Baldoni, 2005).
Understanding and sympathy: According to Hill, ‘Successful leaders ought to be in sympathy with their followers' (The Major Attributes of Leadership) (Hill, 1987). Daniel Goleman states that the sympathy may stand for empathy for one's followers.
Detail mastery: Leaders ought to understand all things about their duties, positions and responsibilities.
Willingness to take full responsibility: Successful leaders understand that mistakes and shortcoming in their follower are reflection on themselves (Hill, 1987). As a result of this appreciation, successful leaders take full responsibility for their followers' inactions/actions. Consider Harry Truman and his famous ‘The buck stops here quote'.
Cooperation: Leaders may only be able to elicit cooperation from their followers if they themselves demonstrate the cooperation spirit (The Major Attributes of Leadership) (Hill, 1987).
As seen with the characteristics listing by Goleman, the list by Napoleon Hill also sets attributes and traits that ought to be learned (Hill, 1987). Individuals do not possess these traits at birth but develop them throughout their lives. In almost all attribute and trait lists of successful leaders, be they in government, social areas or business, the characteristics that have been described are those that should be learned. No DNA exists for cooperation, active listening or even empathy (Barber, 2003).
When considering the relevance of nurture versus nature in the building of leaders, it may be noted that intelligence levels as well as an individual's basic personality has a direct influence on a person's ability to become a leader. However, even individual's with average intelligence may learn about the thought patterns and traits that leaders ought to have. Of the characteristics talked about by Hill and Goleman, motivation is the closest to nature.
By nature, some people are more driven than others. However, this does not rule out the fact that with perseverance and determination, even less driven individuals may develop this characteristic.
English learning approaches and socialization in ESL
Peer reviewers are able to gain numerous benefits as they review the assignments of their peers. Often times, it has been asserted that individuals learn best when they are involved in the teaching of the subject. While reviewers cannot be considered as teachers, there are some commonalities that can be regarded as personally beneficial. For instance, by carrying a review of another person's paper, it is crucial to think seriously and establish what exactly the author is able to do well in addition to what they can possibly improve. The effective approaches the writers use may be added into the personal works of the writer (Hinkel, 2002).
Distinct from plagiarism, the procedure would not only be conscious but also subtle. Numerous writers including Stephen King have asserted that in the years when they were starting out, their writing styles fluctuated depending on whom they were reading. At the end, they became expert writers and developed their own personal writing styles. By seriously assessing another individual's work and offering constructive feedback, reviewers get the chance to consider writing approaches and issues that can help them I their personal writings. What is more, it makes it possible for reviewers to think like their target audiences and to keep their readers/audiences in kind when writing (Ernst-Slavit, Moore & Maloney, 2002).
Peer Reviewing Drawbacks
One drawback of peer review is that the individual under review might not be as comfortable with another individual assessing him/her. Nonetheless, the feedback is vital if one is to improve. Another drawback has to do with the fact that unless reviewers read through the assignments seriously, they may end up internalizing some of the errors of the person.
Additional Peer Review methods
There are numerous methods used to review peers' papers. For instance, the peers may edit and proofread. If they find any errors, they may note them down or even fix them. Subsequently, the owner of the paper may communicate to the reviewer and talk of the sections they considered improvements and the reason behind it in addition to the sections the individual considered fine or thought needed fixing but different fixes. The conversation ensures errors are neither internalized nor repeated. Micro Soft Word has a proofreading and editing feature that offers extra educational value as reviewers learn how to use it. Other peer review methods include passage rewriting so that authors are able to read different ways of writing the papers and even possibly add the new ways into their writing. For instance, some individuals prefer to use questions. Others yet like long sentences and other short. Still, there are those that use transitions (Barber, 2003).
Community work provides additional security to assisting other individuals. For instance knowing one is a good person on the inside greatly boosts self-esteem that may last a lifetime. Community service also helps children learn to always appreciate the things in their possession.
Appreciating things in one's life provides a good understanding of what value is. Children and adults should understand that there is more to life than jus receiving. In a child's formative years, giving things to them repetitively will cause them to think that always receiving is okay. Children should be taught meaningful lessons for all the things that they receive. One important lesson that children learn when they are given allowances for taking out the trash every day/week or taking the initiative and performing tasks they have not been asked to is that one can only acquire such things as money through work. If children work for their allowances, they should be allowed to spend it as they wish. However, parents should communicate that they after the allowance is finished, only work will be guarantee that they receive more. Accordingly, children will learn to the value of money. They will also learn how to spend wisely without any wastage. As kids, every situation presents the opportunity to learn valuable lessons (Ernst-Slavit, Moore & Maloney, 2002).
