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India's Culture, History and Economy

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Executive Summary

Historical/Geographical background

With traces of Human life dating back over 9000 years, India can be described as one of the oldest nations in the world. This brief analysis looks at the construction of a major European trading post and the downfall of the colonies as well as looking at how the current trends in populace are helping India develop into one of the world's newest major powers.

Type of government and State system employed

Indian politics are described as a very grey area. What is construed as a democracy by the constitution is in reality a democracy where the people repeatedly vote in the same corrupt leaders. It is a country run by money and its idea of democracy needs to change drastically if India has any chance of catching up with the powerful G8 nations.

Relationship with neighbouring countries

India's relationship with neighbouring countries varies completely from Pakistan their arch rival due to different aspects from religion to ownership of land. To their relationship with China which has dramatically changed from warring neighbouring countries to making 'friends' with each other and co-operating with one and other.

Judicial system

India's court system appears to be at fault. Terrorism is becoming increasingly frequent but punishment for such crimes is minimal. Although the court system is attempting to pass laws to eliminate crime, the government is failing to implement them efficiently and the corrupt police forces overlook these laws.


Religion within India is widely spread and very important to the people of India. Instead of having the usual class system, India has a caste system and as soon as somebody is born they are put into rankings according to the caste system.


India's culture is one of the oldest and most unique. It is unlike any other culture in the world and each region of the country possesses its own distinctive cultural niche. Cultural diversity is reflected through India's exciting traditional clothing and highly respectful family values.

Health, welfare and education

The healthcare in India has developed dramatically over the years from hardly any at all to a national health service; even though this is available many of the higher class population choose to seek private centres. Welfare in India differs from the cities where tourism is popular to the villages were at particular months, times can be a struggle. Education is very popular in the cities where the government can provide help, on the other hand, in the outer villages education is scarce.

Government and Media

Indian Press, TV, Radio and Internet media are all explored in this section. It explains quick growth of Indian media sector and how it came across Governments will to control it.

Economic climate

Currently India is doing very well itself and is in a boom state rather than a bust in comparison with many other countries. India has many imports and exports e.g. diamonds and fuel. India has some main trading partners that are America and China.

Political Diplomacy

India is a powerhouse in terms of their involvement in European relations. Relationships with neighbouring countries such as Pakistan are hostile but Bhutan and China are both working closely with India to improve trade routes.


In our group assignment, the question we were given to answer was 'How can we accurately define the 21st century nation state with regards to the country India. This report consists of research into many different aspects of India including,

  • Historical/geographical background and demographics,
  • The type of government and state system employed,
  • The nation state, relationship with neighbours,
  • Judicial system,
  • Importance of religion/class/caste,
  • Culture and Ideology,
  • Provision of welfare/education,
  • Relationship of media and the Indian government,
  • The modern economy.

During this project, we will explore deep in to India as a country, to gain extensive knowledge, to help us to understand more about their life and culture enabling us to complete our report. Each section of the report will be researched in depth and the most important and relevant parts picked out and used to show our understanding and knowledge of India. This will then enable us to piece together everyone's individual work and produce an overall project.

The report will be created to the best of all our abilities, as it is a group project we will obviously be working together to complete the work. However, not only will we have to work together but we will also each have to do our own individual piece regarding our country, India. The information and the images e.g. diagrams that we will use in the report will be appropriately referenced in the bibliography along with any other relevant information we find.

Historical background of India

The Earliest know traces of life in India can be found as Stone Age rock shelters with paintings. These can be found in Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh. The first known settlement was traced back to over 9000 years ago. This settlement developed into the Indus Valley Civilization, which dates back to 3300 BCE in the western province of India. (http://www.harappa.com/indus/indus1.html) During the 16th Century India was used a major trading post to the far east by the Major European powers such as; the UK, Portugal, the Netherlands and France.

During the later half of the 16th century colonies were set up in India aided by the countries internal conflicts. By 1856, India was mostly under the control of the British East India Company. (http://india.gov.in/knowindia/history_freedom_struggle.php) Within a year India would be brought under direct rule of the British Crown. These events are some of the major factors, which have helped India to develop into a developing nation faster than a lot of its surrounding 3rd world neighbors. In my opinion India would not have been considered a developing nation for some time without the early introduction to European trading and industry, which are now the foundation to a thriving economy along with other factors such as the huge population and modern investment.

