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Green building was developed in the 1970s, during the energy crisis, when people finally realised that they needed to save energy and alleviate environmental problems.
The idea originated on the United States, as they were one of the largest contributors of pollution in the world.
Due to the fact that Buildings account for a large amount of land, energy and water consumption, and also contribute hugely to air pollution, green building aims to reduce the environmental impact buildings have on the environment.
Practices and technologies used in green building are constantly improving. Many are different from region to region, however there are fundamental principles that must be followed.
Green building is an outcome of a design philosophy, which focuses on increasing the efficiency of 4 main resources:
Along with increasing efficiency, green buildings also aim to reduce the impact buildings have on human health and the environment during the building's lifecycle.
This is achieved by improved design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal of waste materials.
It is generally agreed that green buildings are structures that are sited, designed, built, renovated and operated to energy-efficient guidelines, and that they will have a positive environmental, economic and social impact over their life cycle. Green specifications provide a good set of guidelines for the building industry, but these are still in the process of being formalised into UK regulation and many are open to interpretation.”
Green building requires a holistic approach that looks at each component of a building and how it relates in context with the whole building. This allows us to look at the impact the building will have on the wider environment and community around it.
Green Building is a difficult approach, which needs builders, architects and engineers to think creatively, and increase the level of integration throughout the project.
There are several resources and published guides that can help builders with the green building process, such as BREEAM (Building and Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method), the Code for Sustainable Homes, and EcoHomes.
“Green Building is not simply about protecting the biosphere and natural resources from over-exploitation or over-consumption, nor is it simply about saving energy to reduce our heating bills. It considers the impact of buildings and materials on occupants and the impact of our lives on the future environment.”
(Source - Tom Woolley, Sam Kimmins, Paul Harrison and Rob Harrison 1997. Green Building Handbook. Oxford: Spon Press . 5.)
Green Building Essentials
There are four main criteria that need to be considered in green building.
The materials used in Green Building projects need to be:
* From a natural, renewable source that has been managed and harvested in a sustainable way.
* Obtained locally in order to reduce the embedded energy costs of transportation.
* Sourced from reclaimed materials at nearby sites.
Materials are graded using green specifications which look at their life cycle and analyse them in terms of their embodied energy, durability, recycled content, waste minimisation, and their ability to be reused or recycled.
Some examples of building materials that are considered 'green' include:
* Renewable plant materials such as straw.
* Timber from sustainably managed forests.
* Recycled stone
* Recycled metal.
* Products that are non-toxic, reusable, renewable, and/or recyclable eg. linoleum, sheep wool, compressed earth blocks, rammed earth, clay, flax linen, cork, sand stone, and concrete.
Building materials should be sourced and manufactured locally to the building site where possible in order to minimise the energy used through transportation.
It is also desireable for building elements to be manufactured off-site, then delivered when needed. The benefits of this include minimising waste and maximising recycling as manufacturing is in a set location.
Energy consumption is a major issue, which green building principles aim to address.
Nearly all UK houses are extremely inefficient when it comes to heating and lighting consumption.
One method of reducing heating and ventilation costs for a building is to incorporate Passive Solar Design. This is when the suns energy is used for heating and cooling various living spaces. These passive systems are extremely simple in design, having very few moving parts and usually require no mechanical systems therefore they have a minimal maintenance issue.
Common features of passive solar heating include windows that can be opened and closed. Passive solar design incorporates the use of thermal mass also. This is when materials such as masonry, concrete and water actually store heat for a period of time this can prevent rapid fluctuations in temperature.
High levels of insulation and energy-efficient windows can help to conserve a lot of energy from escaping through the buildings envelope.
In regards to lighting a building, natural daylight design reduces the need for electricity in a building while improving the occupants health and productivity.
Green buildings also incorporate energy-efficient lighting, low energy appliances, and renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines and solar panels.
Reducing water consumption in a ‘Green’ House is an important aspect in many of the green building rating systems. It is therefore essential that water can be recycled around the house. This can be achieved by installing greywater and rainwater harvesting systems which will re-use water for tasks like watering plants or toilet flushing. Incorporating water-efficient appliances in kitchens and bathrooms, such as low flow showerheads, self-closing or spray taps, low-flush toilets, or waterless composting toilets, will all aid in reducing the amount of water required for the day to day running of the house.
This aspect of Green Building refers to the health of the buildings occupants.
Using non-toxic materials in construction will help to improve indoor air quality, which can reduce the rate of respiratory illnesses such as asthma. The materials and products used in a green design need to be emission-free and have very little or no VOC (Volatile organic compound) content. They also need to be moisture resistant in order to prevent moulds, spores from growing inside the house.
Indoor air quality can be improved through ventilation systems and using materials in the construction of the house that control humidity and allow a building to breathe.
A major factor which isnt included in the main four topics I have discussed above is what happens after the construction of the building has been completed.
It wont matter how sustainable the design and construction stage of the project was if the building is not maintained responsibly. This needs to be considered at the planning stage of construction and the occupant must be briefed on the green building concept. They should also be informed that in order to keep the ‘green’ status the building will have, careful and considerate maintenance methods will need to be employed, with the possibility of the need to upgrade aspects of the building to keep up to date with changing regulations and standards.
It is also important that the occupier continues green practices such as recycling throughout the life-cycle of the building.
A green building should provide cost savings to both the builder and occupant. It should also benefit the community through the use of local labour.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Green Building
I am going to first outline some of the disadvantages of green building, as most people tend to focus only on the positive aspects. Considerations such as cost, funding, material availability and location restrictions must be taken into account when planning a green build project.
