This dissertation has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional dissertation writers.

Alternative development possibilities

Introduction

Description of the Development

The site is located in one of Corks most prestigious areas; the property is set on 0.8 of an acre of level ground overlooking the River Lee on the grounds of Our Lady’s hospital. It is ideally located on the Lee Road just 2.4kms west of Cork City adjacent to the historic University College Cork and close to the western routes leading to Blarney (8 kms) and Killarney (80 kms) which is accessible via the newly constructed Ballincollig bypass. Equally accessible, are Cork Airport and major routes to Limerick, Waterford and Wexford. The site is currently selling for €1,900,000 and is zoned commercial. All services including mains water, electricity and mains drainage are located adjacent to the site and are easily accessible.

The church is located at the front of the site and provides an excellent development opportunity for the conversion of the existing structure into a bar/bistro. The church is of rubble limestone construction, un-rendered and with cut limestone plinths. The internal area amounts to 100 sq.m with a planned extension of a further 100sq.m at the rear, to provide additional space for the kitchen, store and staff facilities. The walls of the interior are lined with brick and there is an exposed timber truss roof. Adjacent to the church is a parking area, three developments will be considered for this site which includes the construction of a medical centre, crèche or apartments. All services including water, electricity and mains drainage are located adjacent to the site and are easily accessible.

Development Region

The development is located in the province of Munster and in the county of Cork, which is situated in the South of Ireland. Cork is the commercial and industrial capital of the South West Region with a population of 190,384 people (2006 Census) rising to 454,850 within a 60km radius.

Historic Cork

The city's name is derived from the Irish word Corcach, meaning "marshy place" and refers to the fact that the center of Cork City is built on islands, surrounded by the River Lee, which were marshy and subjected to instances of flooding. Traditionally, Saint Finbarre has been credited with the foundation of the monastery of Cork, known to be the earliest human settlement in Cork for which historians have incontrovertible evidence.

The location of this monastic settlement was on the area arnd the present-day site of Saint Finbarre’s Cathedral. However the ancestor of the modern city was founded in the 12th century, when Viking settlers established a trading community. In the twelfth century, this settlement was taken over by invading Anglo-Norman settlers. Cork's city charter was granted by King John of England in 1185.

Over the centuries, much of the city was rebuilt, time and again, after numerous fires. The city was at one time fully walled, and several sections and gates still remaining. During the 19th century important industries in Cork included, brewing, distilling, wool and shipbuilding. In addition, there were some municipal improvements such as gas light street lights in 1825, a local paper, The Cork Examiner was first published in 1841 and, very importantly for the development of modern industry, the railway reached Cork in 1849. Also in 1849, University College Cork opened.

Lee Road Area

In the early 1760s the Pipe Water Company was established to provide a water supply to the city of Cork. The architect/engineer Davis Ducart designed the Waterworks which were completed by 1768. The site, located on the lee road included a pumping house and open storage reservoirs which were constructed on the hillside to the north of the river at the same location as the present Waterworks buildings. By the late 1840’s it was felt that the water supply to the city required upgrading, as the population of the city was increasing rapidly, new suburbs developing on the city’s north side could not benefit from the existing system. In 1854, the Pipe Water Company instructed John Benson, had prepared a plan for a new Waterworks, Work began with the laying of new cast-iron mains pipes in 1857 and continued for a number of years. By February 1859 these new water pipes had reached the military barracks on the Old Youghal Road. By this time the Pipe Water Company had been taken over by Cork Corporation, who remains in charge of the municipal water supply to this day. (Lifetime Labs)

Local Industry

Corks main area of industry is in pharmaceuticals, with Pfizer Inc. and Swiss company Novartis being big employers in the region. Cork is also the European headquarters of Apple Inc. where their computers are manufactured and their European call centre, R&D and Apple-Care is hosted. In total, they currently employ over 1,800 staff.

EMC Corporation located in the area of Ovens, in the outskirts of the city is another large I.T. employer with over 1,600 staff in their 52,000 sq metre (560,000 sq. ft.) engineering, manufacturing, and technical services facility. Many of these large multinational organisations have been attracted to the area due the low corporation tax rate of 12.5%.

Planning Issues and Restrictions

After consultation with a Cork City Planning officer a number of issues were raised regarded the conditions of the planning. The site lies within a category A Landscape Protection Zone as per Cork Coty Development Plan 2004. This category of land is defined in Table 8.1 of the Development Plan as “Visually important land, including land forming the setting to existing buildings” According to paragraph 8.20 of the Plan “There will be a general presumption by means of a landscape assessment and appropriate landscape and building design proposals” The proposed site at the Lee Road is a visually sensitive area, the design of the structures will therefore have to be landscape rather than building orientated.

As stated in Policy BE 8 of the Development Plan: “The City Council will endeavour to devise and implement policies to positively encourage and facilitate the careful refurbishment of historic built environment for sustainable and economically viable uses.” To comply with plan it will be necessary to adhere to following conditions:

  • The development shall be carried out in accordance with the drawings and specifications submitted.
  • A visual impact study must be conducted to determine how the how the development will affect the landscape.
  • The redevelopment of the chapel shall be supervised by a conservation consultant with appropriate qualifications and/or experience in conservation and restoration of historic buildings in order to protect the architectural characteristics and visual appearance of this existing structure.
  • The contractor appointed shall have an expertise and demonstrate high standards of workmanship and have previous experience in restoration of historic structures.
  • The site is not considered suitable for a “super-pub” or for a nightclub. In order to protect the character and amenities of the area, the development is restricted to be used as a restaurant with ancillary public house.

Under the Landscape Assessment Guidelines (2000) the classification of the site at the Lee Road was obtained from the following table:

The site is classified as a category A as it forms part of the setting for the existing landmark building (Former Our Lady’s Hospital). The guidelines state that:

There will be a general presumption against development in Landscape Protection Zones unless it can be demonstrated by means of a visual landscape assessment and appropriate building design proposal that the proposed development will enhance the overall landscape character of the site and its visual context.

Factors Favouring Refurbishment

In the initial feasibility for the Lee Road church, it was necessary to consider the advantages and disadvantages to its refurbishment. Consideration will be given to both the social and economic factors.

