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1. INTRODUCTION

After industrial revolution, all countries started to race to be first in every field and have the most technological facilities, production methods etc. All Countries pursued strategies to lead technological developments in which case that provided politic and economic power. This race continued extensionally and people consumed more energy for both production and using outputs thus energy resource usage rate increased hastily; however; energy resource is not ample and availability of energy resources could not persist and resist to this enormous usage rate.  This project examined that energy efficiency from past to future and also future technologies, improvements and governments programs.

1.1. PROGRESS OF EFFICIENT ENERGY FROM PAST TO FUTURE

Until 1973, people went on using energy resources unconsciously; aim of all industries was to produce more and sell more. Nevertheless, in 1973 oil crisis revealed that energy resources are not ample and this oil embargo indicated limitations of energy resources. Besides this, all political, economic, social plans of countries are based on energy resources existence and availability in the future. Energy plays an important role in to set strategies of all countries and these crucial issues force all people to be aware of significance of energy resources. These obligations steered countries into finding new energy resources or technologies, like renewable energy resources, and using or consuming available energy consciously. These approaches introduced new terms, “efficient and effective energy usage”. During the oil embargo, members of OPEC (Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries) did not supply oil to non-OPEC countries so countries which depend on imported oil from OPEC countries could not produce adequate energy, and price of oil increased drastically and the price of oil before the crisis was $3-4/m3 when the oil embargo started then price of crude oil increased $12/m3. (Increase from nearly $18 to $75 in 2008 dollars value). If we examined energy usage rate data, effects of oil crisis on energy consuming rate are observed clearly.

The data which belongs to 1986 and before 1986 indicates that two thirds energy was consumed by industrial applications and remain one thirds was consumed residential and commercial buildings. This ratio is nearly same with recent consumed energy rate. In U.S.A. 2.26 GW energy consumption was spent by commercial and residential buildings for space and water heating, air conditioning and lighting. Space heating and air conditioning systems were the most occupant application, they built up 60-65 percent of 2.26 GW and remaining consumption was for water heating and lighting, it was nearly 35 percent. (Figure 1 & 2) What is more both of type buildings used electricity more than 50 percent.(Figure 1) Single family's house in residential buildings and office buildings in commercial areas were the major energy users.

On the other hand, if data that related to energy consumption per square meter is examined, healthcare buildings consume energy more than office buildings. (Figure 5) In addition to these, between 1950 and 1973, building energy use grew at a steady rate of about 4.4 percent per year.[3] In briefly, we considered data that relevant to 1972 and previous and this information indicates growth of energy consumption. As a result of these, all governments intended to develop energy efficiency policy and more efficient means to reduce amount of total energy spent yet the oil prices was reduced to regular equivalent. Following years, most of regulations were legislated and many investments were made so as to develop new technology and find and use alternative energy resources. As a consequence, in 1984, energy consumption rate of commercial and residential buildings stayed constant as in past, 2.26 GW, despite of growing both commercial and residential floor area 20 percent each.(Figure 3) This mean when recent data is calculated with respect to past trends, there is 80 percent reduction in energy using per unit floor area.[4] (Figure 4)

If there was no improvement or policy, total energy consumption for both types of buildings would expect to be nearly 3.73 GW. In addition to this, total energy consumption was 35 percent of past trends. When total energy consumption rate between 1973 and 1983 is observed, the amount of increasing is 8.8 percent for the ten years, existent old value is 4.4 percent per year, this result shows effect of efficient energy using on consumed energy rate reduction. Improvements of new technologies, decreases of household size, more efficient items, and simple changes on device settings for example; indoor heat temperature and etc. cause this reduction [7]. (Table 1)

Moreover, another point is Persian Gulf War; this is the second event in history that increased concern about energy resources availability and limitation. This event has brought energy issues to first places owing to effects on oil market size. However, these fears were not exactly same as in 1973. In addition to existent fears, that war created dangers related to environmental issues and support previous environmental concerns, acid rains, climate changes, carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuels and etc. Results of these, governments started to work on reducing reliance on imported oil and find technologies for alternative energy resources.

1.2.POLICIES AND PROGRAMS

The landmarks that forced publics to be aware about importance of energy are “1973 Oil crisis” and “Persian Gulf War”. These two events indicated that energy resources were not infinite. Result of these, all governments tried to decrease their dependence on imported oil so they supported all technological developments and also people were encouraged to use efficient means.  Moreover, imported oil creates numerous risks for governments; they had to face off failing to reach necessary oil resource. Therefore, governments considered lots of legislative options to reach imported oil easily and also for available energy resources. Many prescriptions were applied for efficient and effective energy usage. People's awareness was raised by many national energy usage campaigns. Furthermore, to find out new technologies for efficient energy usage, governments appropriate annual funds to support and speed up technological developments. When we examined the oil crises and following periods, effect of crisis on U.S.A government investments seem obviously. In 1970, annual expenditures on energy conservation research and programs increased from zero to $10 million in 1973, $490 million in 1980 and then decreased to $200 million.[9] These studies and rising of energy prices caused change on people habits. As result of these developments, so many cost-effective ways were introduced people to use energy efficient with long term energy policies. Cost-effective criteria are considered for program planning and evaluation, they provide simple and quick solution for end users.(Table 3) Effects of cost-effective solution seem in a short duration however in order to evaluate and observe results of federal programs, governments stick to necessities of programs, that can be take many years.

Even though, all programs and technological developments push to decrease energy consumption without losing any function from daily life, all governments did not intent and follow these progresses owing to the fact that the oil crisis did not affect all countries directly. The most affected country is the U.S.A and so as to decrease these negative effects U.S. Department of Energy was established and these intense studies created technological differences between countries. (DOE) That's why, U.S.A served as a model for other federal governments to develop and apply new policies and programs.(Figure 6)Most of the federal governments followed up U.S.A energy strategies, most of the federal governments made their energy usage plans with respect to U.S.A so if U.S.A policies and programs are examined in detailed; this gives an idea about past progress of policies and programs.

In U.S.A that is mentioned before, building energy usage rate increase over years and in 1990 this consumption rate reached to 36 percent. Natural gas and electricity are two main types of energy that built up total energy consumption rate, 36 percent, natural gas and electricity was used 60 percent and 40 percent respectively by buildings in U.S.A. Fortunately, technological developments work on many highly efficient means and these can supply needed energy services for people (e.g. heating, lighting and cooling) while using less energy. In many circumstances, most of these technologies cost more initially, but these initial costs are paid back through reduced energy cost. Estimations about future indicate that available technology can reduced energy usage about one-third by 2015, without any policy changes.[13]] In fact, several estimations exits and, despite many results, there is general agreement that the untapped potential for improved energy efficiency in buildings and daily life is significant. There are several incentive programs that have been offered to reduce energy usage in buildings, consist of tax credits, weatherproofing grants and loan subsides.

To start with the energy tax act (ETA) is used to encourage people to apply efficient energy usage ways, energy conservation and renewable energy investments, to their home or office. ETA credits defray insulation, exterior storm windows and doors, automatic setback thermostats, caulking and weather-stripping. According to the legislation, so as to be capable for the credit, conservation expenditures had to originate with taxpayer and remain in operation at least 3 years. Credits involve both materials and installation costs. (Table 4)

Moreover, weatherization Assistance program is created to funds energy conservation measures for low-income households at no charge to residents since low-income households affected from rising fuel prices caused by the Arab oil embargo of 1973. This program also involves material and installation costs and priority is given to households having elderly or handicapped residents and payback can be no longer that 5 to 8 years so this would better ensure that program monies are spent carefully.[15] The total amount of cost of programs and percentage of use of funds in low income house hold are showed that figure 7 and 8.

In addition to these federal strategies, “Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank” charged with supporting purchases and installation conservation and renewable energy means in households. The aim of this program was to encourage people in energy conservation and using renewable energy resources in buildings to reduce dependence of countries on imported oil or other exterior energy resources.

