0115 966 7955 Today's Opening Times 10:00 - 20:00 (BST)

Comparison of Economic Growth: Ireland and Luxembourg

Disclaimer: This dissertation has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional dissertation writers. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Ireland's Economic Boom 1

Comparison of Ireland's (1987-2007) Economic Growth to that of Luxembourg (1985-2001).

1.1 Abstract

Ireland's economic transformation from a mere third world agricultural economy to a world-class hi-tech economy remains an issue worth analyzing. As compared to the economic growth of its counterparts in the European Union -for instance Luxembourg in this case- there is a need to analyze a number of factors so as to understand their impact as well as how they engineered economic growth. This thesis employed the library-based method to analyze the economic development of Ireland specifically in the 1990s as compared to Luxembourg. Reason being that although their economies were driven by different industrial fields, the performance trends shared much in common. The thesis also discusses the inter-dynamism between economic development and social change. This analysis is then used to evaluate and predict future prospects of the Irish economy following the year 2008's economic decline due to global economic recession. The findings of this thesis may serve as a reference study for underdeveloped economies to borrow a leaf from. However, the Ireland economic scenario may not duplicate itself if such policies are adopted, but it depicts necessary paradigm shifts in policy-making.

1.2 Introduction

Ireland's economic growth in the 1990s has been the most outstanding among the European league countries. From an entirely agricultural and traditional based economy in the eighteenth century, Ireland transformed courtesy of favorable government policies coupled with a culture of commitment to attain one of the highest Growth Domestic Product in Europe[1]. This transformation was characterized by modern high-tech industries and globally competitive services sector based economy. Many factors came into play over this period to deliver economic recovery success such that by 2007, Ireland's GDP had doubled while its output had increased accounting for approximately 2.1 % of total output within the Euro area.[2] This growth was much higher than Luxembourg's which had clicked an estimated 5%GDP in the period between mid-1980s and 2000.[3] However, Ireland's unprecedented growth stalled in 2008 following the global economic recession unlike Luxembourg which experienced a similar down turn in the 1990s.

Despite this decline in economic growth, Ireland's extensive infrastructure investment, intensified research, innumerable multinational corporations, favorable government policies, political stability, and good human resource from its education institutions guaranteed steadfast economic performance. On the other hand, Luxembourg -a founder member of the European Union- has a moderately growing high-income economy based majorly on the service sector: insurance, banking, a declining steel industry and to some extent agriculture. Luxembourg recorded a budgetary crisis in the 2005/2006 fiscal year at time when Ireland's economic growth was at peak.

1.3 Executive Summary

Ireland's economic success from 1987 to 2007 and the subsequent decline in 2008 have attracted a lot of attention from among both the third-world and developed economies.[4] Just like Luxembourg, Ireland has since the 20th century been on a path towards economic transformation. On the other hand, Luxembourg had already diversified into industrial production particularly steel and wine industry as well as an established banking and insurance industry. Ireland experienced the worst of calamities in its history in 1845: the potato blight which led to a massive crop failure and subsequent famine usually referred to as the ‘Great Hunger'.[5] Ireland has since then been on a path towards economic transformation. In the decades preceding 1845, Ireland had been overly dependent on potato as the staple crop while exporting grains such as oats and barley to other European countries for instance England. It also had labor intensive agricultural production methods before the famine as it was an agricultural economy.

The ‘Great Hunger' awakened the economic consciousness and agricultural dependency of the Irish state. While Ireland was reliant on an agriculture-based economy, Luxembourg was one the first European country to invest in industrial manufacturing. Successive governments in Ireland since 1845 were committed to policy change in a bid to transform the economy and head the country towards a successful economic growth. Subsequently, in mid 20th century, Ireland experienced a high rate of emigration while Luxembourg on the other hand had enjoyed about 18% of foreigners in its workforce which of late rose to 37% in 2001. Based on sector commitment combined with a competent pool of young expertise, Ireland attracted a good deal of large Multinational Corporations (MCNs) in the 1990s.[6]

Before long, Ireland was enjoying an economic boom. [7] Ireland joins Luxembourg as having the best GDP growth in the entire European Union. Compared to Luxembourg which was before the 1st World War enjoying a sustained growth based on an already established industrial sector, Ireland was having a hard time balancing between emigration and economic growth. Having had the best economic growth second to Ireland in the last two decades, Luxembourg has a lot to learn from Ireland with respect to different policies and strategies.[8] Ireland was enjoying an economic boom dependent on the business activities of the MCNs, favorable government policies, good educational institutions, globalization, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) activity, EU membership, Research and Development, Industrial Development Authority (IDA) and the International Finance Service Centre (IFSC). Irrespective of the decline in economic growth, there is hope for Ireland to sustain its position as being the first economy in the European league.

2.1 .1 Facts on Economic transformation

Having evolved in barely more than a generation, Ireland's economic performance has been one of the most outstanding in Western Europe. The economic boom in Ireland was real contrary to some claims that it was just a mere mind figment. Investing in a combination of pragmatism and effective policies, Ireland has been able to nationally transform its economic and social status to being one of the most successful economies doubling its GDP in the period between 1989 and 2007.[9] Thus Ireland joined Luxembourg as having the best GDP growth in the entire European Union. According to Rory, Ireland has successfully transformed its economic and social structures to achieve an exceptional growth and thus a GDP that ranks at one-third above the average of the twenty-five EU member states.[10] Until the 1990s, Ireland was faced by a great emigration of its brightest and best workforce. Luxembourg was in the early 20th century experiencing a great immigration due to available employment opportunities in the Industrial sector -in particular steel industry. This and other situations have since been transformed following the 1990s economic evolution which led Ireland to be referred to as the ‘Celtic Tiger'.[11] Through a modern knowledge based approach to economic growth, Ireland has been able to change its focus from mainly agriculture to a high-tech technology-led economy.