One of the most common disadvantages of Green Building is the additional cost incurred. This is due to the increase in the quality of construction methods and materials used. Although energy savings can balance the extra costs out, it is still seen as a disadvantage the fact that extra money needs to be spent at the construction stage.
Eco-friendly building materials are often difficult to find in many areas of the UK, which can lead to prices being much higher than standard building materials. While projects close to larger cities may have no difficulty finding green building materials, suppliers may be scarce in other areas.
Many materials require special ordering, which could increase costs. Some other materials may only be available through Internet orders, which will increase the cost due to shipping and handling. The green building market is becoming much more competitive due to the increase in demand for this type of construction, and Green Building costs are predicted to decrease in the near future.
Apart from the initial cost of green building, finding a mortgage company or bank that offers loans for a building that is not built in the traditional way may be difficult.
The time taken to complete a green building can also be viewed as a disadvantage. Green building projects encourage the use of recycled materials and trying to source these can add to the time to complete a certain stage of the build that the contractor and client haven’t allowed for in the project.
One overlooked disadvantage is the fact that in recent years houses have become more airtight, which has added to the problem of indoor air quality. Houses have become so sealed that there is now an increase in indoor pollution.
An example of how this can occur is if a builder decides to use some recycled material but is unaware of any chemicals that may be contained in it. The chemicals may give off volatile organic compounds, which have in fact been found toxic to humans.
Most green building guides have a section on Indoor Air Quality, ventilation, filtration systems, and suggestions for low or no VOC products in the building process to address this issue.
The benefits of green building are what most people want to know nowadays, and below are some of these advantages. They have been categorised into three main areas, Environmental, Economic and Social Benefits.
Reduction of Emissions:
Using green building techniques such as solar power and daylighting increase the energy efficiency of the building, and also cut down harmful emissions released by fossil fuels. This can help reduce air quality issues such as smog and acid rain.
Conservation of Water:
Significant water savings can be created by introducing methods such as rainwater and greywater harvesting. These methods use and recycle various water sources, which can then be used for irrigation in gardening and for flushing toilets. Stormwater management can also be helpful to the environment by reducing localised flooding, which can carry pollution into water sources, and erosion. Rainwater harvesting and using building materials that are permeable for driveways can help reduce this risk.
Green building promotes increased efficiency both during and after the construction phase. Recycling and reusing waste materials will lead to a decrease in the amount of waste that needs to be dumped in landfills.
As I mentioned above, some people believe green building to be too expensive. Previous studies have shown that costs are not substantially higher than traditional developments.
As long as the designer and client have decided to go down the route of green building, the high construction costs can usually be avoided.
Although the costs may be higher at the beginning of a projects life cycle, they can be recouped throughout the life of the building.
Due to the increased efficiency from green design and new technology, operation costs from heating, electricity and water can all be reduced dramatically, resulting in a low payback time on the money invested at the beginning of the project.
Green buildings can also be sold or rented quicker, and at a premium rate because of the low maintenance and utility bills. This will prove to be a unique selling point if the cost of fuel continues to rise.
Another very impressive advantage of a green building is its ability to improve the occupier’s health. Conditions such as respiratory problems, skin rashes, nausea and allergies, which can result from insufficient air circulation, poor lighting, mould, toxic adhesives and paints, can be significantly reduced in a green built house. This is because green building emphasises the need for proper ventilation and the reduction in use of toxic material, which will create a healthier living environment.
Another key element of green building is the need to preserve the natural environment. This can provide a variety of recreation and exercise opportunities. Green buildings also seek to facilitate alternatives to driving, such as bicycling by awarding points for providing bike docks (In the Code for Sustainable Homes), which eases local traffic while increasing personal health and fitness.
Summary of Advantages and Disadvantages of Green Building
Below are the disadvantages and advantages summarised in point form.
* Initial cost.
* Funding for projects from banks hard to get.
* Location Factor.
* Availability of Materials.
* Implications on air quality due to the use of some recycled materials.
* Environmental Benefits.
* Reduction of Emissions.
* Conservation of Water.
* Reduced localised flooding.
* Waste reduction.
* Economic benefits.
* Low utility bills.
* Increase in likelihood for the property to be sold or let.
* Social Benefits.
* Improvement to the occupant’s health.
* Preservation of the natural environment.
* Increased recreation and exercise opportunities.
As you can see there are significantly more Advantages than Disadvantages of Green Building.
Green Building Rating Systems
In this section of my report I am going to give a brief introduction to the main Green Building rating systems used in the UK.
These systems review a building or construction project, and score it on different sections. Points are usually awarded for issues addressed and an accreditation is awarded depending on the amount of points scored when the project is completed.
Although I have focused on Green building in houses, I will look at some systems that are used for commercial building and civil engineering works.
Below are some of the systems I will be discussing:
BREEAM is an abbreviation for the ‘BRE Environmental Assessment Method’.
BREEAM is the leading and most widely used environmental assessment method for buildings. It sets the standard for best practice in sustainable design and has become the primary measure used to describe a building's environmental performance.”
(Cited from the BREEAM website – www.breeam.org)
BREEAM was established by the BRE in the UK in 1990 as and aid to help measure the sustainability of new buildings.
BREEAM has grown since then with reular updates according to changes in building regulations and government legislation.
The BREEAM guidelines cover many different types of building, including Industrial, Residential, Education, Healthcare and Retail.