Community service is able to mould leaders. When adults give children the option when it comes to taking actions they are molding them into leaders. Kids and adults are similar when it comes to decision making. They both need to be offered choices as well as the outcomes that emanate from choices made. Offering kids this chance provides them with wisdom to differentiate wrong from right. These teachings help develop their communication skills. What is more, as they grow up they learn to face issues with more maturity. Children learn to make substantial and effective judgments. It takes all this for one to be referred to as a leader in real life.
In life becoming a leader mandates that one takes charge of particular situations. Leaders are affective listeners. Their take on things is bias-free. Leaders are individuals who stand for everything that is good and fight for things they consider to be true in their hearts. Leaders are front runners. The achievement of one becoming a leader is able to grant power, confidence and also loyalty. Confidence is what makes the students of ESL feel like they can do just about anything.
Understanding the concept and process of differentiated instruction education reform
Differentiated instruction is the concept of teaching with the context of a mixed ability classroom in mind. The students' differences, uniqueness, and variances in learning abilities and styles need a responsive teaching that does not treat the classroom and the curriculum as a one size fits all type of teaching. This means that teachers and educational institutions need to adopt a non-standardized approach in teaching students and giving instructions. No two learners are presumably alike in any given grade level or even age level. Differentiation suggests the possibility of teachers planning varied instructions and teachings styles with full consideration on what students should learn and how students should learn as well as how to help these students demonstrate acquired knowledge and skills. The feasibility of developing a realistic curricular that addresses the students variances in a classroom depends entirely on the ability of the teacher to evaluate each student and prepare instructions students' abilities can adapt efficiently in their learning environment (Tomlinson, 2003, p. 151). This compelling idea suggests that there can be room for knowledge and equity in a differentiated classroom that posts as a challenge to both teaching and learning.
This evolutionary solution follows complex calls on change, questions, reflections, and then more change for refinement of teaching and learning elements.
Differentiated instruction theoretical background
The reason behind the evolution of the differentiated instruction educational reform comes from series of research, common sense, and theories as explained below:
* US classrooms have growing diversified students with diversified knowledge backgrounds coming from multiple cultures. Most of these students do not have English as their main language and demonstrate range of exceptionalities and varying interests. The differences in their experiential backgrounds reflect different stage levels of readiness and learning styles (Tomlinson, 2003).
* Psychology books state that a student starts to learn when they consider the task or coursework given to them a little bit difficult (Tomlinson, 2003). Doing an easy task without exerting any effort does not engage the student to learn but rather moves him to rehearse or repeat what he knows. A difficult task gives students feelings of frustration when he realizes it is beyond his reach. This situation only leads to frustrations without learning. Majority of the students learn only when the task given is a step or a bit higher than his comfort level. The student adequately finds the right support system and then the learning process starts. The maximum gap from the comfort level to the proximal development zone of a student is his maximum level for learning difficulty. The teacher may not be able to find a one size fits all learning instruction in a classroom filled with diversified students possessing diversified learning experiences.
* Researchers stated that brains downshift to its limbic area when a given task is too difficult for the person, which makes an individual not to think. The limbic area compels the brain not to think, which functions to protect the person from potential harm (Tomlinson, 2003). Learners who find their task too easy do not activate thoughtful brain processes but display early stages of sleep only during the activity. Moderately challenging tasks initiate thoughtful brain activities and learning. This is the main reason teachers may find it difficult to look for even one activity that can challenge the learners and fit their experiential and readiness levels.
* The learning patterns and thought processes of learners vary according to its cultural, biological, and environmental context (Tomlinson, 2003). Although there are marked differences between the male and the female gender, it would be wise to conclude that gender does not entirely influence how and what an individual learns.
* A person's culture strongly affects his learning process, condition, and style. It is evident that learning conditions proven as comfortable for any member group may not be the same to other member groups. Members belonging to the same culture may not even demonstrate learning the same way in similar environments and procedures. No single approach can serve groups of diversified students in a classroom. Students perform poorly when they feel culturally misfit in any integrated culture groups learning environment. Classrooms with culturally homogeneous students tend to benefit more using multiple teaching and learning approaches than single standardized approach.
* Students working on topics that personally interest them demonstrate more motivation and persistence in completing the task (Differentiated Instruction, 2010). Instruction modification designed to capture their interest leads to higher student engagement, productivity, motivation, autonomy, and self-competence. Teachers need to know that modification of instruction and preparing the right materials personally interesting to the students motivates students' engagement and learning.
* Students learning styles and preferences greatly affect the individual's preferred mode of learning and thinking. Giving students more choices in learning things makes learning more efficient and effective, which promote and improve achievement.
Howard Gardner, a Harvard psychologist, published the “Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences” in 1983 (Gardner, 1999). The differentiated instruction education reform based its theory and foundation on this book, which is one of the most powerful fundamental education concepts at present.