Briefly, many programs and legislative options were worked on and introduced many programs package with using tax credits to reduce and also make people aware about energy. In order to make these programs effective, governments allocate many funds and also apply many regulations.(Table 5) These programs regulate all energy usage and also established places that have used energy. All new buildings have to construct and use with respect to regulated and defined methods and means. For example, isolation level or natural conditioning and implemented conditioning systems, refrigerator, and all new constructed buildings must have defined standards in these areas. (Table 6)

Regardless of all these studies and programs, between 1970 and 1990 42 percent of oil that U.S.A consumed imported from other countries and according to all studies, future estimation was 62 percent of oil imported from foreign countries in 2010.[19]  Recent data indicates that now 58 percent of oil brings OPEC countries so obviously seems that past estimations were consistent.[20]

Besides these developments and studies, environmental concerns started to increase due to carbon dioxide emission from producing electricity and also using energy resources. This big amount of emission caused unexpected changes in climates and destruction on the environment in order to prevent and slow down these changes, most of developed countries searched many ways to reduce carbon dioxide emission. In 1997, Kyoto protocol was signed. This protocol regulated carbon dioxide emission by some rules. Countries that have signed Kyoto Protocol have to decrease their emission level that is in 1990. This mean a country that has signed Kyoto Protocol is not allowed to emit more than quantity as in 1990. In order to achieve these, countries have to intend to use renewable energy. There are many necessities of Kyoto Protocol and these enforcements affect and accelerate developing new technologies and using renewable energy resources directly. The Protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of July 2010, 191 states have signed and ratified the protocol. However, most of the countries that have signed the protocol, do not participate and obey all obligations.(Figure 10 & 11)

1.3.COMMERCIAL & RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

1.3.1.Energy Usage Rate And Trends

As mentioned previous parts, Arab oil embargo in 1973 is landmark for all federal governments. Following periods; all governments headed towards consuming less energy without lose any function or comfort in daily-life. Since developing new technology and appliance them to buildings are easier than developing new technology and appliance them to industrial areas. According to U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S.A. reliance on imported is nearly 58 percent in 2010; previous year exact imported oil percentage is 51 percent and if total energy consumption is considered, very big amount of budget is necessary in order to provide sustainable energy.

The United States spends nearly a million dollar worth each minute, 24 hours a day, every     of the year and U.S.A population is less than five percent of the world's population, but 21 percent of total world's energy consumption belong to U.S.A. [] (Table 7) U.S.A have the most energy user in the world but population of U.S.A. is less than Indonesia and China.[24]

Moreover, energy consumption rate per people give valuable information about developing of countries. As in the table 7, obviously seemed that China and U.S.A. are two countries that have the most energy consume rate per people and these countries do not try to use less energy, they try to find out ways for the use of technology that requires less energy to perform the same function. The energy consumed per unit of GDP fell 2.4 percent per year between 1972 and 1985, mostly due to improved energy efficiency. Energy use in buildings accounts for an increasing share of total U.S. energy consumption: 27 percent in 1950, 33 percent in 1970, and 36 percent in 1990. At present, buildings account for over 60 percent of all electricity used in the United States and almost 40 percent of all natural gas.[25] In addition to theses, energy use in U.S. buildings has increased steadily-from about 22 quadrillion British thermal units(quads) in 1970 to about 30 quads in 1989.[26] Space heating is responsible for almost half of total energy use, followed by water heating, refrigerators and freezers, space cooling, and lights. Growing population is increased demand, but people use less energy than past. The U.S. population increased by 45 million people from 1970 to 1990 and at the same time the average number of people per household dropped considerably, from 3.24 in 1970 to 2.68 in 1990. The combined effect of these two factors was an almost 50 percent increase in the number of households in just two decades. As each household requires space conditioning, hot water, and other energy services, these changes drove the growth in energy use in the residential sector.[7] (Table 8)A recent study has shown that the use of cost-effective, commercially available technologies could reduce total building energy use by about one-third by 2015, relative to a ‘business-as-usual' baseline.

1.3.2. Existing and New Technologies

Space Conditioning

Space conditioning spends more energy than any other function in both residential and commercial buildings. In U.S. more than half of energy that is consumed commercial and residential buildings is spent for space conditioning. In the residential sector space heating accounts for about 46 percent, and space cooling for about 9 percent, of energy use; while in commercial buildings space heating and cooling account for about 32 percent and 16 percent, respectively, of energy use. [29] Energy consumption for space conditioning in Europe is likely same, around 40 percent. (Figure 12 &13) These are the greatest share of total energy usage for transport and industrial production and also several types of fuel are used for heating and cooling.[30](Figure 14)

Efficiency of space conditioning and also design of the building influence the total amount of energy necessity to keep comfort in a residential building. Only super-efficient system could not decrease electric bills. Unless, insulation system is good, heat lose would be very high. This mean to keep buildings in comfort zone, includes temperatures and humidity, more energy must be spent than needed. However, well insulated buildings in a moderate climate may need no energy for space conditioning.

A variety of fuels and technologies are used to heat U.S. residences (figure14). More than half (51 percent) of U.S. households use natural gas for space heating; the remainder use electricity (25 percent), oil (13 percent), and other fuels.

In Europe, the common technologies for producing hot water and heating room are hydraulics heating that is commonly oil and gas central heating boilers. Huge quantity of the total amount of energy needed is used for the generation of heat in buildings therefore innovations in heating systems provide for people to reduce energy cost mostly. There are many commercially available gas furnaces, however, that are far more efficient-in the range of 95 to 97 percent.[32] These units use “condensing technology”, in which the latent heat of the combusted gas is recovered and these types boilers are called condensing boilers. These represent an improvement of the boiler at low temperature and significantly reduce heat loss. Therefore, the amount of heat released by the fuel has reached the limit of what is physically possible. Includes the technology uses the heat of condensation contained in the smoke, which would otherwise not used. A further increase in efficiency achieved by the combustion gases at low temperatures, which means fewer gases, is lost. Consequently, condensing boilers can reach values of return is greater than 98 percent. The fuel types of boiler affect boilers properties directly. Carbon dioxide emission and also fuel cost depend on fuel type.

Improvements systems provide less carbon dioxide emission due to additional heating components. For example, additionally using solar power and auxiliary heating system reduce emission and also cost of fuel. (Figure 16)

A further increase in efficiency achieved by the combustion gases at low temperatures, which means fewer gases, is lost. Consequently, condensing boilers can reach values of return is greater than 98 percent. (Figure 17)

Another type electric resistance space heating units are relatively simple and inexpensive to install but are quite expensive to operate and therefore are more common in milder climates. Due to the higher price of electricity than natural gas, this type heating systems would increase energy bill. Unit cost of electricity is nearly equal to three times of unit costs of natural gas. There are essentially no opportunities for technical improvement in the heating units themselves, as efficiencies are about as high as physically possible. Electric heat pumps, however, hold considerable promise for future energy savings. A heat pump is essentially an air conditioner in reverse. Just as an air conditioner pumps heat from a relatively cool room into the warmer outside air, a heat pump moves heat from the cooler outside air into the warmer room. [36]

Most heat pumps installed in residential buildings can be run as air conditioners as well, meaning that one device provides both heating and cooling. Heat pumps are growing in popularity. Although they are found in only about 7 percent of U.S. households,[37] heat pumps were installed in 23 percent of all new single-family homes in 1990. The typical heat pump sold today has a heating efficiency (HSPF) of about 6.9 Btus per watt-hour and a cooling efficiency of about 9.1 Btus per watt-hour. [38]

Air-conditioning is technology that provides and keeps ambient conditions comfortable in terms of temperature, humidity and air quality. This includes air-conditioning systems that convey heat into or out of a room and also systems that supply optimal level humidity by water as heat carriers or conducting air.

When planning to construct a new building, required air quality for the building is specified and then suitable air conditioning system is installed. This causes to reduce operating cost and use energy efficiently as much as possible. The most important point is ability of combining and using all regulations and the various new technologies as efficiently as possible.

Air conditioning that has efficient systems and use renewable energies can be very energy-efficient. Most of companies have expertise in following two key areas;

Most of renovation projects usually take a long time to achieve, older buildings cannot   often be sutabile  the newest insulation standards and use large amounts of heat energy for room heating. ,yet  by the help of a professional energy-saving  firms, any building can be  insulated like new build. (Figure 19)

On the other hand, inconsistent measures may come out structural damage. That's why, experience and planning skills are as significant as successful project management by an professional company and the use of suitable insulation materials for materials.

