Development of Sustainability in Urban Living
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The Compact City and Sustainable Development
Recent research has proved that the form of a town or a city can affect its sustainability (1). This is not only because of the socio cultural factors but also mainly because of the shape, size, density and uses of a city.
This is obvious because the nature of business and the environment encompassing the city or town directly affects the sustainability of the city. Alongside, the increase in the urban intensifications anthem urban development in order to increase the use of the urban geography so as to increase the productivity, has further increased the need for a sustainable urban form only when the process of development and urban intensification will be effective in achieving the desired goal of urban development and sustainable urban form. The uncontrolled development and the increasing dispersal of the city further destruct the sustainable urban form.
The increase in pollution due to the highway traffic and industrial development has also made the city not environment-friendly eventually making the urban life un-sustainable as well as complicated. Hence the need for an environment-friendly and people-friendly urban form in order to gain sustainability and growth is essential.
This report aims to present an insight on the question that whether sustainable urban form is achievable or not. The idea of compact city life and sustainable urban form is increasing in the twenty-first century because of the increased problems faced by the authorities in co-ordinating the cities. Hence a research on this topic is imperative to provide an insight on the essential factors that contribute to the sustainable urban form and ultimately derive upon the conclusion of whether the sustainable urban form can be achieved or not.
1.2: Aim and Objectives
The aim of this report is to establish whether Sustainable urban forms achievable or not. The aim is accomplished by embracing the report on the following objectives
Objective 1: To conduct a critical analysis on the concept of sustainable development. This is achieved by analysing the existing situation of the urban life and analysing the governmental policies against the policies of Forum for the future. This analysis will throw light on the current situation of the urban form, which is essential to understand the need for a sustainable form and identify the existing barriers that contribute to the un-sustainability of the urban life.
Objective 2: Critically analyse the concept of compact city. Analyse its differences from the concept of dispersal and analyse the means of promoting social equity in compact city.
Objective 3: Critically discuss the different sustainable models and the implemented designs with examples.
Chapter 2: Problems of city life and sustainable development
This chapter commences with an overview of problems with city life that answers the question what is wrong with city life? This is then followed by an overview on sustainable development. The definitions of the sustainable development from both the academic front and the government definitions are presented to the reader with examples.
2.1: What is wrong with the city life?
The growth of the enterprise culture and the increase in the American style of dispersed business centres like the business parks and shopping supermarkets, away from the city has drained the city of its activity level and also increased the need for urban intensifications. The increased dispersal of the urban environment has also increased the pollution with increase in the traffic and driving habits of the general public to reach the places.
Alongside, the planning in the UlhÄs mainly hindered the actual physical form of the city and its districts (2) by concentrating more upon the two dimensional structure of the city rather than considering the actual physical form of the city to achieve a cohesive and sustainable urban form.
Furthermore, the cosmetic treatment of the existing streets and squares and the limited betterment of the hard and soft landscaping in the UlhÄs further reduced the sustainability of the urban form and above all increased the issues faced like pollution.
Another problem faced by the current city life is the singular model of the city and urban planning. This is because the singular approach to city life in different geographical locations is not applicable due tithe fact that the environmental factors and the socio-cultural factors vary with location and it is thus essential to analyse the urban form of city objectively in the light of the environmental factors of the individual city. Alongside, the singular approach to the urban design and planning not only hinders the sustainability but also affects the approach for a universal model for sustainable urban form (1).
Also, the current urban form of incorporating the city as a business centre has increased the imbalance in between the number of city-dwellers and the workers in the city. The fact that the people working in the city and surrounding areas tend to live in a different location and commute for their work on a day-to-day basis (1) has increased the pollutions around the city and also increased the level of congestion on the highways further making the city life more tasteless eventually deteriorating the sustainable urban form.
Alongside, the focus on the economic growth by the government and the increase in the government to promote the cities as the pivotal elements for their economic growth has actually shifted the focus from the sustainable development of the cities towards economic development resulting in a volatile urban set up that is prone to frequent changes and cannot accommodate the primary needs of the society which is the backbone for the very existence of the city.
It is also established by Mike Jenks et al (1) that the current city life is more focused upon the technological developments leaving behind the cultural importance for the city. For example the ‘Uneven Population Density and Sprawl’ and the ‘Functional Zoning’ mentioned by Hildebrand Frey (2) justify that the current city life is more focused upon the development with respect to the changes in the technology and the global business rather than focusing on the development from the cultural perspective which is essential for the sustained development of the city life. The arguments that the city life in the present situation is predominantly focusing on the material needs of the society without laying emphasis upon the rational and ethical elements that are specific to the given geographical location (1) (2) further makes the city life a unwise choice for the general public thus deteriorating the city of its residents.
2.2: Definition of Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is the most widely used term in this report and also in the analysis of urban form and environmental development. Thawed definition as mentioned by Mike Jenks (1) on sustainable development is “ a development which is capable of meeting today’s needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs”. This definition is exactly similar to the definition of the government towards sustainable development (3) that defines sustainable development as “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.
This makes it clear that the urban development should not only focus upon the development with respect to the growth in the technology and global markets but also incorporate the cultural and ethical factors that will provide room for the future generations to incorporate changes to meet their requirements. Also, it is clear that the focus on the technological development and a global perspective is necessary for achieving global position and economic development but still the emphasis on the development without compromising the ability for future development is essential and can be achieved only through embracing the urban development with the demographic and cultural factors with room for further development.