2.1.2 The socio-economic situation of Ireland until 1990 The Agricultural Industry

Before the onset of the unprecedented economic growth in the 1990s, Ireland's economy had been over-reliant on agricultural production with barely any effort addressed to adoption of modern industrial technology approaches. Ireland is credited due to its biodiversity in agriculture. Though it later reformed, there were subsidies effected under the Common Agricultural Policy to protect hedge grow environments by promoting practices that would ensure protection of these environments for agriculture. According to Mitchell, close to a half of Irelands population was engaged in agriculture. Agriculture was through the 20th century a major economic activity such that the country was at some point referred to as the ‘European village'.[12] The agricultural sector contributed to about 30 % of the GDP. Whilst Luxembourg focused on industry, Ireland was focused on production of wheat, barley and potato. According to Helen, agricultural production in Ireland in the 19th century was higher compared to that of Luxembourg.[13] Unlike Luxembourg, Ireland had middlemen in the place of intermediary agents in landlordism.[14] Ireland bears a closer comparison to Luxembourg's economic profile than any other country in the European league. While potatoes were for subsistence, cereals served as the major Irish cash crops. Production was through the cottiers, conacres and laborers tenants system. The Great Famine

Around June 1845, the potato blight struck Ireland. Ireland suffered the greatest impact following the blight since susceptible varieties of potato and on bad crops was cultivated. According to Kenneth, a combination of events specific to Ireland took place: failed crops succession, and the consumption reliance on a system of monoculture which was not applied elsewhere to the same scale.[15] Ireland fate was specific due to the fact that dependency on potato was not as prevalent in the rest of the European countries such as Luxembourg as it was in Ireland. However, following the aftermath of the famine, the potato crop lost its importance as a staple crop. By the 1870s, the aftermath of the famine had considerably reduced the total acreage put under agricultural production as well as the total yield.[16] The famine in Ireland led to the decline in the country's population from about eight to six million as a result of deaths and emigration.[17] Social welfare movements and individuals stepped up to reclaim the dignity of Ireland through their ‘fair share of Ireland' belief against Britain calling for both national and agrarian revolution.[18] This has worked a lot in changing the social perspective which has contributed a lot to the economic development in the years after the famine. Young emigrants formed the cradle of intellectuals who became, the foundation of subsequent social and political movements advocating for Ireland's independence. The Irish Free State

Following independence from the UK in 1922, Ireland was now a free state who through the influence of the already established social welfare movements embarked on a mission to promote socio-economic development through economic nationalism.[19] In a bid to abandon the failed protectionism, the Irish government introduced new policies for free trade, growth, foreign and productive investment. In the1960s, the state assumed more roles in economic growth which resulted into a 32 % GNP growth in that decade and 42% in the following decade.[20] The Openness Policy

As was anticipated, the openness policies established in the early1950s led to a better economic performance in the 1960s as compared to the years preceding this decade. In the spirit of openness, the now free state invested in modern industries through the Industrial Development Authority (IDA). Openness was aimed at increasing both the GNP and the GDP from 4.2 %. [21]This philosophy of openness attracted 350 foreign investors such as Pfizer which started its activities in 1970. However, the openness driven economic growth came at a cost as most of the companies established in Ireland were not competitive in the free trade environment of the 60s and 70s. [22] While Ireland had openness in terms of labor mobility such that its expertise would work in other countries, Luxembourg imported labor to meet its rising demand for industrial labor. After the 1960s Ireland adopted other new strategies of openness. This involved the collaboration of the government, national industrial and economic council, business and other stakeholders.

3.1 The Economic Transformation

Driven by the urge to improve its economic status, Ireland became a member of the EEC in the year 1973. This opened up the Irelands export market to more countries and provided a good opportunity to diversify it markets. EEC's Common Agricultural Policy came in handy to transform the agricultural sector by offering standard prices of product. In the 1970s, the population of Ireland increased by 15% while the country's national income increased at 4 %( sustainable annual rates). Unemployment was also reducing during the time. Having its own board, the state funded IDA -established in 1970- which became influential in driving Ireland to success.[23] This strategy was successful as the state was able to bring on board multinational companies such as Microsoft, Baxter Travenol, Wang, Digital, Warner Lambert, Amdahl, and Merk Shape. Ireland attracted these companies on the basis that it was a potential base for exporting to the wider European market. Notably, by 1975, there were more than 450 industrial establishments owned by foreigners of which most were manufacturing based. [24] With support from other sectors, the government was able to restore industrial peace and break the inflationary wage increases through the 3-years' National Recovery program.[25] During the time, business investment developed whereas public expenditure reduced gradually. By the 1990s, the government had established a platform that offered one of the most comprehensive and advanced digital network in the European continent.

The improved educating system provided a competitive cadre of Irish engineers who, coupled with a high credibility with regards to advanced manufacturing, attracted large MCNs for instance Dell, Microsoft, IBM and Hewlett-Packard. On the dawn of 1990s, Ireland was already on a path towards economic recovery which was enhanced by external factors -technological advancement and globalization. With the 1990s economic success, came in a new level of ambition and global orientation. Experts note that Ireland in the 1990s represented the fastest growing economy in the world. In the period spanning from 1987 to the end of the 20th century, Ireland had achieved a GNP of about 5% rising to 10% in some years. Between 1987 and 2003, unemployment rate significantly reduced from 17 to 4% compared to 20% reduction in the 1990s.[26]

4.1 Economic development and social reforms; strategies

The beginning of economic transformation in Ireland and Luxembourg were initiated through policies that were formulated and developed by both their governments in collaboration with the social sector. In Ireland for instance, National Economic and Social Council (NESC) was entrusted in offering advisory services (particularly in economic matters) and consisted of employers, industrialists, trade unions, civil servants, and farmers. On the other hand, Luxembourg sought both institutional and social-economic based services -for instance Extraordinary Works of General Interest and Anti-Crisis Division. Such institutions were mandated to analyze the status quo of the economy, formulate policies, and implement them.[27].The 19th century and the better part of 20th century -up to 1950s, was witnessed by economic crisis characterized increased rate of unemployment and de-industrialization. The sole goal of NESC was to liberalize the Ireland protectionism and import substitution policies. Even though up to the 1960s, protectionism had seen an increase in employment of labor, it did not foster the necessary development resources in the macroeconomic sector. The import substitution policy adopted by Ireland led to unfavorable balance of payments and conditions were worsened core by the 1950s emigration and the world economic recession of the early 1930s and 1970s. These factors incited the paradigm shift to an outward-focused policy aiming at achieving an export economy through modernizing the domestic industries and attracting foreign multinational investors. The outward industrial policy encompassed both the fiscal and financial perspectives that were provided to both domestic and foreign investors. This new outward economic strategy realized four significant successes in the 1960s, 1970s, and late 1980s: Ireland accomplished comparatively strong economic development and demographic growth; significant paradigm shift of the economy -for instance, whereas in the 1960s the agriculture accounted for approximately 37% of labor employment, it decreased remarkably in 1987 to 14%. This indicated an increased rate of production growth in the agricultural sector; in the late 1960s, the living standards improved; finally, from the late 1980s and the subsequent years -1990s-, consumer goods improved in terms of quality and besides, industries increased their wage rates. Most of the income and wage rates paid by the industrial sector were proportional to what was being offered in the larger UK industries.[28]