To sum up, condition system is very important and increasing available technology provide for people to reach and use these technologies.(Table 10) Many types technologies available for residential and commercial buildings.(Table 11)

Conventional building materials are suitable to be very good heat conductors. On the other hands, insulations provide for people to prevent heat transfer from inside to exterior. Technologic may not make this natural flow of heat zero, but insulation technics decrease heat flow significantly. In order to increase the insulating capacity of a wall construction, extra insulating materials with low heat conductivity are used to old buildings. Insulating  layer that are made from insulation materials are usually placed on the "cold" side of the wall; this is the outside of the building. In this circumstance, in order to obtain high quaility insualtion, the insulating materials must be either fitted with weatherproof protection or naturally weatherproof.

The followings materials are the most all commonly used for insulation and they form thermal insulation composite systems:

  • “Foamed plastic (polystyrene, polyurethane etc.)
  • Mineral wool, glass wool, cellular glass
  • Mineral materials, such as porous concrete, pumice stone, perlite
  • Injected cavity fill made of cellulose flakes, hemp-clay mixes
  • Wood fibre, wood shavings, cork
  • Plant or animal fibres, such as hemp, flax, coconut, wool
  • Reed plates”
  • Calcium silicate plates (for example, for internal insulation) [45]

As is seen in the figure 20, material of insulation is very important due to different thermal resistances. In recent day, new insulation materials are tried to find out by combination of existing materials. (Figure 22) For example:

  • Vacuum insulation
  • Transparent heat insulation

In addition to these, there are several critical fields that must be insulated on buildings. Firstly these fields that cause most heat flow are insulated. These may be;

  • “Roof or top floor ceiling
  • Exterior walls
  • Basement ceiling, basement exterior (where relevant)
  • Glazed surfaces
  • Heating system and heat storage unit” [47]

Lighting

Lighting is another consumer of electricity in buildings, essentially commercial buildings. Commercial buildings spend about 41 percent of electricity, and 28 percent of total energy, consumed in the commercial sector is for lighting. [49] This consume rate is very large when compared to electricity that is spent for lighting in residential buildings, around 7 percent of total energy consume of residential buildings and according to these data, lighting provides opportunities for large potential savings. New technologic developments would cut energy consume by about one-third and this savings may be increased easily and rapidly. In Europe a huge amount of electricity consumption is accounted for lighting in buildings. This directly affects running costs of many buildings, at least 10 percent of electricity is consumed by lighting in the residential area. In the commercial sector, lighting may even account for up to 50 percent. The huge of this consumption is result of using economically and environmentally inefficient technologies like the traditional light bulb.

The strategic use of research dollars can trim billions from this annual energy bill and prevent unnecessary carbon dioxide emissions. Light is still obtained by electricity passing through a light bulb and this is the oldest and least efficient technology. According to the most of scientific researches, just five percent of the electricity is converted into light. The unused, 95 percent of energy, is turned into the environment as heat. Therefore todays, lighting systems that are more efficient and suitable for energy saving are developed. Although they have developed at the 1980s, they are not used widely as much as needed. On the other hand, the old concern about light quality and warm-up periods are not valid in todays. There are so many types of lambs now on sale in the different designs of traditional bulbs and many of them are dimmable. Research suggests that lighting controls with dimmable lighting systems result in an additional 30 to 40 percent savings in lighting energy with current efficient technology. Energy savings gather because an automated lighting control system may capacity when daylight is entering the interior space, and respond by dimming the electric lights

The commercial sector still use obsolete lighting systems. They usually include traditional fluorescent tubes, most of which have poor reflectors do not have reflector and inefficient and old ballasts. Lighting systems that have old reflector, consume more energy. Furthermore, modern ballasts cut power consumption even further. (Figure 24) “More than 2 billion light bulbs are sold every year in Europe. One can calculate that a shift to energy saving lamps would save 7.5 billion kWh and 4.5 million tonnes of CO2 in Germany alone. Assuming an electricity price of 20 cents per kilowatt-hour, this would imply savings of €1.5 billion for the residential sector as a whole.” [51] The potential amount of energy can be saved from lighting is enormous. Various technological developments can reduce the energy consumption for both when planning new systems and when modernizing a building:

  • “Optimized use of daylight when planning a building (shade, electronic light intensity control, etc.)
  • Use of highly efficient illumination
  • Modernization using energy-efficient lighting systems
  • Use of intelligent lighting control”

Water Heating

Water heating accounts for about 15 percent of residential and 4 percent of commercial energy use. [54] Most of people, around more than half, use natural gas to heat water and 37 percent use electricity.(Table 12) In residential areas, hot water is used for numerous activity by people, i.e. clothes washing, bath or shower etc. while in commercial buildings hot water may be part of their business like in restaurant, Laundromats.

Today households use water heater tanks for both heat and store hot water. Water heater systems that use natural gas have higher purchasing and installation cost than systems that use electricity. However, there is a large difference in cost of operation, about 50 percent lower for gas fired tanks.[56]  

The efficiency of residential-size water heater has improved in recent years, due to largely increased tank insulation, smaller pilot lights and improved heat transfer from combustion gases to the water in the tank. The most efficient commercially available water heaters sold today use thick polyurethane foam insulation, carefully designed heat transfer surface, and electronic ignition. These create considerable efficiency difference between new system and available old systems. In addition these, demand reductions, retrofits to existing units and technical improvements in new units may increase system efficiency. The simplest method to reduce energy use for water heating is by reducing consumption of hot water. The largest users of hot water in residences are showers and baths (41 percent of hot water), clothes washing (24 percent), and kitchens (27 percent), with the remainder (8 percent) used in bathroom sinks.[57] (Figure 25)

Low-flow showerheads can reduce shower flow rates by about 50 percent.[58] Although consumer acceptance of these devices is a concern, designs have improved in recent years and consumer satisfaction is reported to be quite high.[59]

As in the residential buildings, commercial buildings use mostly natural gas and electricity for water heaters. Heating systems that is used in commercial sector vary widely but methods of reduction of costs are likely similar. New technologies for commercial water heating include the use of heat pumps, heat recovery devices, and other methods for integrating water heating into other heating and cooling systems. These combined systems provide more efficiency and also are preferred most of sector.

Freezing

Keeping food cold is another consumer in buildings, about 10 percent of residential energy use and about 5 percent of commercial sector energy use. Technology has improved last 20 to 30 years and considerable potential for further improvements remains because recent days, nearly all house and also office have at least one refrigerator and many of them use more than once. Number of total refrigerator used in buildings increase quickly. However, new technologic refrigerators use very less energy when compared to old technologies and provide more functions such as automatic no frost, freezing and etc. These improvements reduce energy consumption of refrigerator about 55 percent according to typical refrigerator. (Table 13)

Several technologies could improve refrigerator energy efficiency. Refrigerators use energy to maintain a temperature difference between the food storage area and the surrounding environment; by reducing the amount of heat that flows into the refrigerator. This can be done by improving the insulation surrounding the food storage area. The foam insulation used in refrigerators today has an insulating value of about R-8 per inch.[61] Simply adding more insulation may not be practical, as increasing the external dimensions of the refrigerator makes it difficult to fit the unit in kitchens, while decreasing the internal dimensions reduces the available food storage space. Therefore, materials that provide more insulating value with narrow thickness shell of the refrigerator are needed. These criteria decrease cost energy use and also determine refrigerator energy label. (Figure 26 & 27

New studies show that chlorofluorocarbon (CFCS) is very suitable for insulation however, contains dangerous material and also harmful effects on the stratospheric ozone layer. In an effort to develop insulation material that is both compact and CFC-free introduce the use of vacuums. One such technology, compact vacuum insulation, uses two thin sheets of steel held apart by glass beads, with a vacuum between them. Several prototype panels using this technology have been built, however costs, performance, and feasibility of large-scale production are still uncertain. Other promising vacuum-related technologies under development include powder-filled vacuum panels and silica aerogels, both at about R-20 per inch. [64]

These improvements reduce annual costs considerably. (Table 14) The technical and economic savings potential is well illustrated in a recent field test of advanced commercial refrigeration technologies. An advanced system (utilizing floating pressure, unequally sized compressors, and other innovative technologies) was installed next to a conventional system in a large supermarket in northern California. The two systems were alternately operated in order to measure performance and energy use under the same conditions and actual energy savings were 23 percent.[66]

Other Energy Services

In addition to the previously discussed energy services (space conditioning, lighting, water heating, food refrigeration and freezing), there is a wide range of other energy services in buildings. For the residential sector this includes clothes washing and drying, cooking and cleaning (including dishwashers), home entertainment (notably televisions), and etc. For the commercial sector this includes cooking and cleaning in restaurants, office equipment (computers, copy machines, printers, etc.), clothes washing and drying in laundromat, and so on. These various energy services account for about 13 percent of residential energy use and 15 percent of commercial energy use.