By the 20th Century India was ready for freedom and a struggle for nationwide independence ensued. The Indian National Congress as well as some other political organizations led the struggle. Infamous Indian Leader Mahatma Gandhi led millions of Indian people through non-violent campaigns for freedom. (http://www.kamat.com/mmgandhi/mkgtimeline.htm) On 15 August 1947, the nation of India was declared as free from British rule. At the same time as the gained there independence, some mostly Muslim areas where partitioned to Pakistan. (http://english.emory.edu/Bahri/Part.html) India became a republic on the 26th of January 1950 and the new constitution came into power. (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html)

Geographical background of India

The seventh largest country in the world India is guarded from the rest of Asia by ranges of mountains and vast seas. This gives India a palatable geographical actuality. Spanning an area of 32,87,2631 Km square, India shares its borders with Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Bhutan, China and Kashmir. India has Borders with the Indian Ocean to the South West and Bay of Bengal to the South East with a coastline including non-mainland islands of 7,516.5 km. http://www.indiabook.com/india-information/indian-geography.html A lot of India's strengths today can be attributed to its size. With size come resources and the power to export.

Demographical background of India

India has an estimated population of 1.2million people. (http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf) This Makes India the 2nd most populated country in the world. I believe that we can attribute some of India's success and a growing nation to this. For example, their massive GDP that has been climbing steadily could be accredited to the cheap work force that they are able to get their hands on. With the labor cost in India being cheaper India has found that Developed nations have taken an interest in using that cheap labor. This Investment from other countries has also helped India leave its neighbors behind. In recent years the population has risen sharply. It has been claimed that this is due to the recent advancements in medicine. I agree that this is an attributing factor and India's aging population could be a problem for the in the very foreseeable future. But as it stands with its huge population India can only become more powerful as they advance technologically and strive to catch up with 'Western' nation.

Indian Politics

There isn't a more populated democracy in the entire world than India. (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/country_profiles/1154019.stm) India also boasts the longest constitution by any independent nation. This exhaustive constitution was initiated on the 26th of January in 1950. The constitution outlines India as a Secular, Socialist, Sovereign and Democratic republic. ("Identities and the Indian state: An overview") India adopted, beneficially, a parliamentary government but has shifted to a much more federal style in the 1990's due to internal social and economical change. The constitutional head of the Indian government is the president. He is elected by an 'electoral college' and should serve a maximum of five years with out being re-elected. All real power in the country is shared between the President of India and the Council of Ministers. (http://www.tradechakra.com/india-political-system.html) On paper India is considered a very typical democracy. In reality voters keep voting for corrupt leaders. Democracy in India faces threats from leaders such as Abu Salem, who has recently requested to contest in elections. Abu Salem, and extradite of Portugal would almost certainly use his position of power to initiate hate campaigns against Hindus backed by his pseudo-secular followers. This puts forward the question, does democracy ever work? Thomas Jefferson once said, "A democracy is nothing more than mob rule, where fifty-one percent of the people may take away the rights of the other forty-nine". Is the majority decision the correct one? Some people would say that Indian politics doesn't work as a democracy, but if you were to compare them with Pakistan who have a very similar democracy to India, 'On Paper'. In reality you would find that Pakistan has a much more corrupt government than India. This would suggest that the Indian system is a working democracy to some extent; to the extent perhaps that any democracy works.

Relationship with Neighbouring countries

Pakistan & India

Ever since 1947 when the British government went in and dismantled India as a country they have been arch rivals and even over the many years it has shown that they still do not get along. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/south_asia/2002/india_pakistan/timeline/default.stm These arguments go deep into religion and history the state of Jammu and Kashmir, and whom they actually belong to. Pakistan and India have not yet managed to agree on power over the equal equation in south Asia. An undeclared war broke out in 1947 between the two countries over the state of Kashmir; this was the first of three extreme conflicts that the countries have had with each other. On July 18th, both of the countries signed the Karachi Agreement establishing a ceasefire line that was supervised by the United Nations. This left Pakistan, India and China part of the land. Most of the tension between the two nations comes from a long history of conflict, through religion and ownership of land, ending up as a nuclear competition. http://www.ignca.nic.in/ks_41061.htm Each trying to push the other country to back down, one of the countries needs to take the first step to a harmonious relationship or things seem set to only get worse for themselves.