The BREEAM guidelines were last updated in 2008. In this upgrade, a new two stage assesment process was introduced. This means that the building will be assesed at the design stage and also after the completion of construction.
Mandatory scoring credits were introduced and a new rating level of BREEAM Outstanding was created.
The BREEAM standard is not only being used in the UK, it is fast turning into a global accreditation.
The BRE have set up a new division called BREEAM International. This division has already created versions of BREEAM for Europe and the Gulf, adapting them in accordance to local regulations.
The information below is also from the BREEAM website. This information outlines the reasons why BREEAM should be used:
BREEAM provides clients, developers, designers and others with:
* Market recognition for low environmental impact buildings.
* Assurance that best environmental practice is incorporated into a building.
* Inspiration to find innovative solutions that minimise the environmental impact.
* A benchmark that is higher than regulation.
* A tool to help reduce running costs, improve working and living environments.
* A standard that demonstrates progress towards corporate and organisational environmental objectives.”
(Cited from - www.breeam.org)
BREEAM addresses wide-ranging environmental and sustainability issues and enables developers and designers to prove the environmental credentials of their buildings to planners and clients.
* BREEAM uses a straightforward scoring system that is transparent, easy to understand and supported by evidence-based research
* BREEAM has a positive influence on the design, construction and management of buildings
* BREEAM sets and maintains a robust technical standard with rigorous quality assurance and certification”
(Information sourced from the BREEAM website – www.breeam.org)
CEEQUAL stands for, The Civil Engineering Environmental Awards Scheme.
It is a scheme for improving the sustainability of civil engineering and public sector projects, in the UK.
The aim of CEEQUAL is to encourage civil engineering companies to achieve improved environmental and social performance in the specification, design and construction areas of their projects. Launched in September 2003, CEEQUAL was mainly developed by the ICE (Institute of Civil Engineers) and various government departments and agencies also gave their support to the idea and helped to finance the initiative.
Since 2003, CEEQUAL has grown to be the main scheme for assesing the sustainability of civil engineering works. In 2008 CEEQUAL was included in the Government report “Strategy for Sustainable Construction” as a scheme to be used that can comply with the governments design agenda for civil engineering works.
Just like the BREEAM assessment, CEEQUAL uses a credits or points to score various aspects of a civil engineering project, including environmental aspects such as, water, energy and land usage, as well as other categories such as nuisance to neighbours, waste minimisation and management, archaeology, community amenity and ecology.
A project that has achieved an award from CEEQUAL will show the public that the designers, contractors and clients, have completed a project that is above the minimum environmental standards, which will portray that they care about sustainability in the construction industry.
Benefits of CEEQUAL:
* Provides a benchmark standard for environmental performance;
* Demonstrates the commitment of the civil engineering industry to environmental quality; and celebrates the achievement of high environmental standards in civil engineering projects
A CEEQUAL Award for a civil engineering project identifies an organisation that:
* Measures and compares standards of performance;
* Respects people and the society in which it operates;
* Undertakes its work in an ethical and sustainable manner;
* Acts in a socially and environmentally responsible way;
* Protects and enhances the environment; and
* Is concerned about the major impacts of construction on the environment and the earth’s resources.
Source - http://www.cpdni.gov.uk/index/guidance-for-suppliers/ceequal.htm
There are several different CEEQUAL Award levels that a project can achieve, depending on the percentage number of points scored against the scoped-out question set. These are:
* more than 25% - Pass
* more than 40% - Good
* more than 60% - Very Good
* more than 75% - Excellent
Five types of award can be applied:
* Whole Project Award, which is normally applied for jointly by or on behalf of the client, designer and principal contractor(s)
* Client & Design Award
* Design Only Award, applied for by the principal designer(s) only
* Construction Only Award, applied for by the principal contractor(s) only
* Design & Build Award, applied for the designer(s) and constructor(s) of a project.
Irish CEEQUAL Certified Projects
Below are some examples of the Civil Engineering projects that have achieved CEEQUAL Awards in Ireland in the last few years:
2008 – 2009 Awards:
* Custom House Square, Belfast
§ Derry City Centre Public Realm
§ Armagh Environmental Improvement Scheme
Award: Very Good
§ Downshire to Whitehead Sea Defences Boneybefore to Edenhalt (section 3)
§ Balloo Waste Transfer Station and Recycling Centre, Bangor
Award: Very Good
§ Moneymore Flood Protection Scheme
§ N229 Newtownards Road Environmental Improvements
§ Belfast City Centre Streets Ahead
§ Knockmore - Lurgan Track Upgrade
2006 – 2007 Awards
§ N7 Naas Road Widening & Interchange Scheme
Award: Very Good
§ Carran Hill water treatment works
* abbey & Kircubbin Wastewater Treatment Works
* Newtownstewart Bypass
Award: Very Good
(Source - http://www.ceequal.com/all_awards.htm)
LEED stands for ‘Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design’.
The United States Green Building Council (USGBC) developed LEED in 1998. The scheme was created to offer an American equivalent to BREEAM, a green building scheme that was created in 1990 in the UK.
Aswell as being a US equivelant to BREEAM, LEED was invented to help define what green building was, by recognising environment leadership in the construction industry. By doing this LEED also hoped to raise awareness of the benefits of green building and try to create some competition in the green building market.
The LEED evaluation method is voluntary and covers all types of buildings such as, homes, offices and retail space.
The main division of the LEED initiative is ‘LEED for New Construction’.