The differentiated instruction as a growing education concept
Differentiated instruction sometimes referred to as DI is definitely becoming popular among educational institutions (Tomlinson, 1999). Defining differentiated instruction as a moving target is rather difficult because academic leaders and educators would want to tighten and focus on preferred academic concerns that exclude other areas of relative importance (Tomlinson, 1999). Examples of specific academic definitions would be learning styles, cultural background, or ability levels of an individual.
Differentiated instruction aims to optimize an individual's learning capability regardless of personal skills, culture, personality, and other inherent characteristics. Differentiated instruction begins by identifying and assessing common differences of the students in the classroom.
Relevance of learning styles to differentiated instruction
Lesson preparation seriously takes into consideration the learning styles and preferences of the student. Teachers normally present visual materials for students' skills presentation, which most of the students learn at any grade level. However, students do have their own way of learning things other than what the teacher may present (Cruey, 2007). They may at times prefer a different approach in learning things. The Multiple Intelligences theory states that a student may have a preferred learning style based on the nine nodes of Gardner's theory and types of intelligence (Gardner, 1999).
The development, assessment, and the showcase are the different types of ePortfolios that supports personal development and reflective learning as well as demonstrate what an individual is trying to accomplish (Hallam, Grisham-Brown, Gao & Brookshire, 2007).
What is a Development ePortfolio?
The Development ePortfolio reflects the student's progress for a certain period as well as his preferences. Development portfolios are works in progress that contain feedback and self-assessment (Adamy & Milman, 2009). The goal of development portfolios is to connect and foster the communication between faculty and student. Developmental Portfolios are work in progress portfolios that show the growth of skills, competencies, and knowledge of the student.
The peers and the educational staff that supports the student's academic progress are usually the student's readers or ePortfolio audience. The student's specific learning progress and continuing professional development are in this ePortfolio category.
What is an Assessment ePortfolio?
Assessment portfolios collect and show certain skills, knowledge, and abilities of the student for specific areas. Performance assessment could be in the form of an end-of-class test that may measure the competency level of students based on the program's standards or expected outcomes. Assessment portfolios are very different with the other ePortfolios. Assessment portfolios contain the collection of items that demonstrate the student's competency earned from education (Graham, Naghieri & Weiner, 2003). Organizations treat these portfolios as continual work in progress when promoting continuous study or learning.
What is a Showcase ePortfolio?
Showcase portfolios show the individual skills and top quality works, which serve to highlight the person's accomplishments. This is the kind of portfolio that individuals show to employers when they apply for a job (Spratt & Lajbcygier, 2009). They are snapshots that show recognizable and exceptional achievements to employers. One normally places the resume as the front page for the showcase portfolio. Creating a portfolio follows the same process for both paper-based and electronic portfolios.
What is a Hybrid ePortfolio?
A Hybrid portfolio is an integration of the development, assessment, and showcase eportfolios. Helen Barrett, an ePortfolio expert, declared that a portfolio without goals, reflections, and standards is comparable to a fancy resume.
This is something that most people neglect when they develop their portfolios (Sharma & Mishra, 2007; Barrett, 1999, p. 56). One can rarely find an ePortfolio that focuses only on one element of assessment, development, or even just showcase.
How far can technology go to generate something that is more complicated than digital recreation of past portfolios? The only possible answer at this time is the generation of digital identity, which is the expression and construction of a person's identity. Education and the process of learning or acquiring knowledge are all about building an identity, which is a kind of a social process for creating a social network about modern ePortfolios. Although the definitions of ePortfolios focus on the context of individual learning, one may explore learning group ePortfolios with learning organizations, communities, or cities (Hirashima, 2007).
What do you mean by Learning ePortfolios?
EPortfolios organization and structure are evolutionary. The arrangement, focus, achievements, interests, requirements, and understanding of the owner or author of the ePortfolios reflect the work completed over time as well as the ongoing tasks. Structured ePortfolios present the organized showcase of achievements that serve to connect past projects with present ongoing activities in a clear manner (Hirashima, 2007). The continuous reorganization could be messy but spontaneous and well thought out. Learning ePortfolios ongoing, reorganization, dynamic interactions between variable resources and communities of people, and its ability to extend beyond preset time of certain projects or courses make it as the most challenging and intensive resource to create, develop, and maintain.
The evolution of the work itself is amazing which evolves from series of discussions and interactions crucial to the development and learning process of the individual. Learning ePortfolios are work-centered documents facing the greatest challenge of initiating communication services. The modern platforms for communication that people use such as email, chat, or forums are not ideal for creating ideas as part of its collaboration structure. Connections are difficult to trace and quite impossible to take a step back to view interactions. EPortfolios contain the comments, reflections, and a discussion about the individual's learning progress (Zubizarreta, 2009).