Social Factors in favour of refurbishment

  • Energy/Resource conservation – Just as there is a current growing awareness of the need to recycle domestic waste, buildings with a useable structure should also be recycled.
  • Preservation of historic buildings – The church on the grounds of the site is listed as a protected structure, buildings which are historic merit need to be refurbished to maintain their integrity and thereby the amenity for the nation.
  • Social resistance to change – Buildings are an integral part of an urban fabric and society may well demonstrate forceful views in restricting change. Its arguments will centre upon:
  • retaining historical and social continuity
  • preserving familiar landscape scenes
  • conserving existing communities and the social fabric

Economic Factors in favour of refurbishment

  • Shorter construction period – A refurbishment scheme can usually be carried out quicker than redevelopment which results in:
  • a prompt turnover of finance;
  • earlier occupation of the building;
  • quicker return on capital employed;
  • a reduction in the effects of inflation, high interest rates and other risks.
  • Condition of the building – In the case of the Lee Road church, the structure itself is in relatively sound condition, the savings on the building components may make a refurbishment scheme cheaper than reconstruction.
  • Expectation of high land values – The future expectation of high land values may provoke refurbishment to create a short life use so as to occupy the building and keep the site in its present use until fully ripe for exploitation. This will avoid leaving a building empty for long periods while long term plans are being formulated.
  • Constraints on development – site conditions and organisational constraints (e.g. Cork County Council planning restrictions) may make redevelopment unsuitable for a particular or intended use and therefore unprofitable.

Limiting Factors in refurbishment

One of the major factors in factors in favour of the refurbishment of the church is the cost saving from the retention of the existing materials, whilst this can reduce the total cost of the scheme, the following criteria required consideration.

  • Diminishing returns – The economic life of a building can be said to end when a site value in a new use exceeds the value of the existing building. A building requires redevelopment when the value of the building is below the potential use value of the land and hence yields a diminishing return.
  • Life expectancy – Property investment tends to be long-term in nature and normally a paying back of sixty year is allowed in property investment calculations. There is little doubt that a new building will last the sixty years or more, whereas a refurbished building may not have been designed and constructed with materials appropriate for long life.
  • High cost of borrowing – In general, financial institutions are unprepared to invest in old buildings due to inherent high financial risks. If they provide finance the assumption of high risk can often lead to a higher rate of interest.
  • Management of refurbishment – the extent of work is not predictable; hence very difficult to design, cost plan and cost control. It can often be a complex, non-repetitive and labour intensive operation and does not facilitate high productivity.
  • Attract high tender prices- the contactor will often assume a high undefined risk element and uncertainty of cost when the pre-contract survey is inadequate.
  • Increased cost of Health and Safety

Source: Harlow (1994)

Rationale for Refurbishment

After taking all factors into consideration, it was felt that the benefits of refurbishment outweigh the costs of redevelopment. Also according to Harlow (1994) the emphasis is moving towards conservation leading to the search for historical and social continuity by fining ways of re-using an existing fabric rather than accelerating the cycle of replacement”

The structure itself is in a reasonable sound condition with only minor restorations required; reusing the existing building will decrease construction time, reduce site overheads and retain the historical and social continuity of the Lee road area.

Review of alternative development possibilities

Development 1 – Medical Centre

The first development to contribute to the bar/bistro development is the construction of a medium sized three storey structures; this will comprise 2 No. doctor’s surgeries, a nurse’s office and associated accommodation including waiting, reception and storage areas. It has a floor area of approx 800m2 and an overall ridge height of 8.2m. Its overall design is of a contemporary nature utilizing feature glazing and an extended limestone surround to complement the features of the adjacent church.

Early Feasibility Study

Project

Location

Item

Description

Cost/m2

Floor Area

Total Cost

1.0

Site Clearance

€80.00

610

€48,800.00

2.0

Substructure

€150.00

610

€91,500.00

3.0

Superstructure

€380.00

610

€231,800.00

4.0

Internal Finishes

€270.00

610

€164,700.00

5.0

Fittings and Furnishings

€150.00

610

€91,500.00

6.0

Service Installations

€555.00

610

€338,550.00

7.0

External Works

€163.00

610

€99,430.00

8.0

Preliminaries

€110.00

610

€67,100.00

9.0

Contingencies

€20,000.00

Total Estimated Cost

€1,153,380.00

Income

Rental Price Per Month

6000

Rental Price Per Annum

72000

Total Income per Annum

72000

Expenditure

Maintenance

7000

Landscaping

2500

9500

Profit per annum

62500

0

-1183880

1

62500

2

68750

Rate

-1.595%

3

75625

4

83188

5

91506

6

100657

7

110723

8

117366

9

124408

10

131872

Net Present Value

IR£0.00

Internal Rate of Return

-1.5949%

Development 2 – Crèche

This development entails the construction a crèche that will serve the 180 apartments in Atkins Hall, River Towers and The Mews. The structure will be single storey building with car parking at the rear. The crèche will accommodate up to 30 children (depending on ages). Other facilities would include a fully equipped indoor play area and an out-door playground. There is no doubt that there is demand for a crèche in the area, the development would cater for the residents of the nearby apartments. Students of the nearby University College Cork could also utilize these facilities.

Crèche Early Feasibility Study

Site Clearance

€80.00

610

€48,800.00

Substructure

€150.00

610

€91,500.00

Superstructure

€380.00

610

€231,800.00

Internal Finishes

€270.00

610

€164,700.00

Fittings and Furnishings

€200.00

610

€122,000.00

Service Installations

€555.00

610

€338,550.00

External Works

€163.00

610

€99,430.00

Preliminaries

€110.00

610

€67,100.00

Contingencies

€20,000.00

Total Estimated Cost

€1,183,880.00

Income

Average number of children

35

Price Per Child per week

250

Price Per Child per Annum

3000

Total Income

105000

Expenditure

Maintenance

10000

Landscaping

5000

15000

Profit per annum

120000

0

-1495000

1

120000

2

132000

Rate

1.807%

3

145200

4

159720

5

175692

6

193261

7

212587

8

225343

9

238863

10

253195

Net Present Value

IR£0.00

Internal Rate of Return

1.8066%

  

Development 3 – Apartments

This project consists of the construction of a pre-cast concrete structure over three levels. The development would see the construction of eighteen 1 to 2 bedroom apartments over a nine month duration. The total floor area will amount to approx 1200 sq.m. The site at Our Lady’s hospital is highly sought after area, there is obvious demand for such a development in the area, the 180 new constructed apartments on the grounds are currently all sold out and a further 140 are under construction.