This LEED assessment is also used on some international building projects.
LEED has eight key categories where LEED points can be achieved.
1. Location and Planning
2. Sustainable Sites
3. Water Efficiency
4. Energy & Atmosphere
5. Materials & Resources
6. Indoor Environmental Quality
7. Innovation in Design
8. Regional Priority
In each of these six categories, multiple points can be achieved when specific needs have been met. The more points achieved, the higher the LEED rating will be. LEED has also introduced certain criteria, which is mandatory in each level of LEED.
The LEED assessment is a two-part process, involving a design phase review and also a construction phase review. After these reviews, a LEED certificate can be presented if the project is up to standard.
This table compares the old LEED v2.2 points system with the new LEED v3 system.
LEED Ratings LEED v2.2 LEED v3
Certified 26-32 points 40-49 points
Silver 33-38 points 50-59 points
Gold 39-51 points 60-79 points
Platinum 52-69 points 80+ points
(Table has been sourced from the Reed Construction Data website – http://www.reedconstructiondata.com/articles/read/leed-rating-system/)
Below is a table showing the nine different rating systems and also the five overarching categories to correspond with the specialities available through LEED.
Green Building Design & Construction
· LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations
· LEED for Core & Shell Development
· LEED for Schools
· LEED for Retail New Construction (planned 2010)
Green Interior Design & Construction
· LEED for Commercial Interiors
· LEED for Retail Interiors (planned 2010)
Green Building Operations & Maintenance
· LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance
Green Neighborhood Development
· LEED for Neighborhood Development
Green Home Design and Construction
· LEED for Homes
A comparison between BREEAM and LEED
More and more organisations are realising that having green credentials is a must in todays society.
This is because the public are more sustainably aware thanks to the increased coverage for the subject of sustainability in the news and papers.
Having a Green Building as part of your companies assets will show that you want to reduce the impact you have on the environment, as well as cutting utility bills and increasing the occupants health.
With this increase in green buildings, there is now competition between the method of assement.
For years, BREEAM has been the main environmental assessment method for UK buildings. Now with the expansion of LEED out of America there is increased competition.
The principles of BREEAM have also spread worldwide, and while similar assesment methods have been created for other countries, BREEAM and LEED are the main methods used today.
The way in which projects are assesed is the main difference between BREEAM and LEED.
BREEAM uses assessors that have been trained by the BRE, who check for evidence in the building and score it against the specified criteria. The BRE then check the assesors report and award a BREEAM certificate.
LEED on the other hand does not require a trained assesor, however points are awarded if a LEED Accredited Professional is used. Evidence from the project is gathered and submitted to the USGBC who will review it and award the appropriate certificate.
Both BREEAM and LEED help to keep the market to improve building design. Both also regularly update their scoring criteria to keep up with changing regulations.
BREEAM is more relevant in the UK as it uses UK policies, however LEED can be used as a global accreditation.
BREEAM will more than likely be the favoured system in the UK, as it has backing from the government as they require BREEAM ratings for all of their buildings.
Below is a table that compares the similarities of BREEAM and LEED:
(Table sourced from - http://www.bsria.co.uk/news/breeam-or-leed/)
Code for Sustainable Homes
The ‘Code for Sustainable Homes’ is an environmental impact rating system for houses in the UK. The Code was launched in December 2006, and addresses new standards, above current building regulations, for energy usage and sustainability issues.
The aim of this new code is to try and decrease the impact that housing has on the environment.
The code was created to try and help relieve the problems we have brought upon ourselves through climate change. Buildings contribute nearly half of the UK’s carbon emissions. In order to reduce these emissions by 80% by 2050, housing needs to become more sustainable.
Following this code can help minimise the environmental damage that has occurred during the construction process in the past.
It also gives homebuilders the chance to create a revolutionary design for new homes to be put on the housing market, promoting a more sustainable lifestyle.
Adopting the code for sustainable homes is a major step in reaching the Government target of all new homes being zero carbon from 2016.
A house that is built in accordance to the code for sustainable homes will be more energy efficient, use less water and create less carbon emissions. This in turn is better for the environment.
Houses that follow the code are built in a more efficient way as they use materials that are from sustainable sources. Because they are built in a more efficient manner, less waste is created, and the use of recycled materials is promoted. Due to the increase in quality and efficiency, running costs will be lower than that of a traditional build.
This way of sustainable building also encourages the occupier of the house to try to live a more sustainable lifestyle.
The Code for Sustainable homes has 9 separate categories with set scoring points covering:
3. Materials used in the home.
4. Surface water run-off.
7. Health and Well-being.
When the client incorporates a specific feature they are awarded points. At the end of the build these points are added together, and the total score forms the basis of a 1-6 star rating system.
The code for sustainable homes uses a ‘star’ rating system, which ranges from 1 to 6. Level 1 equates to a 10% improvement over current Building Regulations energy standards, Level 3 is a 25% improvement on building regulations, and level 6 is a Zero Carbon house.
A home rated as 6 stars will have achieved the highest sustainability rating.
Diagram showing the points scoring to achieve each code level:
(Source – The Code for Sustainable Homes)
In February 2008, the Government decided that all new homes must have a rating against the Code for Sustainable Homes by May 2008. Also whenever houses are sold it has been made madatory that they have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC). If a house has not been assessed for an EPC then it will receive a rating of zero.
This was brought in as an incentive for builders and developers to aim to score higher ratings in the Code for Sustainable Homes as home buyers could now easily see a house’s performance from the EPC.