Nevertheless, uncertainties came into view because of the success of non-agricultural based industries to generate employment opportunities as some critics argued that, foreign investors posed a stiff competition to the ailing domestic industry. This was in contrast to the NSEC outward oriented strategy to foreign investment and that Ireland was not favored by its location to attract multinational with the focus to expand in Europe. For instance, it was interesting for the case of Transnational Corporations (TNCs) which retained its key business activities at its headquarters compared to the few it initiated in Ireland. Lack of full deployment of business by some industries in Ireland delinked the foreign multinationals enterprises and the domestic industries. Hence, their coherent role in development was weakened. Other alleged fears laid upon the interest of the foreign investors as well what real benefits Ireland as a country would have reaped. Was it only the off-set of unfavorable balance of payments and offer employment opportunities to the surplus labor force? Such fears seemed to turn real after the rate of employment began to decline in a number of years after the entry of multinationals.[29]

The years between 1945 and 1975 the economies of both Ireland and Luxembourg flourished in what was being referred to as “Les trente glorieuses” -baby boom. This increased economic growth led to rise in demand for social needs, labor supply, and stiff competition among political elite. The application of Keynesian's theory -increased borrowing and public spending- facilitated Ireland to maneuver out of the 1974 to 1975 economic recession and recovery fully. However, in the early 1980s, problems arose in the besieged domestic industries and further replicated in the political economy. This was largely caused by unforeseen level of competition paused by the multinational companies[30].

Though both the countries faced such problems, they successfully managed to take advantage their membership in European Economic Community and fully apply its aid -structural funds towards economic development projects. The probable causes of the temporal problems were may be lack of coherence between the society and the macro sector economy, aggravated by differences between: the domestic and international investments; private and public sectors; and national economy and political class. Moreover, by then, there were no institutions to formulate strategic policies that would have solved the problems[31]


5.1.1 Good Exterior Factors Entry of Hi-tech Multinational companies

Irish government targeted multinational companies especially in the Information and Technology as well as chemicals/pharmaceutical sectors and in comparison Luxembourg was fully dependant on its steel industry. In the early 1970s, industrialization was based on ‘industrialization by invitation' policy in Ireland. Though, it was selective invitation, whereby only international companies with emerging advanced technology were targeted, it seemed to work on Irish case to form a hi-technologically driven economy. The policy focused entirely on creating an environment which would have ensured a win-win business environment. IT industry had four segments for investment; micro processing, computer products, printers, and software.

Digital Equipment Corporation - a manufacturing company- pioneered establishing a mini-computer company in Ireland. Consequently, other computer manufacturers followed investing in Ireland and consisted of Amdahl in 1978, and both Apple and Wang 1980. Apart from a few companies, most of them were not completely assembling their products in Ireland but instead, they used to export the sub-assembled products to overseas markets and/or to other company branches. O'Donnell (1998) quoting O'Malley 1981 concedes the perspectives of these industries by writing that Ireland was favored by such business activities because price was and still is an important factor to consider as a product nears maturity. [32] This is further supported by Helleiner who stated that while identifying a location for export-oriented enterprise, look upon closeness to the final market, financial incentives, tax waive, and other subsidies. Such incentive goes a long way in reducing the production costs and maximizing the profit margin. Another school of thought, applicable to Ireland, was the plenty of labor it offered, thus the companies took the advantage of lower labor costs. However, in the late 1980s, some of the industries closed down upon expiring of the grant they had been allocated. This prompted the NESC to seek the services of U.S.A.-based consulting group, Telesis, in assessing the effectiveness of Ireland's industrial strategy. O'Donnell quotes NESC in its report that the study revealed, “Foreign-owned industrial operations in Ireland with few exceptions do not embody the key competitive activities of the businesses in which they participate; do not employ significant numbers of skilled workers; and are not significantly integrated into traded and skilled sub-supply industries in Ireland.”[33] The revelations favored the multinational companies by arguing that the companies had to sub-contract outside companies because the domestic companies lacked the necessary expertise.

Although from 1982 to 1985 the IT industry in Ireland faced many challenges, other multinationals specializing in software products made their entry into Ireland.[34] Renowned companies specializing in software products included; IBM in 1983, Lotus in 1984, Microsoft in 1985, Oracle in 1987, Claris in 1988, Corel in 1989, and Symantec in 199. Besides, EDS which specialized in computing services entered in 1989, Dell and Gateway 2000 were PC producers as well as direct sellers who made entry in 1990 and 1993 respectively. The IT industry received a further major boost when Intel identified Ireland as its central manufacturing area in Europe. Intel is reported to have chosen Ireland due to its geographical location in the European Union, infrastructure -good airports, water and road network meant reduced transport costs, financial incentives provided by Irish government, and the available human resource. According to O'Donnell, Intel had invested over $2.5 billion in Ireland.[35]

On the other hand, the economy of Luxembourg between 1950s and 1970s was characterized by slow growth up to 1960s. A recovery from 1970s economic recession was realized in the period between1985-2001, and a steady economic growth has been witnessed until the late 1990s. Luxembourg's economy was totally dominated by the steel and iron industry in the early 1970s. Due to economic imbalances that the steel industry posed, the country was forced to diversify its policy in the 1950s into other sectors of economy; textiles, rubber, plastics and chemicals. Moreover, the country experienced instability in its economy growth mostly because of the fact that it was a small economy which was subject to many exterior factors[36]. Social Partnership

In spite of the initial remarkable successes that the open policy brought, coupled with other factors such as joining the European Union, socio-economic and political problems emerged in the 1980s. This led to enactment of a policy to brought the country's macroeconomic and European policies together. O'Donnell in his work states that ‘from within this traumatic, but dynamic, experience, there emerged a new perspective on Ireland's position in European integration and a globalizing economy. This was embodied in the social partnership approach to economic and social management, innovative approaches in several policy areas, a resurgent enterprise sector, attuned to the radical changes in international business, and a new cultural confidence to adopt and adapt international influences.[37]