Students normally organize their achievements over time by recording and evaluating their experiences both inside and outside the classrooms. The documents they normally produced are resumes, work samples, and references to support their reflections. The construct of the work experiences is the student's skills matrix documentation showing different work samples, jobs, and volunteer activities including personal interests. Showcase ePortfolios are professional but provocative documents that connect like-minded people intending to move on the same field experience and knowledge (Greenberg, 2004). People use showcase ePortfolios to create an organized format of achievements to share with the social network. The structured ePortfolios describe specific work completion. Learning ePortfolios present an ever-changing work accomplishment. The work content and structure evolve accordingly as the career focus and work changes. The continuous tweaking and organization of the work can end up more organize or sometime in an almost incoherent manner with no real direction. However, one can link old projects, official or unofficial, to new connections.
Learning ePortfolios provide dynamic content that can accelerate discussions over ongoing projects for informal peer review where the author can collect comments and suggestions on specific issues (Greenberg, 2004). This process inspires the author to understand and reflect better on his learning process and achievements. Structured ePortfolios enable a user to accomplish a task that requires completion using a predefined structure that clearly directs student's focus, time, and attention (Greenberg, 2004). The predefined organization makes it easy for review and project comparison and evaluation. This provides both author and viewers a platform to develop new approaches and methods for assessment. Improvements can dramatically accelerate through constant tutoring. The collaboration provides better knowledge on areas that the student needs to expand skills and demonstrate required competencies. However, a student's structured ePortfolio has every tendency to develop into plain set of directions without constant support, feedback, and mentoring from its peers (Greenberg, 2004).
Social and Emotional Learning (SEL)
Recent studies about the impact and outcome of social and emotional learning greatly elaborate the concept, context, and the framework including strategies for SEL implementation that addresses the core elements of the Safe Schools/ Healthy Students (SS/HS) (Zins, Weisberg, Wang & Walberg, 2004). SEL promotes the academic as well as the health of students by reducing emotional distress and other behavior problems that interferes with their learning process and development.
Studies show that students achieve higher test scores when they experience lower levels of emotional stress or demonstrate lesser instances of disruptive behavior such as drug use, alcohol, or tobacco (Zins, Weisberg, Wang & Walberg, 2004). Researchers found SEL as the most effective method to respond to the core elements of SS/ HS and reduce problems on substance abuse and violence (Zins, Weisberg, Wang & Walberg, 2004). SEL provides social and emotional support and helps adults and children acquire basic survival skills, knowledge, and attitude through self-awareness.
The goal of SEL is to provide safer learning environments by increasing the adult or child's level of emotional and social competency. Self-awareness helps an individual identify, handle, and recognize emotions by maintaining an accurate perception about self. The student is able to improve self-efficacy, stress management, discipline, motivation, and other impulsive behavior by recognizing personal needs and strengths as well as establishing set of personal values. Self-management and impulse control is all about perspective taking and goal setting. SEL helps a student acquire social awareness in the aspect of expressing empathy, recognition of individual differences and uniqueness, and respect for others. Acquiring SEL organizational skills improves social engagement between peers, eases communication, and builds relationship. Students demonstrate more cooperation when working with projects between peers, learn how to negotiate and refuse professionally, portray responsible decision-making, and manage conflicts better. The SEL provides students the right mindset and condition to analyze situations, identify problems, reflect and evaluate issues, and find solutions in their best social and ethical way. The programs of SEL seek to develop children's social and emotional competencies to promote safe and supportive learning environments where students would feel connected, respected, and cared at the same time increase their learning engagement.
Schools believed that these competencies are crucial in preventing substance abuse and violence as well as promote health among students (Zins, Weisberg, Wang & Walberg, 2004). There are existing evidence-based programs that can help students develop these competencies in school. The students following well-designed SEL programs demonstrated remarkable improvements in their health, social, academic, and behavioral outcomes even if they come from diverse backgrounds. Social and emotional learning facilitates development of emotional intelligence, which leads people to understand and manage emotions better by learning strategic ethical decision-making, understanding the impact of each choice, and changing one's outlook in life and relationships. This pertains to the acquisition of skills found at the student's personal, social, and academic life. The social and emotional competencies enable an individual to develop concern for other people, build positive relationships, handle challenging events, and understand personal values. This makes SEL competencies critical for the child's success in school and life. People demonstrating high level of SEL competencies experienced high success levels and show more concern to the community. They naturally know their personal challenges and strengths and take a very positive outlook in life. People with high level of SEL competencies find solutions to their problems and solve their issues effectively. People who can manage and handle their emotions well are more happy and contented with their lives building meaningful relationships around them (Novick, Kress & Elias, 2002). They tend to appreciate and handle differences in people's diversity efficiently and show empathy and respect others. The social and emotional learning programs develop these skills as part of the students' education in school.