China & India

China and India have had a completely different relationship with one and other, they are very similar in many different ways, both of the countries had to fight for their countries freedom and have been allies in war. However, the change in new world has managed to alter India's perspective of China and their true intentions. China's military has had a rapid growth and this begins to worry India in several ways. China has always used their military forces to gain control of different aspects of their culture, for example for the fight for their freedom they used their armed forces to complete a gruelling task to fight until the end to obtain their goal. India went down the opposite route of using non-violent demonstrations to gain their achievements. So naturally, the development of the Chinese army has begun to worry India. Although these http://iaps.cass.cn/xueshuwz/showcontent.asp?id=262two approaches are completely different, both have seen success in their relationship, with one and other and other countries. By keeping there tactics the same, they now in the 21st century are aiming for the same goals of maintaining Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence around the world. I believe that India and china will continue to keep a harmonious relationship with one and other even with their different views on appropriate action so far they have managed to keep a friendship going and will continue this, using each other's strengths to help themselves.

Indian Judicial System

How does it work?

The Supreme Court of India is the uppermost part in the Indian legal system, consisting of a Chief Justice and 25 associate justices, who are appointed by the President. Under The Supreme Court of India, each state or group of states possesses High Courts and there are several subordinate courts under these High Courts. As of the 1960's, Indian eliminated the use of juries for most trials as they were deemed ineffective and corrupt and opted for the majority of trials to be conducted by judges (www.indiafacts.headlinesinindia.com & www.wikepedia.com).

Does India have a fair and working police and court system?

From research, I have found much primary data that shows me India's police and court system appears to be working ineffectively. Terrorism is rife in India and the most recent attack was the Mumbai bombings in November 2008. These were a series of attacks, lasting three days, on some of India's most famous landmarks, notably the Taj Mahal Palace and Tower. The attacks resulted in the death of more than 170 people. According to the Amnesty International Report ''the government tightened security legislation and set up a federal agency to investigate terrorist attacks''. However, the laws put in place failed to materialize and despite 70 death sentences, no executions took place. This suggests to me that the court system is failing in their attempts to improve the country and perhaps not enough effort is being put on important laws, such as punishing terrorists. (http://thereport.amnesty.org/en/regions/asia-pacific/india)

Furthermore, a report released by Human Rights Watch on August 4th 2009 gives an in-depth 118-page account of a range of human violations committed by the police in India. The report is based on interviews with police officers and over 60 members on the public who have first-hand experience of the police forces unprovoked and unnecessary violence. One individual describes how he was tortured in an attempt to force a confession out of him. He describes how he was repeatedly beaten with a wooden stick until he nearly fainted.

''India is modernizing rapidly, but the police continue to use their old methods: abuse and threats. It is time for the government to stop talking about reform and fix the system.'' (http://thereport.amnesty.org/en/regions/asia-pacific/india)

This quote from Brad Adams, the Asia Director at Human Rights Watch shows how feels that the police system is not working and that the government need to do something about it.

Is the court system to blame for the corrupt police system?

According to the report, in 2006, The Supreme Court of India judgment attempted to improve police laws. However, the implications of these laws were poorly put into practice. The article implies that officials do not view the need for police and human rights reforms at an urgent matter and are satisfied for it to continue as it is.

"India's status as the world's largest democracy is undermined by a police force that thinks it is above the law."

This is another quote from Brad Adams, revealing that the Supreme Court of India's efforts have been overlooked by a policing system that chooses to ignore the law. (http://www.hrw.org/node/84730) From research, I have learnt that India's police and court system appears to be failing. Although there seems be attempts to make new laws the process of putting them into practice is poor and ineffective.


India is a very religious country and the main religion that is followed in this country is Hinduism, 83% of the population of India is Hindu (http://www.incredibleindia.org/newsite/cms_Page.asp) and therefore obviously it is a very important subject. Religion in India plays a huge part and is often a way of life for the people who live in India and is something they relate to every day. Although Hinduism is the main religion there are many others with Islam been the second biggest religious group in India, "Muslims number over a billion globally, spread among many different countries, ranging from the Middle East and Africa to areas now part of Russia and extending as far as China and Malaysia in East Asia. They make up the majority of the population in 30 countries and large minorities in other" (Book-The international Business Environment, 2nd Ed. Janet Morrison 2006, Palgrave, Macmillan Page 182) and others including Christianity, Sikhism and Buddhism.