In the mid 1980s, amid the socio-economic problems, stakeholders in the social sector brokered a strategic policy to emancipate the country from the economic meltdown in liaison with the National Economic and Social Council. In 1986, NESC formulated Strategy for Development which formed the foundation upon which the government and the stakeholders in the social sector negotiated a program for National Recovery which run from 1987 to 1990 (NESC, 1986). This became the pioneer strategy of that brought about negotiated social-economic governance in Ireland. Consequently, this strategy for development set out the framework upon which NESC considered the ideologies of social partners in future while formulating new programs - their limits (NESC, 1990). For instance, from 1987 to 1990, a Program for National Recovery (PNR) formulated by NESC brought together employers, trade unions, farmers, and the government in building a consensus on the wage rates in both the public and private sectors. This was a three years' program.[38]

To survive the international competition at the time, gradual growth rate was essential factor in controlling public finances although future economic recovery programs demanded more than setting out wage levels at certain limits. Successive programs encompassed harmonizing socio-economic policies for instance; liberalization of tax policy and welfare payments. In the macroeconomic perspective, players in the field agreed not to involve in activities which could cause devaluation and not to go for devaluation in case of unfavorable externalities. Furthermore, the Program for National Recovery came up with a Central Review Committee which was entrusted with monitoring its implementation and ensuring continual dialogue between stakeholders in the social sector and government on key socio-economic policies.[39]

The trade unions supported modification of public finances in the Program for National Recovery and on the other hand the government agreed to maintain the value of social welfare payments. The Irish government implemented income tax reforms for the benefit of trade union members, amended the labor laws, and maintained the minimum wage rates. These changes were ratified by all the trade union members. Future partnership programs were almost similar and included; Program for Economic and Social Progress (PESP) of 1990-1993, Program for Competitiveness and Work (PCW) of 1994-1996, and Partnership 2000 of 1997-2000. These programs covered an agreed three-year period in which wages were increased bo0th in the public and the private sectors. Similar to Program for National Recovery, they also stipulated commitments in liberalizing taxation policies and recognizing social equity.[40]

The social partnership programs solved Ireland's economic problems that had started to build up in the mid 1980s and they ensured sustenance of economic growth. For instance from the year 1986 to 1996, the Gro0wth Domestic Product grew by an average of 4.9%. In addition, whereas the rate of employment fell by 1.1% on average from 1980 to 1986, it has grown by 1.8% on average since then. The partnership programs also facilitated transformation of the country's public finances. The GDP deficit dropped from to 2.3% in 1994 from 8.5% in 1987 whereas the debt-GDP which stood at 117% in 1986 decreased steadily up to 76% in 1996. O'Donnell quoting NESC (1989) writes that ‘Partnership provided the context in which Ireland maintained low inflation and reaped the benefits of lower interest rates and improving competitiveness.'[41]The Irish social-partnership programs in the mid 1980s molded its socio-economic governance model basically on three key elements: the perception that broad engagement of the social life, economic activities, and policy making could be interlinked; Ireland's competitive involvement in European Union and the global economy in pursuing socio-economic goals; and consistent achievement of macroeconomic policy, incomes and structural adjustments.

The Information Technology-led industrialization of Ireland from the late 1980s marked the transformation of the country's economy to one of the richest in Europe. In the 1990s, the annual GDP of the country averaged to an average of 6.9%. Ireland came to be referred to the Celtic Tiger due to its robust economy.[42] However, the economic success was influenced by a couple of factors, most of which were a derivative of a combination of the vital ones. The fiscal policies which involved reducing expenditure, taxation, borrowing, and the decreasing rates of interest, collectively stimulated the economic growth. Besides, currency devaluation in 1993 also played a key role. Another factor that came to play a vital role is the subsidy that was provided by the European Union. Though it amounted to less than 5%, it added an estimated 0.5% annual GDP in the 1990s and this had a significant effect on Ireland's 6.9% annual GDP.

Nevertheless, the open access which was facilitated by single European market benefited member countries: provision of structural funds facilitated improvement of physical infrastructure -roads, rail, ports, and telecommunications- ; they co-financed the domestic industries; improved the human resource through further training; and injected capital into to aid in marketing, research & development, and design skills[43]

The good geographical location, globalization, European integration and advancement of Information Technology facilitated the economic growth in Ireland tremendously. Up to Ireland has continued to experience a high rate of economic growth, low inflation, a surplus balance of payments, reduced rate of unemployment, and net immigration rate. Thus, Morgan Stanley nicknamed Ireland as the Celtic Tiger due to its lucrative economy in 1994. Questions that have puzzled many people is the ability of the Irish economy to grow significantly in a few decades out from a sluggish economy. The selective investment policy that was adopted by the Irish government has for long been accredited for transforming the Irish economy, but besides its geographical location is worth noting.


In particular to consider, is its closeness to the duo economic tectonic plates of the European Union and United States. Ireland is on a peripheral location to United States and although most of its inhabitants relocated to U.S. it has managed to withstand all economic downturns that have affected U.S and Europe. Globalization has played a key role in artificially placing Ireland at the center of the global economy -most of the multinationals have some of their major manufacturing in Ireland. Of late Ireland is placed second in exportation of computer software after the United States. But this sounds ironical because most of the computer manufacturing companies have U.S.-owned. Other includes major pharmaceutical companies. Murphy states that ‘Ireland has successfully moved from the equivalent of a donkey-and-cart economy to a high-tech economy by leap-frogging over the intermediate hump of industrialization.'[44]

Ireland joined the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1973 and later European Monetary System in 1978. As e result, it experienced a break in the one-to-one parity with the sterling pound in 1979. Hence European integration has been a key factor to Ireland's economic development. In the early 19970s, the agricultural sector of Ireland was suffering due to lack of proper market. The European integration therefore came promising a ready market for Ireland's agricultural products via the Common Agricultural policy. The policy aimed at setting out specific prices for agricultural products to all farmers in European market.