Most of these functions are considered that consume less energy when compared to other system such as space conditioning. However, if whole activities are considered together, they build up a considerable part in energy consumption. Residential electric clothes dryers, for example, use about 41 TWh of electricity per year, or the combined annual output of 6.5 large coal-burning power plants.[68] Office electronic equipment uses about 25 TWh per year (1988), or the equivalent of about four large coal-burning power plants.[69]

In U.S. more than 60 percent of household have clothes dryers. This percentage makes clothes dryer opportunity for energy savings. In fact technologies are available for greater improvements in dryer machine. That's why DOE sets minimum efficiency standard and make them obligation for manufacturer. These standards are met with the use of automatic moisture or temperature termination and increased insulation. There are several to reduce consumption and also machine like these have energy license as refrigerator.

About 76 percent of U.S. households have electric clothes washers. The energy efficiency washers improved considerably in recent years-by over 50 percent from 1972 to 1989. Most of this efficiency increase came from more cold wash and rinse options, less hot and colder in the warm water mix, and improved control of washer water level. As in dryers, there are several technologies that could further increase washer efficiency, some of which are addressed by DOE rulings. DOE sets minimum efficiency levels effective in 1994 that is met with the elimination of warm water rinse. [70]

Even though, office energy use is nearly 5 or 6 percent, it increases rapidly. By developing and using new technological devices that make works easier and quicker cause more energy consumption and some office equipment spend more energy than lighting. There are several available technologies to reduce this consumption. For example LCD screen for computer, new technology chipset, various alternative laser printing and also software may cut using more electricity when used item is inactive. The use of these and other technologies, most of which are already commercially available, could hold office equipment electricity use at about its current level, despite the continued rapid proliferation of computers and other electronic devices.[71]

Comparing Existence buildings and new buildings

As mentioned before, energy consumption comes up with considerable cost to house owner and also increase countries' dependence on imported energy resources. In order to prevent these and also reduce energy bill, there are numerous developments and improvements that can reduce cost when applied to house or place.

Integrated these efficient means to buildings is very hard process and some of them is impossible for existent buildings and some of them is impossible for new buildings. This mean is not integrated new systems to everywhere, somehow every system is applied to everywhere however; it is not profitable every time. For example, integrated passive solar panel to existent building takes longer time than integrated it to new buildings and also its cost increase due to extra process.

Recent days, constructors cannot apply all efficiency laws and obligations to buildings. A reason of that is not hesitating quality of efficient technologies or lack of knowledge, one of the most important reasons is higher prices of efficient technologies than traditional technologies. These get increased new building prices and are not meaningful investments according to clients. For example, building has improved insulator systems and building has no insulator system when these two buildings are compared, there is no visible difference between them however, building has improved insulator systems is expensive than other. Of course these extra costs are defrayed by savings in a few years but clients cannot give an importance these. Therefore, constructor that builds with using new technology loses revenue and market shares. Comfort, luxury, convenience etc. are more important than energy efficiency for clients. In the future, with increasing awareness of energy efficiency, market rules can be change, for example it can be like automobile industry. There can be some efficiency package and these additional packages are applied to building according to clients wants.

Retrofit and repair are used to improve existing buildings. Every people spend money to integrate new systems or repair old system. Governments give many funds to increase using new systems however most of the people do not intend owing to several reasons. For example, integrating new system causes change any other system in a house. This creates lose time and money unplanned. In addition to these, usually these improvements are supplied small firms and in order to make money, these firms have to keep purchasing and installation cost low so sometime these new systems is not efficient as expected. Actually, energy efficiency upgrades are rarely offered by builders or constructors. One reason of that, people expect quick and high improvements from upgrades however, only one upgrade cannot affect cost directly even if it is perfect systems. As mentioned before, for example, perfect heating system cannot reduce cost alone, effects of efficient heating system on energy consumption can be seen when it works in insulated area. Some other reasons of not offering upgrading energy systems are;

  • New technologies often require new installation procedures, increasing both the time required for installation and the risk of incorrect installation;
  • Their dependability/reliability is unproven;
  • There is perceived risk of consumer dissatisfaction due to poor performance and/or mechanical breakdowns;
  • Current building standards may make innovation difficult (i.e., changes in equipment may require other design changes, further increasing project cost and complexity);
  • The insurance industry often requires that the same materials be used when rebuilding a damaged structure; and
  • There is suspicion and distrust of the energy savings claims of new technologies. [72]

Contractors and other home-repair professionals select and install energy-using equipment in existing residences, and these decisions strongly influence the subsequent energy use of these residences. These decision makers weigh heavily attributes of first cost, reliability, and familiarity, and have few incentives to consider energy efficiency. [73]

Customers' decisions can be divided two types. Firs smaller home appliance such as refrigerator, room air conditioning that customers choose themselves and second larger equipment such as furnaces heat pumps that customers choose product with contractors or outside agents.

When customers buy new system, there are many things that they want, involve paying less money, spending less time to make decision. Reducing energy consumption cannot affect their decision directly. However, energy efficiency can be used to attract customer attention because researches show that an investment in energy efficiency is attractive only if the annual energy savings exceed the additional frost cost within just a few years. There may be other undesirable consider associated with energy efficiency; for example, an energy efficient model of an appliance may be available only with other expensive features that the consumer does not want to purchase. Consumers often do not invest in energy efficiency unless it offers a fairly short payback typically less than 2 years for home appliances.[74]

Analyzing future trends and opportunities for potential savings

World energy consumptions are expected to grow, with fossil fuels remaining the most common source, causing CO2 emissions with dramatic effect on nature. China and India are the emerging energy giants in this unsustainable future. The problems of energy security and climate change are global and require global solutions. Some future estimation is;

  • If energy demand increase rate is constant, consumption would increase 55 percent between 2005 and 2030. Demand reaches 17.7 billion tonnes of oil equivalent, compared with 11.4 billion toes today. About half of the increase in global demand goes to power generation and one fifth to meeting transport needs - mostly in the form of petroleum based fuels.
  • Coal sees the biggest increase in demand in absolute terms, in line with the spectacular growth of the past few years. Its share in world final energy consumption increases from 25% in 2005 to 28% in 2030. Over 80% of the increase in coal use arises in China and India. The share of natural gas increases modestly. Electricity use doubles, its share of final energy consumption rising from 17% to 22%.
  • Some $22 trillion of investment in energy supply infrastructure is needed to meet projected global demand.
  • Developing countries, whose economies and populations are growing fastest, contribute 74% of the increase in global primary energy use. The emerging countries China and India alone account for 45% of the increase. In aggregate, developing countries make up more than half of the global energy market in 2030, compared with only 41% today. [75]

New technologies reduce energy consumption and energy intensity, however it reach pace of growth of populations and also while new technologies provide efficient energy consumption, it increases consumption due to new technologic device. People use more personal electronic device than in past. Total amount of energy consume increases over years. As is seen in the figure 28 after the oil crisis, governments tried to use energy efficiently.

These growing rates force people to find out more efficient mean and also find alternative energy resources. For example, U.S. may supply huge amount of energy from biofuels. (Figure 31) By 2020, estimation shows that the world will require about 40 percent more energy than today. This mean 300 million barrels oil-equivalent energy is used every single day. Oil and gas will continue 60 percent of this demand. In future with developments of new technologies, dependence on fossil fuel will be increase and also fossil fuels run out of in 50 years according to “Energy Outlook Report 2003” and also new hybrid machine and works with using non-fossil fuel machine contribute to supply energy and also reduce CO2 emission. (Figure 30)

1. INTRODUCTION

After industrial revolution, all countries started to race to be first in every field and have the most technological facilities, production methods etc. All Countries pursued strategies to lead technological developments in which case that provided politic and economic power. This race continued extensionally and people consumed more energy for both production and using outputs thus energy resource usage rate increased hastily; however; energy resource is not ample and availability of energy resources could not persist and resist to this enormous usage rate.  This project examined that energy efficiency from past to future and also future technologies, improvements and governments programs.