Below is an copy of the EPC carried out for my house:
Diagram explaining 1*, 3* and 6* energy requirements:
Diagram sourced from - “Greener Homes for the Future”.
In 2006 the Government made public, plans for a 10-year timetable, and set a target in which all, new homes built from 2016 onwards, must be built to code level 6, which is zero carbon standards.
The government plans to achieve this by introducing a step-by-step upgrade of the Building Regulations.
Diagram showing the phasing dates of the code:
Diagram sourced from - “Greener Homes for the Future”.
Below is a Summary of the Code for Sustainable Homes benefits:
Reduced greenhouse gas emissions:
This reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is achieved due to the minimum standards that need to be achieved at each level within the code for sustainable homes. This is a major step towards relieving climate change.
Better adaptation to climate change:
The code compliments the existing building regulations (Approved Document L – 2006) by incorporating minimum standards for the handling of surface water run-off, and also water efficiency within the house. These standards are going to help ensure that future housing developments can cope with the effects of climate change.
Reduced environmental impact:
Not only does the code include provisions to fight climate change, it also aims to reduce the environmental impact the construction of housing has on the environment.
This is achieved by the promoting the use of recycled materials, and materials that are from sustainable sources.
This will also help the future houses have a reduced environmental impact.
BENEFITS FOR HOME BUILDERS
The Code not only has benefits for the Environment, Builders that follow the code can experience the benefits in the following ways:
A mark of quality:
Advertising a new built home as a ‘Code house’ can benefit the builder. This will portray the house as having a reduced impact on the environment, and thanks to the increased attention the subject of sustainability has been getting in the media, this is what the public want. This then should enable the house to be sold quicker, as a code home will have a unique selling point over a traditional built home.
The code gives an insight to what future building regulations will be like.
Therefore by trying to achieve as high a rating as possible, a builder can ‘future proof’ a house.
Thanks to the various levels included in the code, a degree of flexibility is lef in the hands of the builder. They can decide to stick to the minimum standards, or show innovation by incorporating solutions that will go beyond the minimum requirements.
BENEFITS FOR SOCIAL HOUSING PROVIDERS
Reduction of running costs:
Due to the increase in the standard of construction methods and materials used, houses built to the code standards will experience lower running costs over the year because of the higher level of energy efficiency than traditional houses.
This positive effect will also help reduce the growing problem of Fuel Poverty.
Improved comfort and satisfaction:
Occupants of a house that meets the code standards, should experience increased comfort because of the better thermal properties, and also the increase in air quality.
Raised sustainability credentials:
The Code can help the image of social housing providers, by showing the public that they are committed to sustainability.
BENEFITS FOR CONSUMERS
The code can also aid house buyers to see how sustainable an new house will be for them. This will help them decide which house will best suit their needs. Because of this fact, we should expect to see houses being upgraded to compete with similar ‘green houses’ on the market.
Reducing environmental ‘footprint’:
Homebuyers that purchase a house that meets code standards will be able to feel that they are doing their part to improve sustainability in the UK.
The more people that buy code homes, will help encourage builders to build more sustainable homes in the future.
Lower running costs:
Homebuyers that choose a code home will save money throughout the lifecycle of the house. This is due to the lower heating and energy bills they will experience. This can help fight against fuel poverty in the UK.
Occupants of a Code Home will experience an increase in their well being. This is because a code home is built with sustainable materials that should improve the air quality inside the home. Also improved natural lighting and heating systems will make the home more comfortable for the occupant.
Table showing the predicted number of houses completed each year to achieve the various Code Levels:
(Source – Code for Sustainable Homes – Impact Assessment)
I have included information from the Code for Sustainable Homes, which illustrates examples of a code one, code 3 and code 6 house requirements:
Code Level three:
Code Level 6:
What is the Cost of the Code for Sustainable homes?
One concern that everyone involved in with the housing market may have is, what additional cost it will take to follow and construct new houses to the Code for Sustainable Homes standards. This cost will have to be factored in and discussed at the design stage to see if it is affordable for the client, therefore it is necessary that all parties involved understand the code fully.
A report carried out by Cyril Sweett, a cost consultants, for the Housing Corporation and English Partnerships, examined what the extra cost of meeting Code Level 3 would be.
This report examined some of the more traditional dwellings that are on in the UK housing market. These included:
* Semi-detatched house
* Detatched house
* High Rise flat
* Low Rise flat
The report also looked at two modern designed houses which were built for a design and manufacture competition. These houses were built at a cost of £60,000 and were designed to meet Level 3 targets.
Based on the report, achieving the required energy use targets for Level 3 seemed to be the main concern.
These require a house to be 25% more efficient than the current building regulations. This report looked at 4 different ways to achieve the reduction in energy required to meet level 3.
By using some renewable energy and low carbon technology the cost of what it would take to meet level 3 was calculated for the 4 different types of dwelling.
The report showed that for the traditionally built houses, if wind turbines or mechanical ventilation systems were used, the cost ranged from between £1,600 to £4,400.
The cost to upgrade a high rise appartment was significantly greater. The methods used to reach the level 3 targets were the inclusion of Combined Heat and Power systems costing approx £1,700, and installing a solar water heating which cost up to £6,000.
When the modern houses were examined, it was found that they already were able to reach Level 3 at no extra cost. This was because they had already incorporated renewable technologies and the materials used in the construction were extremly thermally efficient. The report also discovered that to meet the level 3 water consumption rate of 105 liters per person per day, little or no money had to be spent to reach this target.