According to the 2006 census “ Cork City was the only metropolitan area in the country to actually lose population due to the lack of new apartments in the city”.

The objective of this development will be to provide high quality apartments that are within an easy commuting distance to Cork City. The target market will be primarily first time buyers wishing to get on the property ladder or also for investors who are seeking a promising rental return.

Early Feasibility Study - Apartments

Project

Apartments

Location

Lee Road

Co. Cork

Date:

Cost €

Floor

Elemental

Total

Item

Description

per m2

Area

Cost

1.0

Site set up

12000

12000

2.0

Sub-structure

80

5000

400000

400000

3.0

Superstructure

359

31527

758230

758230

4.0

External Structure

90

5610

83130

83130

5.0

Finishes

223

5685

120590

120590

6.0

Services

86

5820

101940

101940

7.0

External Works

70

4690

80460

80460

8.0

Preliminaries

16500

16500

9.0

Contingencies

15250

15250

Sub Total

1588100

VAT @ 12.5%

198513

Total Estimated Cost (€)

1786613

Income

Number of Apartments:

18

Price per month

1350

Price Per Annum

16200

Total Income

291600

Expenditure

Maintenance

10000

Landscaping

5000

15000

Profit per annum

306600

0

-1786613

1

306600

2

337260

Rate

9.485%

3

370986

4

408085

5

448893

6

493782

7

543161

8

597477

9

657224

10

696658

Net Present Value

-IR£0.00

Internal Rate of Return

9.4854%

Assessed Area 2 – Economic Analysis

2.0 Introduction

The economics of any building influences design decisions more than any other single factor. A developer usually wishes to know whether the investment of capital in a project will be justified by the return which he can expect to receive, it is therefore necessary to assess as accurately as possible the value of all the expected returns and benefits of the Lee Road Development. The techniques used for economic analysis of this development will include a detailed market research, an investigation into the sources of finance available, a SWOT analysis, a sensitivity analysis and a detailed elemental cost plan.

Market Research into Restaurant Industry

“Market research is the process of systematically gathering, recording and analyzing data and information about customers, competitors and the market. Its uses include to help create a business plan, launch a new product or service, fine tune existing products and services, and expand into new markets. Market research can be used to determine which portion of the population will purchase a product/service, based on variables like age, gender, location and income level”

The Irish restaurant industry has gone from strength to strength over the past number of years. A recent survey carried out by National Tourism Development Authority showed that the number of Irish restaurant premises is increasing steadily since 2000.

Number of licensed restaurant premises, 2000-2006

Year

Premises

2000

2,120

2001

2,129

2002

2,115

2003

2,220

2004

2,365

2005

2,546

2006

2,720

Source National Tourism Development Authority survey of golden pages 2000-2006

This number has further increased since 2006, a survey conducted on the Golden Pages website, shows that number of licensed restaurants has increased from 2,720 to 3,940 in 2006

The graph above shows that the Cork Region holds a strong 13 % of the total market.

An estimated 45,200 people employed in the sector in 2006. Of these approximately 37,927 (84%) were year-round and 7,273 (16%) were seasonal employees. About 30% of the total employment was in the Dublin region (equivalent to about 13,500 people). The largest proportions of employees were employed in the remainder of the Southern and

Eastern region (46%), while the remaining employees (24%) were employed in the Border, Midland and Western region.

Sources of Finance Available

Short-term Finance

Short -term finance operates for periods ranging from a few days to a maximum of about 2 years. The principal sources of finance are the commercial or merchant banks, hire purchase companies and trade credit. An example of short tern financing in a construction context could be when a firm places an order for raw materials, it pays with finance and anticipates to recoup this finance by selling these goods over the period of a year. (Seeley 1972)

There are many methods for which a firm can seek short terms financing some of these include:

  • Overdrafts
  • Short-term loans
  • Bills of exchange
  • Promissory notes/commercial paper
  • Inventory loan
  • Letters of credit
  • Short term Eurocurrency advances
  • Factoring

Medium-term Finance

This form of finance is usually the most difficult to obtain, ranging from about three to eight years. These loans are required to finance major expansions, machinery, plant and equipment.

Leasing - Leasing enables a business to acquire the use of assets such as plant and machinery without having to pay large sums of money for ownership of the equipment, initially. Instead a business simply leases the equipment from a leasing company who retain ownership. Leasing usually costs more than buying the equipment outright, in cash flow terms it is an effective method of a business getting the equipment it needs when its cash flow is tight. There are two main forms of lease in Ireland

  • Operating Lease- in which the company pays for use of the equipment for a set period of time after which it is returned to the leasing company.
  • Finance Lease- where at the end of the lease period there is the option to purchase the equipment outright for a further nominal amount.

Hire Purchase - A hire purchase agreement enables a contractor to purchase ownership of plant and machinery from a supplier, by paying by installments to a third party ie bank. Under a Hire Purchase agreement you can make use of equipment while still paying for it and take ownership of the item with the last payment of the agreement. This essentially means that the asset itself is the security for the finance borrowed to buy it, once all payments are made the assets ownership transfers to the contractor.

Long-term Finance

Long-term financing generally involves periods of about 10 years or more and may be required to finance new buildings, equipment and expansion of the business. Traditionally long term finance is provided in the form of a:

A Business Mortgage - allows the company to borrow money and use it to buy property. It is intended to be a long-term loan, at least 10 years long and is secured against the property it is used to buy. It also may be made available when the business is purchasing, refinancing or renovating property for the business's use. The bank will provide the business with a choice of interest rate options. The Loan will be repaid in monthly or quarterly installments and the total repayment will include the principal sum plus interest on the loan.