Many programs work to support schools on reducing defined students' problem behavior. The question of which program educators need to use for their students is quite difficult. Selection requires identification of the skills and attitudes that promotes social and emotional learning competencies such as self-awareness, social interaction skills, positive attitude, and positive values. The emphasis on skills and attitudes identification is crucial to the development and success of the SEL programs at school (Payton et al., 2000). However, the success of the school's SEL program is also dependent on the educators' readiness, coordination skills with larger systems, and support. The framework developed by the Collaborative to Advance Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL) is efficient to guide research and prevention programs that respond on the increasing problems of health, violence, substance abuse, social skills, character, and sexuality (Payton et al., 2000).
The educators and parents see the importance of motivation and obtaining specific skills to help students achieve success in their academic, social, and personal lives. These young people can definitely achieve and maintain positive relationships, adapt to the complexities of their environment, and face the challenges brought by the demands of their development and growth. Learning SEL competencies at school would help young people contribute effectively to their family, group, school, and community by making responsible decisions and avoiding risky behaviors. Schools are consistently facing the challenge of creating a healthy learning environment that could enhance the health of the students as well as motivate them to complete respective tasks efficiently (Payton et al., 2000). The school's response to the challenge of offering more than the basic academic instruction is the creation and development of SEL programs that serves to enhance the social and emotional competencies of the students.
The common target of the SEL programs are problem behaviors that focus on the student's violence, sexual behaviors, drug abuse, or school withdrawal. CASEL emphasized the importance of educators' integrity and commitment when selecting and implementing programs that are able to integrate the key elements needed to promote the social and emotional competencies of the students. The challenge to building the framework that could best integrate the essential elements of the SEL is the policy as well as the training that support the educators during program implementation. SEL plays a critical role in the lifelong learning of the students. Emotions have the power to hamper or facilitate any individual's motivation and learning process. The SEL programs addressed the increasing social-emotional challenges of the students that hamper connection, communication, and performance.
Adair, J. (2002). Inspiring Leadership: Learning from Great Leaders. London:
Thorogood. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110178634
Adamy, P. & Milman, N. B. (2009). Evaluating electronic portfolios in teacher education. USA:Information Age Publication.
Anderson, K. M. (2007). Tips for teaching: Differentiating instruction to include all students. Preventing School Failure, 51(3), 49-54.
Ansalone, G., & Biafora, F. (2004). Elementary School Teachers' Perceptions and
Attitudes to the Educational Structure of Tracking. Education, 125(2), 249+. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008875009
Aragon, S. R. (Ed.). (2000). Beyond Access: Methods and Models for Increasing
Retention and Learning among Minority Students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113557667
Arriaza, G. (1997). Grace under Pressure: Immigrant Families and the Nation-State.
Social Justice, 24(2), 6+. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000566538
Baldoni, J. (2005). Great motivation secrets of great leaders. New York: McGraw Hill.
Retrieved February 2, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=rg9GsP_-6-wC&pg=PA136&dq=goleman+motivation+characteristics&lr=&ei=meRoS-vsE6COlQTEgaGnDg&cd=18#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Barber, N. (2003). Paternal investment prospects and cross-national differences in single parenthood. Cross-Cultural Research, 37, 163-177.
Barrett, H. C. (1999 October 14). Student electronic portfolio. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://electronicportfolios.com/portfolios/ESSDACKStudent2.pdf
Burris, C. C., & Welner, K. G. (2005). A SPECIAL SECTION ON THE
ACHIEVEMENT GAP - Closing the Achievement Gap by Detracking. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(8), 594. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009329171
Caldas, S. J., & Bankston, C. L. (2005). Forced to Fail: The Paradox of School
Desegregation. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113203110 Chamberlain, S. P. (2004). Asa G. Hilliard, III and Alba A. Ortiz: The Effects of the No
Child Left Behind Act on Diverse Learners. Intervention in School & Clinic, 40(2), 96+. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007673573
Chavez, L. (1992). Shadowed lives: Undocumented immigrants in American Society.
New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers
Chubb, J. E. & Loveless, T. (2002). Bridging the achievement gap. Harrisonburg, Va: R.