What this report concluded was that it only would take a 3% increase in development costs to reach the required targets fot level 3.
This goes to show that by following the code we can reduce the damge to the environment we have caused through the housing sector.
(Source for information in this review – www.sustain.co.uk/resource/insight-articles/the-cost-of-the-code.aspx)
Is the Code for Sustainable Homes Working?
In this chapter I will try to examine if the Governments efforts to reduce our impact on the plant is having an effect on the public.
In order to do this I am going to look at reports that were carried out by The Sponge Sustainability Network.
A previous report carried out in 2005 called: “The gaps in the existing case for building sustainable homes to encourage sustainable lifestyles” Discovered that:
* “It has yet to be proven that there is market demand for more sustainable homes; and
* Homebuyers do not fully understand the choices available to them in relation to sustainability features.”
It concluded that:
* “Home buyers will only demand sustainable homes when they are aware of the social and environmental benefits.
* Homeowners need to be able to differentiate between homes in terms of their sustainability features.
* Action is required to make home buyers more aware of these features.”
Sponge then carried out another updated report to analyse if people opinions on sustainability have changed. This research found that:
* “Homeowners are becoming increasingly interested in sustainable housing.
* Four out of five believe that sustainable homes can help combat climate change.
* There is a general willingness to adopt sustainable lifestyles, however this has to be both time and cost effective.
* Home owners expect developers to build to high environmental standards, over half (52%) are prepared to pay more, but nine out of ten people also think that the Government should provide incentives to encourage demand.
* Lack of information is seen as a key barrier in driving demand for sustainable homes. 70% of homeowners claim to know little or nothing at all about sustainable homes.
* 73% also felt the Government should be responsible for communicating the benefits of sustainable homes to the public. If Government schemes such as the Home Information Pack (and associated Energy Performance Certificate) and the new Code for Sustainable Homes succeed, these findings suggest that information is a significant barrier that needs to be addressed, in order to drive demand for sustainable homes.
* In addition to these key findings, the research highlighted a number of specific issues, which should be taken into account by the two key stakeholders responsible for the delivery of sustainable homes.”
(Information sourced from the Eco Chic or Eco Geek? -The Desirability of Sustainable Homes report by sponge)
The report from Sponge also highlighted key research findings and categorised them information that would be helpful to the Government and to House Builders.
Below are some of the findings that would be helpful for the Government:
* “Four out of five homeowners believe that more environmentally friendly homes would help combat climate change;
* Three in five homeowners claim to have installed energy and/or water saving features since moving into their homes.
* Those homeowners who have lived in their home for more than ten years are most likely to have taken action.
* Those who claim they have installed energy saving features are also more likely to be concerned about how much energy and gas they use.
* 92% of respondents want to see sustainability features offered as options on new homes. 64% of respondents think these should be compulsory.
* Over nine in ten respondents feel that there should be more financial incentives to encourage people to buy sustainable homes. The most popular of which, are for the Government to give subsidies to make current homes more sustainable and for reduced council tax bills for sustainable homes.
* Lack of information is seen as a key barrier in driving demand for sustainable homes. 70% of homeowners claim to know little or nothing at all about sustainable homes. Three quarters of homeowners (73%) feel the Government should be responsible for communicating the benefits of sustainable homes to the public.”
(Information sourced from the Eco Chic or Eco Geek? -The Desirability of Sustainable Homes report by sponge)
Below are some of the findings that would be helpful for the House builders:
* “Homeowners are concerned over how much electricity/gas and water they use (75% for energy; 61% for water);
* Water and energy efficiency are becoming more important features for homebuyers. While 45% of respondents state that energy efficient or water saving features were fairly or very important when choosing their current home, 73% say it would be fairly or very important in choosing their next home;
* 92% of respondents want to see sustainability features offered as options on new homes. 64% of respondents think these should be compulsory.
* Home owners hold positive associations with sustainable homes, seeing them as modern, attractive, hi-tech, fashionable, and good value (in comparison with old-fashioned, ugly, lo-tech and poor value).
* Homeowners are prepared to pay extra to live in a sustainable housing development. Two thirds of homeowners would be prepared to pay a monthly charge for sustainability services, such as convenient recycling facilities, green-caretaker, and car sharing.”
(Information sourced from the Eco Chic or Eco Geek? -The Desirability of Sustainable Homes report by sponge)
Sponge examined the findings they had gathered and in the same report, outlined recommendations for both the Government and House builders.
Below are Sponges recommendations for the Government:
* “Work needs to continue to be undertaken prior to the introduction of the Energy Performance Certificates within Home Information Packs and the Code for Sustainable Homes to ensure that customers are aware of these initiatives and that they understand their benefits. Consumers need further information about sustainable homes in general, as well more detail about specific features (for example, renewable energy).
* Greater consideration should be given to fiscal incentives to accompany the introduction of such schemes. This study has shown that subsides to make current homes more sustainable and reductions in council tax are the most popular measures that could be taken.
* The desire to make some sustainability features compulsory should be considered in the review of planning policy and building regulations to respond to this market demand and support the Government’s Sustainable Development agenda.”
Below are Sponges recommendations for the House builders:
* “More consideration should be given to the inclusion of ‘green services’ within developments (such as recycling services, green caretakers). There is the scope to develop innovative sustainability services, which could act as a unique selling point for the development (or indeed the developer). This research shows that such services may be a better way of recouping investments in sustainability by developers than expecting just an increased selling price. Some of these options could be offered at little or no cost to the house builder.