Furthermore, the provision of structural funds -which were European Union regional aid-, was a major boost to the development of Irish economy. The European Union investment policy targeted at designing and implementing strategies aimed at transforming and/or developing the necessary infrastructure for economic development in the developing countries. This way, it prepared them to bear competition that was being posed by the single European Market and Monetary Union. Murphy quotes Barry (1999) by stating that he suggested that the structural funds may have raised the Gross National Product of Ireland by more than 4% above what could have been the normal growth. He further states that during 1990s the structural funds contributed about a half of the annual Gross Domestic Product. Although Ireland was receiving the structural funds from the European Union, it compromised adopting a lower inflation rates and a strong fiscal policy so as to facilitate further integration of the European Economic Community. Germany and France were the pioneer countries to push for reduced inflation rates and fiscal policy.[45]

However, Ireland joined the European Monetary System while it had started discarding the fiscal policy. It is presumed that Ireland joined the European Monetary System hoping that the economic integration would have decreased its inflation rates. As globalization became a reality, Ireland managed to target the European Union market and also another significant impact was the movement of the European and U.S. economic plates towards each other. The Technology driven industrialization in Ireland initiated a hi-tech revolution in the larger European geographical area. Businesses began adopting computer based programs to manage their business and internet services. As the demand increased, Ireland became a business hub and with the advancement of telecommunication industries, companies were able to run businesses right from there. Hence the fact that Ireland was on a peripheral geographical location came to be replaced by the new IT-revolutionalized world.

Another major advantage that Ireland had is the fact that during the 1970s and 1980s, it had managed to attract multinational companies in the hi9gh sectors of computer hardware and software, pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Therefore in the early 1990s, these industries had well established businesses to attract more foreign investors especially from U.S. By then, facilities such as internet, customized computer software and mobile telephone equipment were readily available. Multinationals had been attracted to Ireland by zero-rated tax on manufactured exports and later the 10% rate on corporate tax on manufacturing profits. Lack of well established industry, though it was a disadvantage, favored the Irish government as it was possible to provide tax incentives. In addition, the transfer pricing were made possible by the low rates of tax which is not possible in a well industrialized country.[46]

Murphy writes that ‘Ireland with its low corporate tax rates, its young English speaking and increasingly computer literate labor force, along with its full participation in Europe through the Single European Market and the European Monetary Union, was ideally positioned to act as the pontoon linking the US high-tech companies to the European Union.' Some critics have disputed the reference to Ireland as ‘Celtic Tiger' as a misnomer basing their claims on the number of U.S. multinationals which have invested in Ireland. Some propose that it should be referred to as a ‘U.S. high tech multinational tiger.'[47] The economic success of Ireland may also be attributed to some other intangible assets. It has an intrinsic creativity manifested in arts -literature and music- as well as it has interests in building relationship with others. Besides, politicians in Ireland seem to share a common a common purpose. This political stability in Ireland has since offered a favorable business environment.

Researchers have established that Information Technology is more probable to initiate continual economic growth rather than being involved in Information Technology production activities currently. Ireland succeeded in translating the investment in Information Technology sector into economic benefits by developing other sectors of economy -education and The Irish telecommunications. Government provided the necessary incentives in supporting the manufacturing IT products and this boosted the IT industry in expanding.
5.1.2 Actively Stable Interior Factors

From the 1990s to around 2006, the active stable factors within Ireland had an immense contribution towards the economic development such that the economy rose from a GNP of 6% to 15%. Unlike Luxembourg which was based on the services sector Ireland's economic growth was solely focused on industrialization.[48] Ireland's economic turn occurred a time similar to Luxembourg's even though the stably active factors in Ireland were efficient in sustaining the economic growth pace longer than Luxembourg's. Ireland's economic transformation was most notable beginning 1987 till 2007 while that that of Luxembourg began in mid-1980s lasting to 2000. Same as the high-tech multinationals, Irish' components also played a core role in Ireland's success story. Since the 1960s, Ireland was characterized by a number of successive governments which were committed to the economic well being of the state. These governments were focused on Europeanization approach that sought to correct the failed protectionism policies of the 1950s.

Ireland's economic growth -2009 ESRI estimate (Economic &Social Research Institute, 2009).[49]

Luxembourg's average GDP growth rate (%) in 1985-2001 (STATEC, European Commission).[50]

While Ireland economy was overly driven by the growth in the industrial sector based on an influx of modern industrial technology, Luxembourg was characterized by a competitive and productive though declining industrial sector. With this respect, Ireland's successive governments in return promoted economic openness by changing policy -formulated in collaboration with technocrats. As a result MCNs noted the strategic positioning of Ireland as an export platform from which they could expand their operations.[51] Focus on openness policies was due to the shortfalls of the Control of Manufacturers Act enforced in the 1950s.

As a separate institution from the government's Commerce and Industry Department, IDA had its own board but relied on government funding. According to Diarmaid, IDA was the foremost state agency to have such a commitment towards such a sustained and massive campaign aimed at establishing a modern hi-tech manufacturing platform for foreign investment.[52] While Ireland was solely reliant on the foreign Diaspora and investors for growth, Luxembourg was building on its indigenous industries especially the service sector. Following IDA's activity, numerous MCNs came on board covering all sectors such as: pharmaceuticals, telecommunications and computer software. Having an upper hand in the economic affairs of the state and a thorough knowledge of the developmental need for the Irish state, IDA was able to create strategic first-mover approaches for Ireland.[53] Thus IDA was able to create a balanced portfolio of investors from other countries such that exit or failure of a MCN does not affect the economy adversely. Labor was also very important in Irelands success. Whilst the Irish government was working through departments -such as IDA and International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) - to attract investment and market, Luxembourg was on the other hand focused on strengthening its finance sector. According to OECD economic surveys,

“…the favorable development of different economic sectors, such as business services (whose development has been led partly by financial services), IT services and also transport and communications.”[54]

Ireland lack of procedural regulations (or bureaucracy) ensured quick and easy access by the authorities to the foreign and local investors to solve any matters of concern in their business operations.[55] In a bid to create openness in Ireland, the state focused on appropriate de-regulation in both the telecommunication and transport. For instance, due to de-regulation, Ryanair pioneered the competitive nests in the airline industry via cost reduction and which contributed a lot in terms of returns to the government as well as the airline industry. Moreover, this did improve the image of Ireland both as a tourist destination and a business hub. Following de-regulation in the telecommunication industry, an increased competition resulted -cost cuts lured companies to enter the new market. Such competition saw the exit of long-time monopolistic companies such as Telecom Eirean. The economic growth in Luxembourg was also a function of social security and a reduced global tax rate and to some extent enhanced by a declined public expenditure.

In 1987, the Irish government implemented fiscal retrenchment at a time when it seemed necessary. Two amnesties enhanced this fiscal retrenchment which in turn expanded the base for taxes let alone re-establishing equilibrium in matters relating to public finances.[56] Growth in Luxembourg economy was based on an integration of various internal factors. For instance, most of the growth factors such as global tax rate, low income tax, contributions towards social security, accelerated growth in the financial sector, and the development of the economic were all linked. Luxembourg economy grew based on factors within the country rather than the influence of external factors unlike in Ireland.