As religion is a way of life for the average person living in India they eat, sleep and breathe their religion because it is very important to them and this is what they live for. There are aspects of all religions within India that have become very common, the most recent of these aspects is the food and dance festivals that the people have to celebrate certain timesof the year within each religion. However because a large population of India go to these festivals regardless of their religion each actual religion has its own beliefs, heroes and culinary specialties (http://www.squidoo.com/indian-religions). This shows that no religion is the same despite the fact that they celebrate the same religious and cultural events.

India has a caste system that is a hierarchical system within their society http://www.indianchild.com/caste_system_in_india.htm, the system is used for almost everything and puts people in a ranking order depending on certain qualities which each individual has e.g. wealth, relatives. This system seems very important because it is used to help identify who is of more worth and who should be looked at differently with regards to the caste system.

It becomes easy to see who is where in the ranking and if you are at the lower end of the hierarchical caste system it is likely that people will act differently towards that person compared to if they were of a higher ranking. The extent of the impact will depend upon how severe the caste system is and how much people judge each other in relation to the system. I don't believe it is fair to judge and make opinions on people just based on the caste system that they use in India, however it happens and so the people of India have to cope with it.

As there is a caste system the Indian people obviously class people according to things like wealth and power. This in my opinion shows that they have a class system and there will be a lower class who have the basic job and basic wages, the middle class who have the better paid jobs and the better power and then there is the ultimate higher class who most people will aspire to be because they are the wealthiest people among the classes and they have the power and the most powerful contacts and relationships. However most countries do class people according to how much money and power they have and this is unlikely to change any time soon.


India is renowned for possessing one of the richest and most unique cultures in the world. Each regions culture enjoys its own individual features, demonstrating great cultural diversity throughout the country. It would be difficult to identify any culture in the world that possesses the variation and individuality that Indian culture does. In this section of the assignment, I intend to explore some of the distinctive features of Indian culture, namely family values, clothing and dance.

So what is culture?

''The term culture refers to a state of intellectual development or manners. The social and political forces that influence the growth of a human being are defined as culture.'' (www.indianchild.com)

Distinctive features of Indian culture

Family Values

Traditional family values remain similar in all regions of India, despite the rich cultural diversity. A common belief among Indians is that children are a gift from God, boys being the more favourable sex as they can earn money to support the family. (www.essortment.com/all/familyindianli_rvuy.htm) Traditional family values are highly respected and a vast majority of Indians have their marriages arranged for them by their parents or other highly regarded family members. In India, marriage is thought to be for life and therefore the divorce rate is extremely low. According to statistics, (www.divorcemag.com) the divorce rate in the United Kingdom was 42.6% as a percentage of marriages, whereas India was only 1.1%; this huge difference reiterates that Indian family values believe marriage is for life.


Traditional Indian attire exudes ethnic charm through the bright, rich colours and style and material can vary depending on the geographical location. For women, a draped garment called a sari is popular and an embroidered dress called a salwar kameez. Similarly, men wear a draped garment called a dhoti or a lungi. Also popular for men are European-style trousers and shirts. From research, when I think of Indian clothing I instantly visualise radiant and exciting colours. I think this is reflective of India's rich and unique culture as there are not many other countries in which traditional clothing is so exciting. The picture shows a woman in traditional Indian salwar kameez, the embroidery detail on the dress along with the vibrant colours suggests to me a lot of effort goes into their clothing and shows that clothing is a significant part of their culture.


Dance forms are divided into two categories; classical and folk. Classical usually aim to convey a spiritual message, whereas, folk dances are mainly used as part of celebrations. Like other aspects of Indian culture, dance forms are equally unique and vary across the regions. 'Bharatnatyam' is the most renowned dance from the South, as significant as a dance form it is viewed almost as a religion to many who revere it. I get the sense that dance is a highly significant part of Indian culture if it can be regarded to some people as important as religion.

From family values, clothing and dance to their unique monuments and religions, I have found the culture of India to be diverse among regions and extremely interesting to learn about. It is notably dissimilar to any other country I am familiar with.


Health care was changed substantially between the 1950's and the 1980's; however, this managed to cause a large boost in population growth causing the number of practises per person to be at an extreme low. In 1991, India had about 22,400 primary health centres, 11,200 hospitals and 27,400 dispensaries. (http://www.indianchild.com/health_care_in_india.htm) They managed to produce a tiered health care system that placed more difficult cases into the urban hospitals while attempting to provide medical care for most of the cases in the countryside; this seems quite significant because most of the Indian population live in villages in the outer areas.