R. Donnelley and Sons. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=mC8qk0jPjk8C&printsec=copyright&source=gbs_pub_info_s&cad=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Cook, S. (2008). The essential guide to employee engagement: Better business
performance through staff satisfaction. Pa: Kogan OPage Limited. Retrieved February 2, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=Vnjy9qFf54QC&pg=PT205&dq=active+listening+skills+goleman&lr=&ei=YNdoS_f3PIy6lATl65ziDg&cd=14#v=onepage&q=active%20listening%20skills%20goleman&f=false
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. (2005). The Illinois edition
of safe and sound: An educational leader's guide to evidence-based social and emotional learning programs. Chicago , IL : Author
Council of Chief State School Officers (2006). Key State Education Policies on PK-12
Education: 2006. Results from a 50-state survey conducted by CCSSO. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://www.ccsso.org/publications/details.cfm?PublicationID=348
Cruey, G. (2007 October 31). What's differentiated instruction? Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:q0c3UeQjhP0J:curriculalessons.suite101.com/article.cfm/whats_differentiated_instruction+%22differentiated+instruction%22+culture&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
Cummings, C. B. (2000). Winning strategies for classroom management. Va: ASCD. Retrieved February 2, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=SFDR3wtjbkoC&pg=PA12&dq=active+listening+skills+goleman&lr=&ei=YNdoS_f3PIy6lATl65ziDg&cd=11#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Daniels, H. (2001). Vygotsky and Pedagogy. London: Routledge Falmer. Retrieved
January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102923945
Danielson, C. (2002). Enhancing Student Achievement: A Framework for School
Improvement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111484804
Differentiated Instruction (2010). Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://webhost.bridgew.edu/kdobush/strategies%20for%20teaching%20reading/handbook/diff_inst/differentiated%20instruction.htm#2
De Carvalho, M. E. (2001). Rethinking Family-School Relations: A Critique of Parental
Involvement in Schooling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105926137
Devaney, E., O'Brien, M.U., Resnik, H., Keister, S., & Weissberg, R.P. (2006). Learning (SEL) Programs, Illinois edition. Chicago, IL: Author
Elias, M. J., Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Frey, K. S., Greenberg, M. T., Haynes, N. M.,
Ernst-Slavit, G., Moore, M., & Maloney, C. (2002). Changing lives: Teaching English
and literature to ESL students. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 48(2), 118-128.
Ferguson, R., & Mehta, J. (2004). THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY - an Unfinished Journey:
The Legacy of Brown and the Narrowing of the Achievement Gap. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(9), 656. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006720139
Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century.
New York: Basic Books. Retrieved January 31, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91465967
Goleman, D. (2006). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ? New york: Bantam
Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. E. & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Learning to lead with emotional intelligence. Ma: Harvard Business School Press. Retrieved February 2, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=i7fP6KsHTvQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=leadership+traits+daniel+goleman&ei=p9NoS-yKKoiWlAS_w4HlBg&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Graham,J. R., Naglieri, J. A. & Weiner, I. B. (2003). Handbook of psychology: Assessment psychology volume 10. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=L6rjmrz6J1sC&pg=PR9&dq=Handbook+of+Psychology,+Volume+10,+Assessment+Psychology&ei=XKRnS5HOCZDONMeH8dYG&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Handbook%20of%20Psychology%2C%20Volume%2010%2C%20Assessment%20Psychology&f=false
Greenberg, G. (2004). In John DiMarco (2006). Web Portfolio Design and Applications. Idea Group Inc. pp. 607-608.
Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century.
New York: Basic Books. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91465967
Gerston, L. N. & Christensen, T. (2009). California politics and government: A practical approach 10th ed. Ma: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=LnsIRB_Wf5wC&pg=PT121&dq=Jack+O%E2%80%99Connell,+State+Superintendent&lr=&ei=VJBdS8vmK5SIkASYt_icDQ&cd=8#v=onepage&q=Jack%20O%E2%80%99Connell%2C%20State%20Superintendent&f=false
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books
Grant, C. A. (2009). Teach! Change! Empower!: Solutions for closing the achievement gap. Thousand Oaks, Ca: A Sage Company. Retrieved January 22, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=6fsKxKN8oNgC&printsec=copyright&source=gbs_pub_info_s&cad=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Guba, E. G. & Lincoln, Y. S (1989). Fourth generation evaluation. Newbury Park, Ca: Sage Publication Inc. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=k_zxEUst46UC&printsec=frontcover&dq=fourth+generation+evaluation&ei=oaFdS-u4Co7glQTr-cGeDQ&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Hallam, R., Grisham-Brown, J., Gao, X., & Brookshire, R. (2007). The Effects of Outcomes-Driven Authentic Assessment on Classroom Quality. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 9(2)
Hanushek, E. & Rivkin, S. G. (2006). Teacher quality. In Handbook of the Economics of Education. Amsterdam: North Holland.