Ireland is endowed with a high creativity in music and literature and this has facilitated marketing it to the world. There also exists a curiosity which has been very paramount in establishing relationships with other nations and investors. Ireland has been able to increase the extent to which it is open to the world through trade, attitude and thought.[57] The political environment enjoys stability in terms of consensus building with other sectors. It's noted that the Irish people are to a great extent political but have no ideological differences. They are known to be highly influential and have the ability to empathize since they are solution focused. Internationally, research has shown that the Irish people have through experience learnt to have a greater ambiguity, tolerance and ability to handle circumstances. This was specifically important in the events of the 1990s whereby instinctive solutions were paramount in countering new problems in the midst of imperfect information. [58]

Ireland lacked its own well established economic sectors in the years preceding the 1950s. Since the 19th century, Ireland had been reliant on agricultural production as the major economic activity. However, despite agriculture being the foundation of the economy, not much had been incorporated to improve the sector before the 1950s. It took years for industrialization to take root in Ireland as a reliable sector of the economy. On the contrary, Luxembourg was an industrial economy form as early as the 19th century.[59] Industry was based on the steel and Iron ores in southern Luxembourg. Luxembourg thus had developed as an influential market in Europe and this explains its early membership and founding role in the European Union.

The Ireland government has had a corporate tax lower than any other European country not even Luxembourg.[60] For a period of about 50 years, the industry in Ireland has enjoyed both low absolute tax levels and low taxes on business profits. According to OECD reports, Ireland has the lowest burden on tax with respect to GDP in the Western Europe region. OECD further states that this tax burden is below the OECDs average as a response to the EU's proposal to remove tax advantages imposed earlier on. These low rates have for a longtime been a fundamental Irish policy feature adopted by every successive government. There have been supportive administrative regulations, double-taxation, consensus and a favorable approach to foreign dividends. The impact of the low taxes is manifested by the high level of tax revenue collected from corporate profits. For instance, corporate profit taxes amount to about 13% of the total revenue from taxes while the U.S collects only 6% and UK 7%. In 1987, the government that was elected granted grated all tax defaulters an amnesty thus bring a considerable boost in tax revenue and increased the tax base.[61] This commitment was further illustrated in 1999 following the reduction from 40% to 20% of income tax rate per capital.

Population was an important feature of Ireland economy since the ‘Great Hunger'. Following the famine, many people left Ireland for America given the fact that agricultural production particularly potato cultivation had proved unreliable as an economic activity. First is because the population had drastically reduced trough death and emigration. Secondly, the potato failure and the subsequent reduction in potato cultivation rendered a large part of the population jobless and hence they immigrated to America. During the better part of the 20th century, Ireland faced a sharp decline in population as a result of emigration which continued even in 1950s despite the government policy change. On the other hand, Luxembourg enjoyed influx from other European countries for a better part of 20th century -most because of its well performing steel industry.[62] The industrial sector employed about 40% of the population in Luxembourg. It is only in the 1990s when the Ireland government recalled its young expertise from across the world where they had fled to seeking better jobs. On the other hand, a great deal of Luxembourg labor force was composed greatly by foreign expertise. For instance, 12.9 % of Luxembourg populations in 1922 were foreigners and this number increased further to 18 in 1970 and 37% by 2000.

5.1.3 Education

In a period of about 40 years, human capital has been an important resource in Ireland. Following the 1996 OECD's Investment in Education, education has always played a key role in formulating development policies in Ireland. In 1968, the government introduced free secondary education as well as advanced training in regional technical colleges as a development policy. The idea of education in the 1970s and 1980 was specifically very influential in the state affairs such that in the 1990, there was a considerable cadre of young intellectuals in Ireland. In comparison, Luxembourg was lagging far much behind Ireland in terms of education. The numbers of those enrolled in high schools and third level colleges by the year 2000 had increased tremendously resulting into a six fold increase in a span of not more than 35 years.[63] Quality of learning was a major concern was relevance of this education was to contribute to the social and economic development and to business as well. With this respect, technical and vocational subjects were increased particularly in Regional Technical colleges.[64]

Attention was also put to improve training in engineering, business studies and science in various institutions of high learning -for instance universities. Despite criticism that Ireland was training its young people for other countries, due to the 1980s emigration, the country had the most appropriate expertise in the next decade following a change in state policies. Ireland had a dual or binary system in which institutes and colleges provided vocational or technical skills while the universities were charged with the risk of fulfilling a fundamental academic mission. [65]During the economic boom period particularly, these institutions were very responsive to regional; and local business needs. Ireland is well endowment with high number of young engineering and science graduates. For instance, per every thousand graduates, six-teen were in the 20-34 years age bracket while U.S had only about seven per thousand.[66] Following increased competition in Ireland in the 1990s, the education system has continued to emphasize on molding research and development expertise. This resulted after the findings of a technology foresight analysis done by the government which identified biotechnology, Information communication and Technology as the key determinants for future economic growth.[67]

Following these recommendations the government has established the Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) which has brought on board, world class research expertise. Besides, an increased government funding has attracted innumerable foreign multinational investors into the country. The high foreign population in Luxembourg was a drawback to education since most of these foreigners had come to work rather than study. For instance, the rate of schooling in the age ranging from 20-24 years clicked 35% which was much lower compared to 15-19 years age bracket that stood at 82.1%. Thus, there was a high rate of dropping out of school. This government had invested fully into education like Ireland did from the 1960s. This later worked in favor of Ireland when its cradle of young experts became the economy drivers.


6.1 Future Prospects on Ireland's Economic Growth

Ireland's economic growth experienced enormous challenges in the year 2008 having demonstrated a stunning performance from 1990s to 2007. Ireland's recent success may not promise assurance for a sustained economic growth in Ireland. Business and industry structures and models are rapidly changing thus necessitating new strategies in the manner of conducting business. Ireland has experienced this change through the large pool of leading edge MCNs and other corporations. These large corporations of which some operate virtually, have as a result of changing global trends moved ahead to undermine established operations in Ireland. Following the global recession, businesses as well as countries have had to change their strategies by reinventing themselves at a considerably accelerated rate. Ireland is currently faced with the challenge of adjusting and anticipating promptly to the changes in the global economy.