Assessed Area 3 – Selection of method for carrying out design and Construction

Procurement Options available

Introduction

The design and construction of the Lee Road development is going to be subjected to a series of risks and uncertainties and involves a number of different organisations assembled for the project. The way in which the various parties act as a team is determined by the chosen procurement strategy. The procurement strategy is on of the most important decisions facing the client; the chosen strategy influences the allocation of risk, the design strategy and the employment of consultants and contractors.

It also has a major impact on the time-scale of the project. Early completion can be achieved if construction is started before the design is finished. The greater the overlap the less time will be required to complete the project, however any overlap created means that construction starts before the overall design is completed and all of the costs are fixed.

The client’s needs are often based on the factors of Time Cost and Quality shown in Fig. Experienced clients will often choose a procurement route that has worked for them before or one that they believe to be suitable. Successful procurement should result in the project being delivered on-time and within budget.

Conventional/Traditional Method

Under the traditional procurement strategy, the design of the project should be completed before tenders are invited. This enables the client to determine with reasonable certainty, the construction cost of the project. An architect and other specialists such as civil, structural and mechanical engineers complete the majority of the design.

The contractor’s main role is managing the project and does little or nothing to assist the design process. The contractor also assumes the responsibility and the financial risk for the construction of the building works to the design produced by the client’s architect for the contract sum agreed and within the contract period, whilst the client takes the responsibility for the design and the design team performance.

It is also possible to have an accelerated traditional procurement strategy where some of the design overlaps the construction. This can be achieved by letting a separate, advance works contract, for example by allowing grounds works to proceed to construction once planning permission has been obtained and whilst the design for the rest of the building is completed, and the above ground construction is then tendered separately. This ultimately reduces the total time to complete the project at the risk of losing certainty before construction starts.

Although heavily criticized this method continues to be used throughout the industry, mostly because clients feel that they better understand the methods used and that they are more effectively able to influence the development of the design to meet their requirements because they have direct contractual relationships with the design team.

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Design lead, high level of quality
  • Very slow process
  • The client can control output of the development process
  • Not cost effective
  • Client can select design team
  • Difficult to deal with design changes
  • Client can decide when to commit to the contract
  • Contractor has little ability to influence the project

Traditional Procurement Relationship

(JCT 98 with Quantities)

Design and Build

Design-build uses a single contract for both the design and construction of a project. Under this strategy the contractor assumes the risk and responsibility for designing and constructing the building in return for a fixed price lump sum. This form of procurement is a lean production method in which the design process is integrated with the construction process. When tendering the contractor bids a lump sum to cover both the design and construction of the building. Therefore it is essential for the client to produce a clear brief which will be easily understood by all parties involved. The bid from the contractor is a fixed price and cannot be changed unless there is substantial change in the client’s requirement.

From the client’s perspective, the concept of having one firm responsible for both design and construction is very appealing; however by transferring the risk to the contractor the client loses control over the project. Under this procurement method the contractor develops the design from the specification, submitting detailed proposal to the client to establish that they are in accordance with the requirements of the specifications. Specification is a dangerous area for inexperienced clients, over specification can cut out useful specialist experience and under specification can be exploited.

Design and Build is essentially a fast track approach, in which construction may begin before the full drawings and specifications are complete. The contractor for instance can begin the excavation, even the foundations and lower floors, before the architects, engineers, and designers specify every detail of the interior systems and finishes.

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Produces a simplified contract.
  • Client loses control of project
  • Time saving – the contractor is responsible for the design and there it may be possible to overlap design and construction.
  • No BOQ is produced therefore pricing the job may become difficult
  • Possible to achieve cost certainty
  • Difficult to deal with design changes
  • Close working relationship between contractor and client
  • Quality of the finished product may not be up to standard as the contractor is primarily concerned with cost reduction
  

Design and Build

Client Led Design Relationship

The Management Approach

The construction management method, developed over the last half of the twentieth century, integrates the construction, quantity surveying, architecture, and engineering disciplines. There are two main forms of management approach, management contracting and construction management, the former involves the client entering into separate contracts with a designer and a management contractor, the management contractor then enters into subcontracts with specialist contractors. The latter approach involves the client entering into separate contracts with the designer, manager and specialist contractors.

The construction manager in both forms acts as both the owner's agent and project manager, providing a continuous involvement from early conceptual design to completion. He/she will work with the design team to help ensure that the design is something that can be built for a reasonable cost and that the builders will be able to understand the design drawings and specifications. Like Design and Build above Construction management often assumes some degree of fast tracking.

Normally this method of procurement is reserved for major projects but on a small project such as the Lee Road Development, the construction manager could simply be a self employed person offering a management service to supervise and coordinate a number of sub-contractors. Many experienced clients use the management approach, it can be very much a hands on approach for the client who want to make sure they get the building they want, and who is prepared to spend the time and pay the proper price to get it.

Therefore the management approach is not suitable for clients with little or no experience of the construction industry. It can also be said the management approach is most suitable for projects that require an original design, this is because its sets up a project team that balances an involved client presence, design consultants and specialist contractors so there is a creative tension in making decisions. It is not a sensible approach for a straight forward building that uses well established designs and standard components.

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Has the advantage of using parallel working
  • The brief must be of high quality to ensure that the client’s needs are met.
  • Uses construction management expertise within the design team to control cost and time.
  • Price certainty is not usually clear till the later stages of the project
  • Time is saved due to overlapping of the design and construction process
  • Decision-making responsibilities unclear
  • Clarity of each individual role
  • Increased workload

Construction Management Arrangement

Factors influencing choice of procurement method

The nature of the project

This project involves the restoration of an historic structure; consequently this will require a high level of control on the client’s behalf.

Measure of control by the client

Due to the complexity of restoring a historic structure such as the Lee Road church it will be necessary for the majority of the design to be carried out by the client’s consultants.

Appointment of a contractor

Again because of the complexity of the project it is favorable to have the contractor involved in the early stage of the projects to offer some element of buildability to the project.

Certainty of final cost

Due to cost restriction of cost on the project a lump sum contract is preferred.

Start and completion times

It is important to have the restaurant opened by the peak season (May-September), to achieve completion some element of fast-track construction should be adopted.