Furthermore, the argument by the “Sustainable development Unit “ of Government (3) that we are not even meeting the present needs on global basis is causing concern about the sustainable development of the city. This is because of the fact that the increase in the focus of the society to accommodate to the changes in the global and technological perspective leaving behind the primary ingredient of cultural and social elements which is the backbone for sustainable development in order to help the future generations to meet their needs.
Alongside, the argument of the sustainable Development Unit (3)that the increasing use of the resources and environmental systems like water, conventional sources of energy and other exhaustible natural resources cannot carry on forever since the rate at which they are replenished in the by nature is extremely lower to the rate at which the resources are consumed.
On the other hand the definition of the Forum for the future (4) on sustainable development “A dynamic process which enables all people to realise their potential and improve their quality of life in ways which simultaneously protect and enhance the Earth's life support systems “lays more emphasis not only upon retaining the cultural and ethical factors but also upon the self development of the people in who live in the city in order to nurture the development right from the roots rather than the peripheral development of addressing the global and economic growth in the definition of the Government.
Furthermore, the phrase ‘to enhance Earth’s life support systems’ in the definition further justifies that the urban development is sustainable only when the emphasis is provided to preserving the natural resources.
The approach to Remaking Barnsley (5) “the 21st century Market Town “where the council is actually rethinking the entire Barnsley process in order to provide a sustainable world-class place for the future generations taking into account the cultural and social background of Barnsley is in line with the aforementioned definition of the Forum for the Future (4).
Furthermore, the arguments by Mike Jenks (1) and Hildebrand Frey (2)that a sustainable development is achievable only when the development of the urban areas reflect upon the global and economic growth embracing the primary element of preserving the natural resources as well as emphasising on the cultural factors of the geography. The examples on sustainable housing discussed in the text (1) (2) justify this argument.
This discussion in this chapter has revealed that the current city life is actually deteriorating the natural resources and prone to changes without accommodating the need for a balance in the environment in order to gain sustainable development. Also, from the definitions of sustainable development, it is clear that the development can be achieved only when the urban development embraces the need to preserve the natural resources as well as implement changes by emphasizing upon the development of the people in the city as well as the city itself rather than addressing the changes at the peripheral level. From the above discussion it is thus established that the sustainable development of the urban form can be achieved only through the effective integration of the socio-cultural factors with the global and economic growth without depleting the natural resources.
Chapter 3: Comparison the Policy Objectives
In this chapter a profound discussion on the policy objectives of teak government and the Forum for the Future is presented to the reader. This is then followed by the analysis of the differences in the policies and the strategies proposed by the bodies in order to identify their compatibility and the ability to measure the success. This chapter aims to familiarise the policies and objectives to the reader prior to the analysis in Part 2 of the report.
3.1: Policy Objectives
The objectives of the UK Government’s Sustainable development Unit for sustainable urban form (3) are
1. Social progress, which recognises the needs of everyone (i.e.) the needs apart from the essential needs of food clothing and water like locations for public gathering and cultural activities etc., This objective of the government was extensively deployed in the post war urban development in the 1950s and the 1960s as argued by Hildebrand Frey (2) who argues that the UK government’s strive to provide a higher quality of life with better community facilities. The development plan of 1951 (1) (2) that concentrated on providing the basic communal facilities and improving the quality of the houses through housing plans by the government were concentrated upon achieving the Social progress in the cities to meet the changes in the global world. Hildebrand Frey (2) argues that the government from the initial stages of urban development was concentrating upon the two-dimensional plan of the city and did not address the physical form of the city to accommodate the future changes. Also the fact that the development was concentrating on the rapid economic development and growth in the global market rather than emphasising on the socio-cultural factors has further depleted the sustainability of the urban form itself.
2. Effective protection of the environment: As mentioned in the previous chapter, the increase in the transportation especially the motorway commuters in the UK since the late twentieth century is causing very high levels of pollution that is eventually causing adverse effects on global warming making the weather hot with record-breaking temperatures which is not a healthy sign for sustainable urban form. Even though the objective of the government to protect the environment is novel, the existing set up of the urban for in the UK is causing adverse effects on the environment not only in the form of pollution of air but also upon the societal factors itself. The increase in the government’s tendency to respond to the global changes and economic growth without encompassing the people and the development of the people (1) (2) in the city is also a major cause for hindering the sustainable urban form.
3. Prudent use of natural resources: This objective of prudent use of the natural resources by the Sustainable development Unit (3) of Government mainly focuses on preserving the non-renewable sources of energy like the fossil fuels. The efficient use of water and prevention of the wastage of natural resources including water and energy also form the primary elements of this objective of the Sustainable development Unit.
4. Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment: This objective of the Sustainable development Unit mainly focuses upon the economic development of the city through the increased level of employment. It is worth noting that the arguments of (1) and(2) on the government’s focus upon urban development through addressing economic growth and global changes rather than development of the people in the city is justified in this objective. Even though the objective focuses on higher level of employment of the people, it does not focus upon the development of the society that forms the city.
The objectives of the Forum for the Future are discussed below
1. The preservation, conservation and protection of the environment and the prudent use of natural resources: This objective clearly emphasises upon the preservation of the natural resources as well as the prudent use of the resources. This statement not only emphasises upon the careful use of the natural resources but also upon the preservation of the existing resources explicitly. This is essential because of the fact that the initiative of the society to preserve the natural resources is the driving factor for the prudent use of the natural resources (4).