Same as other developed countries, Ireland has had to focus attention to the ever increasing knowledge -based operations in order to facilitate successful business of the future as well as sustain high-income and value employment. This focus will bring about an economic transformation necessary to counter the challenges presented the economic recession. As noted earlier, this transformation will further help Ireland to handle the task of adjusting and anticipating to global challenges. Ireland has considerable confidence founded on the country's recent economic excellence together with responsiveness and coherence it has exhibited in meeting the conditions of international business.[68] According to Frank, Ireland will remain to be an European economic giant despite the decline in its economic growth.[69] Moreover, Ireland has remained ambitious and has in turn moved to invest in ever relevant and high-level performance expertise. This is in part enhanced by the intensified investment in world class research through the Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) which is structured in relation to the U.S based National Science Foundation(NSF). This is especially meant to be successful basing on the public understanding of the value and relevance of this research initiative.

Based on OECD reports, Ireland has in the past decade outdone the rest of the industrialized countries in the European league in annual average growth which is about 2-3 times more.[70] Independent economic experts have suggested that Ireland's economy will remain to be the greatest among the OECD countries despite the decline in its economic growth in the past few years. This means Ireland will retain its position as one of the leaders in growth. Economists have noted that Ireland has had a global perspective as a trading nation. Statistics from the A.T Kearny international consultants on the Globalization Index identified Ireland as being the most globalized economy between 2002 and 2004 having the highest level of economic integration as compared to other developed economies.[71] Low taxes, intensified investment in education, ambition, pragmatism, economic openness and a renewed focus into the future through an established world class research are sure steps that will get Ireland of its feet towards the restoration of its economic growth glory. Moreover, favorable policy formulation and experience available will go a long way in maintaining the economy of Ireland as the first among the OECD and European league countries.

7.1 Summary

Luxembourg has a lot to learn from Ireland with respect to its economic growth. The growth pattern was almost similar taking place at basically the same time. Ireland economic boom set forth beginning 1987 and this growth lasted until 20007 while Luxembourg growth began in 1985 and lasting up to the 2000. Similarly, the two countries have had their fare share of crises. Luxembourg experienced economic crises in 1975 to 1985 and at the same time Ireland was hit by economic in crisis. Ireland had invested extensively in education and foreign investment unlike Luxembourg which had invested in foreign labor force and local services industry. Thus it's evident that institutions such as education and open macroeconomic policies had an immense impact to Ireland's economy growth. Thus, if Luxembourg could have invested in such sectors, there would have been expertise to take care of economic crisis it experienced. Ireland on the hand, ought to have focused on industrialization earlier which would have enabled it avoid economic meltdown it faced.


Agriculture and Rural Development. European Commission. "CAP Reform - A Long-term Perspective for Sustainable Agriculture". Retrieved on 26th February, 2010 from http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/capreform/index_en.htm

Antoin, E., Murphy. The ‘Celtic Tiger'- An Analysis of Ireland's Economic Growth. 2000

Antoin E. Murphy. Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies: The ‘Celtic Tiger' - An Analysis of Ireland's Economic Growth Performance (European University Institute. Badia Fiesolana, 2000) RSC No. 2000/16

Performance. Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies. Italy: European University Institute.

Barry, Frank (ed). Understanding Irelands Economic Growth. London: Macmillan. 1999

Brendan Walsh and Anthony Leddin, The Macroeconomy of Ireland (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1992

Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. Background Note: Ireland. US Department of State. (2008.Retrieved on 26th February, 2010 from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3180.htm.

Cecil, Woodham-Smith. The Great Hunger: Ireland 1845-1849. New York: Signet. 1964

Central Statistics Office (CSO), Statistical Abstract 1997, Stationery Office: Dublin, 1998b.

Clancy, Patrick, Sheelagh, Drudy, Kathleen, Lynch & Liam O'Dowd . Irish Society: Sociological Perspectives. Institute of Public Administration. 1997

Cormac, O'Grada. A Rocky Road: The Irish economy since the 1920s. Manchester University Press. 1997

Curtis, Edmund. A History of Ireland from Earliest Times to 1922. New York: Routledge. 2002

Daly, Mary E. Social and Economic History of Ireland since 1800. 1981.

Diarmaid, Ferriter. The Transformation of Ireland 1900-2000. London: Profile. 2004

Dedrick, J. and K. L. Kraemer, Asia's Computer Challenge: Threat or Opportunity for the U.S.? Oxford University Press, 1998

Dermot, Keogh. Twentieth Century Ireland: Nation and State. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. 1994

Economic and Social Research Institute.(2009). Irish Economy. Retrieved on 27th February, 2010 from

Edwards, R., Dudley & Desmond, T., Williams (eds.). The Great Famine: Studies in Irish history 1845-52.Lilliput Press.

Ellis, Steven, G. The Story of the Irish Race: A Popular History of Ireland. Ireland: The Irish Publishing Co. 1921

Eoin O'Malley, ‘The Decline of Irish Industry in the Nineteenth Century', Economic and Social Review, Vol. 13, No.1, 1981.

Eoin O'Malley, ‘Problems of Industrialization in Ireland', in J.H. Goldthorpe and C.T. Whelan (eds.), The Development of Industrial Society in Ireland (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992

Eoin O'Malley, Industrial Policy and Development: A Survey of the Literature from the Early

1960s (Dublin: National Economic and Social Council, 1981

Eoin O'Malley, ‘Foreign Owned Industry in Ireland: Performance and Prospects', Medium Term Outlook No1. (Dublin: Economic and Social Research Institute, 1986

Fanning, Ronan. The Irish Department of Finance. 1978.

Foster, Robert, Fitzroy. Modern Ireland, 1600-1972. Penguin Books. 1988

Frank, Barry. “Tax Policy, FDI and the Irish Economic Boom of the 1990s,” Economic Analysis and Policy Queensland, Australia. Vol. 33, No. 2 pp. 221-236. 2003

Freeman, Philip. Ireland and the Classical World. Austin: University of Texas Press. 2001

Gray, Alan. (ed). International perspectives on the Irish economy. Dublin: Indecon. 1997

Helen, Litton. The Irish Famine: An Illustrated History. Wolfhound Press. . 2006

Higgins, Wyndham, Andrew. Re-imagining Ireland. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. 2006

John Bradley. From Agriculture to Software in Three Decades: Ireland's catch-up Within the European Union. The Economic and Social Research Institute

Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved on 26th February, 2010 from www.esri.ie

John, H, Whyte. Church and State in modern Ireland 1923-79. Dublin: Gill and MacMilla. 1984

Joe, Lee. Ireland 1912-85: Politics and Society. U.K: Cambridge University Press. 1989 Jill & Leon Uris. Ireland: A Terrible Beauty. New York: Bantam Books. 2003

Kennedy, Kieran A., Thomas Giblin, and Deirdre McHugh. The Economic Development of Ireland in the Twentieth Century. 1988.