1.1.PROGRESS OF EFFICIENT ENERGY FROM PAST TO FUTURE

Until 1973, people went on using energy resources unconsciously; aim of all industries was to produce more and sell more. Nevertheless, in 1973 oil crisis revealed that energy resources are not ample and this oil embargo indicated limitations of energy resources. Besides this, all political, economic, social plans of countries are based on energy resources existence and availability in the future. Energy plays an important role in to set strategies of all countries and these crucial issues force all people to be aware of significance of energy resources. These obligations steered countries into finding new energy resources or technologies, like renewable energy resources, and using or consuming available energy consciously. These approaches introduced new terms, “efficient and effective energy usage”. During the oil embargo, members of OPEC (Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries) did not supply oil to non-OPEC countries so countries which depend on imported oil from OPEC countries could not produce adequate energy, and price of oil increased drastically and the price of oil before the crisis was $3-4/m3 when the oil embargo started then price of crude oil increased $12/m3. (Increase from nearly $18 to $75 in 2008 dollars value). If we examined energy usage rate data, effects of oil crisis on energy consuming rate are observed clearly.

The data which belongs to 1986 and before 1986 indicates that two thirds energy was consumed by industrial applications and remain one thirds was consumed residential and commercial buildings. This ratio is nearly same with recent consumed energy rate. In U.S.A. 2.26 GW energy consumption was spent by commercial and residential buildings for space and water heating, air conditioning and lighting. Space heating and air conditioning systems were the most occupant application, they built up 60-65 percent of 2.26 GW and remaining consumption was for water heating and lighting, it was nearly 35 percent. (Figure 1 & 2) What is more both of type buildings used electricity more than 50 percent.(Figure 1) Single family's house in residential buildings and office buildings in commercial areas were the major energy users.

On the other hand, if data that related to energy consumption per square meter is examined, healthcare buildings consume energy more than office buildings. (Figure 5) In addition to these, between 1950 and 1973, building energy use grew at a steady rate of about 4.4 percent per year.[3] In briefly, we considered data that relevant to 1972 and previous and this information indicates growth of energy consumption. As a result of these, all governments intended to develop energy efficiency policy and more efficient means to reduce amount of total energy spent yet the oil prices was reduced to regular equivalent. Following years, most of regulations were legislated and many investments were made so as to develop new technology and find and use alternative energy resources. As a consequence, in 1984, energy consumption rate of commercial and residential buildings stayed constant as in past, 2.26 GW, despite of growing both commercial and residential floor area 20 percent each.(Figure 3) This mean when recent data is calculated with respect to past trends, there is 80 percent reduction in energy using per unit floor area.[4] (Figure 4)

If there was no improvement or policy, total energy consumption for both types of buildings would expect to be nearly 3.73 GW. In addition to this, total energy consumption was 35 percent of past trends. When total energy consumption rate between 1973 and 1983 is observed, the amount of increasing is 8.8 percent for the ten years, existent old value is 4.4 percent per year, this result shows effect of efficient energy using on consumed energy rate reduction. Improvements of new technologies, decreases of household size, more efficient items, and simple changes on device settings for example; indoor heat temperature and etc. cause this reduction [7]. (Table 1)

Moreover, another point is Persian Gulf War; this is the second event in history that increased concern about energy resources availability and limitation. This event has brought energy issues to first places owing to effects on oil market size. However, these fears were not exactly same as in 1973. In addition to existent fears, that war created dangers related to environmental issues and support previous environmental concerns, acid rains, climate changes, carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuels and etc. Results of these, governments started to work on reducing reliance on imported oil and find technologies for alternative energy resources.

1.2.POLICIES AND PROGRAMS

The landmarks that forced publics to be aware about importance of energy are “1973 Oil crisis” and “Persian Gulf War”. These two events indicated that energy resources were not infinite. Result of these, all governments tried to decrease their dependence on imported oil so they supported all technological developments and also people were encouraged to use efficient means.  Moreover, imported oil creates numerous risks for governments; they had to face off failing to reach necessary oil resource. Therefore, governments considered lots of legislative options to reach imported oil easily and also for available energy resources. Many prescriptions were applied for efficient and effective energy usage. People's awareness was raised by many national energy usage campaigns. Furthermore, to find out new technologies for efficient energy usage, governments appropriate annual funds to support and speed up technological developments. When we examined the oil crises and following periods, effect of crisis on U.S.A government investments seem obviously. In 1970, annual expenditures on energy conservation research and programs increased from zero to $10 million in 1973, $490 million in 1980 and then decreased to $200 million.[9] These studies and rising of energy prices caused change on people habits. As result of these developments, so many cost-effective ways were introduced people to use energy efficient with long term energy policies. Cost-effective criteria are considered for program planning and evaluation, they provide simple and quick solution for end users.(Table 3) Effects of cost-effective solution seem in a short duration however in order to evaluate and observe results of federal programs, governments stick to necessities of programs, that can be take many years.

Even though, all programs and technological developments push to decrease energy consumption without losing any function from daily life, all governments did not intent and follow these progresses owing to the fact that the oil crisis did not affect all countries directly. The most affected country is the U.S.A and so as to decrease these negative effects U.S. Department of Energy was established and these intense studies created technological differences between countries. (DOE) That's why, U.S.A served as a model for other federal governments to develop and apply new policies and programs.(Figure 6)Most of the federal governments followed up U.S.A energy strategies, most of the federal governments made their energy usage plans with respect to U.S.A so if U.S.A policies and programs are examined in detailed; this gives an idea about past progress of policies and programs.

In U.S.A that is mentioned before, building energy usage rate increase over years and in 1990 this consumption rate reached to 36 percent. Natural gas and electricity are two main types of energy that built up total energy consumption rate, 36 percent, natural gas and electricity was used 60 percent and 40 percent respectively by buildings in U.S.A. Fortunately, technological developments work on many highly efficient means and these can supply needed energy services for people (e.g. heating, lighting and cooling) while using less energy. In many circumstances, most of these technologies cost more initially, but these initial costs are paid back through reduced energy cost. Estimations about future indicate that available technology can reduced energy usage about one-third by 2015, without any policy changes.[13]] In fact, several estimations exits and, despite many results, there is general agreement that the untapped potential for improved energy efficiency in buildings and daily life is significant. There are several incentive programs that have been offered to reduce energy usage in buildings, consist of tax credits, weatherproofing grants and loan subsides.

To start with the energy tax act (ETA) is used to encourage people to apply efficient energy usage ways, energy conservation and renewable energy investments, to their home or office. ETA credits defray insulation, exterior storm windows and doors, automatic setback thermostats, caulking and weather-stripping. According to the legislation, so as to be capable for the credit, conservation expenditures had to originate with taxpayer and remain in operation at least 3 years. Credits involve both materials and installation costs. (Table 4)

Moreover, weatherization Assistance program is created to funds energy conservation measures for low-income households at no charge to residents since low-income households affected from rising fuel prices caused by the Arab oil embargo of 1973. This program also involves material and installation costs and priority is given to households having elderly or handicapped residents and payback can be no longer that 5 to 8 years so this would better ensure that program monies are spent carefully.[15] The total amount of cost of programs and percentage of use of funds in low income house hold are showed that figure 7 and 8.

In addition to these federal strategies, “Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank” charged with supporting purchases and installation conservation and renewable energy means in households. The aim of this program was to encourage people in energy conservation and using renewable energy resources in buildings to reduce dependence of countries on imported oil or other exterior energy resources.