2. The relief of poverty and the improvement of the conditions of life in socially and economically disadvantaged communities. From this objective it is clear that the Forum for the Future is not only concentrating upon the development of the city areas but mainly upon the development of the people who form the city in order to achieve sustainable development. The example of the Remaking Barnsley (5) where the urban development of the city was approached with the idea of preserving the socio-cultural factors as well as nurturing the development of the people in the city instead of concentrating upon the development of the urban areas with respect to the global change and meet the economic growth.
3. The promotion of sustainable means of achieving economic growth and regeneration: This objective mainly suggests that the economic growth in the urban form can be sustained and achieved efficiently through achieving the above two objectives which will regenerate the walk of life of the people in the city eventually contributing to the economic growth.
3.2: Critical Analysis of the Policy objectives
The major difference between the government objectives and the objectives of the Forum for the Future is the fact that the government approach to the sustainable urban form is predominantly focusing upon the economic development without focusing upon the development of the of the people in the city. This major difference in the policy objectives is the primary factor for the hindrance to the sustainable urban form in the UK. Alongside, the argument of Mike Jenks (1) that the sustainable urban form is achievable only through the development of the people in the city which is essential for the continuous growth of the society that forms the city in order to effectively achieve the sustainable urban form.
Furthermore, the approach of the Forum for the Future in preserving the natural resources along with the prudent use of the resources emphasis more on the natural resources preservation and development from the basis of the city rather than the approach of the Sustainable development Unit of UK government to the prudent use of the natural resources without explicitly emphasising upon the preservation of the natural resources.
Even though the policy objectives of the Sustainable development Unit and the Forum for the Future are different it is appreciable that both the government body as well as the charity organization are striving towards the preservation of the environment.
The argument of Dr Bob Giddings (6) that the perception of the city centres as segregated areas of functional uses by the Sustainable development Unit is the major factor for the failure of the strategy to achieve sustainable development in the cities even though the policy objectives of the Sustainable development Unit strives to develop the urban areas in the UK as key elements for growth.
From the objectives of the UK government Sustainable development Unit, the strategy of the government is primarily to protect the environment and increase the economic level of the urban areas to achieve sustainable development. This strategy of achieving sustainable urban form is not completely successful as argued by Dr Bob Giddings (6)since the development does not embrace the cultural values of the geography or the development of the people in the city who are the backbone for the mere existence of the city (1) (2).
Even though the strategy does not focus upon the people development like its counterpart, the underlying idea of protecting the environment is easily measurable in this case since the prudent use of the natural resources for example can be accurately measured through the calculation of the use of energy resources by the general public and industries along with their classification and level of pollution. This ability to measure the strategy is the predominant factor for the implementation of the Sustainable development Unit in the UK urban form for sustainable development.
On the other hand from the objectives of the Forum for the Future we can see that the strategy embraces the development of the people in the society in order to contribute to the economic development which will provide sustainable urban form since the roots of the urban form (i.e.)the people development is the focus. The development of the people in the society will obviously create the awareness of protecting the environment and preserving the natural resources resulting in the prudent use.
Even though the above argument justifies that the emphasis on the people development is essential for the development of the urban for from the basis in order to achieve sustainable urban for, the ability to measure the actual development of the people in the society and their contribution to preserving the natural resources is difficult to measure and only the factors mentioned in the former case can be accurately measured. This measure does not always justify the requirement thus restricting the ability to accurately measure the results of the objectives of Forum for the Future.
Apart from the issues of measuring the results the inherent problem is the compatibility of the policies in the urban form in order to actually implement the strategy. Mike Jenks et al (1) argue that the practise of the urban form in many cities is not always the same as in theory and to achieve the strategy effectively is not always possible due to the inherent issue of the extent to which a specific policy incompatible to the given urban form.
From the above discussions it is clear that the government objectives of the urban form are more compatible to those of Forum for the Future mainly because of the lucid form of the objectives and the easy to implement nature. This further adds the credit to the policy objectives of Sustainable development Unit (3) against the policy objectives of is counterpart.
The discussion of the policy objectives of the government and the Forum for the Future has revealed that the sustainable urban form should preserve the environment and the natural resources. Also, the analysis on the policy objectives have revealed that the objectives are achievable only through the prudent use of the resources and the development of the people in the city than focusing only upon the economic development and addressing to global changes. Furthermore, the arguments on the compatibility and the analysis of the strategy have revealed that the Sustainable development Unit (3) of the UK government policy is more compatible than that of the Forum for the Future.
Part 2: The Compact City
Chapter 4: The Compact City
In this chapter, a discussion on the concept of the compact city is presented to the reader. The chapter commences with the definition of the compact city followed by the discussion on the various aspects associated with the compact city concept.
4.1: Definition of Compact City
Mike Jenks et al (1) define the compact city as “a freestanding urban settlement and defined as embracing one or all of three categories: high density, a mixed-use city and an intensified city”. This definition is obviously presented from an academic background and hence in the practical life the definition of the Compact city drills down to“ a city that has environmental and energy advantages and social benefits” (2), which emphasises on the preservation of the natural resources and emphasises on the development of the people.
From the above definition it is clear that in order to achieve the policy objectives discussed in the previous chapter a model of the Compact city will be helpful to achieve the goal of sustainable urban form.
Apart from the above argument, the compact city of the urban form as described by (1) (2) focus upon the idea of integrated development(i.e.) achieving development in all spheres of the social and personal life of the people in the city in order to gain sustainable urban form. The major advantages of establishing the compact city include the easy accessibility to facilities, reduced need for travel, health and social interaction as argued by Mike Jenks et al (1).
