Urbanization Trends In American Cities
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America's largest population dwells in town. Intermediate cities are regarded as places that promise sustainability in urban growth. This paper looks at recent urbanization trends in American cities. Privatization of urban planning is challenged by sustainable urbanization. Governmental harmonization lacks in the housing market along with urban growth thus has put stress on natural resources and livability of cities. It is suggested that the housing market ought to be made more striking in order to manage urban growth and prevent a saturate of novel luxurious middle-class homes in the margin.
The objective of this question is to examine the reasons as to why people migrate to cities in the United States. This knowledge is used to deal with issues of importance to the Nation, such as quality-of-life, flora and fauna, environmental integrity, water quality and mass concerns, resource accessibility, exposure to natural hazards, atmosphere and terrain value, and ease of access to scientific information. Good record keeping and data generation, and good physical planning are made an integral part of the solution to growth of other urban towns.
United States was predominately rural. In the 19th and 20th centuries, industrial revolution brought about urbanization thus transformed urban life and gave individuals higher expectation to improving their standards of living. . Development of streetcars, trolleys, and railroads enabled city boundaries to expand. Technological innovations in transportation and housing construction, increased number of jobs, and encouraged migration to cities. Urbanization is a process that refers to the change in a country when its rural population migrates to urban areas; the rate at which, the proportion of a region living in towns and cities is growing.
Moving in U.S is brought about by issues like employment, shelter, water, social welfare, sewage, political machines, hygiene, role of government, etc. In the United States, even the rural population is urbanized since farmers are more efficient in buying manufactured goods and producing a surplus of materials for selling and a variety of essentially urban services. Urbanization is explained in terms of either 'push factors'- conditions in the place of origin which migrants see as detrimental to their well-being or economic security (high unemployment, political persecution), and 'pull factors'- state of affairs in new places that magnetize individuals to move there (job opportunities, good climate). Urbanization cannot be stopped for it exists and will continue to grow.
The 2005 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects says that the world is expected to continue to urbanize as 60 per cent of the universal population is projected to live in cities by 2030. Urban dwellers increase in number gives the best sign of the scale of these exceptional trends: city populace augmented from 220 million in 1900 to 732 million in 1950, and is projected to reach 3.2 billion in 2005.
Brugmann says that more than half of the world now lives in cities. A sustainable future for cities and nations can be achieved by using natural advantages of urban areas with an eye toward how corporate and individuals' use and misuse advantages. Globalization and urbanization are connected in that, slums are vibrant and well running economic hubs (David, 2009).
Urbanization is a process in which increasing populations of an entire population live in cities and suburbs of cities. In the United States, about 6% of the population lived in cities in 1800, but about 55% of the population lived in cities by 1930. US was urbanizing throughout the 20th century.
In this section of the research we look at the suggested methods of carrying out the research. This describes and justifies the analysis, and the interpretation of the results. This section also elaborates the sampling, design methods used, nature of the data collected, analysis made on the data and the interpretations and conclusion made.
In this search on urbanization-what brings people to cities: various research methods were employed in carrying out the exercise to arrive at a more productive and informative search. One of the methods used in the study is the use of secondary data. However, this information was collected from the recent researches carried out by different interested parties. The other very vital data collection method was from the census information collected and compiled by the State agency responsible with the national statistics and enumeration commission (Beall & Sean, 2009).
At this stage of data collection it is worth noting that for full and more accurate information to be collected, a proper research design has to be put in place to enable researchers' access more information and data as they may need. Data that was collected from the secondary sources was both qualitative (in word or text) and quantitative (numbers and statistics).
This data was collected from different sources and at different time. This information was collected through the commonly used primary methods like the questionnaires that were distributed to the people to answer some questions on some particular issues of their concern and the use of interviews that were carried out among the authorities. Observations were also made on the current situation that the women were facing.
When checked for accuracy and reliability of the findings, it was found out that the information would stand the test of time as it was reliable and valid. If another research was to be conducted on the same issue, the same results would be obtained. Sampling error was way below the expected minimum threshold and that if triangulation was also carried out; it could be found out that the data collected was accurate and timely (Beall & Sean, 2009).
After data has been collected it is analyzed, represented and discussed before arriving at the conclusion on the subject matter. Data can however be analyzed in different ways and represented in different forms like diagrammatic forms like the charts, tables and graphs. This analysis can be done in two different form either qualitative data analysis or the quantitative data analysis.