Briefly, many programs and legislative options were worked on and introduced many programs package with using tax credits to reduce and also make people aware about energy. In order to make these programs effective, governments allocate many funds and also apply many regulations.(Table 5) These programs regulate all energy usage and also established places that have used energy. All new buildings have to construct and use with respect to regulated and defined methods and means. For example, isolation level or natural conditioning and implemented conditioning systems, refrigerator, and all new constructed buildings must have defined standards in these areas. (Table 6)

Regardless of all these studies and programs, between 1970 and 1990 42 percent of oil that U.S.A consumed imported from other countries and according to all studies, future estimation was 62 percent of oil imported from foreign countries in 2010.[19]  Recent data indicates that now 58 percent of oil brings OPEC countries so obviously seems that past estimations were consistent.[20]

Besides these developments and studies, environmental concerns started to increase due to carbon dioxide emission from producing electricity and also using energy resources. This big amount of emission caused unexpected changes in climates and destruction on the environment in order to prevent and slow down these changes, most of developed countries searched many ways to reduce carbon dioxide emission. In 1997, Kyoto protocol was signed. This protocol regulated carbon dioxide emission by some rules. Countries that have signed Kyoto Protocol have to decrease their emission level that is in 1990. This mean a country that has signed Kyoto Protocol is not allowed to emit more than quantity as in 1990. In order to achieve these, countries have to intend to use renewable energy. There are many necessities of Kyoto Protocol and these enforcements affect and accelerate developing new technologies and using renewable energy resources directly. The Protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of July 2010, 191 states have signed and ratified the protocol.[21] However, most of the countries that have signed the protocol, do not participate and obey all obligations.(Figure 10 & 11)

1.3.COMMERCIAL & RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

1.3.1.Energy Usage Rate And Trends

As mentioned previous parts, Arab oil embargo in 1973 is landmark for all federal governments. Following periods; all governments headed towards consuming less energy without lose any function or comfort in daily-life. Since developing new technology and appliance them to buildings are easier than developing new technology and appliance them to industrial areas. According to U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S.A. reliance on imported is nearly 58 percent in 2010; previous year exact imported oil percentage is 51 percent and if total energy consumption is considered, very big amount of budget is necessary in order to provide sustainable energy.

The United States spends nearly a million dollar worth each minute, 24 hours a day, every     of the year and U.S.A population is less than five percent of the world's population, but 21 percent of total world's energy consumption belong to U.S.A. [] (Table 7) U.S.A have the most energy user in the world but population of U.S.A. is less than Indonesia and China.[24]

Moreover, energy consumption rate per people give valuable information about developing of countries. As in the table 7, obviously seemed that China and U.S.A. are two countries that have the most energy consume rate per people and these countries do not try to use less energy, they try to find out ways for the use of technology that requires less energy to perform the same function. The energy consumed per unit of GDP fell 2.4 percent per year between 1972 and 1985, mostly due to improved energy efficiency. Energy use in buildings accounts for an increasing share of total U.S. energy consumption: 27 percent in 1950, 33 percent in 1970, and 36 percent in 1990. At present, buildings account for over 60 percent of all electricity used in the United States and almost 40 percent of all natural gas.[25] In addition to theses, energy use in U.S. buildings has increased steadily-from about 22 quadrillion British thermal units(quads) in 1970 to about 30 quads in 1989.[26] Space heating is responsible for almost half of total energy use, followed by water heating, refrigerators and freezers, space cooling, and lights. Growing population is increased demand, but people use less energy than past. The U.S. population increased by 45 million people from 1970 to 1990 and at the same time the average number of people per household dropped considerably, from 3.24 in 1970 to 2.68 in 1990. The combined effect of these two factors was an almost 50 percent increase in the number of households in just two decades. As each household requires space conditioning, hot water, and other energy services, these changes drove the growth in energy use in the residential sector.[7] (Table 8)A recent study has shown that the use of cost-effective, commercially available technologies could reduce total building energy use by about one-third by 2015, relative to a ‘business-as-usual' baseline. [27]

1.3.2. Existing and New Technologies

Space Conditioning

Space conditioning spends more energy than any other function in both residential and commercial buildings. In U.S. more than half of energy that is consumed commercial and residential buildings is spent for space conditioning. In the residential sector space heating accounts for about 46 percent, and space cooling for about 9 percent, of energy use; while in commercial buildings space heating and cooling account for about 32 percent and 16 percent, respectively, of energy use. [29] Energy consumption for space conditioning in Europe is likely same, around 40 percent. (Figure 12 &13) These are the greatest share of total energy usage for transport and industrial production and also several types of fuel are used for heating and cooling.[30](Figure 14)

Efficiency of space conditioning and also design of the building influence the total amount of energy necessity to keep comfort in a residential building. Only super-efficient system could not decrease electric bills. Unless, insulation system is good, heat lose would be very high. This mean to keep buildings in comfort zone, includes temperatures and humidity, more energy must be spent than needed. However, well insulated buildings in a moderate climate may need no energy for space conditioning.

A variety of fuels and technologies are used to heat U.S. residences (figure14). More than half (51 percent) of U.S. households use natural gas for space heating; the remainder use electricity (25 percent), oil (13 percent), and other fuels. [31]

In Europe, the common technologies for producing hot water and heating room are hydraulics heating that is commonly oil and gas central heating boilers. Huge quantity of the total amount of energy needed is used for the generation of heat in buildings therefore innovations in heating systems provide for people to reduce energy cost mostly. There are many commercially available gas furnaces, however, that are far more efficient-in the range of 95 to 97 percent.[32] These units use “condensing technology”, in which the latent heat of the combusted gas is recovered and these types boilers are called condensing boilers. These represent an improvement of the boiler at low temperature and significantly reduce heat loss. Therefore, the amount of heat released by the fuel has reached the limit of what is physically possible. Includes the technology uses the heat of condensation contained in the smoke, which would otherwise not used. A further increase in efficiency achieved by the combustion gases at low temperatures, which means fewer gases, is lost. Consequently, condensing boilers can reach values of return is greater than 98 percent. The fuel types of boiler affect boilers properties directly. Carbon dioxide emission and also fuel cost depend on fuel type.

Improvements systems provide less carbon dioxide emission due to additional heating components. For example, additionally using solar power and auxiliary heating system reduce emission and also cost of fuel. (Figure 16)

A further increase in efficiency achieved by the combustion gases at low temperatures, which means fewer gases, is lost. Consequently, condensing boilers can reach values of return is greater than 98 percent. (Figure 17)

Another type electric resistance space heating units are relatively simple and inexpensive to install but are quite expensive to operate and therefore are more common in milder climates. Due to the higher price of electricity than natural gas, this type heating systems would increase energy bill. Unit cost of electricity is nearly equal to three times of unit costs of natural gas. There are essentially no opportunities for technical improvement in the heating units themselves, as efficiencies are about as high as physically possible. Electric heat pumps, however, hold considerable promise for future energy savings. A heat pump is essentially an air conditioner in reverse. Just as an air conditioner pumps heat from a relatively cool room into the warmer outside air, a heat pump moves heat from the cooler outside air into the warmer room.

Most heat pumps installed in residential buildings can be run as air conditioners as well, meaning that one device provides both heating and cooling. Heat pumps are growing in popularity. Although they are found in only about 7 percent of U.S. households,[37] heat pumps were installed in 23 percent of all new single-family homes in 1990. The typical heat pump sold today has a heating efficiency (HSPF) of about 6.9 Btus per watt-hour and a cooling efficiency of about 9.1 Btus per watt-hour. [38]

Air-conditioning is technology that provides and keeps ambient conditions comfortable in terms of temperature, humidity and air quality. This includes air-conditioning systems that convey heat into or out of a room and also systems that supply optimal level humidity by water as heat carriers or conducting air.

When planning to construct a new building, required air quality for the building is specified and then suitable air conditioning system is installed. This causes to reduce operating cost and use energy efficiently as much as possible. The most important point is ability of combining and using all regulations and the various new technologies as efficiently as possible.

Air conditioning that has efficient systems and use renewable energies can be very energy-efficient. Most of companies have expertise in following two key areas;

Most of renovation projects usually take a long time to achieve, older buildings cannot   often be sutabile  the newest insulation standards and use large amounts of heat energy for room heating. ,yet  by the help of a professional energy-saving  firms, any building can be  insulated like new build. (Figure 19)

On the other hand, inconsistent measures may come out structural damage. That's why, experience and planning skills are as significant as successful project management by an professional company and the use of suitable insulation materials for materials.