The highlights of the compact city as argued by (1) (2) are discussed here with examples from case studies and reports on urban development and sustainable urban form.
Intensification as mentioned by (2) in the light of a compact is mainly concerned with the increased usage of the existing landscape in the geographical area that constitutes the city judiciously. The above statement means not only the extensive use pdf the land for housing development but mainly to utilise the space to achieve self-sufficiency to a certain level. The concept of urban intensification as argued by Mike Jenks et al (7) (1) argue that the intensification in terms of the urban development and achieving sustainability is by implementing the intensification in terms of both the usage of the urban space and in terms of the activity levels. The two categories of the intensifications described by Mike Jenks et al (1) is mentioned below
Intensification of built form
In this category of urban form, the focus is on the development of the previously undeveloped locations of the city in order to maintain balance in the entire city (i.e.) a balance in the level of the growth and the social development of the people, which is discussed in chapter6. This also includes the development of the existing buildings in the city in order to intensify their use and increase the activity level of the people through the effective use of the buildings and sites in the city.
The case of the Barnsley development (5) where the recreation of the city as a twenty first century town is primarily focused upon establishing the town (i.e.) city centre of the urban form as the pivotal form for interaction with its surrounding villages, and other localities for intensifying the use of the urban space and interaction between the city with the surroundings in order to establish a balance in the urban form. The above statement makes it clear that the intensification of the built form in the compact city approach to the sustainable urban form is not only through the development of the city as an entity but through the intensification of the usage of the so developed space with the surroundings in order to increase the intensity of the urban development so as to gain sustainability.
Intensification of Activity
Katie Williams (8) argues that the intensification of the built form can be sustained in order to gain the sustainable urban form only through the intensification of the activity levels that contribute tithe intensification of the usage of the urban space thus increasing the interaction of the city with its surroundings. In the example of their making of the Barnsley (5) itself, the clear cut definition of each element of the entire urban form and the role of the entities so defined in the overall urban process makes it clear that only through intensifying the activity levels, the compact city initiative can be palpable to gain sustainable urban form.
Even though the above arguments support that the intensification of the urban space and activity in a compact city will increase the level of sustainability of the urban form, the argument by Dr Bob Giddings (6)that the urban intensification will not only increase the interaction but also increase the need for rapid development and quick response to changes which will uproot the basic conception of achieving development of the people and sustainable urban form which are the essential elements for the compact city.
The fact that the uncontrolled urban intensification will increase not only increase the interaction among the participants in the urban form but also affect the stability of the urban form because of the quick response of the participants to address economic changes and gain growth which will not only increase the use of natural resources but also increase the threat of social inequality. The arguments on acceptable urban intensification (1) justify the above arguments.
4.3: Mixed Use
The idea of mixed use in the compact city argued by Hildebrand Frey (2)focuses upon a more decentralised approach to the urban use as opposed the case of intensification where the compact city concept was primarily revolving around the town centre of the city making it a more centralised approach. In this approach, Hildebrand Frey (2) decentralised manner of organizing the urban form and encouraging the various participants of the urban form to interact not only as specific entities to the city but among themselves in order to achieve increased level of self-sufficiency.
The example of the Chinese cities with own farm belts in the cities in order to meet their agriculture requirements so as to be self-sufficient justifies the above argument. Alongside, one should understand the fact that the intensification of the urban form apparently loses the importance for preserving the natural resources and mainly for the prudent use of the resources in order to gain sustainable urban form. In the mixed approach the deployment of the farm strips in the city itself making city farming as a rural occupation not only increase the self-sufficiency level of the city in terms of food but also help in the preservation of natural resources mainly preventing soil erosion and increasing the rain fall thus preventing depletion of water in the city areas.
The above scenario not only stands for the establishment of specific strips of the urban space for farming but mainly to encourage the residents to involve in house farming by growing vegetables in their own gardens. The increase in the price of vegetables during the 1970s saw the increase in the house farming in the urban areas, which further strengthens the mixed approach to the compact city.
Even though the above arguments justify that urban farming will not only increase the self-sufficiency level but also reduce pollution and help preserve the natural resources, cities like London in the Cannot actually accommodate this approach mainly because of the tremendous increase in the industries and global businesses in the city. The arguments of Hildebrand Frey (2) that the city farming is becoming remote because of the very approach to the agriculture in itself.
The fact that agriculture itself is treated as an industry and the increase in the demand for quality products across the cities in the UK has truly isolated the farming and green wedges in the busy cities like London, Manchester and Birmingham in the UK. The Urban Regeneration assessment of Keynote Plc. (9) further argues that even though the actual presence of the city farming is obsolete in most of the cities by virtue of the development, the initiative of the city councils and the government to maintain the green strips either artificial or natural in the city areas will help reduce the pollution in the city atmosphere.
Apart from the farming element in the mixed approach to the compact city, the essential ingredient that increases the sustainability of the urban form in the mixed approach is that the interaction is not only in controlled manner but the activity levels of the people and there sources in the mixed form of the compact city are put to optimal use. The increase in the growth of the business parks surrounding the natural locations not only increases the interaction of the city but also mainly increases the sustainability and reduces the level of pollution due to the presence of the green wedges (either artificial or natural) in the city.
The above arguments on the mixed use in the context of the compact city still poses a question of whether it is achievable mainly because of the fact that the approach of either urban intensification or the mixed-use is pertained to the extent of the availability of resources and above all the involvement of the authorities and the general public who form the city to contribute for the sustainable urban form in the compact city.