Changes during construction

As the nature of the project is the refurbishment of a historic structure there is strong likelihood of design changes during the course of the works, the chosen procurement route should satisfactorily accommodate variations and the valuing of such work.

Chosen Procurement Route

Taking all factors into account, it was decided that the most appropriate procurement option for the Lee Road Development was the traditional method. This method will allow the client to better influence the development of the design to meet their requirements, total control of the construction works cannot be achieved however the client is able to influence the process though a single point of contact.

To bring in the project on-time, it was necessary to use an accelerated traditional procurement strategy. This was achieved by letting a separate, advance works contract for works such as the site establishment and the foundations for the apartment block. This will however create a risk in that, the contractor who builds the superstructure, will take no responsibility for the foundation works carried out by another contractor.

Briefing

Introduction

Briefing is the process by which a client informs others of his or her needs, aspirations and desires either formally or informally, a well written simplifies much of the early sorting out of the design objectives. According to Hayms (2001) the time spent on deciding what is required is infinitely less expensive and more effective than changes made during the design. The closer the project comes to the construction stage the higher will be the cost of change and the smaller the opportunity to revise decisions.

There are generally two groups of participants in the briefing process; those involved with policy, funding and management of the overall project, and those who understand the building user’s detailed needs. There is an essential difference of attitude between those who focus on getting the project built and those who are concerned with the needs of the user. Both are needed, but the second group must be allowed to arrive at conclusions in the brief before the rush to design and start construction.

The Lee Road Development will be divided into a number of key steps:

  • The clients needs are identified and assessed and the decision is made whether or not the project is an appropriate solution
  • The project is then defined, here the clients needs are developed into an agreed out-put specification, i.e. as a strategic brief
  • The appropriate team members will then be assembled.
  • Once the strategic brief is developed into the detailed design brief, design and construction can be instigated and managed.
  • Once the project reaches final completion it can then be compared with the original identified needs. This process is essential for the client who constructs frequently, as is it may obtain important information that may help improve the briefing in subsequent projects.

Statement of Need

The statement of need is client’s first effort to define what is expected from the Lee Road Development. This is usually carried out by the client themselves or by the clients adivsiors and consultants. This can be carried out by asking the client a series of questions during meeting with client group. The table below shows a list of questions that were compiled when developing the client’s statement of need.

Options Appraisal

The aim of an options appraisal is to identify the various ways of meeting the requirements defined in the statement of need. This process is partly to facilitate financial feasibility and design feasibility. This is generally carried out by the client’s teams or by an external consultant. This document should be a formal report dealing with the requirements of, and optional available to the client including the benefits, drawbacks and the risks of proceeding with the development. The use of value management techniques at this stage will help to establish all the clients needs both long term and short term.

Strategic Brief

The objective of briefing in general term’s is to inform design; the strategic brief however is an exception in that it is not concerned with design in the same sense that an architect is. Instead it lays out the client’s argument and rationale for the project. It often delegates responsibilities to the individuals involved and what is expected from them. It also identifies the project programme and key milestones that must be achieved. The client, in the strategic brief will also state his quality, durability and maintenance requirements. The client and their financial advisors usually carry out this exercise; it aims to ensure that the project is financially viable and also to achieve approval from financial institutions.

Project Brief

On completion of the strategic brief, work can start on the project brief. This is addressed to the design team and it sets out the requirements that the team must satisfy. This process, expect in the case of small projects will be carried out in a series of phases as the design is developed. The project brief itself will usually be produced as two separate documents:

Church Re-development

Condition of the existing structure

Proposed Structural Alterations

Planning Conditions

Legal Considerations

3.7 Apartments – Methods of Construction

Reinforced Concrete Frame

Steel Frame

Pre-cast Concrete

3.8 Commencement notice and Planning Application

3.9 Documentation Required

3.10 Design Drawings

3.10.1 Church CAD Drawing

3.10.2 Apartment CAD Drawing

3.10.3 Site Section Drawing

3.11 Conclusion

Assessed Area 4 – Project Planning and monitoring procedures

Introduction

“The term planning appeals by its suggestion of considered, orderly and rational action. It implies tidiness, method, system discipline, regularity and a measure of exactness. It gives the impression that someone responsible is in charge, has a hand on the wheel, and a sense of direction and destination. It represents co-operation and co-ordination, and contrasts with the inevitable disorder which generally obtains when men act independently in their own interests with no overall framework into which they are constrained to fit” (Schwartz cited in Cooke 1995)

Effective planning and control of the Lee Road Development requires the application of systematic and logical methods aimed at ensuring that the project is brought in on and within the allocated budget. Planning is also necessary to deal with construction risks and devise safe working practices.

The overall planning of the Lee Road Development will be carried out by the Project Manager in consultation with the various parties involved. This will carried out prior to commencement of the work on site, in order to allow management to have thorough appreciation of the work involved and to ensure adequate co-ordination of labour, plant and material requirements.

The Project Lifecycle

According to the Guide of Project management 2006, any project, irrespective of size and complexity, will naturally move through a series of phases during its lifecycle. In large projects the phases should be formally identified and separated to enable effective planning of the project. For small projects the phases are usually less formal, but there can still be advantages in identifying them. For management purposes the lifecycle should be broken down into phases. Typically these might be labelled inception, feasibility, design, construction, etc. Phases are important because the character of the work being carried out on the project will change from phase to phase.

Consequently, the project organization structure could change from phase to phase too, as could the composition of the project team. Similarly, project processes could change from phase to phase. Processes are often confined to just one, or a number of phases, not to the whole project.

Planning Stages

The three process that are encountered in the planning of the development are summarised in table 4.1. These include:

  • Pre-tender planning stage
  • Pre-contract planning stage
  • Contract planning stage

Pre-Tender Planning

The pre-tender stage is usually prepared by the contractor as an aid to the tendering process and will also assist the estimator to price key method related items in the bill of quantities and the contract preliminaries which comprise largely of time related costs.

Pre-Contract Planning

This stage usually takes place during the period between contract award and commencement of work on the site, the contractor will then develop the pre-tender programme into the maser programme showing the main construction operations to be carried out, it will also be used by the client as a tool to monitor the contractors overall progress during construction.