Many of the hospitals were owned and managed by charitable trusts, and received some payment from the government, while the rest of the hospitals were managed by private trusts. Many of the medical equipment needed for the hospitals was limited as the money needed to by the products was scarce in the early 1990's. By 1992, however, most of the privately owned hospitals were part of the government scheme for colleges and contained enough medical equipment to treat all major types of diseases including cancer. (http://www.indianchild.com/health_care_in_india.htm) India has a free treatment at public health centres on the other hand however most of the public prefer to pay money for treatment by private physicians. This seems interesting as India is not known as a rich country so paying for treatment rather than take the free care seems to be a bit of a luxury, on the other hand, it shows that the standard of national free health care must be at a poor standard.


In the case of welfare India is the same as everywhere else depending on its income to help it succeed. However, in India there are two scenarios with the richer parts of India's population have no problem at all maintaining healthy living constantly all year round, however in the small villages of the less developed parts of India this can be an increasing problem with hot summers and no constant flow of tourists, times can seem very hard. (http://giik.net/blog/india-welfare/)With an enormous population in the billions many people live out of the main cities and even further into the country this can make it hard for them to access medical centres and other vital aid that they may need. This contributes to the high death rate, lowering the average life expectancy.


India's recent economic growth rates have helped them progress in the educational department. The story of India's educational achievements is one of mixed success. On the negative side, India has 22 per cent of the world's population and is home to a high proportion of the worlds out of school children and youths. On the positive side, it has made encouraging recent progress in raising schooling participation. While the base of India's education may be weak, it has emerged as an important player in the worldwide information technology revolution due to the substantial numbers of well educated computing and other graduates.

However it was not always this way in 1854, Sir Charles Wood's introduced a new policy into India's government, this was made to help those who have not got enough money to send their children to school, for help to be provided for them, so that all children would be treated equally. (Crisis and Change in Contemporary India)On the other hand, due to the enormous population of the country they could not make the school scheme compulsory, as the government did not have enough money for all of the children that needed their help and support.

Media and government of India

Relationships between the media and the government in India is not very different to the West European democratic model, however some historical and demographical aspects drove this relation in its own specification and pace. Recent changes in regulations of freedom and speech seems to follow global concept of independent media production and broadcasting news.

The history of media in India began in the eighteenth century when the first prints were published. Indian media has been relatively independent throughout most of their history, however, over the period of 1975-1977 Prime Minister Gandhi declared the period of emergency with potential government retribution. This incident has not changed freedom of Indian media in the long term. (http://india.mapsofindia.com/india-forum/media-in-india.html)

Nowadays Indian media markets with over 99 million newspaper copies in 2007, 60 million internet users in 2008 and large amounts of TV channels is one of the leading media markets in the world. With a population of over one billion the Indian market is a lot to fight for. Major newspapers like The India Gazette, The Calcutta Gazette, The Madras Courier were initially carried under the British rule, however same as The Bombay Times most Indian publishers are now independent. The Press Council is a statutory body of journalists, publishers, academics and politicians, with a chairman appointed by the Government. Designed to be a self-regulating mechanism for the press, it investigates complaints of irresponsible journalism and sets a code of conduct for publishers. This code includes a commitment not to publish articles or details that might incite caste or communal violence.

Radio broadcasting became state responsibility in 1930. AM broadcasting remained a government monopoly. Private FM radio station ownership was legalized during 2000, but licenses only authorized entertainment and educational content. Although there were privately owned radio stations, they were not permitted to broadcast news. Major radio stations nowadays in India like All India Radio, Radio City, Big FM, Radio Mirchi are important informational channels all over the country. Some channels are more recognized as of the language dialect, but Hindi spoken media with over 422 million speakers are the most popular.

Complete television broadcasting was initiated in 1965. The Government of India owned and maintained audio-visual apparatus and played a significant role in increasing mass education and publishing information. Some TV projects were specifically designed to educate village population. Following the economic reforms of the 90's, satellite TV channels from around the world - including BBC, CNN, CNBC and other foreign television channels gained a foothold in the country. In 1993 there were over 47 million registered TV users. Private satellite television was distributed widely by cable or satellite dish. These channels provided substantial competition for Doordarshan, the government-owned television network, in both presentation and credibility. Doordarshan frequently was accused of manipulating the news in the Government's favour; however, in some parts of the country satellite channel owners used their medium to promote the platforms of the political parties that they supported. In addition, citizens had access to uncensored Cable News Network, the British Broadcasting Company and a variety of other foreign programs. Recently, with 562 television stations, the country ranked eighth in the list of countries by number of television broadcast stations as of 1997. Star Plus, Colors, Zee TV, DD1 are the top TV channels in 2009.