These data need to be analyzed in order to obtain information that is usable and useful to the end users. This information irrespective of whether the data was qualitative or quantitative will describe and summarize the data. This information would later be used to forecast outcomes as well as comparing the variables. Diagrammatic representation is considered the best among the other form of representation s as pie charts would be used to represent the number of people who have migrated to cities. Graphs can also be used to compare the current information and the past that was retrieved from the secondary sources.
After the results have been found and analyzed, it should be written in a particular format and stored for future reference. This can be done by having all the data arranged in the themes and categories for future reference. When you have the information present it clearly and logically and should have relevance in your research question.
Agriculture and Policies
People in the United States live in cities and large metro areas. Cities rather than states increasingly drive national economies. Agricultural products (flowers, coffee), and primary-sector goods (minerals, timber) become natural resource assets that can be traded to strengthen the general economy. Free market economics pursues economic effectiveness to deliver goods at the lowest price possible whereas government intervention diminishes this efficiency by eliminating farm programs such as farm subsidies, cheap credit policies, etc. which is intended to help the farmer, and maintain stable prices. A scenario like this leaves farmers shouldering the burden of farming leaving them with no other alternative other than to sell the land to foreign investors or domestic-owned enterprises, and move to the city, where he hopes for a better life.
Congressional maps became more metro and less agrarian, meaning that the interests of metropolitan areas increasingly dominated national policy debates. A budget deficit spurs on economic activity in a time where activity is tremendously slow (Kenneth, 1997).
In cities, things like traffic, cost of construction, and green policies begin to matter more to a states overall competitiveness than ever before. The strategy is maintaining urban food prices below market levels to reduce the cost of urban labor and urban life. These policies have made city life more attractive and hence have pulled people from other urban areas. Inadequate compensation of rural producers for the costs incurred to produce food products has aggravated rural poverty. Good infrastructure will mean that there will be no congestion in traffic, easy access to industries, reduced number of accidents, and thus individuals take a short time to get to their work places. Nowadays, trains are the dominant mode of transportation throughout the country. Industrialization on the other hand, gained prominence thus creating a national economy. A fast growing industrial nation was fueled by the natural resources from all parts of the country.
Most of the Americans move to Washington, DC the capital of the nation, government dominates the city thus there is a huge legal market; large business; and multitude of institutions, museums, cultural activities, and hot spots in the city. Living in DC means that one is an hour away from the mountains, three hours from the ocean, and the beautiful Potomac River and Rock Creek Park for lovers of nature. A cross-section of society: lawyers, government employees, the homeless, business people, college students, and famous Hollywood actors are found occasionally on the streets. DC has a large population due to its vast availability of resources that enable people to improve their living standards. Job opportunities are also high as compared to other states (David, 2009).
Delaware is the second smallest state, but has elegant beaches such as Bethany, Rehoboth, and Dewey are tourist attraction sites. Rehoboth beach has been transformed to a refined, cosmopolitan town which has enabled people to migrate to it as it has valleys like Brandywine which have blooming gardens, tranquil creeks, and mansions like Nemours, Kennett Square, home of the magnificent Longwood Gardens, and decorative arts and landscape. The legal community and the financial services industry are prevalent.
Socio-economic changes and Industries
Socio-economic changes affecting urban areas involving geographical mobility is enjoyed by the elderly middle-class society segment since they can transfer payments, such as Social Security, leasing or venture money, and corporation pensions away from their communities and splurge it elsewhere. People with helpful skills (service sector of the economy) also enjoy the liberty to move to more enviable places to reside. Areas with natural facilities, such as picturesque vistas, mild winters, and water-related leisure activities, attract countless people (Howard, Judith & Peter, 2009).
Spatial employment distribution has changed over recent decades. Environs primarily became retail centers. Over time, manufacturing- in terms of production and management-has grown rapidly in uptown and exurban areas. Industries in these areas are characteristically described as being "light"- are located near hauling or information-based admission points, which are near study facilities and /or main universities or 'high-tech"- led by Microsoft are located in areas with abundant natural amenities. Industry management has left the metropolis center in favor of 'shared campuses'- positioned near freeway interchanges or main airports.