The master programme is usually produced for the client and the contractor will often produce an internal programme for their own use in order to save time and money, this according to Cooke (1995) is known as the target programme. The primary reason to carry out pre-contract planning is to provide a broad outline plan for the project, identifying key project dates and also to enable the assessment of contract budgets and cumulative value forecasts.

Contract Planning

This stage is carried out by the main contractor in order to maintain control and ensure that that the project is completed by the completion date and within the costs limits. Sub-contractors can contribute to this process by submitting their work programme for approval of though discussion with the main contractor.

Unforeseen events such as design changes or the discovery of bad ground can invariably change the project programme from its original form. Any changes to the programme caused by delay or disruption should be recorded on a revised project programme which should be constantly updated throughout the project as work proceeds. Contact planning is generally used to monitor the contract programme, to plan site operations in detail in the short term and keep the project under constant review.

Tender Assessment / Evaluation

This section of the report will attempt to identify a clear procedure for the assessment and evaluation of future tenders that will offer the client the best value for money. The tendering method used by the client is Competitive Tendering; this is a process in which letters are sent to selected firms stating the type of work, the estimated value and the conditions of contract, the firms are then asked whether or not they will take on the project and if so at what cost.

The quality of service and the quality of the finished product are an important factor in selecting a firm, when tenders are received they should therefore be assessed on both their qualitative and financial criteria. The experience of the firm in the type, size or location of projects will be a prime concern. Firms will be expected to show examples of previous projects; they should demonstrate a clear understanding of the project by explaining their interpretation of the tender documents.

  1. Confirm candidates
  2. Establish Award criteria.
  3. Invite Tenderers
  4. Weighing the award criteria
  5. Quality/Price Ratio.
  6. Evaluate Quality
  7. Quality and Price Scoring
  8. 8. Balancing Quality and Price

1. Confirm candidates

A short list of the most suitable organisations from all those that expressed an interest in carrying out the contract was established. The short list should have no fewer than three candidates and no greater than six, this will maintain competitiveness and offer the client a greater selection, long lists are not advisable as this can result in unnecessary costs for the client and tenderers may put less effort into their tender submission if they are one of many. A short tender list ensures that tenders are only received from the most suitable organisations.

2. Establish Award Criteria

The award criteria must be specific to the particular project and relevant to assessing whether tenders represent value for money. They must also be established before tenders are invited as they must either be notified in the initial advertisement or alternatively in the tender documents. The award criteria for the Lee Road Development are as follows:

  • Proposed design – aesthetics, maintainability, demonstration of innovation in proposals.
  • Proposals for managing the contract – procedures for planning, programming, etc.
  • Project team – qualifications, experience resources etc.
  • Technical merit – methods of construction, degrees of flexibility.
  • Services provided from external sources – suppliers, subcontractors etc.

3. Invite Tenderers

The invitation to tender and tender documentation and any other relevant information should be sent simultaneously in writing to each tenderer. They should be accompanied by “Instructions to Tenderers”. These should give clear instructions on how the tender is to be completed and submitted.

6. Evaluate quality

Each firm is evaluated on the basis of a quality scoring system, usually in the form of a questionnaire or a post tender interview. The questionnaire and interview must be structured in such a manor that is can be evaluated against the award criteria. The quality scores should be established before price bids are considered.

7. Quality and Price Scoring

The quality scores are rated out of 100 points, on the performance of the firm in the specified area. To calculate the price scores show in the table above, the mean of the tender prices is taken, this value will be awarded 50 points. 1 point is deducted from the score of each tenderer for each percentage point above the Mean and 1 point is deducted for every point above the mean.

8. Balancing Quality and Price

The completed tender evaluation form in Fig X provides a method for balancing quality and price to assist in selecting the successful contractor for the Lee Road Development.

TENDER EVALUATION FORM

Project Title: Lee Road Development

Quality Weighing: 60 %

Price Weighing: 40 %

Quality Criteria

Criteria Weight

%

Firm A

Firm B

Firm C

Score out of 100

Wtd. Score

Score out of 100

Wtd. Score

Score out of 100

Wtd. Score

Proposed design

30

60

18

65

19.5

70

21

Proposals for managing the contract

30

55

16.5

60

18

70

21

Project team

20

65

13

60

12

55

11

Technical merit

10

70

7

75

7.5

80

8

Services provided from external sources

10

50

5

65

6.5

70

7

Totals

100

59.5

63.5

68

PRICE SCORES

Tender Price

€1100000

€1350000

€1150000

Price Score

(mean 1200000)

58.3

37.5

54.2

OVERALL SCORES

Quality Rating x Price Score

60% x 59.5

= 35.7

60% x 63.5

= 38.1

60% x 68

= 40.8

Price Weighting x Price Score

40% x 58.3

= 23.3

40% x 37.5

= 15

40% x 54.2

= 21.7

Overall Score

59

53.1

62.6

Order of Tenders

2

3

1

Programming Techniques

Introduction

The type of programming technique that will be used will depend on the size and complexity of the project. For the purposes of this development three different methods will be considered:

  • Gantt Charts
  • Network Analysis – Critical path method
  • Precedence Diagrams

Gantt Charts

Gantt charts are used as a graphical representation of the project total duration. The bar chart, as it’s often known, is laid out with the time scale in days/weeks/months along the top axis and a list of project tasks or activities down the left hand side. The time required for each activity is represented by a horizontal line (or bar), with the length of line indicating the expected duration of the task. Linked bar charts illustrate clearly the relationship, in time between two or more activities and between activities and the specific calendar requirements.

The start and finish of each activity is shown along with resources required. Gantt charts are a simple method of representing project durations; they are well understood and widely used by many project managers. Because of its widespread application and simplicity of presentation it is the most readily recognised format, given the availability of computer software packages such as Microsoft project and Primavera; bar charts are quick and easy to prepare. Many clients, architects and site managers tend to have problems in understanding anything other bar charts. Even where network analysis is stipulated in the contract, a Gantt chart is often produced to provide an easily understood graphical representation of the projects duration.