Internet as the newest and the quickest growing media nowadays is the one that seems to be less influenced by Government regulations, however, some radical acts have also taken place in the past. The Government imposed limited access to the Internet. The Informational Technology Act provides for censoring information on the Internet on public morality grounds, and it considers "unauthorized access to electronic information" a crime. According to Reporters Without Borders, this law allowed police officers to search the homes or offices of Internet users, at any time and without a warrant. But it was another way to fight against crime and allowing legal acts against those who are breaking the law. In practice, the internet is the most popular media worldwide and is the most powerful source of information in India, same as the rest of the world.

The Constitution of Republic provides freedom of speech and the press, and the Government generally respected these rights in practice; however, there were some limitations. A vigorous and growing press reflected a wide variety of political, social, and economic beliefs. Newspapers and magazines were regularly published and television channels broadcasted, investigative reports and allegations of government wrongdoing and the press generally promoted human rights and criticized perceived government lapses.

Government measures to control objectionable content on satellite channel-notably, tobacco and alcohol advertisements still were in effect which held cable distributors liable under civil law. The (often foreign) satellite broadcasters, rather than the domestic cable operators, fall within the scope of the regulation. Those practices are not different to post communistic countries of East and Central Europe and very well known to developing nations like China or Poland. (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/)


India is a very large country and will be trying its best to look after its economy in the current crisis that most countries around the world are facing. Fortunately India is doing well for itself and its current economic position is in a boom stage rather than the bust stage and the economy has even been "forecast to grow at 5 to 6 percent this year; which is more than it averaged in the 1990's". (http://www.newsweek.com/id/1846219)

The country is currently in a boom because of the large scale of imports and exports that are been carried out regularly within the country. There are many products that India export however there are some main ones that consistently help to make the Indian economy grow for the better. These main exports consist of polished diamonds, plastic, paper and leather products all account for large percentages of India's exports. (http://www.surfindia.com/india-facts/major-export-industries-of-india.html) Most of the main products and materials that India export are in high demand in many countries such as America and China, because of this India are able to export the products and material at a higher price and therefore this makes them more money which help improve the flow of their economy and they have more money to spend on things they need within India such as healthcare and schooling.

Not only does India export many items but they also have to import things that they do not produce or have into their country. The main items that India imports are fuel, iron, steel, chemicals, precious stones and professional equipment. (http://www.diehardindian.com/overview/trade.htm) India have to import these items because they lack them in their country and without the ability to import products and material India would not be the same as it is today.

India over the last few years has increasingly traded more and more each year and so trades with many different countries to get the product and materials at the right time and the right price and to do this they have to make connections with other countries so that they can get the best deal that they possibly can get. The main trading partners that India trade with are America, Chine, United Arab Emirates, UK, Saudi Arabia and Germany. (http://www.indiaonestop.com/tradepartners/indias_trade_partners.html) These are just the main countries that India trade with, they have many more countries that they trade with but not as frequently compared to the main countries.

It is good that India has so many different countries to trade with because it means in the long run they have a larger variety of product choice which is good because they could choose to import the products and materials form the country which is selling them the cheapest and also they get to make better bonds with the different countries which is always good for the economy.

In my opinion the way India has recently been circulating and importing and exporting products around the world it has helped boost its economy and this is why compared to many other countries India is currently in a boom rather than a boost.

Political Diplomacy

India is located in the central northern coast of the Indian Ocean, where it is bounded in the west by Pakistan, in the north by Tibet (a region of China), Bhutan, and in the east by Myanmar. On the 26th November 2008 the city of Mumbai came under attack by a terrorist organisation and reportedly killed 195 and injured more than 300 citizens. (http://globalvoicesonline.org/specialcoverage/mumbai-india-blasts-2008/) India has publicly blamed Pakistan for the attack and relations between the countries have further deteriorated. A major dispute started more than 60 years ago when India and Pakistan both laid claim to Kashmir. On august 15th 1947 the ruler Maharaja Hari Singh signed an instrument of accession which was accepted by the Governor General of India Lord Mountbatten (http://www.kashmir-information.com/chronology.html) Soon after Indian forces moved in to protect Kashmir from the Pakistani troops, the two countries were on the verge of a nuclear war.