Harris, Y. R. & Graham, J. A. (2007). The African American child: Development and challenges. New York: Springer Publishing Company LLC. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=MvRMUtCVi2IC&pg=PA107&dq=project+follow+through+achievement+gap&ei=MYFdS_KiL6GmlQSPzvSSBQ&cd=1#v=onepage&q=project%20follow%20through%20achievement%20gap&f=false
Heacox, D. (2002). Differentiating instruction in the regular classroom: How to reach and teach all learners, grades 3-12. Minneapolis, Mn: Free Spirit Publishing Inc. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=uzWmUunIFCoC&pg=PA11&dq=models+of+differentiated+instruction&lr=&ei=c6BdS7qiLJSOkgSI8P3HCg&cd=5#v=onepage&q=models%20of%20differentiated%20instruction&f=false
Hiebert, E. H., Valencia, S. W., & Afflerbach, P. P. (1994). Understand authentic reading assessment: Definitions and perspectives. In S. W. Valencia, E. H. Hiebert, and P. P. Afflerbach, eds. Authentic reading assessment: Practices and possibilities. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. International Reading Association.
Hill, N. (1987). Think and grow rich. New York: Ballantine Books. Retrieved February 2, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=c86H36mgiM4C&pg=PA109&dq=napoleon+hill+Successful+leaders&ei=3uVoS9O-NKemlQSOmMjpDg&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Hinkel, E. (2002). Second language writers' text: Linguistic and rhetorical features. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Retrieved February 2, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=G3IAosR2bZcC&pg=PA49&dq=peer+reviewers+esl&lr=&ei=CvtoS63hI5eKlASp3KiiCA&cd=25#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Hirashima, T. (2007). Supporting learning flow through integrative technologies. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=GzcQt0k56CYC&pg=PA116&dq=learning+eportfolio&ei=fqhnS8D1F5v2MYqavb4P&cd=6#v=onepage&q=learning%20eportfolio&f=false
Jencks, C. & Phillips, M. (1998). The black-white test score gap. Washington: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=Ywb7r1oOxJYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Jencks+and+Phillips+black+achievement+gap&ei=jG1dS4r6L6bWkAT-zPHSCA&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Jencks%20and%20Phillips%20black%20achievement%20gap&f=false
Kleymeyer, C. D. (Ed.). (1994). Cultural Expression and Grassroots Development: Cases from Latin America and the Caribbean. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105096913
Lao Tzu. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117028827
Lao-Tzu. (2000). Tao Te Ching (Hinton, D., Trans.). Washington, DC: Counterpoint.
Retrieved February 2, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=85725180
Literacy Centers Help Immigrants; Lack of English Hinders Success of Newcomers. (2003, August 10). The Washington Times, p. A12. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001979065
Jencks, C. & Phillips, M. (1998). The black-white test score gap. Washington: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=Ywb7r1oOxJYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Jencks+and+Phillips+black+achievement+gap&ei=jG1dS4r6L6bWkAT-zPHSCA&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Jencks%20and%20Phillips%20black%20achievement%20gap&f=false
Kozol, J. (2005). The shame of the nation: The restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York: Crown.
Lareau, A. (2000). Home advantage: Social class and parental intervention in elementary
education. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. Retrieved January 23, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=ZpDVXcj6XygC&printsec=copyright&source=gbs_pub_info_s&cad=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Levy, H. M. (2008). Meeting the needs of all students through differentiated instruction:
Helping every child reach and exceed standards. The Clearing House, 81(4), 161-164.
Locke, E. A. (1995). The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American.
Personnel Psychology, 48(1), 177+. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035435109
Molnar, A. (2003). School Commercialism Hurts All Children, Ethnic Minority Group
Children Most of All. The Journal of Negro Education, 72(4), 371+. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035492066
Novick, B., Kress, J. S., & Elias, M. J. (2002).Building Learning Communities with Character: How to Integrate Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111480568
Nunley, K. (2004). Layered Curriculum. 2nd ed. Brains.org: Amherst, NH
Nunley, K. (2006). Differentiating the High School Classroom: Solution Strategies for 18 Common Obstacles. Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Ormsbee, Christine K. "Effective Preassessment Team Procedures: Making the Process
Work for Teachers and Students." Intervention in School & Clinic 36.3 (2001): 146. Questia. Web. 25 Jan. 2010.
Osborne, S. J. (2004, March). Can We Teach Emotional Literacy?. Mental Health
Nursing, 24, 20+. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035436446
Payton, J. W. et al. (2000 May). Social and emotional learning: A framework for
promoting mental health and reducing risk behaviors in children and youth. Journal of School Health, 70(5), 179-185. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://22.214.171.124/scholar?q=cache:8PzPmitfCVcJ:scholar.google.com/+author:%22Payton%22+intitle:%22Social+and+emotional+learning:+A+framework+for+promoting+...%22+&hl=en&as_sdt=2000
Pearson, P. D., and Valencia, S. W. (1987). Assessment, accountability, and professional
prerogative. In J. E. Readence and R. S. Baldwin, eds. Research in literacy: Merging perspectives. Rochester, NY: National Reading Conference.
Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., Kuhn, M., & Malenoski, K. (2007). Using Technology with Classroom Instruction That Works. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114940920
Riggio, R. E., Murphy, S. E., & Pirozzolo, F. J. (Eds.). (2002). Multiple Intelligences and Leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107594234
Sharma, R. C. & Mishra, S. (2007). Cases on global e-learning practices: Successes and pitfalls. Hershey, Pa: Idea Group Inc. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=sF9Gje3jmRQC&pg=PT115&dq=hybrid+eportfolio&ei=c6dnS-6VF4XQMtD4pL0M&cd=2#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Sindelar, P. T., Shearer, D. K., Yendol-Hoppey, D., & Liebert, T. W. (2006). The Sustainability of Inclusive School Reform. Exceptional Children, 72(3), 317+. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014730114
Spratt, C. & Lajbcygier, P. (2009). E-learning technologies and evidence-based assessment approaches. Hershey, Pa: IGI Global From http://books.google.com/books?id=fmYWl5Pa5XIC&pg=PT276&dq=ePortfolios+Types,+2009&ei=L6VnS6GZK4y4NrHR-dcN&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false Strictland, D. S. & Alvermann, D. E. (2004). Bridging the literacy achievement gap, grades 4-12. New York: Teachers College Press. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=LNbKjAzJs0UC&printsec=copyright&source=gbs_pub_info_s&cad=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Taylor, E. (2006). A critical race analysis of the achievement gap in the United States: Politics, reality, and hope. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 5(1), 71-87.
Thomas, R. M. (2005). High-stakes testing: Coping with collateral change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Retrieved January 23, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=Rfz6SZ3i8xQC&pg=PA85&dq=Terry+Bergeson+high+score&ei=5INdS_arD6aykATct_j1BQ&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Terry%20Bergeson%20high%20score&f=false
Tomlinson, C. A. (2003). Differentiating instruction for academic diversity. In J. M. Cooper (Ed.), Classroom teaching skills, 7th ed (pp 149-180). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Tomlinson, C. A. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved February 1, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111489929
Ulrich, D., Zenger, J. H., Zenger, J. & Smallwood, W. N. (1999). Results-based leadership. US: Harvard Business Press. Retrieved February 2, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=2pucMiEH00cC&pg=PA20&dq=attributes+of+successful+leaders&lr=&ei=udxoS9_GE4-ukATF1pitDg&cd=4#v=onepage&q=attributes%20of%20successful%20leaders&f=false
US Commission on Civil Rights (2004). Closing the achievement gap: The impact of standards-based education reform on student performance. Pa: Diane Publishing Co. Retrieved January 23, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=3TOZD-lav9gC&pg=PT12&dq=National+Assessment+of+Educational+Progress+%28NAEP%29+achievement+gap+1975+to+1988&ei=mGZdS6KfE4-ukATWuIiFDQ&cd=1#v=onepage&q=National%20Assessment%20of%20Educational%20Progress%20%28NAEP%29%20achievement%20gap%201975%20to%201988&f=false
Vanneman, A., Hamilton, L., Anderson, J. B., & Rahman, T. (2009 July). Achievement gaps: How Black and White students in public schools perform in mathematics and reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress statistical analysis report. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/studies/2009455.pdf
Wiggins, G. (1989). A true test: Toward more authentic and equitable assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, May, 703-713.
Wiggins, G. (1993). Assessment, authenticity, context, and validity. Phi Delta Kappan, November, 200-214
Williams, B. (Ed.). (2003). Closing the Achievement Gap: A Vision for Changing Beliefs and Practices (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111490516
Wolf, D. (1989). Portfolio Assessment: Sampling Student Work. Educational Leadership 46(7), 35-39
Zayda, J. I. (2005). International handbook on globalization, education and policy research:Global pedagogies and policies. The Netherlands: Springer. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=ZJUy3YmQwfEC&pg=PA65&dq=Evans,+2005+Tacit+Skills+and+Occupational+Mobility+in+a+Global+Culture+%27+in,+The+International+Handbook+on+Globalization,+Education+and+Policy+Research&lr=&ei=WYldS4ebPInClATsx9ibDQ&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Zins, J. E., Weisberg, R. P., Wang, M. C. & Walberg, H. J. (2004). Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say? New York: Teachers College Press. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=MuDGDHCb_iwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=social+and+emotional+learning&ei=TaxnS7HqKpSQNZrqkdwB&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Zubizarreta, J. (2009). The learning portfolio: Practice for improving student learning. San Francisco, Ca: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=cDA9YTAMDGkC&pg=PT94&dq=eportfolio+2008&ei=A6pnS9XyDpSQNZrqkdwB&cd=6#v=onepage&q=eportfolio%202008&f=false