To sum up, condition system is very important and increasing available technology provide for people to reach and use these technologies.(Table 10) Many types technologies available for residential and commercial buildings.(Table 11)

Conventional building materials are suitable to be very good heat conductors. On the other hands, insulations provide for people to prevent heat transfer from inside to exterior. Technologic may not make this natural flow of heat zero, but insulation technics decrease heat flow significantly. In order to increase the insulating capacity of a wall construction, extra insulating materials with low heat conductivity are used to old buildings. Insulating  layer that are made from insulation materials are usually placed on the "cold" side of the wall; this is the outside of the building. In this circumstance, in order to obtain high quaility insualtion, the insulating materials must be either fitted with weatherproof protection or naturally weatherproof.

The followings materials are the most all commonly used for insulation and they form thermal insulation composite systems:

  • “Foamed plastic (polystyrene, polyurethane etc.)
  • Mineral wool, glass wool, cellular glass
  • Mineral materials, such as porous concrete, pumice stone, perlite
  • Injected cavity fill made of cellulose flakes, hemp-clay mixes
  • Wood fibre, wood shavings, cork
  • Plant or animal fibres, such as hemp, flax, coconut, wool
  • Reed plates”
  • Calcium silicate plates (for example, for internal insulation) [45

As is seen in the figure 20, material of insulation is very important due to different thermal resistances. In recent day, new insulation materials are tried to find out by combination of existing materials. (Figure 22) For example:

  • Vacuum insulation
  • Transparent heat insulation

In addition to these, there are several critical fields that must be insulated on buildings. Firstly these fields that cause most heat flow are insulated. These may be;

  • “Roof or top floor ceiling
  • Exterior walls
  • Basement ceiling, basement exterior (where relevant)
  • Glazed surfaces
  • Heating system and heat storage unit”

Lighting

Lighting is another consumer of electricity in buildings, essentially commercial buildings. Commercial buildings spend about 41 percent of electricity, and 28 percent of total energy, consumed in the commercial sector is for lighting. [49] This consume rate is very large when compared to electricity that is spent for lighting in residential buildings, around 7 percent of total energy consume of residential buildings and according to these data, lighting provides opportunities for large potential savings. New technologic developments would cut energy consume by about one-third and this savings may be increased easily and rapidly. In Europe a huge amount of electricity consumption is accounted for lighting in buildings. This directly affects running costs of many buildings, at least 10 percent of electricity is consumed by lighting in the residential area. In the commercial sector, lighting may even account for up to 50 percent. The huge of this consumption is result of using economically and environmentally inefficient technologies like the traditional light bulb

The strategic use of research dollars can trim billions from this annual energy bill and prevent unnecessary carbon dioxide emissions. Light is still obtained by electricity passing through a light bulb and this is the oldest and least efficient technology. According to the most of scientific researches, just five percent of the electricity is converted into light. The unused, 95 percent of energy, is turned into the environment as heat. Therefore todays, lighting systems that are more efficient and suitable for energy saving are developed. Although they have developed at the 1980s, they are not used widely as much as needed. On the other hand, the old concern about light quality and warm-up periods are not valid in todays. There are so many types of lambs now on sale in the different designs of traditional bulbs and many of them are dimmable. Research suggests that lighting controls with dimmable lighting systems result in an additional 30 to 40 percent savings in lighting energy with current efficient technology. Energy savings gather because an automated lighting control system may capacity when daylight is entering the interior space, and respond by dimming the electric lights

The commercial sector still use obsolete lighting systems. They usually include traditional fluorescent tubes, most of which have poor reflectors do not have reflector and inefficient and old ballasts. Lighting systems that have old reflector, consume more energy. Furthermore, modern ballasts cut power consumption even further. (Figure 24) “More than 2 billion light bulbs are sold every year in Europe. One can calculate that a shift to energy saving lamps would save 7.5 billion kWh and 4.5 million tonnes of CO2 in Germany alone. Assuming an electricity price of 20 cents per kilowatt-hour, this would imply savings of €1.5 billion for the residential sector as a whole.” [51] The potential amount of energy can be saved from lighting is enormous. Various technological developments can reduce the energy consumption for both when planning new systems and when modernizing a building:

  • “Optimized use of daylight when planning a building (shade, electronic light intensity control, etc.)
  • Use of highly efficient illumination
  • Modernization using energy-efficient lighting systems
  • Use of intelligent lighting control”[52]

Water Heating

Water heating accounts for about 15 percent of residential and 4 percent of commercial energy use. [54] Most of people, around more than half, use natural gas to heat water and 37 percent use electricity.(Table 12) In residential areas, hot water is used for numerous activity by people, i.e. clothes washing, bath or shower etc. while in commercial buildings hot water may be part of their business like in restaurant, Laundromats.

Today households use water heater tanks for both heat and store hot water. Water heater systems that use natural gas have higher purchasing and installation cost than systems that use electricity. However, there is a large difference in cost of operation, about 50 percent lower for gas fired tanks.[56]  

The efficiency of residential-size water heater has improved in recent years, due to largely increased tank insulation, smaller pilot lights and improved heat transfer from combustion gases to the water in the tank. The most efficient commercially available water heaters sold today use thick polyurethane foam insulation, carefully designed heat transfer surface, and electronic ignition. These create considerable efficiency difference between new system and available old systems. In addition these, demand reductions, retrofits to existing units and technical improvements in new units may increase system efficiency. The simplest method to reduce energy use for water heating is by reducing consumption of hot water. The largest users of hot water in residences are showers and baths (41 percent of hot water), clothes washing (24 percent), and kitchens (27 percent), with the remainder (8 percent) used in bathroom sinks.[57] (Figure 25)

Low-flow showerheads can reduce shower flow rates by about 50 percent.[58] Although consumer acceptance of these devices is a concern, designs have improved in recent years and consumer satisfaction is reported to be quite high.[59]

As in the residential buildings, commercial buildings use mostly natural gas and electricity for water heaters. Heating systems that is used in commercial sector vary widely but methods of reduction of costs are likely similar. New technologies for commercial water heating include the use of heat pumps, heat recovery devices, and other methods for integrating water heating into other heating and cooling systems. These combined systems provide more efficiency and also are preferred most of sector.

Freezing

Keeping food cold is another consumer in buildings, about 10 percent of residential energy use and about 5 percent of commercial sector energy use. Technology has improved last 20 to 30 years and considerable potential for further improvements remains because recent days, nearly all house and also office have at least one refrigerator and many of them use more than once. Number of total refrigerator used in buildings increase quickly. However, new technologic refrigerators use very less energy when compared to old technologies and provide more functions such as automatic no frost, freezing and etc. These improvements reduce energy consumption of refrigerator about 55 percent according to typical refrigerator. (Table 13)

Several technologies could improve refrigerator energy efficiency. Refrigerators use energy to maintain a temperature difference between the food storage area and the surrounding environment; by reducing the amount of heat that flows into the refrigerator. This can be done by improving the insulation surrounding the food storage area. The foam insulation used in refrigerators today has an insulating value of about R-8 per inch.[61] Simply adding more insulation may not be practical, as increasing the external dimensions of the refrigerator makes it difficult to fit the unit in kitchens, while decreasing the internal dimensions reduces the available food storage space. Therefore, materials that provide more insulating value with narrow thickness shell of the refrigerator are needed. These criteria decrease cost energy use and also determine refrigerator energy label. (Figure 26 & 27)

New studies show that chlorofluorocarbon (CFCS) is very suitable for insulation however, contains dangerous material and also harmful effects on the stratospheric ozone layer. In an effort to develop insulation material that is both compact and CFC-free introduce the use of vacuums. One such technology, compact vacuum insulation, uses two thin sheets of steel held apart by glass beads, with a vacuum between them. Several prototype panels using this technology have been built, however costs, performance, and feasibility of large-scale production are still uncertain. Other promising vacuum-related technologies under development include powder-filled vacuum panels and silica aerogels, both at about R-20 per inch. [64]

These improvements reduce annual costs considerably. (Table 14) The technical and economic savings potential is well illustrated in a recent field test of advanced commercial refrigeration technologies. An advanced system (utilizing floating pressure, unequally sized compressors, and other innovative technologies) was installed next to a conventional system in a large supermarket in northern California. The two systems were alternately operated in order to measure performance and energy use under the same conditions and actual energy savings were 23 percent.[66]

Other Energy Services

In addition to the previously discussed energy services (space conditioning, lighting, water heating, food refrigeration and freezing), there is a wide range of other energy services in buildings. For the residential sector this includes clothes washing and drying, cooking and cleaning (including dishwashers), home entertainment (notably televisions), and etc. For the commercial sector this includes cooking and cleaning in restaurants, office equipment (computers, copy machines, printers, etc.), clothes washing and drying in laundromat, and so on. These various energy services account for about 13 percent of residential energy use and 15 percent of commercial energy use.