Their relationship with Myanmar is strong and there is an agreement to be put in place that if signed will declare free trade between the two countries by the year 2016. (http://exim.indiamart.com/free-trade-agreement/relation-with-other-countries.html)

Tibet is a region if china, and as such trade relations between India and china are solid, they are currently looking at free trade between the two but an agreement is yet to be put into place, compared to the relationship between India and Bhutan a treaty was signed in 1949 as their relationship was so strong, as a sign of respect for each other's independence. Relations between the two countries over many years have matured and recently in 2007 they updated this treaty with the aim of further strengthening their relationship. (http://www.bhutandnc.com/Treaty.htm)

India currently offers military and cadet training to personnel from many countries, including its closest neighbours Myanmar, Bhutan, and Nepal. (http://www.un.int/india/india_and_the_un_pkeeping.html) Since the year 2000 the European Union (EU) has been represented in India and every year they meet at summit level to discuss security, energy, development, and trade etc. (http://www.delind.ec) India has 128 embassy's that span the globe in most of the major cities, these are made up from the tourist offices, general consulates and the high commission making it a prominent figure in global context. (http://embassyworld.com) India is also a member of the G-20 and is fast becoming an emerging nation, even Ex-president George bush favours India for a seat at the United Nations Security Council. (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Bush-favours-UNSC-seat-for-India-/articleshow/5183477.cms)

Indian troops have been involved in some of the largest peace keeping missions performed by the United Nations, Over 55,000 Indian Military and Police personnel have served under the United Nations flag in 35 operations in all the continents of the globe. (http://www.un.int/india/india_and_the_un_pkeeping.html) To this end India has been ranked one of the largest contributors of military personnel to United Nations intermediary efforts.

In my opinion India is an emerging nation that the rest of the world will listen to in years to come. Given the choice I would not like to live there for many reasons, namely the class divide and the conditions India's poorest people live in. Also the opportunities available, India has roughly 1,160,690.3. (http://www.portal.euromonitor.com/PORTAL/Magazines/GeographiesRegion.aspx) People and an adult literacy rate of approximately 66.6% (http://www.portal.euromonitor.com/PORTAL/Magazines/GeographiesRegion.aspx) so the limited number of jobs available means only the brightest tend to find decent employment, and the uneducated work long hard back breaking hours doing tedious tasks.

Swot Analysis of India


  • exceedingly well-read, skilful and youthful human resources
  • English speaking & critical students
  • World class business-social-spiritual political president
  • elevated Levels of naturally occurring resources
  • Geographical location (Markets shifting towards Asia)
  • India tactical situation at a variety of business platforms
  • Large democracy, Large market & large unrestricted media
  • Range of emerging professionals
  • Computing power Growing


  • Not a huge quantity of skilled workforce available at the moment
  • underdeveloped source of specialized professionals
  • Lack of spirit for entrepreneurship, patriotisms and leadership skill
  • need of Indian executive models
  • need of learning habits & Team work spirit
  • Fear of distributing knowledge & taking risks
  • Slow assimilation of modernization & alteration
  • ignorance: Quality-Standardization
  • Lack of Emotional-Spiritual development
  • Blind respect for anything taught by elders

THREATS (Internal & external):

  • Probable unstable government
  • Self centred political leadership
  • Corrupt law officers and inrelieable judiciary system
  • Corruption, Ignorance & Complacency
  • Highly aggressive marketing agents
  • variety vs. Imbalance - clashes
  • Religion - society conflict
  • Job seeking mentality (follow rather that lead)
  • redundant public demands on students


  • Big prospective for brand new markets such as education
  • broad conformity on trade of Services
  • R&D prospects high
  • Ability to build new resource centres and
  • Hybrid solution – balancing & blending
  • Leisure, health and Dietary Sectors
  • Rural economy development & social transformation
  • Modernization of infrastructure, Library and laboratory
  • Internet institute network & E-Library

PEST Analysis of India

Political Factors

India is the biggest democratic state in the World. Based going on English familiar law; legal review of law-making acts; accepts obligatory ICJ control with uncertainties; different personal law codes affect Christians, Hindus and Muslims. The political Situation in the country is more or less stable. For most of its democratic history, the Indian National Congress (INC) has led the federal Government of India. A number of national parties have conquered state politics. In the 2004 Indian election, the INC won the major number of Lok Sabha chairs and also created a government by means of a partnership called the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), supported by a variety of left-leaning parties and members contrasted to the BJP. Overall India currently has a coalition led government and equally key political parties the UPA and BJP, whichever comes to power.