The Urban regeneration assessment (9) further argues that compact city is palpable only when the development process either by intensifications or mixed use reflects upon the social development and equality of the people who live in the city and also embrace the cultural and ethical values of the geographical location. As stated in chapter 1 on the definitions of sustainable development, the future generation can implement changes effectively in the existing set up of the urban form only when the basis lies upon the preservation of the natural resources and above all reflecting upon the cultural values and social equality of the people in the city.
From the above discussions on compact city it is evident that the compact city is a seemingly positive approach to gaining sustainable urban form (i.e.) the sustainability of the urban form is palpable only when the interaction between the various elements of the compact city is healthy in both the cases of urban intensification and mixed use.
Alongside, the success of sustainable urban form mainly depends upon the level of integration and the balance between the entities that form the city apart from the peoples of the city.
Chapter 5: The Compact City Versus Dispersal
The analysis of the compact city in the previous chapter has justified that a sustainable development is palpable through efficient deployment of the compact city. But the very possibility of establishing the compact city itself is a big issue because of the
Need to achieve controlled and sustainable interaction so as to maintain the balance in the city. In this chapter an overview on the dispersed approach to the sustainable urban form is presented followed by the comparison of the compact city approach to the dispersed approach.
A dispersed city mainly constitutes of low-density suburban development of the population with an increased level of space separating the various entities of the urban form. Unlike the compact city approach where the concentration is high in the city and all the essential elements that contribute to the city life and self-sufficiency are concentrated in and around the city. In this approach of the urban form the urban space that is not utilised completely or effectively to increase the sustainability of the urban form is very low. This is not only because of the fact that the distance of separation is more but also because of the main fact that the interaction between the people in the society is less when compared to the case of the compact city, which I essential for establishing the stability of the urban form.
The idea of dispersal itself is conceivable in locations where the geography is considerably big and the population is proportionately lower in density to the area covered by the urban form as argued by Chris Murray (10). The dispersed nature of the Suburban development in Australia as described by Mike Jenks et al (1) is a classical example where the dispersed urban form is implemented because of the vast geographical area, which encouraged the dispersed nature of the urban, set up initially.
Even though, the geographical area is one of the factors that contribute to the dispersed nature of the urban form, the major factors that contribute to the dispersed nature of the urban form are the scarcity of the natural resources and the lack of interactions among the people in the society (10). The major factor that contributes tithe dispersed nature of the urban form is the availability of the natural resources and their dispersed location. Australia for example has varied climatic conditions, which are the primary reason for the land to be predominantly of deserts and the availability of water, another resources for basic living are the pivotal locations that create the increased disperse nature in the urban form itself.
5.2: Effects of Dispersed urban form
The dispersed nature of the urban form mainly affects the sustainability of the urban form as argued by Hildebrand Frey (2). From the description of the dispersed form of urban set up in the previous section it is clear that the dispersed urban establishment not only increases the distance between facilities but also makes the accessibility difficult due the distance factor making private driving an essential factor. This obviously causes the increase in the pollution as well as increases the depletion of the energy resources due to the increased level of use of the energy.
Apart from the increase in the pollution, another adverse effect of the dispersed urban form is that it reduces the interaction and especially the co-ordinated activity level of the people who form the city. This apparently leads to an increase in the scattered settlement of the people in the city especially around the location of the natural resource leading to an invisible split among the participants of the active society, which hinders the free range functioning of the urban form for continuous growth to meet the global challenges and strive for growth.
When compared to the compact city scenario where there is less dispersal of the participants or increased level of co-ordination in the activity level of the participants is comparatively high (2) and this will naturally increase the level of interaction resulting in a strong and equal society.
Unlike the compact city where the process of growth is through either urban intensification, mixed use or through increasing the urban density that balances the entire city in terms of growth as well asocial development, the dispersed urban form by its very nature has negligible room for achieving balance among the participants both in terms of economic growth as well as the social development in the urban form, resulting in imbalance of the society thus hindering the very stability of the urban form itself.
Also, the argument of (1) and (2) that a compact city will not only increase the stability but also makes it easy to introduce any changes throughout the urban form whilst the dispersed urban form by its nature makes it’s very difficult for introducing any new changes thus resulting in poor management of the entire urban form by the city authorities.
The argument of (2) that the compact city reflects upon the Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs and the set-up of a compact city meets the basic requirements of the people comprising the urban form thus increasing the stability of the city striving towards a certain level of self-sufficiency cannot be accomplished efficiently in the dispersed urban form. Mike Jenks et al (1) argue that the dispersed urban form bits scattered nature with the scarce availability of all the resources within approach makes it difficult for the city to reflect the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and also does not achieve self-sufficiency in most cases.
Even though the above arguments justify that the dispersed urban forms difficult to sustain, countries like India, where the geographical area covered is very high makes the urban area larger than a trivial urban form that is conceivable, the concept of compact city is not always successful because of the fact that the interaction among participants will be concentrated in the city centres leaving the rest of the geography in the urban form under developed.
Yan Sang (11)argues that the dispersed urban form in cases of large geographical areas will help in accommodating a larger population level and with the development of business specific to the geography the urban form can be more sustainable through the development of settlements to interact with each other through the urban development that are otherwise scattered. This will increase the stability of the urban form and also helps the society to achieve self-sufficiency to a certain extent in order to meet the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
The above argument makes it clear that even in case of a dispersed urban form the sustainability can be accomplished through the efficient management and effective deployment of the resources to increase the level of interaction of the participants. Unlike the case of compact city where the argument was to accomplish sustainability through the development of the people to develop the city’s economy, the dispersed form has an opposite approach of developing the people through developing the business in the geography which makes it clear that the dispersed urban form is not as stable as the compact city scenario since the development of the people is the basis for the sustainable urban form.