Kennedy, Liam. The Modern Industrialisation of Ireland, 1940-88. 1989.

Kenneth, Charlton. The State of Ireland in the 1820s: James Cropper's Plan. Irish Historical Studies Publications Ltd. 1971

Kinealy, Christine. This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine 1845-52. Gill & Macmillan. 1995 Lee, J. J. Ireland, 1912-85: Politics and Society. 1989.

McCarthy, John. “Foreign direct investment: An overview”, Central Bank of Ireland Quarterly Bulletin. Winter. 1999

McCarthy, John F., ed. Planning Ireland's Future: The Legacy of T. K. Whitaker. 1990.

Michael, Turner. After the Famine: Irish Agriculture, 1850-1914. Cambridge University Press. 2002

Murphy, Antoin, E. The Irish Economy-Celtic Tiger or Tortoise. Dublin: MMI. 1994

Murphy, Antoin. E. The Celtic Tiger- The Great Misnomer: Economic Growth and The Multinationals In Ireland In The 1990s, Dublin, MMI. 1998

NESC, Ireland in the European Community: Performance, Prospects and Strategy (Dublin: National Economic and Social Council, 1989), Chapter 17; Rory O'Donnell, ‘The Regional Issue', in Rory O'Donnell (ed.) Economic and Monetary Union (Dublin: Institute of European Affairs, 1991

NESC, A Review of Industrial Policy (Dublin: National Economic and Social Council, 1982);

NESC, Policies for Industrial Development: Conclusions and Recommendations (Dublin: National Economic and Social Council, 1982) and Eoin O'Malley, ‘The Performance of Indigenous Industry: Some Lessons for the 1980s', in Jim Fitzpatrick, and John Kelly (eds.), Perspective on Irish Industry (Dublin: Irish Management Institute, 1985

NESC, A Strategy for Development 1986-1990 (Dublin: National Economic and Social Council, 1986

NESC, Ireland in the European, Community: Performance, Prospects and Strategy (Dublin: National Economic and Social Council, 1989

NESC, A Strategy for the Nineties: Economic Stability and Structural Change (Dublin: National

Economic and Social Council, 1990); NESC, A Strategy for Competitiveness, Growth and Employment (Dublin: National Economic and Social Council, 1993); NESC, Strategy into the 21st Century (Dublin: National Economic and Social Council, 1996); NESC, Strategy into the 21st Century: Conclusions and Recommendations (Dublin: National Economic and Social Council. 1996

Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. "Population and Migration Estimates Northern

Ireland (2008)". Belfast: Department of Finance and Personnel. 2008. Retrieved on 26th February, 2010 from http://www.nisra.gov.uk/archive/demography/population/midyear/mye_report_2008.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-11

O'connel, Tom & Quinn, Terry. “Recent Property Price Development: An Assessment”, Central Bank of Ireland Quarterly Bulletin. Winter. 1999

O'Croinin, Daibhi. Prehistoric and Early Ireland. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press 2005

OECD. Economic Surveys: Ireland. 1999

OECD. OECD Economic Surveys: Luxembourg 2006. 2006. Retrieved on 26th February, 2010 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=5CMnuPGggY8C&pg=PA24&dq=comparison+of+economic+growth+between+Ireland+and+Luxembourg&cd=2#v=onepage&q=&f=false

O'Grada, Cormac. Ireland: A New Economic History. Oxford. 1994

O'Hart, John. Irish Pedigrees: or, The Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation. Dublin: J. Duffy and Co. 1892

Paul Sweeey, The Celtic Tiger: Ireland's Economic Miracle Explained (Dublin: Oak Tree Press, 1998.

Peter, Gray. “The Irish Famine”. Discoveries. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc. 1995.

Rhode Island AOH State Board. The Significance of the 'Great Hunger' on the Development of Ireland. Retrieved on 27th February, 2010 from http://www.aohrhodeisland.org/great_hunger.htm#.

Richard, Killen. A Short History of Modern Ireland. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan Ltd. 2003.

Rory O'Donnell. (December, 1998). Ireland's economic transformation: industrial policy, European integration and Social Partnership. Retrieved on 26th February, 2010 from www.pitt.edu/~wesnews/EUCenter.

Rouse, Paul. Ireland's Own Soil: Government and Agriculture in Ireland, 1945-65. 2000.

Sean, Dorgan. “How Ireland Became the Celtic Tiger. Backgrounder. 2006. Retrieved on 27th

February from file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/My%20Documents/Downloads/IRELAND_2_1945.cfm.htm.

STATEC. Luxembourg. 2003. Retrieved on 26th February, 2010 from http://www.portrait.public.lu/en/introduction/index.html

Sweeney, Paul. The Celtic Tiger Irelands Economic Miracle Explained. Dublin: Oak Trees press. 1998

Terence, Brown. Ireland: A Social and cultural history 1922-85. London: Fontana. 1981

Whitaker, T., K. Economic Development. Dublin: Stationery Office. 1958

[1] Paul, Sweeney. The Celtic Tiger: Ireland's economic miracle explained. (Dublin: Oak Tree Press. 1998). P. 124

[2] Barry, Frank (ed). Understanding Ireland's Economic Growth. (London: Macmillan). 1999. P. 47

[3] OECD. OECD Economic Surveys: Luxembourg 2006. 2006. Retrieved on 26th February, 2010 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=5CMnuPGggY8C&pg=PA24&dq=comparison+of+economic+growth+between+Ireland+and+Luxembourg&cd=2#v=onepage&q=&f=false

[4] Curtis, Edmund. A History of Ireland from Earliest Times to 1922. (New York: Routledge). 2002. p. 49.

[5] Curtis, Edmund. A History of Ireland from Earliest Times to 1922. (New York: R

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Request Removal

If you are the original writer of this dissertation and no longer wish to have the dissertation published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal:

More from UK Essays

Get help with your dissertation
Find out more