Most of these functions are considered that consume less energy when compared to other system such as space conditioning. However, if whole activities are considered together, they build up a considerable part in energy consumption. Residential electric clothes dryers, for example, use about 41 TWh of electricity per year, or the combined annual output of 6.5 large coal-burning power plants.[68] Office electronic equipment uses about 25 TWh per year (1988), or the equivalent of about four large coal-burning power plants.[69]

In U.S. more than 60 percent of household have clothes dryers. This percentage makes clothes dryer opportunity for energy savings. In fact technologies are available for greater improvements in dryer machine. That's why DOE sets minimum efficiency standard and make them obligation for manufacturer. These standards are met with the use of automatic moisture or temperature termination and increased insulation. There are several to reduce consumption and also machine like these have energy license as refrigerator.

About 76 percent of U.S. households have electric clothes washers. The energy efficiency washers improved considerably in recent years-by over 50 percent from 1972 to 1989. Most of this efficiency increase came from more cold wash and rinse options, less hot and colder in the warm water mix, and improved control of washer water level. As in dryers, there are several technologies that could further increase washer efficiency, some of which are addressed by DOE rulings. DOE sets minimum efficiency levels effective in 1994 that is met with the elimination of warm water rinse. [70]

Even though, office energy use is nearly 5 or 6 percent, it increases rapidly. By developing and using new technological devices that make works easier and quicker cause more energy consumption and some office equipment spend more energy than lighting. There are several available technologies to reduce this consumption. For example LCD screen for computer, new technology chipset, various alternative laser printing and also software may cut using more electricity when used item is inactive. The use of these and other technologies, most of which are already commercially available, could hold office equipment electricity use at about its current level, despite the continued rapid proliferation of computers and other electronic devices.[71]

Comparing Existence buildings and new buildings

As mentioned before, energy consumption comes up with considerable cost to house owner and also increase countries' dependence on imported energy resources. In order to prevent these and also reduce energy bill, there are numerous developments and improvements that can reduce cost when applied to house or place.

Integrated these efficient means to buildings is very hard process and some of them is impossible for existent buildings and some of them is impossible for new buildings. This mean is not integrated new systems to everywhere, somehow every system is applied to everywhere however; it is not profitable every time. For example, integrated passive solar panel to existent building takes longer time than integrated it to new buildings and also its cost increase due to extra process.

Recent days, constructors cannot apply all efficiency laws and obligations to buildings. A reason of that is not hesitating quality of efficient technologies or lack of knowledge, one of the most important reasons is higher prices of efficient technologies than traditional technologies. These get increased new building prices and are not meaningful investments according to clients. For example, building has improved insulator systems and building has no insulator system when these two buildings are compared, there is no visible difference between them however, building has improved insulator systems is expensive than other. Of course these extra costs are defrayed by savings in a few years but clients cannot give an importance these. Therefore, constructor that builds with using new technology loses revenue and market shares. Comfort, luxury, convenience etc. are more important than energy efficiency for clients. In the future, with increasing awareness of energy efficiency, market rules can be change, for example it can be like automobile industry. There can be some efficiency package and these additional packages are applied to building according to clients wants.

Retrofit and repair are used to improve existing buildings. Every people spend money to integrate new systems or repair old system. Governments give many funds to increase using new systems however most of the people do not intend owing to several reasons. For example, integrating new system causes change any other system in a house. This creates lose time and money unplanned. In addition to these, usually these improvements are supplied small firms and in order to make money, these firms have to keep purchasing and installation cost low so sometime these new systems is not efficient as expected. Actually, energy efficiency upgrades are rarely offered by builders or constructors. One reason of that, people expect quick and high improvements from upgrades however, only one upgrade cannot affect cost directly even if it is perfect systems. As mentioned before, for example, perfect heating system cannot reduce cost alone, effects of efficient heating system on energy consumption can be seen when it works in insulated area. Some other reasons of not offering upgrading energy systems are;

  • New technologies often require new installation procedures, increasing both the time required for installation and the risk of incorrect installation;
  • Their dependability/reliability is unproven;
  • There is perceived risk of consumer dissatisfaction due to poor performance and/or mechanical breakdowns;
  • Current building standards may make innovation difficult (i.e., changes in equipment may require other design changes, further increasing project cost and complexity);
  • The insurance industry often requires that the same materials be used when rebuilding a damaged structure; and
  • There is suspicion and distrust of the energy savings claims of new technologies.

Contractors and other home-repair professionals select and install energy-using equipment in existing residences, and these decisions strongly influence the subsequent energy use of these residences. These decision makers weigh heavily attributes of first cost, reliability, and familiarity, and have few incentives to consider energy efficiency.

Customers' decisions can be divided two types. Firs smaller home appliance such as refrigerator, room air conditioning that customers choose themselves and second larger equipment such as furnaces heat pumps that customers choose product with contractors or outside agents.

When customers buy new system, there are many things that they want, involve paying less money, spending less time to make decision. Reducing energy consumption cannot affect their decision directly. However, energy efficiency can be used to attract customer attention because researches show that an investment in energy efficiency is attractive only if the annual energy savings exceed the additional frost cost within just a few years. There may be other undesirable consider associated with energy efficiency; for example, an energy efficient model of an appliance may be available only with other expensive features that the consumer does not want to purchase. Consumers often do not invest in energy efficiency unless it offers a fairly short payback typically less than 2 years for home appliances.[74]

Analyzing future trends and opportunities for potential savings

World energy consumptions are expected to grow, with fossil fuels remaining the most common source, causing CO2 emissions with dramatic effect on nature. China and India are the emerging energy giants in this unsustainable future. The problems of energy security and climate change are global and require global solutions. Some future estimation is;

  • If energy demand increase rate is constant, consumption would increase 55 percent between 2005 and 2030. Demand reaches 17.7 billion tonnes of oil equivalent, compared with 11.4 billion toes today. About half of the increase in global demand goes to power generation and one fifth to meeting transport needs - mostly in the form of petroleum based fuels.
  • Coal sees the biggest increase in demand in absolute terms, in line with the spectacular growth of the past few years. Its share in world final energy consumption increases from 25% in 2005 to 28% in 2030. Over 80% of the increase in coal use arises in China and India. The share of natural gas increases modestly. Electricity use doubles, its share of final energy consumption rising from 17% to 22%.
  • Some $22 trillion of investment in energy supply infrastructure is needed to meet projected global demand.
  • Developing countries, whose economies and populations are growing fastest, contribute 74% of the increase in global primary energy use. The emerging countries China and India alone account for 45% of the increase. In aggregate, developing countries make up more than half of the global energy market in 2030, compared with only 41% today. [75]

New technologies reduce energy consumption and energy intensity, however it reach pace of growth of populations and also while new technologies provide efficient energy consumption, it increases consumption due to new technologic device. People use more personal electronic device than in past. Total amount of energy consume increases over years. As is seen in the figure 28 after the oil crisis, governments tried to use energy efficiently

These growing rates force people to find out more efficient mean and also find alternative energy resources. For example, U.S. may supply huge amount of energy from biofuels. (Figure 31) By 2020, estimation shows that the world will require about 40 percent more energy than today. This mean 300 million barrels oil-equivalent energy is used every single day. Oil and gas will continue 60 percent of this demand. In future with developments of new technologies, dependence on fossil fuel will be increase and also fossil fuels run out of in 50 years according to “Energy Outlook Report 2003” and also new hybrid machine and works with using non-fossil fuel machine contribute to supply energy and also reduce CO2 emission. (Figure 30)

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