The above arguments make it clear that the compact city is a more sustainable urban form when compared to the dispersed urban form. Alongside, it was also established that the compact city approach would not be successful in an urban form on a vast geographical area where the sustainability of the urban form can be accomplished through the dispersed urban form scenario (11) discussed. Furthermore, it was also established that the sustainable urban form is more perceivable in the compact city scenario rather than the dispersed scenario. Hence to conclude this chapter, it is clear that the compact city approach to sustainable urban form is better than the dispersed urban form.
Chapter 6: The Compact City for promoting Social Equity
In this chapter an analysis on the development of the social equity through the compact city approach is presented to the reader. This discussion aims to justify that the compact city approach for the sustainable urban form is a better option to other urban forms.
6.1: About Social Equity
Mike Jenks et al (1) say that the social equity in the contest of the urban form is a critical element that contributes to the interaction and activity level of the people in the society that comprise the urban form. Alongside, the increase in the diversity of the population and the continuous globalisation of that results in the increase in foreign population in the cities of the UK has increased the level of diversity among the people who form the urban form of the UK cities. For example(9) reports that in the UK the Asian population has increased tremendously since the 1990s and now forms a major portion of the entire UK permanent residents.
The demand for skilled labour and specialised professionals was one of the major reasons for this increase in the population of the people from overseas settled in the UK. For example, the percentage of the general practitioners in the NHS who are of the Asian origin (Indian, Chinese, Pakistani, etc.) has increased since 1995 (9) mainly because of the huge demand for doctors and Nurses in the UK. Another, example like the above is the increase the number IT professionals in the UK who are foreigners working in the UK either as permanent residents or as work permit holders has increased since the dawn of the twenty-first century mainly because of the increase in the outsourcing of the IT-based projects to Indian organizations by the UK industries.
The above examples apparently increase the diversity in the population of the society thus making the urban form composed of a varied culture and increasing the need to maintain a balance in the social culture through equity among the people in the city in order to maintain sustainability. Furthermore, the argument by (2) that the sustainability of any urban form is mainly through the effective interaction among the people comprising the city thus increasing the need for an effective means of accomplishing the social equity to main the stability of the urban form.
Apart from the above arguments of stability of the urban form, the fact that in order to meet the global competition and accomplish sustainable economic growth, the need for accommodating the diverse population in the cities is necessary to not only maintain the global image but also to meet the competition in the global business markets itself. This need for the sustainable development for economic growth to meet globalisation is another critical factor for the development of the city itself.
The above arguments make it clear that social equity is necessary not only in the humanitarian context but mainly to maintain the balance in the urban form and develop the ability to meet changes in the global business market in order to preserve the economic growth of the urban form itself.
6.2: Compact city and Social Equity
Mike Jenks et al (1) argue that the compact city ‘is deemed to be equitable (or just) if it is associated with benefits for the life chances of the disadvantaged, thereby reducing the gap between the rich and the poor’. The above statement makes it clear that the compactness of the urban form in the compact city scenario mainly attributes to achieving social equity. The research of the (1) in this context has revealed twelve different elements of social equity that can be accomplished through the aspects of the urban compactness(intensification, increased activity, density).
Below is brief description of a few key elements that for social equity. They are selected based upon their level in the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Better Access to facilities: The method of ‘Increased activity’ of the compact city, increase the interaction of the people in the society not only reducing the barrier of communication but also increasing the level of access to the basic facilities by the people in the society. The arguments of (2) that the activity level and interaction of the people are achieved through the increased or uninterrupted access tithe facilities by the people in the society thus increasing the interaction between the people of different culture to achieve social equity.
Poorer Access to Green Space: The mixed use approach of the compact city or in general the approach to achieve the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in the compact city, the extent of green space either artificial or natural can be increased (2) eventually increasing the availability of the green space to the people in the society. The fact that the lesser availability of green space increases the scattered form of the settlement (1) makes if essential to increase the level of the green space in the society in order to increase the level of activity of the people around the space. This increases the interaction of the people in the society breaking the barriers of social equity to achieve a more stable urban form.
Better Job Accessibility: The increase in the population of the city apparently increases the job opportunities in the business operations that operate around the city. The increase in the level of interaction and the process of urban intensification whereby the underdeveloped areas of the city are developed creates a balance and also the accessibility to the job by the people in the society. The Warwick Technology Park in the West Midlands is a classic example for this scenario.
The technology park caters many business organizations and accommodates more than a 1000 people on a typical working day (12). The presence of the Warwick Technology park in the Gallows hill with easy approach to both the residential areas of Leamington SPA and Warwickshire with quick access to the motor way has made this place the headquarters for many multinational organizations in the UK thus increasing the job accessibility for the personnel and also achieving social equity.
Better Public Transport: Public transport is one of the key elements that are concentrated by the city councils of every district in the UK. The compact city approach mainly aims to reduce the level of motorway commuters and especially to increase the easy approach to key locations for the place of residence.
Though the process of intensification (2)the city can not only increase preservation of the natural resources but also mainly eliminate the barriers of social equity through the efficient deployment of the public transport across the city irrespective of the culture or social background of the people in the society. Furthermore, the increased activity level and the intensification of developing the under developed areas of the city can be efficiently sustained only through the efficient co-ordination of the public transport into such areas without hindrance.