Network Analysis – Critical Path Method

The critical path method is presented in the form of an arrow diagram. Arrow diagrams as the name implies uses arrows to represent the various activities, these activities begin and end at events. The information presented relates to events. Each activity is given duration, and the earliest and latest event times of the activity can be calculated by making forward and backward passes through the network. These times are recorded in the node or event circles as shown in the diagram below. The accumulation of the durations allows the overall duration to be calculated and the “critical path” identified.

The identification of potential problems e.g. sequence delays, is much easier and their likely effects may be determined. It can be used to show the potential for shortening the contract period. It is particularly suitable for the co-ordination and control of complex non-repetitive projects. The concept of ‘float’ is used to give an element of flexibility in the allocation of resources. The planner also has the flexibility to assign priorities for labour, plant, materials and subcontractor resources to each operation on the network.

The main disadvantage of a network is that it requires much more effort that other techniques. Its presentation needs the skilful application of graphic techniques so that it can be easily understood by both the client and contractor. Some effort and expertise is required on the part of the user to interpret the complexity of the network however Gantt charts are often used as a means of graphically representing the network.

Precedence Diagrams

This form of programming was developed in the early 1970’s by the Cementation Company as an alternative approach to network diagrams. Precedence diagrams follow the same logical procedures as arrow networks, except that activities, tasks and their dependencies are drawn differently. One of the key reasons for the growth in precedence diagrams are the limitation of arrow diagrams when, for instance, one activity is required to start before the preceding diagram is completed.

Precedence diagrams may also convey the impression of being less complex than networks; however the logical emphasis of the network diagram is retained in full by the use of links between the boxes. When compared with arrow diagrams they are easier to construct and easier to understand because of the logical ‘dummies’ are unnecessary. The emphasis on construction sequence remains strong and the concept of float is retained.

The precedence approach also introduced the idea of activity boxes, rather than activity arrows, which permits a number of different relationships to be expressed between activities. It is suggested by Cooke (1995) that this approach relates more closely with a real situation on a construction site and this practically makes the technique popular.

Health and Safety

Introduction

Health and Safety in this country is governed by the Safety, Health and Welfare Act, 2005 and the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Regulations 2006. The Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act, 2005, places responsibility for health and safety on all stakeholders such as the client, contractor, designers, managers, workers etc. The Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act, 2005 takes a preventative approach to reducing accidents and ill health at work. The new 2005 Act introduces some significant changes in relation to risk assessment and safety statements. It also deals with the use of intoxicants, employee’s medical fitness for work, penalties upon conviction and the introduction of ‘on the spot fines’

The construction sector includes a wide range of activities and hazards, good management of the Lee Road Development is essential to prevent work related accidents. The hazards most associated with fatalities in construction include:

  • Falls from heights
  • Site Vehicles
  • Falling or collapsing materials
  • Contact with overhead electricity lines

Duties of the Client

Clients play an important role in Health and Safety; studies have shown that where a client takes a proactive approach to safety, the overall standard increases greatly. The client must appoint in writing a Project Supervisor for both the design process and for the construction stage. These persons must be highly competent, have adequate training, knowledge, experience and resources.

He must also be satisfied that each designer and contractor appointed has adequate training, knowledge, experience and resources for the work to be preformed. The client must co-operate with the Project Supervisor and supply all necessary information that he requires.

Duties of the Contractor

The contractor under the new regulations must

  • Co-operate and comply with directions given by the Project Supervisors and provide them with a safety statement and any relevant information that they require.
  • Report any accidents to the Project Supervisor
  • Comply with Health and Safety Plan and ensure employees comply
  • Identify and eliminate hazards or reduce the risks
  • Facilitate the Site Safety Rep
  • All workers on the site must be given a site specific induction
  • Appoint a safety officer where there is more than 20 persons on site
  • Consult workers and Safety Representative

Duties of the Designer

  • The Safety Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005 requires designers to ensure that the project is capable of being constructed to be safe, can be maintained safely and complies with all relevant health and safety legislation.
  • Identify any hazards that the design may present during construction
  • Where possible, eliminate the hazards or reduce the risk
  • Communicate necessary control measures, design assumptions or remaining risks to the PSDS so they can be dealt with in the Safety and Health Plan
  • Co-operate with other designers and the Project Supervisors
  • Take account of any existing safety and health plan or safety file
  • Comply with directions issued by the PSDS or PSCS
  • Where no PSDP has been appointed, inform the client that a PSDS must be appointed

6.0 Tutor Set Incident 1

A building survey carried out on the church has identified the presence of the fungus Serpula Lacrymans, otherwise known as Dry Rot. The developer has requested you to produce a detailed report containing information on:

  • Identification of Dry Rot
  • Control and Treatment methods of the infected timbers
  • Methods of Disposal
  • Recommendation

6.1 Introduction

All types of wood rot can be difficult to detect in their early stages; this is particularly true of dry rot because it nearly always develops out of sight, often spreading behind paneling and plaster or beneath floorboards. Some indications of the possible presence of dry rot are softening of the wood in some areas, shrinkage and distortion and a distinctive 'mushroom' odour.

Wood thoroughly rotted by Serpula lacrymans is light in weight, crumbles under the fingers and has a dull brown colour. Often, the wood shrinks and splits into brick-shaped pieces formed by deep longitudinal and cross cracks, similar to the appearance of charred wood but not as darkly colored.

In the case of the church on the Lee Road development the infected areas include:

  • In the basement some of the timber members appear to be affected, this has also spread into a portion of the timer suspended floor above.
  • A portion of the internal brickwork on the eastern side of the structure also shows signs of the fungicide.
  • A small portion of a timber joist in the exposed truss roof appears to have signs of dry rot; the member affected is a supporting joist and therefore cannot be removed. The extent of the damage however is minimal and may have been caused by a small leak in the roof, allowing the moisture to enter the building.