Economic Factors

The economic factors in India are on the road to recovery continuously. The GDP (Purchasing Power Parity) is approximately 2.965 trillion U.S. dollars in the year 2007. The GDP- per Capita (PPP) was 2700 U.S. dollars as estimated in 2007. The GDP- real growth rate in 2007 was 8.7%. India has the third greatest GDP by way of purchasing power parity, behind U.S. and China. Foreign direct investment rose in the fiscal year ended March 31 2007 to about $16 billion from just $5.5 billion a year earlier. There is a unremitting expansion in per capita earnings; India's per capita income is accepted to reach 1000 dollars by the end of 2007-08 from 797 dollars in 2006-07. This will lead to advanced retail power in the Hands of the Indian consumers.

Social Factors

India is the second most populous nation in the world with an estimated population of over 1.1billion people. Amusingly only 5.1% of the populace are 65 years or over. There has also been a constant increase in the consumption of beer in India. With an increase in the buying power the Indian consumer, who favoured local tough liquor, which is far cheaper, is now able to get a taste of the moderately costly beer market. The social trend toward beer consumption is changing and India has seen an increase of 90% beer consumption from the year 2002 - 2007. This is a social factor that show how India is changing as a nation.

Technological Factors

The Indian beer Industry is growing rapidly with a lot of foreign players entering the market. This means that there will be an influx of technology from foreign multinational companies. This is also true of many other Indian industries/markets, which are growing rapidly. This will help bring in technological knowhow and increase the production. SABMiller has just placed an order for the construction of two turnkey plants in India. The new plants are planned for Sonipat in Haryana and for another location near Bangalore. Both breweries will have an annual capacity of 1 million hectoliters each in the beginning and might be extended later. The influx of 'European' technology has increased production, lowered cost and will no doubt play a major role in all Indian industries.


India is a fascinating country. Analyzing each aspect of our report there are many factors that are unique and worth lots of interest. History and culture of India is exceptional, the way people are committed to religion and society says a lot of how passionate the nation is. Geographical and demographical aspects have driven the Country to be able to explore its will to progress. Large population and great position on the map gave India chance to use its potential by growing economic welfare.

Together with rising economy India started to develop and invest in improving democracy and capitalism which are driving them to become successful. However, the same aspects that inspire culture and religion became a barrier in building fair democracy as we consider in the West. The way the country is managed by the government, leaves space for many improvements to be made in the future. India must separate religion and society beliefs from public and political activities to be able to create a system that will treat every citizen with the same rights and give everyone the same chances no matter of their social status. It is also very important to provide better wages, healthcare and social care for the working class.

It seems that since India became democratic everything is going in a good direction and sooner or later the country will cope with the problems that are currently bothering the nation. We all wish to travel to India to be able to experience more of the Indian culture and appreciate its uniqueness.

Overall our group found India extremely interesting to write a report on and we all gained lots of knowledge and respect to this Country. The report was carried out effectively so that when we set deadlines we met them to the best of our abilities and the members of the group worked well together during the process of creating the report


Below are the aspects that we think India could improve on if it wanted to.

To improve relations between Media Sector and the Government of India and to make sure freedom of speech and code of conduct are respected it is necessary for The Press Council to be completely independent of Governmental influence. Therefore members of Council should not be involved in politics or media activity to make sure their work is free of possible corruption.

The Indian political system is a system that is in many ways flawed due to its leadership. The public are voting in corrupt political leaders and are inevitably increasing the chasm between themselves and the western nations, politically. If I were to suggest a way for India to improve itself it would be to populace of India. I would suggest to them that for the long-term benefit of India that they should vote for a principled leader.

Not only that but India should keep importing and exporting like they are doing because it is proving beneficial in this current economic climate. India should maintain the strong connections it has with its trading partners to ensure that they can continue trading to this standard.

In order to move forward as a country, I think India needs to address why the court is being overlooked by a corrupt police force and make more effort to adjust the system in order to make it fairer for society. For India to continue trade and good national relations with other countries problems with Pakistan need to be resolved in a calm and co-operative manner. Education needs to also be improved making it compulsory for all children to have access to schools, regardless of their background and family status.



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