The above arguments from (1) and (2) make it clear that the social equity which is the essential element for a sustainable urban form can be achieved through the effective deployment of the compact city approach in the real world scenario thus increasing the stability of the urban form.
The discussion on social equity has proved that it is not only essential to achieve social equity in a city to maintain the humanitarian equality and other related factors but mainly to enable the city for gaining sustainable growth with respect to the changes in the global business world. Alongside the examples on the increase in the diversity of the population in the UK cities further justifies the above statement. The discussion on the social equity through compact city has proved that the compact city approach to the sustainable urban form nurtures the social equity in the city thus increasing its sustainability.
Part 3: models and Previous Attempts
Chapter 7: Different Sustainable Models
This chapter provides an overview upon the different sustainable models proposed by the researchers to achieve sustainable urban form.
7.1: Sustainable Models
The increase in the need for achieving sustainable urban form indifferent geographical locations has resulted in the development of different models of approach to urban form. This is mainly in order to reflect upon the geography and the people in the society that comprise the city in order to efficiently, achieve the sustainable urban form. Furthermore, the need for different sustainable models is also because of the increasing globalisation (1) (2) which results in the need for accommodating changes in a sustainable manner without affecting the basic structure of the city. This can be achieved only through adopting sustainable model as argued by (2).
Alongside, the approach of designing or organizing the city on a model based approach not only increases the clarity of the city structure but also provides ability to implement changes effectively in order to achieve economic growth. This makes it clear that a model-based approach to the sustainable urban form will help achieve sustainability quickly and easily.
7.2: Howard Ebenezer ‘city cluster’ Approach
Howard Ebenezer (2) proposed the concept of city cluster whereby the entire urban form is deployed as cluster of cities with easy access tithe neighbourhood and the countryside with a limited population spreading each city of the cluster. The model comprises of a cluster of garden cities or smaller cities with les population and intensification within itself to meet self-sufficiency to a certain level that are linked to central city with a considerably larger population that acts as the central location for the interaction and communication within the entire urban form.
Furthermore, the proposal of maintaining the clusters interaction on itself thus increases the level of intensification within each garden city of the cluster eventually increasing the sustainability of the urban form itself. The population spread proposed by Howard Ebenezer is the main point of concern that questions the sustainability because a population of 32,000 for garden city and 58,000 in a central city will not be sufficient to meet the activities of the city in the global environment. Since the model itself was proposed many years ago, the density of population can be changed to meet the demands of the current trends.
The Warwick Technology Park example described in the previous chapter is a good example for the aforementioned scenario of clustered city. The fact that the population is higher than the numbers pronounced by Howard Ebenezer makes it clear that this model can be accomplished efficiently.
7.3: The Star City Model
In this model proposed by Lynch (1985) (2), a single dominant centre of high-density forms the heart of the urban form and the interaction of the various segments of the urban form is only through the central location of the city. This approach to the urban development leaves green wedges and open land with lower density of population farther away from the city thus increasing the green space as well as help fight pollution through growing trees.
But this approach reduces the congestion in the traffic by streamlining the traffic both in the motorway as well as the public transport within the city thus eliminating congestion. But, the streamlining increases the intensity of transportation and the number of motorway commuter to reach from one part of the star city to the other. This results in the increased use of energy resources and pollution.
Even though the motorway commuters will be high, the increase in the density of the city will increase with time and obviously expand its limits into deeper into the urban locality thus increasing resulting inorganic growth but still the approach to the services and facilities byte people in the urban form will be rather chaotic as described by (2)resulting in a level of social inequality which might lead to unsustainable urban form.
The discussion on the Star city thus reveals that even though the approach aims to develop the green space and create a balance in the urban form, the increase in the intensity of the city will reduce its sustainability thus hindering the urban form itself.
7.3: The satellite City Model
This approach is similar to the Howard model. The deployment of a cluster of cities around a central city increasing the intensification at the clusters and the central city thus creating a sustainable urban form. The fact that the city in the cluster of cities is called satellite and a new satellite city can be created once the limit of the existing satellite is reached makes it further flexible for accommodating changes and hence achieving sustainable urban form.
The above scenario is similar to the Barnsley (5) example mentioned before where the approach of making the city centre area as the centrality with every village in the surrounding performing specific functions to achieve the sustainable urban form.
The discussion on the models of city justifies that a single model cannot be applied to all the cities and flexibility in the approach is necessary for achieving sustainable urban form. The overview of the sustainable models justifies the above argument and also makes it clear that the application of a specific model entirely depends upon the urban form and geographical factors that contribute to the urban development.
Chapter 8: implemented Designs: The Prince of Whales Urban Village approach
In this chapter a discussion on the Urban Village development approach by is presented to the reader. The Urban Village campaign by the Prince of Wales was a campaign that was conceived with the strive of disillusionment of the conventional development approach (1). In short, the urban village approach aimed to develop the villages both economically and socially through achieving including the following (1)
A variety of uses such as shopping, leisure and community facilities alongside housing
A choice of tenures both residential and commercial
A density of development that can help encourage the use of non-housing activities.
A strong sense of place with the basic amenities within easy walking distance of all residents
A high level of involvement by the local residents in planning and managing the development
As mentioned by Mike Jenks et al (1), the urban village is the result of the concern on the sustainable development of the village areas in the UK in order to deploy the concept of sustainable urban form in the villages so as to develop the villages in order to gain overall development, the urban village initiative was undertaken. The fact that the villages in the UK were comparatively underdeveloped tithe cities and that the village population contributed a major portion for the development of the neighbouring city made it essential for the development of the villages in order to increase the intensification of the overall urban form to attain sustainable development in the urban form.