6.2 Ability to spread

Besides an ability to spread on wood, the dry rot fungus can also grow on the surface and within other materials such as brick and plaster. It is important to understand that the fungus can derive no nourishment from non-organic materials. In suitable damp conditions, dry rot growth can extend a distance of several metres from its food source through plaster and masonry. If the original food source becomes exhausted before the fungus reaches more timber, it will die. But if further timber is encountered this may act as a new food source, allowing further spread of the outbreak

6.3 Primary Control Measures

6.3.1 Locate and eliminate sources of moisture

A detailed survey of the church should locate such faults as defective plumbing or guttering, bridged damp-proof courses, missing or defective damp-proof courses, missing roof tiles or damaged rendering. Some faults can be easily fixed and drying quickly achieved; in other cases drying may take years; for example, a highly porous solid wall without a DPC, which has become progressively wetter over several years. Sources of dampness can be difficult to detect and some of them may not be identified in the initial survey.

6.3.2 Promote rapid drying

During remedial work, adequate heating and ventilation may be necessary to ensure rapid drying of the church. The use of dehumidifiers may be useful in some cases though their efficient function demands that ventilation is limited. Where severe wetting has occurred, floorboards adjacent to wet walls should be removed to increase air flow to areas of dampness. If properly carried out, these measures alone would eventually control an outbreak and, a few years after dry conditions have been restored, lead to the death of the fungus.

Cases of outbreaks controlled by drying alone are commonly encountered during surveys of old properties. Dry rot has occurred in a suspended ground floor in the back room of the church; in this case the sub-floor ventilation should be examined to ensure there is a proper through-flow of air to all parts of the floor. If necessary, ventilation should be increased by inserting extra air vents, at least 225 x 150 mm in size and of a type that has plenty of open area. A damp-proof membrane of heavy gauge polyethylene sheeting can be laid as an additional safeguard.

6.4 Secondary Control Measures

6.4.1 Determine the full extent of the outbreak

A thorough examination of the building is necessary to determine how far the dry rot has spread. This enables rotten wood to be identified and removed and allows nearby sound timber at risk to be treated. All woodwork in the vicinity of any outbreaks should be inspected carefully. Where necessary, skirting and floorboards should be removed to allow inspection of joists and walls below and behind them. Extensive removal of plaster is necessary only if timber at risk is suspected to be embedded in walls.

Where no timber is embedded in walls, sound plaster can be left in position, provided a small amount around nearby woodwork (approximately 300 mm zone) is removed to ensure that the infection has not spread. Only if the mortar has perished should it be considered essential to rebuild brickwork into which dry rot strands have permeated.

6.4.2 Remove rotten wood

Remove all wood which shows signs of softening or on which the dry rot fungus has been identified, cutting away timber 300 - 450 mm beyond the last indications of rot. This margin of safety need not be interpreted as a hard and fast rule. In the case of floorboards, for example, it is not necessary to remove fungus-free boards even though these are adjacent to one that is infected. All decayed timber should be burnt, preferably on site. However, in the case of the church, some of the infected members may be treated and kept for aesthetic purposes.

6.4.3 Surface application of fungicidal fluid

Surface application of water-based surface biocide by brush or coarse spray is the simplest and most convenient method of treating walls; atomiser sprays should not be used as they introduce unacceptable health hazards. The treatments are usually applied to walls after removal of plaster and serve to prevent spread of the fungus under new plasterwork and to prevent the appearance of fruit-bodies on the surface of drying walls. After treatment the walls should be allowed to dry out and any efflorescence of salts brushed off prior to re-plastering.

6.4.4 Preservative plugs or pastes

These can be inserted in localised areas into holes drilled in moist walls to allow diffusion of the fungicide. This method may be a better method than irrigation for providing a protective fungicidal barrier in a wall already saturated with water.

6.4.6 Use preservative-treated replacement timbers

New timber used in repairs should always be treated with a wood preservative. If it is likely that damp conditions will persist, as in a damp cellar, the timber should be pressure impregnated with a copper/chromium/arsenic type of preservative. Similar treatment with creosote to is also effective, but this preservative has a strong odour and is liable to stain materials in contact with the treated wood. Consequently it should not be used in dwellings or where these characteristics would be objectionable. If dampness is not expected to persist, an organic solvent type of preservative can be applied by immersion or the double-vacuum process.

6.5 Recommendation

After careful consideration, the safest option would be to remove decayed wood in the basement. This should be removed and disposed of safely; every care must be taken to minimize the spread of spores by carefully handling and spraying any fruiting bodies with fungicidal solution. In cutting out decayed wood, it is recommended to allow a margin of safety by cutting well beyond (600mm) the portions in which the rot is present.

Plaster which is also showing signs of the Serpula lacrymans should also be cut out and replaced. Following this, any walls showing traces of fungal mycelium or fruiting bodies may be cleaned down and sterilized by applying a masonry biocide. Tutor Set Incident 2

The clients brief stipulated that the principles of sustainable design had to be applied to the conservation and adaptation of the church for its new use as bar/bistro. Produce a report detailing how this can be achieved:

Introduction

The essential aim of sustainable design is to produce places, products and services in a way that reduces use of non-renewable resources, minimizes environmental impact, and relates people with the natural environment.

The design and adaptation of the church will follow the 4 principles of sustainable design:

  • To provide a healthy environment for the workplace
  • To select building technologies and materials that are “green”—use materials that are biodegradable, recyclable, and made from renewable resources and that have been manufactured in a way that has not damaged the environment;
  • To consume less energy in the new systems in the building than market standards—reduce ambient lighting and increase task lighting; use sensors, timers, and motion detectors to control energy use to fixtures; consider low wattage features, individual or zoned control.
  • To have a recycling plan for waste and water—establish areas for collection of recyclable materials by type (paper, plastic, glass, vegetable matter); consider composting for gardening/grounds use; select materials based on the ability to recycle them later; use captured rainwater for irrigation; and consider options for use of grey water from non-contaminated sources in the building.

Source: Park (1998) Insulation of the Internal Walls

Planning restrictions on the renovation of the church does not permit any major alteration to the external facade of the church, it was therefore necessary to insulate the internal surface of the wall. Applying the insulation internally has the benefit of ensuring that the wall surface warms up quickly helping to improve thermal comfort.  It has the disadvantage of reducing the size of the room by the thickness of the insulation and will also require all electric sockets, switches and pipe work to be relocated once the insulation work is complete.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.