* More could be done to sell sustainable homes to customers. Sales staff could be made aware of the key sustainability features of developments, and be able to highlight the benefits of these to customers. Sales staff could also be aware of energy performance certificates and the Code for Sustainable Homes, and understand how sustainable homes perform relative to both new homes and existing homes.”
The report “Eco Chic or Eco Geek” just goes to show how peoples awareness to Sustainability issues have improved.
Northern Ireland Energy Consumption facts
In Northern Ireland:
• Around 75% of greenhouse gas emissions are accounted for by the 16 million tonnes of CO2 produced annually through the burning of coal, oil and gas.
• Housing alone consumes 44% of all energy use, and most of this (84%) is used for space and water heating.
• In 2006 transport accounted for around 29.4 per cent of the total CO2 emissions and 52 per cent of carbon monoxide.
• Agricultural activity contributes around 22% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in 2006, mainly in the form of methane and nitrous oxide.
• Energy costs in Northern Ireland are higher than in the rest of the UK and are an issue of real significance for industry, commerce and the domestic sector.
• Over 225,580 households suffer from the effects of fuel poverty.
• Electricity demand is rising by around 2% per annum.
(Source - http://www.ecoworld.org.uk/eco_topics/energy/current-usage.asp)
Main fuel sources for Domestic Heating 2006
The UK Government has aimed to obtain 20 per cent of electricity supplies from renewable sources in 2020.
In Northern Ireland the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment has also decided to follow this aim. They hope to be able to encourage homeowners to install renewable technology in their own homes. A programme was set up and ran from 2006 – 2008, which awarded grants to homeowners that decided to install this renewable technology.
Grants can still be obtained in Northern Ireland for the installation of renewable energy sources through the Low Carbon Buildings initiative.
This diagram shows the amount of applications, and money invested by the low carbon buildings programme for householders:
(Source - http://www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/Information-for-Installers/Statistics-tool)
This diagram shows the amount of applications and money invested by the low carbon buildings programme for communities up to the end of March 2010:
(Source - http://www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/Case-Studies-and-Statistics/Stream-1-communities)
This diagram shows the Total Electricity and Heat Consumed in Northern Ireland by Source:
Diagram sourced from the (http://www.niassembly.gov.uk/)
Although the concept of Green Building, or Sustainable building is still quite a new concept, building green is growing rapidly in the UK.
Changes in regulations now have included green specifications that must be met in all new building projects. These changes are in relation to the sustainable development strategy, and will in turn mean that green buildings will become more widespread throughout the country.
A green building is so more than a model for sustainable living, it can also build hope for the future.
I will now briefly describe some developments in Northern Ireland that are to be completed in the near future.
There is to be a new housing scheme in East Belfast which will consist of 17 townhouses and will be the first social housing scheme in Northern Ireland to meet the level 4 requirements of the Code for Sustainable Homes.
The houses in this development will have a reduced impact on the environment and for the occupants will provide significantly reduced energy bills.
The sustainable development comission said that they hoped there would be more developments such as this one in Northern Ireland, and that this proves that we can aim to be zero carbon in the future.
There has also been the launch of a design competition by the Social Development Minister, Margaret Ritchie MLA.
This competition which will challenge entrants to build 70 of Northern Ireland’s most energy efficient homes.
The competition has been created by the Department for Social Development, the Housing Executive, Oaklee Housing Group and the Royal Society of Ulster Architects. Once a winning design has been chosen, construction work is planned to commence in spring 2011.
Below are some facts and statistics which have emerged from a report carried out by the CIOB called “The Green Perspective”:
Top line statistics:
* 98% of respondents believed that the construction industry had a role to play in the solution to climate change, with 54% considering that the industry's participation was vital in reducing C02 levels.
* 91.4% believe that this role is either important or vital to climate change.
* 66.6% of respondents said that U.K. building regulations do not go far enough to create energy efficient buildings.
* 73% had seen an increase in demand for energy efficient buildings over the last 5 years.
* 86% believed there is financial benefit to producing energy efficient buildings.
* 46.4% felt that renewable energy would see the majority of U.K. investment in the future.
* 94.6% felt that green building was the future for construction.
* 37% regarded the use of building after construction as the highest contributor to CO2.
* 44.9% believed that a lack of financial incentives and client demand were holding back the industry from producing zero carbon buildings in mass.”
(Source: The Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB).)
This report has revealed that 94% of professionals in the construction industry believe that Green Building is the way forward for the future of the construction industry.
The results from this reported that 67% of the people who responded to it believed that building regulations were not satisfactory to create energy efficient buildings. Building regulations were viewed as the main way for the CO2 levels in the UK to be reduced, as the Government could enforce them.
A new strategy called ‘Warm Homes, Greener Homes’ has been launched, and has aimed to cut emissions from UK homes by nearly 30% by 2020.
This new strategy will help reduce energy bills, while also making smarter use of energy within homes.
The new strategy has also said it will introduce new jobs as up to 65,00 will be required in the green homes industry.
The strategy will be implemented in a three stage plan:
- To insulate 6 million homes by the end of 2011
- To have insulated all practical lofts and cavity walls by 2015
- To have offered up to 7 million eco upgrades by 2020; all homes to have smart meters.
(Sourced from - http://www.builderandengineer.co.uk/news/environment/government-unveils-green-housing-strategy-5118.html)
In this section I will highlight the various conclusions that I have come to with regards to my aims and objectives.