Housing and Business opportunities
The aspiration for and cost of new housing are factors motivating the spread out and expansion around metropolitan regions. On the periphery of municipal regions, cost of land for new housing construction was less expensive. People who desired new housing to lived farther out from the urban core due to increased suburbanization of employment hence maintaining related commuting patterns of the environs to metropolitan center (Kenneth, 1997). Strict land use regulations in many suburban countries affected housing costs by limiting areas available for development.
Las Vegas is well known for its artesian wells. It is a regional center for push and pulling out activities. The Federal Government spurred development as a result of the erection of Hoover block and Nellis Air Base. Gambling is legal, electricity is cheap, and its propinquity to southern California's growing population fostered a ritzy resort economy. There is an increment in gaming, air, and auto access. Corporate ownership of casinos propelled the capital into a world-class amusement center.
Women and Economy
Today's women migrate from south to north for work as nannies, domestics, or sex workers. They participate in two sets of dynamic configuration; the global city and survival circuits. There activities implicated in management and coordination of the global economy has expanded, producing a sharp growth in the demand for highly paid professionals. Global cities have turned out to be places where large numbers of underpaid women and immigrants are integrated into strategic economic sectors.
Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota has a diversified economy and perceived opportunities which continues to attract new residents. Glacial lakes attract development because of their desired natural amenity. A progressive metropolitan farmland protection program vulnerable to voluntary, short-term enrollments was established. Orlando is the trade center to a citrus-dominated agricultural region, construction f the missile/space facility at nearby Cape Canaveral, and the arrival of associated aerospace companies (Patricia & Russ, 2008).
Houston, Texas a city of big plans and no rules, humidity demands for an ice-cold martini and the biggest liquor store on the planet is found there. Houston is known for its aerospace, its metro area leads the state in employment growth as it has technology and medical companies, its living costs stand well under the general average, prices of housing are half those of other metro areas, and energy capital of the U.S. Its upgrading includes a stretched out convention center, a new arena, a spiffed-up Main boulevard, and a light-rail scheme. This has attracted Fortune 500 companies, couples, and empty nesters.
Energy and Habits
Elevated energy prices (gasoline) as well as heating oil and ordinary gas-could be the power that brings the ideas of urban planners to conclusion: a greener, more sustainable culture. High energy prices mean more U.S. cities join those ranks, growing thicker with inhabitants, shops, and workers. Gas prices will really take the gleam off the isolated environs. Experts are predicting that city homes could increase charge for being less pricey to heat and cool, their closeness to mass transportation, shops, and employers.
The Washington metro area has a lower than average rate of plumpness, low smoking rate, and an average number of persons consuming fruits and vegetables (Patricia & Russ, 2008). Recreational community centers and other places are well-endowed. Affluent Boston on the other hand, has a lower smoking rate and state-mandated fitness cover. Economic power used to denote the control of immense human and material possessions, but today it implies the capability to direct the route of skill and a few leaders of important open source projects.
Cities provide an audience and a funnel for peers. In something like math or physics, audience does not matters except peers, and judging capacity is amply basic that hiring and admissions committees can do it reliably. In arts or writing or technology fields the larger surroundings matters. It helps to be in a great city: you need the encouragement of sentiments that people around you mind the kind of exertion you do, you have to find peers for yourself, and you need the much larger intake device of a great city (Brugmann, 2005).
This whole process has been challenging since in some cities people were not co-operating with me for fear of giving out personal information that can land them into trouble. The process involved traveling to various cities, interacting with people of different cultures and backgrounds. United States is one big nation hosting many people who have come from as far as Africa in search of livelihood. Majority of United States residents don't like the idea of staying in one state for a long period of time thus move to other cities. Others move because they want fame while others are in search of their loved ones. My feelings' concerning the subject is well rooted on the person's reason for moving.
As much as I enjoyed this research am well satisfied with the work done for not only did I get to learn a few new things concerning our nation, but also I answered the question. Research will be conducted on a regular basis since time brings about a lot of changes that affect the movement of people and the population at large. The literature in this case is not wrong as it has answered all the questions that arose during my research. My only question that I did not get an answer to was why people are moving to other cities instead of working to achieve what they lack in their own town for it is not a guarantee that they will get all that they need in that new town. Also, they should be aware of the fact that with time that new place will also encounter its own problems. It means that they will have to move again to another town.
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