The characteristics of the urban village development include
No remote corners in the urban form of the village area considered (an area of diameter about half mile).
Integration of the villages (i.e.) the integration of the urban villages between themselves apart from the interaction through the town they are linked with. This reflects upon the clustered city approach of Howard Ebenezer, which emphasises upon the interaction between the cities in the cluster by themselves rather than the interaction through the central city. For a typical city like London, the neighbourhood areas like Soho, Covent Garden and Clerk well served as the participants for the urban village programme. The initiative of the polycentric grouping of Urban Villages was encouraged wherever possible by the urban village initiative (1). This proves that the clustered city approach of the urban form is a viable form for implementation both one large as well as small population.
The suggested worker population of 3,000-5,000 in every urban village makes it clear that the urban form can be achieved for a higher density of the overall population.
The diversity in the housing and the occupancy of the urban village initiative in offering the tenancy agreements to the people intending to rent properties for business and residence further justifies the argument of hoard Ebenezer that the population mix should contribute tithe occupancy mix in order to achieve self-sufficiency to a certain extent.
Analysing this the light of the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it’s clear that the urban village programme strives to provide the essential facilities to the people in the society within approach thus reducing the extent of commuting and increasing the interaction between the society itself. The fact that the plan was devised to provide facilities within approach by foot from any point justifies the above argument.
The transportation and access features of the urban village were made transparent and easy to interpret by drafting a lucid plan for the village. This increases the mobility of the people though the public transportation thus reducing the private commuters.
The facilities indented to be accomplished in an urban village include (13)
Recreation and cultural facilities
The above-mentioned facilities prove that the urban village initiative mainly strives to provide a compact city on its own to the residents and integrating to the central city thereby achieving the Howard Ebenezer model of cluster city.
The institute of Civil Engineers (13) describe the features of the community area for an urban village as follows
Focus for community
Showpiece for the village
Buildings higher than others in village - but using smaller plots
Buildings of architectural distinction and variety
Surrounding street grid - fine grained - small street blocks, with
Numerous alleyways and providing excellent pedestrian access to the central square
The above features of the central community area of the urban village proves that the urban village initiative by the Prince of Wales was to increase the sustainability of the villages and thereby contribute tithe sustainable urban form of the city that the villages surround.
The above argument is proved in the two cases analysed by (1).
The Pound bury Case study
In this initiative of the urban form the Pound bury urban village project delivered four discrete mixed-use quarters resulting in successful as well as highly intensified urban village. Furthermore, the strive to make discrete urban development rather than suburban or zoned development further strengthens the application of the Howard Ebenezer model of the urban form where each garden city in the ‘City Cluster’ was expected to be an urban form of its own prior to contributing to the overall urban form of the city.
The Crown Street Case study
In this case, the analysis has proved that the urban village initiative was embraced upon the following four design concepts (1)
Creation of the liveable, urban city
Reinvention of the tenement block
Reversal of the rod hierarchy and reintroduction of the shopping street
Redefinition of the grid pattern with linkages into surrounding communities
The above four design concepts proves that the urban village of the Crown street not only aims to increase the interaction between the people and their economic growth but mainly to strengthen the social equity through the grid pattern linkages into the surrounding communities.
The above arguments on the urban village have revealed that the models of the urban form discussed in the previous chapter can be implemented and can provide measurable results. It is further evident that the Howard Ebenezer model that was drafted more than hundred year ago is still viable and can prove successful as in the cases of pound bury and crown street. Hence to conclude this chapter, it is clear that the Howard Ebenezer model of clustered city approach to urban form is successful and can provide successful results for a small as well as larger density of population.
Chapter 9: Hulme Estate and it Resurrection
The Hulme estate, which was a notorious, huge, high-rise, inner city residential area built between 1964 and 1972 (1) comprised of the people who suffered large social problems due to the imbalance in the city plan and the less interaction among the people.
The initial design of the city to accommodate 5000 dwellings with an average of 150dwellings per hectare resulted in 3000 of the dwellings in the form of seven-storey deck-access blocks with the rest of the dwelling arranged in two and four storey buildings. This imbalance in the basic plan of the city was the primary cause for the increased level of crime and the social imbalance in the city.
The regeneration of the Hulme city was initiated by the demolition of the exiting multi storey buildings by the Manchester city council pandemic a large private developer in order to rebuild the entire city began in the year 1991. The regeneration of the city was planned to effect in both the actual design of the civil structures and plan of the city as well as the initiative to maintain social equity to create the Hulme city as a compact city. The new plan of accommodating 70 to85 houses per hectare with the provision of a park not only eliminated the multi-deck buildings but also increased the green space in the city thus increasing the ability for mixed use in the city.
Part from the design and structural considerations, the major initiative of the Hulme resurrection to incorporate sustainability principles in the actual construction itself like the use of recycled building materials, locally produced building materials to reduce transportation costs as well as eliminate the pollution due to transportation, adherence to strict standards of the building architecture using mainly the recycled building materials not only increased the sustainability of the city but also reduced the pollution in the city. The Homes for Change housing plan that was implemented not only by utilising the aforementioned sustainability steps but also incorporating the key features of the former Hulme Estate such as maisonettes, deck-access, six-storey buildings wit
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