I will use the evidence gathered throughout my report to verify these conclusions and also try to recommend the next steps that need to be taken in order to make Northern Ireland a more sustainable country.
Looking back to what my initial aims and objectives were, I will now discuss how I have addressed these:
* To investigate if “Green Building” is practical, acceptable and effective in today’s environment.
To find out:
* What people’s views are on “Green Building” within the Construction Industry?
* Is Green Building Financially Practical in today’s economic climate?
* What is the Governments future plans/policies on “Sustainability” and “Green Building”?
* What incentives/motivation is there for people to consider “Green Building” over standard methods of construction?
* The various aspects involved with a Green Build.
* What rating/scoring systems are in place to guide Green Building.
* The Advantages and Disadvantages of Green Building.
To achieve the aim that I wanted to research, I set about addressing the objectives that I set.
I feel that throughout my Industrial Report I have researched all my objectives to a suitable standard, with the exception of my first objective, which was to find out what people in the construction industry’s views were on Green Building.
I may have included a report carried out by the CIOB, which partially addressed this, however I wanted to get feedback from companies in Northern Ireland. I tried to obtain this information through the use of questionnaires and also attempted to carry out interviews with professionals, but I was unable to carry this out, and I never received my questionnaires back again.
Overall I feel that through the research I carried out in addressing my objectives, has collectively gave me enough information to achieve the aim I set out from the start of this report.
I firmly believe that Green Building is practical, acceptable and effective in today’s environment.
My reasoning for this decision is that from the research included in my report I was able to see that green building can be extremely effective in reducing the harm that we cause to the environment. Green Building can also be effective at saving its occupants money from reduced energy bills, and also offering a degree of increased health from better air quality.
Green Building is now widely accepted as a legitimate construction technique. This is reflected in the ‘sponge’ report and also the CIOB report, which shows that people support Green Building techniques now.
The practicality of Green Building has been shown through looking at the cost it takes to get a house up to code level three standards.
I believe that I have achieved the aim I set out and have answered it to the best of my ability.
Management of Industrial Report
In this chapter I will discuss my own opinion of how I managed to complete this industrial report.
When I first set out to complete this report I had a clear outline of what I wanted to research and how I was going to do this.
I created a schedule of work to aid me with time management, which I have included below:
•Choose Industrial Report Title from the on-line system.
•Submission of first draft of Aims and Objectives to my Industrial Report supervisor. This included a brief introduction of my ideas.
•Editing of the feedback that I got from my supervisor on my first draft of the report Introduction.
•Carry out my presentation for the end of semester 1.
•Use feedback from my presentation to make any changes that are required to my report.
I personally feel that I was able to follow this schedule relatively close, and was happy with the progress that I made in my first semester of work.
I was able to meet with my supervisor to discuss what topics I should include in my report and get some new ideas on what to research.
Below is a copy of my timetable for semester 2:
•Meet with my supervisor to discuss any changes/new ideas I had over the Christmas break.
•Finish off my Literature review and complete a case study analysis with relevant interview questions for the manager of a Construction company.
•Complete and distribute all my questionnaire surveys and get all feedback from my case study. Also hope to have finalised meeting dates with construction companies.
•Collate all my findings together to come up with a conclusion, summary and recommendations.
•Have regular meetings with supervisor to improve my Industrial Report before the hand in date.
In this semester I must admit that I had a lot of conflict with my plan of work.
Due to this my industrial report suffered as I prioritised other coursework over research for my report.
I also did not meet with my supervisor as many times as I hoped, and because of this I had to figure out what information was relevant to my aims and objectives.
Due to my poor management of my industrial report, I missed the deadline because of some unforeseen problems.
My research was also not as thorough as I had planned, as I did not get back questionnaires I sent to various companies, and meetings I had hoped to obtain did not happen.
Meetings with Supervisor
In my various meetings with my supervisor, Ursula Walsh, I was able to put across ideas I had on the topic of Green Building.
Ursula was very helpful in pointing me in the right direction with regards to research material, and contacts to speak with.
Ursula also was able to focus the ideas down to a specific aim, and from that I was able to decide on the objectives I wished to achieve.
In reflection I would have liked to have carried out more meetings with Ursula, but as I mentioned in the previous chapter, the mismanagement of my time prevented this.
* http://www.ukgbc.org/site/home - UK Green Building Council
* http://www.bsria.co.uk - Built Environment Experts
* http://www.usgbc.org/ (LEED Homepage)
* http://www.reedconstructiondata.com/articles/read/leed-rating-system/ (Tables of the LEED points system)
* http://www.ecoworld.org.uk - (NI energy usage figures)
* http://www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/ - (Low carbon building programme)
* UK Strategy for Sustainable Construction
* Code for Sustainable Homes - A step-change in sustainable homebuilding practice
* A Sustainable Development Strategy – First Steps Towards Sustainability.
* Greener Homes for the Future - (Information on the Code for Sustainable Homes)
•The Green Building Bible - Volume One – (Basic Green Building Concepts)
•Green Building Fundamentals – (Design and cost of Green Buildings)
•Green Building Handbook – Volume two – (How to choose materials to use)
· SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT - An introduction to its definition and measurement (BRE Document)
· Green Building Manifesto - UK Green Building Council
· Eco Chic or Eco Geek? -The Desirability of Sustainable Homes report by sponge - (Statistics on the publics opinion on Sustainability)
Malachy Friel – B00358759 “Green Building”